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General Information[edit]


  1. History
  2. Alphabet
  3. Spelling
  4. Pronunciation
  5. Grammatical Changes
  6. Basic Sentence Structure
  7. The Article
  8. Nouns
  9. Verbs
  10. Commonly Confused Words
  11. Compound Prepositions
  12. Prefixes
  13. Dictionaries
  14. Other Resources
  15. Common phrases
  16. Similar English words
  17. Vocabulary


As in many other languages, Irish adds prefixes to words to create new words. If you become familiar with the prefixes below, you may double your [vocabulary]! Note that some prefixes are separated from the base word by a [hyphen], and some prefixes cause lenition.

ain-   in-, un-, not-, over-
Examples: ceart (right) becomes aincheart (unjust), fios (knowledge) becomes ainfhiosracht (over-curious).
an-   very
Example: maith (good) becomes an-mhaith (very good).
ath-   re-
Example: déan (do, make) becomes athdéan (redo, remake).
ceann-   chief, main, -headed
Example: litir (letter) becomes ceannlitir (capital letter).
comh-   mutual, joint
Example: ceol (music) becomes comhcheol (harmony).
dea-   good, well
Example: scéal (news, story) becomes dea-scéal (piece of good news).
dearg-   red-, real, utter
Example: gráin (hatred) becomes dearg-ghráin (intense hatred).
dé-   bi-, di-, two-
Example: taobh (side) becomes déthaobhach (bilateral).
di-   de-, dis-, in-, un-
Example: scéal (news, story) becomes díscéil (uninformative).
do-   in-, un-, not-
Example: déanta (done, complete) becomes dodhéanta (impossible, hard to do),
il-   many, multi-
Example: eochair (key) becomes ileochair (master key).
in-   capable of
Example: creidte (believed) becomes inchreidte (believable).
lán-   total
Example: cead (permission) becomes lánchead (full permission).
réamh-   pre-, preliminary
Example: feiceáil (seeing) becomes reamhfheiceáil (foresight).
mion-   small, micro-
Example: insint (telling) becomes mioninsint (detailed report).
sár-   exceeding, ultra-
Example: riail (') becomes sár-riail (golden rule).
ró-   over-
Example: minic (often) becomes rómhinic (too often).
so-   easy
Example: briste (broken) becomes sobhriste (fragile, easily broken).