Introduction to Science/Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

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Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation[PEO][edit | edit source]

A Cathodic Bulk[Metallic] Gains a Anodic Surface[Ceramic]. The Neutralization of the two Material Types results in a perfectly stable Alloy between a a Ceramic and Metallic. A Neutralization Charge is achieved via Electrolysis from a Single Cathode towards more than one Anode, resulting in Plasma and thus the formation NanoStructures from Anionic Particles. Related to Adsorption, Wetting, and SuperConductivity, and High Voltage Experimentation, Alloy Formation. Subjects include Inorganic Chemistry, NanoScience, Electricity, Metallurgy, and Ceramics.

PEO is the Excitation of Materials, Soluble and Insoluble, via High Voltage Electrolysis. It is designed for Alloy Formation, in which A NanoAnodic Ceramic Alloy Surface Forms onto a LiquiCathodic Metal Alloy Bulk.

PEO increases the Total hardness and thus the dexterity of a material as a whole, although it is formed by 3 separate layers: A Cathodic, Aqueous, and Anodic Layer. By creating new material, The Material, and the hardness is then a result of Coloumb Excitation where The Cathode and Anions come together from a solution of solvated ceramic molecules into nanostructures. This is due to the Non-Polar Force, or the Graviational Force, which forms an specific type of Ionic Bond, defined by mass as a singularity within the center of balance of an atom, molecule, compound, supercompound, kistructure, nanostructure, so on and so forth.

- (The Space Charge Area[not volume])

(Total number of Gluons)

(Total Number of Electrons)

The Difference in Potential at zero Above between the Positive Electrode (CathodiclyChargedPureMetal) and the Anion(AnodiclyChargedParticulateMatter) is Greater than the difference in Potential between the Cation and Anion of the Electrolytic Solution. Since the Ionic Compound's Neutral Charge is less than the Product's Total Neutral Charge, the resulting precipitate is in the form of our Ceramic-Metallic Alloy. This is due to the space charge, where the total area of a neutral charge determines it's polarity. As we reduce this area, the density of the charge grows. The greater the area, the more likely other compounds are to become attracted to the material. A weak space charge means an atom won't attract electron-dependent anions. Since most atoms typically have an oxidation number, they have to wait until the right anion appears. Once neutral, a bond will form. If we consider the idea that the total oxidation number of an atom and of a mole of that atom is the aggregate sum of each individual atom's oxidation number, then the total oxidation number of 1 mole of an atom will be 6.022x10^23 (oxidation number). That's a very high oxidation number meaning that the space charge is massive. Comparing this oxidation number of atoms, will tell us the space charge of an atom and thus it's solubility based on the anions available in a solution. Thus the original cation, such as Potassium, may have a difficult time competing with a metal.

The Container or Bath in which a Solution is placed, made of Metal, is treated as the Anode. Electrons travel towards the Anode from our Material, and Ions travel towards the Cathode. The Positive Charge of a Cathode attracts the Oxidized Particulate Matter(Anions). The Greater Oxidation Rate of the Anion tends to form a Bond with the Cathodic Metal. This Bond is sealed by the electrolysis of water vapor trapped between the Polar Charges of the Atomic Structure. Thus, Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas become trapped in the Newly Created Oxidized Metal-Anion Alloy, among other substituents which are the result of Electrolysis in Water.

A Basic Working Picture[edit | edit source]

A Metal is Placed into a Solution of Strong Electrolytes. It is attached to the Positive Terminal of an Electric Pump(~>220V Batteries, for example). A Steel (or other) Container is attached to the Negative Terminal of the same Pump. A High Voltage is created between the Cathodic Metal and the now Anodic Container(because there are an excess of electrons flowing through it). Electrons from the Cathodic Metal are pumped out and into the Wire's electrical current(DC). Electrons travelling through the Water's Electrical Current[Liquid Substrate] arrive from the Anodic Container at the Cathodic Metal. The Plasma is the result of Electrons moving both into the wire and into the water from a single cathodic point. Essentially electrons are moving in two directions, towards the same point, the Anodic point[Determined by the most electronegative point in the system]. Gluons likely travel towards this point. The exact Cathodic and Anodic points are probably changing, but for the Cathode it would be the center mass and for the Anode it would likely be the sparks, meaning the Anodic Point is actually a Network of Electronegative Atoms rather than single individual Atoms each becoming the point, meaning Anodic Behavior is Parallel, while Cathodic Behavior is Series. In plain water, this would not result in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, since the electrons and perhaps gluons only move on a direct path, that is they can only take a single route rather than the multiroute which explains Plasma Electrolysis. By manipulating the idea that electrons can travel from the cathode towards an anode through both a solution and through a wire at the same time, we realize then that it is possible to produce pure hydrogen or pure oxygen by controlling the electrical conductivity of water and the electrolytic solution, if it even uses electrolytes. Electrolysis of water does however occur between the Cathodic Metal and Anodic Electrolytes in the substrate and is likely what we see as the middle layer of a Product. What we are observing as the middle layer is like cement water, it is water where all the fluid has dried up. The Polarity has flipped outwards, meaning water can be both Polar and Non-Polar. This only seems to occur in this specific situation but could likely explain how we can find water on another planet, or in the desert. It is likely that all of the water, has simply flipped inside out, forming neutral bonds everywhere. All that is needed is to break the ceramic from the metal, and the water should free itself. An Electrolytic Solution, unlike plain water, allows the progression of extremely negatively charged Anions(Due to the High Voltage) to progress towards the Cathodic Metal at a Rapid Pace. The Nature of Voltage is to allow for the distance in which an electron may travel, meaning a larger tub requires an even higher voltage, with less current so as to be less dangerous to the workers. As the Anodic Compounds arrive at their destination, they naturally find their place nestled into an electron hole, or a gluon for short, fitting perfectly forming a perfect seal. For every electron there should be a gluon to form a pair, if not, then the seal is not good. Current passes from the Cathode towards the Anode either via a wire or an extremely strong electrolyte solution[Where current is greater than that of the wire if the solution is the preferred route], thus the Electrical Conductivity of the Solution can determine the primary direction of flow in a Circuit. Since electricity can flow thus in two directions from one source (Cathodic Metal), we thereby create Plasma. which we we observe as The Beautiful Sparks underwater. The Plasma, now electrons, travels towards the edge of the container, in some cases, which contains the sparks and allows the current to flow. Each Spark represents an interaction forming between the electrons of the Anodic Particles and the gluons of the Cathodic Metal. Breaking the rocks open is as simple as a high voltage contraption.

Basic Science[edit | edit source]

Solubility Determinant - Solubility Determinant Describes the Nature of Precipitation from a Electrolytic Solution. Non-Polar Solvents are a perfect example. The less Ionic a solution, the more likely it is to form as a Precipitate. The more Ionic a solution, the less likely it is to form a precipitate, and the more likely it is to be a electrolytic solution. The neutral charge between the positive and negative charges has increased in area or volume. As it decreases in volume, we form a precipitate. At the nanoscale, this means that we can still have water molecules surviving between a cathodic and anodic alloy. The less area or volume of the neutral charge, and the greater , which is the number of total electrons and gluons in a system, assuming that the difference of the two is zero, then the higher the value of the product, due to structural integrity and construction of the alloy. To remove water molecules from an anodic-cathodic alloy, which is another term replacing the metal-ceramic idea used in PEO, the electrons would have to come from the anodic compounds rather than the water. If the water survives the mechanism, it is deemed incomplete or unsafe, as water has the ability to expand, crack, and break any material contained by it, as a nature of it's polarity. It acts as a drill so to speak, as a function of its ability to expand and contract, by switching from polar to non-polar at a specific frequency or rate. The removal of water would simply by increasing the voltage until the current is strong enough to allow the formation of an electron hole or a gluon. If replaced by water, then a hydrogen or physical bond will form rather than the more desirable ionic bond(it could be covalent but that would mean the ceramic or anodic material would simply fall off the cathodic material or metal). The water will likely breakdown into Oxygen and Hydrogen ions, which can be uptaken by either the Cathodic or Anodic Materials for structural purposes, unless there is enough water to form a diatomic molecule, which would mean there are not enough electrons in the solution, or electrolytes in some cases. Hydrogen could perhaps be more useful to ceramics than to metal. Meanwhile Oxygen and metal tend to join together as we see in Thermites. Thus we are able to observe such a layer between the Cathodic and Anodic material as the electrolyzed Hydrogen and Oxygen forming a membrane in which water has split itself yet still remains a single structure. Unmeltable water, one could say. The Hydrogen or Physical Bonding forms between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms rather than from the hydrogen atoms to the anion or the oxygen to the cation or metals.

Basic Terminology[edit | edit source]

Electrolyte and Electrolyte Bath[edit | edit source]

Polar Compounds, Strong Electrolytes are defined to be Highly or Extremely Polar while Weak Electrolytes are Not very Polar or Non-Polar yet Soluble. All Electrolytes are Soluble in Water. An Electrolyte Bath is an electrolytic solution, meaning we simply have a combination of water as well as some ionic compound which has solvated.

Ionic Compound and Metallic Compound[edit | edit source]

The Basis of an Electrolyte Solution. Soluble in Water. Dissolves into a Cation and Anion due to the low value Neutral Charge.

Metallic Compounds are Insoluble unless their polarity is changed, typically shown as an Oxidation State, to become more soluble. The Higher the Oxidation Rate, the More Likely a Metal is to Become Soluble as a Metallic Compound.

Neutral Charge [][edit | edit source]

The Determinant of Solubility. Determines the level of attraction between a positive and negatively charged ion. Metallic Compounds have a higher value Neutral Charge than Ionic Compounds, thus why PEO is so useful.

Cathodic and Anodic Substrates[edit | edit source]

Cathodic represents the Substrate of a Positive Nature.

Anodic represents the Substrate of a Negative Nature.

Cation Represents an Ion with an oxidation rate(a positive charge or the presence of a gluon). Cathode represents the Positive Point of an Electrode. Anion represents an Ion with a reduction rate(a negative charge or the presence of an electron). Anode represents the Negative Point of an Electrode. Substrate is the material.