Introduction to Science/ Chemistry in a Nutshell

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Bonding[edit]

Atomic Forces

Bonding of the Atom [What holds an atom together?]

Cos - Mass - Alpha Particles - (Positive Charge)

Tan - Energy - Valences - (Negative Charge) {Electrons are essentially defined as equilibrium, in a such a term that electricity itself is essentially just equilibrium in action}

Sin - Volume - Beta Particles - (Nuclear Charge)

Atomic Forces are the forces within an atom. These forces typically involve behaviors between the Alpha and Beta Charges, Sin and Cos respectively. The basic concept is that the greater the excitement of energy, the greater the Beta Charge, which if it exceeds by a certain amount will result in the degradation of the atom.

Energy Systems

Energy Systems are basically defined as complete or total functions, which when they interact with other Total Functions can either find themselves being degraded, in balance, or upgraded as their molecular, atomic, or their otherwise functional design being changed as a result of their interaction with other species of the same or other sorts.

Spin

Spin is described as the state in which an atom, or electron exists in the order of another molecule or perhaps an even larger atom. The Primary and Secondary Atoms and/or molecules thus are based upon their position relative to singularity.

Intramolecular Forces [wiki][edit]

Sin

Intramolecular Forces are defined as the forces that occur within the volume or surrounding the mass of a molecule. Since the limit which defines this force is defined as the molecule itself, then we typically refer to the molecular or atomic mass of the molecule. In most cases, the bonding forces of these molecules are referred to as σ and π bonds. These forces are stronger than intermolecular bonds. The stronger bonds are due to the electronegative electrons and the positively charged protons interacting to form a type of singularity which allows the atoms together to form a new singularity, and this is essentially what is known as the center of balance of a typical object. In a molecule, we refer to the chains formed by the molecules to create a single structure in which a larger series of molecules together is thus able to form a single center of balance, which thus defines that in many cases, most objects can be defined as chains of molecules and in some cases, atoms, which together create forms or structures which are defined in the nanosciences as surfaces and bodies. These surfaces are made up of molecules, and these molecules together can create a structure. The interior and exterior of the structures define the surface area, and the internal structure or body or mass of the object. For a single molecule, the bonds which make up a single part of that chain, are defined as the molecular structure. This molecular structure is formed due to intramolecular forces, and the chaining ability is thus defined either by intermolecular or intramolecular forces (both can apply), and this would be the tangent function of these molecules (the ability to chain). In this equation we find the ability for inter and intramolecular bonds to form to be the function itself, where the inter and intra molecular forces can be defined as derivatives, with the integration as the chain type itself (Hydrogen, Oxygen, etc). Intramolecular forces within the molecule are typically defined by different resonance structures, which can determine the number of bonds present between atoms.

Atomic Structures[edit]

Atomic Structures consist of orbitals which are defined by the electron configuration of the atom. Along with this they are defined by the mass of the atom which together with the electron behavior create a type of equilibrium which essentially defines the status of every single atom and molecule. With this in mind we find molecules to consist of certain structures in which atoms are able to arrange themselves within a volume (as if by math) to create certain reactions. The interaction within the molecule between the bond formation and lone pairs is defined as the intramolecular forces which define the Atom or Molecule in question. The different structures that can form (resonance structures) determine the status of the atom or molecule and whether or not it can interact with certain molecules. Along with this the placement of electrons amongst this mass, and the overall shape and structure of the mass will determine its behavior in solution and amongst other reactants, and this defines one-half of chemistry. These different structures are formed based upon the electron formation available within the atom (valence electrons), and along with this the number of electrons available from bonded atoms (valence electrons 2). The ability for these atoms to form a single structure is based upon the amount energy present between the atoms (collision theory), and this will determine the availability of molecules to form new molecules, and new molecules to form old molecules. This is kinetics, which is defined by the ability for atoms together to form molecules based on a certain amount of energy present, and a certain structural reaction present. Together these form the possibilities of atoms to either bond, or not bond, or to be capable of bonding, or incapable of bonding, with the capability to bond resulting in either a bond or not bond, and the incapability to bond forming the insufficiency of bonding, or the inability to bond, due to either insufficient activation energy, or insufficient structural capabilities of the atom/molecule (non-reacting solutions).

Electron Behavior[edit]

In the electron configuration of the atom, certain principles are outlined in terms of electron behavior (necessary for understanding bond formation and thus intramolecular forces within the molecule versus outside the molecule). The first of these mentioned is the discrete method in which electrons are able to literally jump from one orbital to another. In Bohr's Theory of the Atom, we have a number of circumferences measured by a number of radii, where different levels of energy are associated with the different orbitals and thus we find for each orbital a discrete amount of energy necessary in order to attain a specific velocity (denoted as the velocity of the electron, which varies). Along with this, as the mass of the atom changes according to time (meaning in accordance with time the mass and time changing are a function of each other, such that they are essentially the same exact thing) then this basically means that as the mass increases, the amount time increases, and thus the speed thus decreases when the circumference or radius remains constant. When the speed decreases, the velocity decreases, and we understand this as the bonding energy of an electron. The atom thus begins to have an overtly positive charge, defined by the instability of the Protonic Mass, which requires a neutral charge in order to remain balanced. With this in mind, we find that the addition of electrons is necessary in order to maintain the mass. The insufficient number of electrons will lead to an extremely positive atom, which will then begin to react with other atoms via the electromagnetic attraction between the electrons and protons. Once energy is added to the system, the electron will begin to upgrade itself to the necessary orbitals, with the necessary orbitals each being filled to the necessary degree in a discrete manner towards the highest orbital attained by an electron. This is the Aufbau principle, which states that these orbitals are thus attained in a discrete manner towards the highest attained orbital, in which no two orbitals and no two electrons can ever be the exact same electron. Basically the Pauli Exclusion Principle states that every electron is an individual identity and will always remain separate from the identity of other electrons, and thus each electron will always occupy a specific state, and can never occupy more than one state, and that these states can never actually share the same electron in two orbitals since that one electron can only occupy one orbital. In other words, electrons as quantum objects must be considered each as if they cannot occupy more than one place at a time. Because of this, the energy of each individual electron or particle in a system remains quantum, and this essentially means that each orbital can only ever have one electron. These electrons are dynamic however, meaning they can go anywhere they want, and are not stuck in the orbital unless there is not enough energy to cause the discrete change in electron behavior required or otherwise known as electron excitation, induction, ionization, etc. It is likely that this applies to all particles, and all these particles are actually the same particle, where their energy state defines the type of behavior present (electricity, heat, gravity, etc), where the amount of energy defines exactly what type of behavior is exhibited. Along with this, these electrons seem to have two opposite identities (entanglement) such that for every orbital there are two electrons of opposite spin (half-integer spin), and these two electrons together make up the aufbau principle such that for every orbital, there are two electrons of opposite spin and these two electrons make up the identity (quantum) of the system. Since Quantum Physics is defined entirely by the original state of systems, and thus the separate identities of particles, then it can be said that it is exactly true in that particles of opposite spin always define the original state of a system, since these can vary to an infinite degree, to an infinite level, at an infinite number of variances, and this is why the Aufbau principle remains true, since from the beginning of time to now, we are likely to find the addition of particles to the universe from the big bang until now to be the constant addition of particles, and thus each particle (and there are two because of opposite spin and the doppler effect) or particle pair, will each occupy a different state than the previous pair, and these pairs each occupy a new orbital, and these orbitals each have their own unique electron pair occupying the cloud region which defines the area in which an electron can be found. Since no two of the same electrons can occupy the same quantum state and since a system can contain an infinite number of electrons with each pair of electrons each with their own identity, then every single electron pair in the universe can actually be accounted for, and counted, since the beginning of time. This also means that each pair has its own unique identity, and this is why no two pairs can occupy the same orbital, since each orbital will contain a discrete and specific pair or set of electrons. Electron behavior is thus discussed based on the movement of these pairs of electrons, and their function.

Bond Formation[edit]

Bond formation consists of the movement of electron pairs in response to bonding and anti-bonding behaviors.

Intermolecular Forces [wiki][edit]

Intermolecular forces are defined by the forces apparent between molecules at a nanoscopic level.  A nanoscopic level is basically the level at which molecules can be observed within a region, versus atomic, which is a single atom/molecule and its orbitals, or functional, which is when molecules are arranged in a specific manner, such as that which may make up the organelles of a cell. Thus intermolecular forces are the forces studied as molecules begin to interact with other molecules, after having formed from their atomic structures.

Atoms are defined as a single nucleus (nearly non-existent) and thus we have termed the difference between atoms and molecules.  Diatomic molecules are typically referred to as the first set of molecules, of which aqueous and non-aqueous forms determine the difference between gases and non-gases, such as a liquid. Hence Hydrogen and H2 can be identified by their aqueous (H+) and non-aqueous or gaseous (H2) forms.  

Since we’re already talking aqueous atoms, which we are now going to assume are molecules, because atoms generally have a very different behavior from molecules, (thus we assume these cations and anions with their partial positives and negatives, are also going to be considered partial molecules).  This is thus defined as true in the sense that a partial gas, together with other gases, together can form a total gas, and this is the definition of Dalton’s Law.  The aqueous form of this law would apply to partially charged polyatomic/atomic level ions(different from subatomic ions[electrons for example]).  Thus we can imagine cations and anions to be these strange partially charged molecules, which are called polyatomic atoms, and when aqueous, they form partial molecular structures, due to their positive and negative charges.   The behavior of these polyatomic atoms in solution, is defined entirely by intermolecular and intramolecular forces.

Mass[edit]

The mass of molecules and their ions, determines how strongly gravitational interactions can occur.  The amount volume, to the amount mass, determines how closely such interactions can take place, and thus whether gravitational reactions can prevent for example a molecule from escaping the gravitational pull exhibited by the singularity form in a solution for example. Take a non-polar solvent, which if in large enough quantities, can form a liquid, and this liquid as a whole can be considered a mass. If we separated this mass into a bunch of droplets, the surface area would be greater, and the vapor pressure would increase, and along with this, the singularities formed by the masses, would be less than a single large mass. The volume, or the density of the object, determines how much gravitational pull can be exerted on these molecules/ations.  The further from the singularity, the less gravitational pull. Because of this, what is known as a dispersion force, is due to the mass-mass interactions which are otherwise known as gravity.  For an extremely non-dense molecule, this can lead to the evaporation of that molecule from the surface of a liquid mass.  This is because the gravitational force, is less than whatever force or energy it is that is causing the need for evaporation to occur, which is based upon either kinetic energy or some other type of energy which is causing the change in volume for that single molecule to occur, typically due to heat.  In a liquid, this could be as simple as the kinetic energy or the heat present within the molecular/atomic structures of the atoms, which if great enough in energy (equillibrium amount) will lead to the liquid-gas transition in which the Heat of Vaporization, when met, will begin to occur into the gaseous state for that molecule.  This dispersion force is thus the force of gravity between molecules for an amount mass, to which the limit volume determines the rate at which such interactions may or may not occur, to the degree, molecules, mass, amount, substance.

Electromagnetism[edit]

Intermolecular forces can also be describe electromagnetic forces between the molecules.  

Since we first have to define electricity and magnetism, we will simply refer to the electron, which emits a magnetic field when moving.  Since electrons are almost always moving (since the speed of a particle often defines the state of plasma it attains[plasma is simply defined as the movement of some beta particle through space{a distance over time}]) which in radians or for trigonometry is simply defined by the angular momentum, which for atoms and perhaps even molecules (important for bonding/antibonding) can also define the velocity[we will ignore acceleration since it is defined almost entirely by time and molecules have funny shapes{o chem}] velocity is found by taking the angular momentum and then calculating the distance in radians, in order to gain or garner a new distance arc length.  The angle is determined by time or the amount mass and this is yet to be used, so is thus still in the process of being discovered.  Now that we are aware that electrons have a speed, which is likely to be continuous since magnetic fields are often discrete, we can assume that electrons travel at continuous speeds, and thus attain discrete levels of energy since magnetic fields tend to separate these band gaps.

So since there are typically two electrons per energy level, which can be defined by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, in which no two electrons can share the same state(unless they are an electron pair), thus they have opposite spin, then we can define orbitals based upon the number of these electron pairs within the circumference of an atom.  Now since we are working with different types of atoms, and since intermolecular forces are more interested in molecules than they are atoms, then that basically means that these electrons in these atoms/molecules must exhibit the same basic behavior, which is that they can emit a magnetic field based on their movements.  The problem is, to what degree?  The easiest method so far, is to determien the maxima and the minima of the two half-integer spin electrons, which are defined as the first 1s orbital, in which we find 1s2, and eventually 2s2 and so on and so forth.  The maxima and the minima are basically defined by what is called a dipole moment, in which the full extent of the atom can be measured, and this is as much as the atom can possibly do.  Since magnetic fields and atoms always interact, and when interacting, can form what are known as wave functions, these interacting wave functions can create what is known as a much larger wave.  The particles in this case can be considered by their alpha and beta particles, which each exhibit the behavior of mass and volume.  The volume is the beta, and the Alpha is the mass.  Dipole moment basically tells us, that if electrons can be shared, they can also form these wave functions which when interacting can form a bond.  These bonds are the interacting wave functions, which are the basis of extremely low energy orbitals.  The lower the orbital of the energy, the closer the electron is to a mass, thus the lower its speed, and the more energy necessary to excite electron to a higher energy state, where much more complex arrangements can form.

These complex arrangements, if they are unable to form, would be due to the lack of mass necessary to create a much larger element. If the amount mass is insufficient, only a certain number of electrons can exist at equilibrium, thus the limit between bonding and anti bonding orbitals can be described by the mass of an atom, which for molecules defines the difference between something which can conduct or resist (insulate).  In the case that a wave function is equillibrium, it likely defines the difference between a conductor and semiconductor, where conductors simply have combined wave functions and resistors have non bonding wave functions or wave functions in which the antibonding orbitals and the bonding orbitals do not have the discrete magnetic levels necessary to create the electron flow necessary, unless the level of excitation greatly exceeds the band gap, defined by the distance or the number of magnetic fields an electron must skip/travel across in order to reach the anti bonding orbitals of an atom or molecule.  Molecules in this case are the primary focus, so we can consider doping a type of solution for combining insulators and semiconductors to perhaps form a new type of crystal which mimics a circuit, which is typically built at the loscopic scale (scale of human interaction) and instead at the molecular scale, nanoscopic.  For now we will simply take a look at the forces involved in such dipole moments, each defined by their own series of orbitals, which all have different levels of bonding and antibonding locations, each due to the mass of each specific atom, thus the molecular behavior is based upon the series of atoms, and their formations in which the bonding and antibonding orbitals are able to form.  Since the distance which creates the bond varies based upon these dipole moments, which determine the distance at which electrons can exist away from the nucleus of atoms, we have what are varying degrees of magnetism and magnetic strengths, and along with this varying strengths of electron behavior typically defined by a level of excitation from a ground state, which is defined by the lowest energy level of the electron.  With this defined, we can assume that different atoms and different molecules when they are close enough together, can create distant interactions between their electromagnetic fields.  Since the electrons are bonded, and likely located in bonding orbitals, then it can be assumed that the reason bonds don’t form is due to the lack of excitation of the electrons to jump from their bonding orbitals into the anti-bonding orbitals of another molecule or atom.  If this were to occur, then the anti-bonding electrons, which can be excited through heat for example or via other kinds of highly energetic reactions, will likely contribute to electrons jumping to their anti-bonding orbitals, which then allows the formation of new bonds to form, as old bonds are broken.

Since the atoms and molecules must always be differed, we refer to the bonding orbitals of molecules, which if enough excitement occurs, antibonding begins, which in the presence of other antibonding orbitals of other molecules is present, could mean the interacting wave functions of different molecules, meaning that electrons could possibly enter the empty bonding orbitals of nearby molecules, however for this to occur, heat is necessary, and other forms of electron exciting forces are necessary.  (Heat, sound, light, electricity, shock, etc[beta movements]).  Since for the most part, these forces are not going to be present, we will analyze the role of electrons and their respective magnetic fields in the presence of molecules, which since the electrons are each localized to the region of a mass or alpha region, can determine the dipole moment (due to the equillibrium amount of electrons for protons due to the equiilibrium charge which is thus the amount energy of the molecule[the amount necessary to destroy a molecule for example]), thus we can determine the degree of a dipole moment, and thus the dipole forces present between molecules.  

Since electrons exist with half-integer spin, and they tend to spin in opposite directions, and since magnetic fields exhibit the same if not similar behavior in their polar nature, then it can be assumed that certain electrons can likely exhibit the same behavior when interacting with other electrons of opposite spin.  Since opposite spin forms equillibrium and equillibrium tends to form a new object [vectors] then it can be assumed that opposite interactions form a type of bond between molecules.  If these molecules are unable to form new interacting wave functions, or if these wave functions are simply too far apart (yet are still in tangent, meaning they can interact over an extremely large distance), then even very distant electrons can interact with other distant electrons as long as their order is the same if not similar.  

This basically means that a type of bonding can occur between electrons and perhaps magnetic fields (as we can observe in a typical everyday magnet[unrelated]), where even over a great distance, a type of electron bonding can form, which is the basis of entanglement[quantum].  

This can only occur if equillibrium or a type of equillibrium forms between these electrons.  Since electrons exhibit magnetic fields, and since these fields are based upon the direction of movement of the electron, then it can be assumed that the speed of these electrons and the field they exhibit, and the opposite directions of spin can create interacting wave forms which we recognize as orbitals or the region of an electron.  Since orbitals are discrete, as are magnetic fields, then we can consider these wave functions to be discrete forms of electron behavior, and the location of the electron itself, continuous.  This seems backwards, but since electrons are always moving, then it makes sense that electrons must exhibit continous behavior, unless they are moving from one energy level to another, which is the discrete form. In intermolecular forces, this basically means that electrons of opposite spin can interact over large distances and if enough excitation occurs then these electrons can jump to other molecules thus forming what are called sigma bonds.  Since electrons can also exist in anti-bonding orbitals outside the region of the localized mass, and also within the band gap between a bonding and anti-bonding orbital, and along with this, within the original bonding orbital(which we just made), then that means we can have 3 sets of electrons (a total of 6) to form a sigma bond and two pi bonds. The last step is proving that more than one electron can exist in a band gap, which is highly likely in the case of ultrasonic levitation exhibiting the same discrete behavior of particles, which are able to exist seemingly floating in air between discrete energy levels of sound, in which a surface(such as another atom within a lattice) can prevent the magnetic field from becoming chaotic, depending upon the exact situations necessary to create what is known as energy bands or band gaps in an environment.  

For intermolecular forces, this basically means that electrons when they are unable to form these bonding orbitals will typically attempt to rest in the anti-bonding orbitals, and if they are unable to do this, then they simply interact with the other electrons of opposite spin, which can only occur if there are free electrons spinning around the nucleus of an atom and/or molecule.  For some molecules, this is impossible as all the electrons are being used within the center of the molecule, such as in an alkane.  For other molecules, there exist free lone pairs, which are assumed to be moving around freely and able creating dipole moments per time (number here), which will explain the polar nature of molecules, described by the ability of electrons to move freely.  

Since these electrons and magnetic fields are always attempting to interact (when present), yet since bonding/antibonding orbitals are not always able to form between molecules, then we have what is called Electromagnetic Forces, which are defined in Chemistry as Dipole Forces.  Dipole simply means there are two poles, like a north and south pole, and this is due to half-integer spin, in which two electrons of opposite spin can form equillibrium, and this is the reason why electrons exist in pairs and why bonds always require at least two electrons to form, which occurs due to the excitement of electrons in bonding/antibonding orbitals, where antibonding breaks the original bond, and bonding creates a new bond.  

[Aside:  Electrons from a bonding orbital become excited{molecule} and they enter the anti bonding state.  They become excited enough to enter the anti-bondign state of another molecule.  Heat replaces the bonding orbitals temporarily.  The second antibonding orbital is filled, and the bonding orbital of that molecule (bonding orbital number 2) begins to break due to the greater energy of the antibonding orbitals, which exist to an infinite degree, and one of the bonding orbital electrons of opposite spin, after forming equillibrium with this random foreign electron, begins to form a vector, and this is the new bonding orbital of this new molecule, which then of course forms the 3rd bonding and anti bonding orbitals]

Hydrogen Bonding is defined instead of from an electron via a proton. An electron has a negative charge, and a proton has a positive charge.  Since a hydrogen is defined as a proton with an electron, and since hydrogen bonding occurs with certain atoms where this electron is being used, then the only available source of energy for outside molecules is from this proton.  Since a proton has a positive charge and is willing to form equillibrium with any free negative charge, then hydrogen bonding can begin to form.  

Hydrogen bonding only occurs from atoms greater than a half filled valence where the gravitational pull of the atom is not too large, thus the proton has some room to interact with other molecules and perhaps elements such as oxygen.  This is likely defined by the low mass elements, which are typically defined as nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine.  Semiconducting elements such as carbon likely cannot hold the proton steady, as it simply begins to rotate around the element as most circuits tend to do.  The partially filled and complete orbitals of N, O, and F are likely able to prevent the electron of Hydrogen from spinning in circles, thus are able to allow the Proton of Hydrogen to interact with other elements without completely destroying them.  Since the mass of these elements is rather low, and their valences are not completely full, except for fluorine, then the proton is able to interact freely with other molecules due to the ability for the proton-electron interactions to occur between two molecules. If the mass is too large, then the hydrogen atom will not have enough distance from the base atom to create the intermolecular forces necessary to be deemed a hydrogen bond, and the nearby elements will have to maintain their distance from the hydrogen atom, such as oxygen.  The electrons from the oxygen atom, as they approach the hydrogen atom, begin to form equillibrium, pulling the hydrogen atom away from the base atom, unless this hydrogen atom is simply out of reach.  This would only occur if the electron of opposite spin of the hydrogen atom’s covalent bond, which for hydrogen has one half-integer spin, and for say nitrogen also has it’s own half integer spin, and now here comes this electron atom with the half-integer spin opposite of the hydrogen, going to the other side of hydrogen (as if to equalize and maintain equillibrium via the nucleus of the hydrogen atom), now begins to form a type of equillibrium, thus a hydrogen bond is maintained, which is also matched by the opposite spin of the oxygen atom, who’s hydrogen bonded electron already has it’s pair, (meaning for the hydrogen there is a total of 4 electrons, 2 of which are covalently bonded, and the other two from oxygen which are hydrogen bonds[intermolecular]) forms a type of equillibrium, or balance, which essentially the nature of chemistry.  This means the hydrogen can form a stable bond, and thus hydrogen bonding is considered stable, although not covalent.  It breaks rather easily.  Since we used nitrogen as an example, we can assume 6 valence electrons including the hydrogen’s electron, which is fairly balanced.  7 electrons for oxygen, which makes it fairly strong, and wanting to accept even more electrons, thus is able to accept a lone pair in an aqeous solution [stretch here], and forms the famous hydroxide molecule.  

Since ions (partial polyatomic atoms) exist in a state which like a plasma considers that the atoms exist in a molecularly partial state (meaning the atoms are separated but can still be considered a molecule), then this means that the charges are simply just electrons in space.  Since electrons emit a type of magnetic field, they are able to form attractions to other electromagnetic fields, and these are ion-dipole forces.  More specifically, the free electrons or lone pairs of other atoms, are able to approach these partial atoms of the polyatomic nature, and can form a electromagnetic interaction between the wave functions, in which a type of entanglement will occur where the opposite spin of electrons and their relative speeds can create a type of discrepancy noted as distant electromagnetic or wave function interactions.  Distant interactions only occur if the electrons of opposite nature are reciprocating in a way to form a type of bandgap between the molecules, which allows the molecule to be seemingly suspended by the discrete/continous nature of entanglement. This can only occur if the electrons and their magnetic fields are able to form an interaction, otherwise the energy levels of the electrons would have to adjust until such an interaction is able to form, and this only occurs if there is no other option available for such electrons, the energy thus becomes distributed between the two molecules(or elsewhere perhaps), and the interaction is formed.  Since ion-dipole forces involve two types of interactions, we can assume the following:  

Cations are able to interact with the oxygen atoms, which have free electrons and these electrons approach the positively charged cation at which point the bonding orbital, which is described as the orbital below equillibrium in an atom or partially polyatomic atom, can thus be maintained by a foreign electron, which in this case can come from in a solution a water molecule or other similar molecule which has free electrons or an electromagnetic field, which is formed due to the polar nature of the atom or molecule.  

In Anions, the free electron is able to approach the Hydrogen atom, which then begins to accept the hydrogen bond in the form of the anionic free electron forming near the hydrogen atom with opposite spin.  In other polar molecules this can essentially be recreated by the electromagnetic interactions between the electron’s degree spin and the type of magnetic field present in the interaction.  This makes anions especially more interesting since they are able to form hydrophobic layers which prevent rust from occuring.  The electronic nature of the anion however will still attempt to put it’s electron anywhere where there is an open space for an electron to sit.  In the case of electrolysis, this means that the higher energy of the electron can exhibit antibonding behaviors, and thus water can be taken apart by an electron of high enough energy if placed within the antibonding orbital of a molecule.  In order for this to occur, the molecule’s atoms would have to not have enough electrons to be considered full, and there would have to be an empty orbital for that atom.  These empty orbitals, or anti-bonding orbitals, when filled, can take the atom apart.  

In water for example, there exists an oxygen with a hydrogen, and the hydrogen is only capable of holding 2 electrons to form the sigma bond to oxygen.  This leaves 3 empty spaces around the hydrogen atom, which if electrons are able to attach themselves to, means the disconnection of hydrogen from the oxygen atom, and thus the formation of hydrogen gas at the electrode.

This is the role of anti-bonding in Chemistry.  The location of electrons and their ability to displace alpha particles otherwise known as masses or nuclei.  

Thus it is understood that if electrons are located in the right location, which is the anti-bonding orbital, an atom or molecule can be taken apart.  Each bond likely has it’s own energy level, as a molecule can likely be treated as a single mass.


If this is true, then molecules when together can also be treated as a mass, and their intermolecular interactions simply determine how closely these masses are together.  Since in a non-polar mass, evaporation tends to occur, it can be assumed that cohesive forces are at play in maintaining a mass.  Mass simply refers to anything which is able to form a type of singularity, which is essentially just something with a center of balance which contains mass (since volume typically will never have a center of balance although this could be incorrect).

Since a non-polar solvent has evaporation, we can assume the intermolecular bond is very weak.  Looking more closely at the liquid, we can observe the gravitational force at work between the molecules, which is known as the dispersion force. This dispersion force, is responsible for the disparity between volume and mass, which gives insects the seemingly ability to float.  When comparing the amount volume, to the amount mass, we can observe what seems to be a bubble around say a mosquito.  What we are really looking at is simply an amount density, of which we can observe the mosquito and it’s legs creating a localized region for which it can experience, a greater volume than mass, at which point it is able to float on water.  The mosquito literally has a density that is less than that of water. As soon as it’s legs are brought together, this density changes, and the mosquito will simply fall into the water.  The distance of a mass from the center or singularity will determine this rate, and this is essentially the radius of a molecule.  

By adjusting the density of the molecule, and the density of the mass of molecules, varying viscoties can be formed.  In some molecules, the distance of the molecules does not change, despite greater amounts of kinetic energy.  In other molecules, the greater the kinetic energy, or heat, the less viscous the mass.  Thus there are two types of liquids.  Crystalline liquids, and non-crystalline liquids(otherwise known as high energy liquids).  High energy liquids are liquids that typically have a high number of calories or energy.  The higher the amount of energy, the more viscous the liquid can become, and typically it also means the liquid can form a solid if heated correctly, or a type of taffy, as with sugars.  Oils have a similar behavior.  The dehydration of the molecules will remove the hydrogen atoms, and this can be observed as carbon soot in gasoline engines, or as candy in sugars.  

Eventually thicker and thicker forms of oil and sugar can form more complex molecules under the presence of heat, and perhaps even the cold.  Oil will turn solid when cold into a polymer, and sugar will turn solid when heated, from a crystal structure.  

Both are high energy substances, and are likely to be used for energy, while water is not.  These substances are extremely viscous, but are less so around a medium temperature which ranges for these molecules.  Non-polar substances do not exhibit the same behavior due to the shorter chain length.  This shorter chain length is part of the reason for non-polar behavior, while polar behavior which is also short in chain length will determine solubility.  Because of the nature of short chain lengths, medium chain lengths, and long chains, different types of viscosities can form from non-viscous (short chains), to mildy viscous, to extremely viscous, all dependent upon the chain length of molecules.  Extremely viscous and saturated molecules become solids as the friction coefficient is so great that the molecule has no choice but to simply stop moving.  Butter for example.

Since both short chain and long chain alkanes both exhibit non-polar behavior, yet exhibit varying qualities of viscosity, we find that long chain molecules are viscous because of the increased intermolecular forces. As a result, both short and long chain molecules, with the addition of an alcohol group, become more viscous and more liquous.  Liquous is defined as a substance which prefers to remain in a liquid state, rather than a vapor state or colloid state.  

When hydrogen bonds are added, this likely increases to an even higher degree, so the liquidity of a substance and its viscosity are entirely dependent upon chain length, polarity, and the adhesive and cohesive forces which can often be defined by temperature and bonding.  Since at certain temperatures bonding can change, and along with these polarity.  These typically occur at superstates, and can be defined as states where equillibrium is formed between the different variables which make up the type of matter being worked with. Since all these variables are connected, the single variable which defines all the variables, a boson, is able to form.  This is the basics of Quantum Physics.

Thus we can define viscosity as intermolecular bonding and chain length, where long chain molecules with strong intermolecular bonds will tend to have higher levels of viscosity, and along with this, more liquousity, or the need/want to be liquid versus a vapor.  Along with this, cohesive and adhesive forces can also change how a molecule interacts with other molecules of different orders, which is the basis of solubility.

Behavior of Molecules[edit]

Solubility is defined by the like-nature of molecules, where molecules of the same order will tend to exist together or as a group.  In these groups, when very dissimilar molecules interact, different behaviors can be observed, such as capillary action.  Capillary action is basically when the attractive forces of two completely different groups of molecules creates the behavior of conductivity, which is the flow of either ions, subatomic, or polyatomic, or in this case, a molecuonic.  The molecular group, made of molecules, exhibit the molecuonic behavior of conductivity, which like that of electrons, creates a flow which if facilitated can continue without stopping.  This can be observed in the superstate of Helium for example.  Solubility is thus defined by capillary action in that depending on the amount surface area, a certain amount of conductivity or flow rate is formed, and this rate depending upon the molecular interaction between the molecules, creates the movement known as osmosis, which will drive the atoms towards the end of their energy spectrum at which point they will either stop moving completely or continue moving until something has changed in the solution.  Capillary action tends to define the movement of liquids amongst a solid, where solubility simply defines such movement with an aqeous solution between a solvent and a solute, where the movement of the solute/solvent can be defined by this capillary action which then drives the molecules to certain locations within a solution.  This defines entropy of solution.  

Since molecules can take on different molecular forms, gas, solids, and liquids, we assume each requires a discrete amount of energy, where the amount energy between each remains continuous, meaning that the molecule will assume discrete changes for a continous amount of energy.  This basically means that from a certain point, to another point, a molecule can attain a number of different amounts of energy.  At that point, the molecule will have enough energy to take on a new form.  After this, another set of continous energy can take place, after which point, a second form takes place.  These two discrete points are known as the Heat of Vaporization and the Heat of Fusion.  The Heat of Fusion requires the lowest bonding energy orbitals to be filled, while the heat of fusion requires the highest antibonding energies to be filled.  The anti bonding orbitals are filled when the required amount of energy is available within the molecule or atom, at which point the molecule will either break apart, or change to a new state of matter, if it can.  Water, for example, will not change state, and will attain enough antibonding electrons to simply reduce in density.  Once it has reduced in density, then it can float.  The difference between the liquid and the gas would be the discrete nature of electrons, which when enough energy is attained will suddenly jump to the energy level required in antibonding to have enough volume to be less dense than liquid water.  The nuclear charge has basically expanded along with the electrons of the water molecule.  

When forming into a solid, the lowest bonding energy is attained, and thus the least amount heat and thus the least amount of energy.  The number of electrons remains the same but energy of the particles, and likely the number of particles that represent subatomic ions, has decreased to the bonding orbital which represents the heat of fusion.  This discrete amount of energy is responsible for solids, which is based on the discrete nature of electrons to move from one orbital to another, in wave functions that can be defined by the peaks and troughs of particles, which are just electrons .  The curves of the waves represent the magnetic fields of those electrons which can vary in size based on their energy of the electron.  Since the circumference of the atom decreases, the wavelength is able to remain the same, despite the change in the electron’s energy.  Very weak electrons are thus still able to emit a magnetic field of the same magnitude, and increasing magnitudes will still contain the exact same amount of energy as previously, as a ratio.  In terms of the electron’s energy itself, perhaps it’s voltage or current one coudl say, will likely remain exactly the same no matter how distant from the atom, thus the electron always attains the same exact value of the half-integer spin, or ½.  

Lack of Magnetic Variations [Magnitude]

Magnetic Fields thus do not become stronger or weaker in terms of their circumference, but in terms of the regions surrounding the atoms, very much so do become weaker or stronger.  However like angular momentum it is based entirely on ratios when speaking in terms of the discrete energy of molecules and atoms (electron behavior).  Discrete behavior basically explains why magnetic fields have troughs. The electrons sit in these troughs.  The space between the troughs is the magnetism.  The energy required to cross the field.  

The Heat of Sublimation is the occurrence in which an electron is able to traverse from a low bonding orbital to an antibonding orbital without stopping.

The Heat of Deposition is when anti bonding electrons return to their bonding orbitals.

Since certain amounts of energy are required to make solids liquids and liquids gases, and these amounts of energy can be described as both kinetic and potential energy, then we can describe the ways in which this energy can be transferred to the atom/molecule.  Pressure is the force of shock, which is the resonant speed of interaction at the speed above sound, and below electricity.  Pressure can change molecular structure and can be measured by the kinetic energy of an object when exceeding the shock barrier, which is typically known to humans as shockwaves.

They travel fast enough to knock humans down.  Electrons electrocute.  Heat, from temperature can also effect the molecular structure of atoms, so as to attain higher and or lower energy states for the bonding and anti bonding orbitals.  

The amount energy of pressure and temperature can be described by relief, exertion, heat, and cold.  As the amount of pressure increases, the energy can become heat in excess amounts or when the rate of pressure increasing exceeds the internal pressure of the atom.  That is the pressure outside of the atom, and the pressure within the volume of the atom, are two different pressures, and as long as this pressure can remain equalized, heat losses within the atom are at a minimum.  Zero loss would essentially be the same thing as squeezing a balloon without popping it.  Either the balloon can be cooled down, or the pressure exerted on its surface area must remain equal to the surface area at all times. For this to occur, the surface of the pressure exerting area would have to literally change in size as the volume begins to decrease.  As long as the pressure or surface area remained equal, then the particles can be maintained and internal temperature of the atom can be maintained.  The heat would likely prevent the volume from decreasing a certain amount and would simply escape unless the surface area used prevented this from occurring.  In such a case, interesting things would occur. Heat particles would gather, electrons would have to become excited, escaping to the anti-bonding orbitals of the atom, which are free to escape, while heat cannot, unless an insulator is used, in which case either with an insulator the electrons would be bursting with energy and without an insulator we would simply find the electrons attempting to escape into the air as a space charge of sorts.  Enough pressure and the atom will maintain extremely high levels of energy as it is compressed, where the kinetic energy can be stored within the atom rather than escaping (the reason why things become cold).

At a certain temperature the pressure and temperature become what is essentially the same exact thing.  They become a single unit and under this amount of energy the level of excitement of the temperature and pressure likely combine, similar to the formation of a cooper pair, and we find two particles of opposite spin of which pressure and temperature can together bring together for a total of four particles.  These four particles together when interacting form a type of ottoman in which a fifth element forms.  This fifth element is the supercritical fluid that is so hailed.  This fluid is able to exist, as the balance of these four forces.  There is heat, cold, and particles in which force can be exerted, and relieved.  This particle travels at the speed of a shockwave, and is likely what causes things to hit, so there is a hit particle, and a catch particle.  They both travel at the same speed, and when heat particle and cold particle are added together, they are able to form an equilibrium within the atom.  The hit particle is cooled, and the catch particle is heated, thus equilibrium temperature can be maintained between the two vectors, which can be defined by tan and cot.  Hit contains the kinetic energy necessary to knock anything over, and when cooled gains the potential energy necessary to remain equilibrium, and the catch particle becomes hot, and gains the equilibrium energy to be still.  This is new so I don’t have the best words to describe it, but the liquid portion is pressurized and cooled, and the gaseous portion is depressurized and heated.  Gas crosses to liquid when pressurized and the liquid becomes gas when depressurized, so the equilibrium between the two is maintained when the pressure becomes stable and the temperature doesn’t throw off the balance.  Thus the hit and catch particle remain one, while the heat and cold are able to prevent the temperature from destabilizing the mechanism.  

The temperature can thus be maintained at any degree.

The Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure

Critical Temperature is the speed of the heat subatomic ions at their maximum within the volume of a molecule.  At this temperature, the gaseous state is the only possible state for a molecule.  The reason for this is because of the relation between heat and volume.  The greater the heat, the greater the volume.  As heat is added, volume increases, and as a result, if pressure is constant, then the volume will just continue to increase forever. This is likely limited by the fact that atoms have mass, however since the temperature scale does not truly reflect heat in the same way it does the cold, then it can be assumed that superhot stars simply just get hotter and hotter every year.  

The Critical Pressure can only be applied after the critical temperature.  It can probably be reached, on its own, but this would result in the heat simply escaping as the pressure increased from the molecular or atomic structures of the molecules.  As the critical pressure is approached, we find that heat being added becomes necessary, and so the molecules are heated until they are hot enough to become internally pressurized.  If they are not pressurized they simply grow back in volume, so in a way, heat is just being added back into the molecule.  If enough heat is added and the critical pressure has been reached, then the critical temperature and pressure will both be active, and a supercritical fluid will be maintained, which is basically just a molecule which has kinetic energy, but a low volume.  Molecules can thus have a very high volume, making them a gas, or a very low volume, making them liquid.  In both cases they can have either very high amounts of kinetic energy, or almost no kinetic energy.  When there is no kinetic energy, the liquid becomes cryogenic, or gas since the kinetic energy becomes removed and a liquid forms from the internal depressurization which occurs in the atom, where the ions then escape.  In very high amounts of kinetic energy a liquid will tend to become a gas, and gas will become even hotter, but under a constant pressure, very high amounts of kinetic energy can be maintained by an atom.  The volume of the atom is likely unknown, perhaps someone knows, it’s probably a little bit larger than normal.  Quite a bit apparently.  The excitation of the particles within the sphere of the molecule reached extremely excited states very far away from the ground state.  These includes not only electrons but other subatomic ions of course, such as heat, pressure, sound, electricity, and light.  To prevent the volume from growing, pressure is maintained outside the atom.  This is essentially how atoms are able to behave in a multitude of environments, they can either change in volume (gases), or change in internal pressure (change in state), they can also change in their quantity of interal particles (liquids/entropy).  Outside forces such as the presence of volume (a sealed box), external pressure (a vacuum), and the presence of external particles (enthalpy)  together form the conjugates necessary to create life among other things. So atoms can change in size, change in particle density, and this is essentially the difference between Temperature and Pressure.  The relation between the two is based on the fact that pressure can effect both the size of an atom and the particle density, and the temperature can also effect the size of the atom an the particle density.  

Temperature can increase the volume of the atom when hot, and decrease the volume when cold.  The pressure can increase the volume when cold, and decrease the volume when hot.  The pressure can release heat from the atom when high, and cause intake of the heat when low.  The temperature can effect whether or not heat is released or not, and can also effect the internal pressure and external pressures of the atom, and thus the state of matter.  

The state of matter for an atom/molecule is thus effected by the variations between hot and filled, hot and empty, cold and empty, cold and filled.  Hot and filled is a supercritical fluid, while hot and empty is a gas.  Cold and empty is a cryogenic liquid, and cold and filled is just a regular liquid.  Highly pressurized atoms let go of beta particles unless they were never hot in the first place, and this is typical of cryogenic states of matter.  If something is hot, like a gas, and then compressed, it will release a lot of heat.  Supercritical states are thus attained when the heat simply cannot escape and the pressure just keeps growing.  Once heat does escape, it will do so in an extremely violent manner, like a balloon ready to pop, under massive amounts of pressure, like a depth charge.

This basically defines Temperature and Pressure in terms of the molecular scale.  

Cryogenic liquids also do not combust very well.  They can easily turn into a gas as long as kinetic energy can be added to the system.  Vapor formation is basically when the number of heat particles in a molecule or atom is high enough to excite electrons within the molecule to the anti bonding orbitals.  High enough and they can break.  Thus the key to creating Methanol is likely in low temperature kinetic reactions which do not use heat but instead use more pressure.   The amount of energy added to the system must be enough to create a vapor without creating the anti-bonding electrons which break bonds and form newer bonds of higher energy, since the amount mass of Ethanol is greater than Methanol, and since these bonds have x number mass, y number electrons must therefore be a number of the same, and since this number is greater in ethanol, then it is less so in methanol, basically meaning that the molecule has a greater number of electrons and thus requires more energy to break… thus forming new bonds takes slightly more energy in ethanol than in methanol, since they are rather similar in structure.

Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure is basically the pressure of the air surrounding the solution.  If the pressure is low, then vapors will want to escape from the solution into the air.  If the pressure is high, then they won’t want to escape.  The reason vapors escape under low pressures is due to dalton’s law.  In Dalton’s Law, the number of particles of a certain amount kinetic energy will become a vapor.  Since the pressure effects the volume of the atom, a higher pressure forces heat out of the volume of the atom when compressed (high pressure), then a low pressure forces atoms to absorb the heat surrounding them.  If the heat remains constant through both reactions, then a low pressure system forces atoms to absorb heat from the air, and thus the pressure would increase as a result.  This increase in pressure, if a low pressure is constant, then the resulting would simply create more heat, and this heat can thus be absorbed either by the atoms in the form of vapors, or atoms in the form of liquids, which if a certain discrete quantity is absorbed, thus creates even more vapors.  As more vapors are added to equilibrium under a constant volume, the pressure again becomes increased, the internal pressure adjusts, which thus releases even more heat, unless the maximum heat has been reached, and the heat then is absorbed once again, by either other atoms of low internal pressures, or by the liquid, which thus gains more kinetic energy, and this cycle simply seems to continue.  If kinetic energy is not allowed to escape, then it simply goes in circles, unless there isn’t enough kinetic energy and the atoms simply fall back down to start the cycle once again.  This would occur if the kinetic energy for example gets stuck in the vapor, and once in the vapor, the pressures equalize, and once equalized between the internal and external pressures of an atom, thus forms an equilibrium which could perhaps be responsible for the formation of hurricanes and other bosonic phenomena. Heat would not be absorbed by the liquid, and thus no more kinetic particles could be formed.  The equalization of pressure from the internal and external structures of the atom, and the lack of new vapors prevent the change in pressure of this constant volume, and thus a standstill occurs.  In order for kinetic energy to be stuck in the vapor, the correct temperature has to be assumed, and the slow standstill that is the equalization of pressure of the internal and external structures of the atom would require the slowed movement of beta particles through the internal and external structures of the atom.  This basically means that enough heat has to be present for atoms to reach the correct volume, and one they have the correct volume the internal and external pressures must equalize, and thus the number of atoms being added to the system must begin to slow, and once slow enough the equalization can possibly form, although it’s likely far easier to simply reverse the cycle until it either stops or reverses again, which is the requirement for a hurricane to form.

The Solubility of Molecules is based on polarity, and along with this, on the energy of the system.  So something really really dense can dissolve.  Something not very dense can also dissolve.  If both are polar then they should both be soluble.  Solubility likely has to do with structure.  Structures in solid form can either be soluble or non soluble based on either their density, which is the amount of mass, which determines the location of the particle, and the volume, which determines how high up the molecule will be, with structure determining how much personal space such a molecule will have in accordance to other molecules.  The pressure will determine whether or not the molecule will be able to use this structure, and the temperature will determine to what degree the structure will be usable.  Thus structures can be used to change the relationship between molecules in solution, as their magnetic fields realign, and this is part of solubility.  The entropy of the system then changes, and this is related to the enthalpy between molecules.  As the molecules begin to shape shift, they again begin to form new bonds, and these bonds determine what breaks, sheds, or falls apart, in solution.

The type of solution should influence whether bonds break, and the amount of particles in the solution.

Surface Tension basically describes the hardness of a surface, whether liquid, solid or gas, since some solids can behave as liquids and even polymers can display wave behavior, especially if large enough.

For extremely hard surfaces, a larger amount of energy is required to break the surface.  Breaking the surface is basically when the amount energy input = output, thus the barrier can be broken, sometimes even cracked in half if just right.  Sometimes if the energy is too large, or the input is displaced over a large region vs a small region, or a point, then the surface won’t break, such as a boat which floats on water.  The boat should sink, but it doesn’t because of the displacement.

In extremely soft surfaces, the surface tension is low, but is less likely to break over a larger area.  Thus a boat would likely fall through the surface.  One person could stand on this, but on a hard surface this would not be possible.  Because of this surface tension can be defined basically as the hardness or softness of the surface of some mass.  Since the surface of a mass can be differentiated from the actual mass of the object(the region below the surface), then we can then define the density of the object in relation to its surface area.

In the case of plastics we find of course monomers to form polymers, with water we find chains formed by the hydrogen bonding. By understanding the type of lattice formation achieved, we can discover the 4 four fundamental forces which can describe the aspects of a surface. The question now is, does the amount of mass involved in the relationship between a surface/body relate?

Since intermolecular forces are the cause of surface tension, and since intermolecular forces are in fact partially caused by the mass of objects (along with electromagnetism), then the answer should be that the greater the mass of the body, the greater the attracted of a surface area to that mass. In the case of non-polar liquids on a polar liquid, we will find that the attraction of the non-polar liquid to itself will begin to change such that the attraction to the surface of the polar liquid will increase as the mass increases. This likely means that non-polar liquids in space, will behave differently than on Earth. Along with this, non-polar liquids will respond more to changes in mass, than say water, which relies upon hydrogen bonding to maintain itself while a non-polar liquid relies almost entirely upon its own mass to remain a liquid(this is why it is volatile).

Thus we will find as a result that the surface tension will change, but not necessarily increase or decrease, but rather the molecules will become more attracted to the center of mass of the body, rather than the molecules to themselves (forming chain-like behaviors). The absolute result is simply the molecules separating from each other more.

If electromagnetism is added, perhaps a false atmosphere can be added as well, and the same will be true for polar molecules, and as such with water, the water molecules will begin to separate more, thus the Earth's electromagnetic field also plays a role. The type of separation will likely be based upon the poles such that the north and south poles and other magnetic movements will effect the positioning of water molecules and their direction of aim. This is likely part of the reason water evaporates to such a large degree.

so the answer is yes, the body of water will effect the surface tension of water such that the amount of attraction between the mass of either the body or the mass rather of singularity is present and the mass of the single water molecule itself will begin to form a relationship which is likely already defined in some physics equation (math is not my expertise). This is the degree effect a body of water or a mass has on a molecule. Compare this to the attraction of water to itself(intermolecular forces), and there it is.

Defined as the ability for a molecule, to become ionized in a solution, so as to become a partial molecule rather than a total molecule, dependent upon the size of the electric field created by the molecules in solution, at which point if the number of molecules is greater than a certain number(solvent), then the electric field will be magnetized fully, at which point the molecules can no longer solvate.  At this point, solvation stops, and total equilibrium has been reached.  

Solubility

Solubility tends to allow molecules to break off from their original volume and then become mixed into a solution, in which two different types of molecules can togethe co exist.  It can take a much larger amount of energy to mix a long chain molecule into water.  Fats, Oils, and Hydrocarbons follow this behavior.  The longer the chain, the more difficult it is for a short chain molecule to be the solvent.  Maintaining Equilibrium is the key to solubility as the more equilibrious molecules are, the easier it is to maintain solubility.  In order to create equilibrium between certain molecules, mixing and stirring must occur, sometimes to a very large degree, creating a very large variety of different types of molecular consistencies.  Some can be very non-polar and liquid, to polar and liquid, to polar and viscous, to non-polar and non-viscous, to fatty and non-polar, to oily and non-polar.  Oily would be defined as non-saturated and fatty as saturated, where the number of Hydrogens changes the mass, and the density of that mass within a block, and because of the density of this block, and the friction between the molecules of that chain, a slowed movement occurs eventually forming a solid as a result.  Partially due to the lack of heat, but mostly due to the lack of kinetic energy, and almost entirely due to the amount of friction that occurs between the hydrogen atoms, and because of the multiplication of this friction by the length of the chain. Thus the longer the chain, the more saturated, the more friction, and thus the less kinetic energy available (free movement).  Along with this, as heat is added, the butter will be able to reach a higher temperature more quickly as a result of the friction as well.

Solubility similarly is based on this same concept.  Based on the chain length, certain molecules will be soluble in other molecules. The inter-molecular forces will determine this solubility.  The chain length is related to mass, and along with this, a type of volume.  If a non-polar solution is prepared and water is dropped into the solution, the water appears to separate itself.  It can also be emulsified if mixed correctly and this is the amount of energy required to create equilibrium, a type of molecular bonding, between molecules.  It is not dissimilar to bonding and anti bonding orbitals, where if too much energy is added, the bonds then begin to break. The reason the water is insoluble in a non-polar solution is because the water can experience hydrogen bonding, where a proton is able to seemingly escape from the volume of the oxygen atom, and thus bonds with the other atoms via the volume, which should contain all of the particles necessary to make a good hydrogen bond.  The electronegativity of a molecule would thus be based entirely upon low mass (proton count, thus positive count), as compared to the electron count.  Since the number of protons and electrons is typically the same for most atoms, and since electronegativity is often based on ionization energy (the further the atom from the mass, the more energy), and since anti-bonding is similar, then we will suggest the idea that electrons negativity level is strongest when in equilibrium, which would mean that the complete valence is stronger than the incomplete valence, which is deemed true by the existence of poly-atomic molecules.  Since full valences are more powerful than incomplete valences, then it can be assumed that electronegative atoms are atoms of low mass, where the electron simply has less resistance, due to a shorter circuit. The more complete the circuit, and the less distance the electron has to travel, the more electronegative.  A better idea would perhaps be the size of an electric field and the density of such, which would comprise of the volume of the atom, plus the number of electrons, and with a low mass, the less time, the less gravity, the higher the velocity, and thus the more energy.  Electronegativity thus can be described by a high volume, high velocity, sin like behavior found in atomi. According to Pauling, it is the nucleus or the atom itself which can attract the electrons, on a molecular perhaps even an atomic level, thus it is the protons attempting to reach equilibrium likely so that they can neutralize to form a neutron.  In reality, it is likely just the proton density which is effecting the electron density as certain areas become more neutral and other areas just seem to be more electronegative when they are in fact just the same based on the idea that electrons never move. This is just so we can keep the idea that protons can in fact stay in the same place, and then we replace the idea of electron movement with resonance structures and we can understand the spin of atoms or molecules in space.

With electronegativity complete, partially, except for the use of resonance structures to determine the electronegativity patterns in molecules, which will be determined in the future.  

Solubility seems to be based primarily on the ability of a solvent to dismantle a solute.  For water, the solute can be dismantled by exposure of the sodium ion to 6 electrons, at which point it has no choice except to ionize, versus the 2 chlorine electrons.  The chlorine is exposed to the protons and mass of oxygen/water, which with a negative charge are able to dismantle the chlorine.  

Solubility is when the bonds between a solute and solvent are stronger than between the solvent itself. More specificaly solute-solvent interactions or ion-solvent interactions.  Since Sucrose, a good example has so many hydrogen atoms, and since water has so many empty spaces for a proton, it makes sense that the water molecules will simply accept the proton and will form what are essentially a large number of hydroium ions from water molecules.  These bonds between the solvent (water) and sugar (solute) are likely stronger than the bonds between the water molecules.  In this case we have to consider that the sugar molecule is essentially camoflauged with water, since the water and sugar are essentially a single molecule.  Single molecules have different structures than separated molecules, and thus we find a new formula present.  This is essentially the giant compound of water chain molecules chaining with the sugar molecule.  This creates a new structure, and we find the sugar molecule almost impossible to see. Sugar crystals are likely able to do something similar.  As the sugar is mixed with water, excess water is evaporated leaving behind hydrogen bonding water molecules, who’s amount will determine the number of water molecules left.  Based on this number, we will find a different number of molecules per sugar molecule, where the amount heat per hydronium ion-sugar chain will determine the quantity.  If this quantity is from an exact amount of heat, it should form a specific molecule.  The nanoscience would be looking at the conglomerate chain formed or the entire structure which the sugar molecules then form.  This type of braiding between sugar molecules and hydronium should be the basis of some new technologies.  

Heat of Fusion and Vaporization

The Heat of Fusion and Vaporization is essentially the minimum amount of energy to create a discrete change in the molecular structure of a molecule, which is essentially just turning the molecule into a vapor.  What are vapors? This question has yet to be truly answered, since what is occuring is a change in volume of the atom.  It would depend on whether or not there is an actual surface to the atom.  Is the volume of the inside of the atom and the outside of the atom the same volume, or does the atom take with it its own personal volume?  

Is the volume of a liquid, the same volume of an atom?

To answer these questions it must first be analyzed whether it is possible for high velocity particles (angular speed) to contain within itself a volume of some sort.  As the Earth, among many other planets, is capable of carrying it’s own amount of matter, and along with this, a less dense for of matter known as air, or an atmosphere.  Since most planets have an atmosphere, and since some stars can also contain their own region of space in which high velocity particles are able to exist, then it can also be assumed that the reach of the particles projected from such stars, planets, etc will be akin to that of atoms, molecules, etc.  There exists an atmosphere, and different types of nuclear charges which if they escape the atom will lead to the atom releasing different types of photons from inbetween the nuclear binding energy of the masses or protons.  In order to release such a certain amount of energy is necessary, and this energy can be released through the anti-bonding orbitals of atoms being inhabited by electrons (meaning the electrons are travelling at a high enough velocity to pull the atom apart, such that the protons in the center are no longer able to stay close enough together to hold in the nuclear energy of the inner atom.  This inner atom if wide enough experiences powerful types of binding energies, which when pulled apart, thus have a certain amount of energy present. This amount energy will determine if there is enough energy present to release light.  To gauge whether this amount energy is correct the angular velocity must be known, or the anti-bonding energy, and if this is known, then we can know exactly how much force an atom experiences as it is being pulled apart.  

Critical temperature

The critical temperature is the point at which a liquid can no longer remain a liquid such that this is the literal maximum temperature that can be attained by a liquid.

Critical Pressure

The Critical Pressure is the point at which a gas no longer remain a gas such that this is the literal maximum pressure that can be proceeded by a gas.


When both the Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure are applied, a supercritical liquid/gas can be attained.  The reason for a critical temperature is that only a certain amount of heat can be added before vaporization occurs. Since vaporization of a fluid can be attained simply by the addition of heat, and improves by the lowering of pressure, then we can assume gases prefer high heat low pressure environments.  As pressure increases, the environment becomes more liquid friendly, and perhaps this is what clouds prefer. Along with this, extremely low temperatures, thus clouds can be said to be the effect of low temperature high pressure zones in the sky, with low pressure zones and high temperatures promoting vaporization instead.

At the maximum pressure, which can only be attained by increasing the amount of heat on a gas, such that the amount heat and amount pressure as a constant remain (since it is the ratio of vapors form to liquid, or the vapor pressure, that will determine whether all of the liquid become a gas or all the gas become liquid).  If this ratio is maintained until the maximum velocity, then for an amount temperature, the pressure will no longer be able to maintain a gas, and the gas becomes liquid.  The kinetic energy of the particles becomes too great and because of this, the pressure is able to compress that amount kinetic energy such that another ratio becomes true, and this is the ratio between the kinetic energy and the amount of pressure in the environment. The lower pressure promotes kinetic energy, since particles are more free to move without any air resistance or friction in the air.

Air resistance and particle movements are related to collision theory, which states that moving particles collide, and when these collisions occur, reactions occur.  The number of collisions over a duration of time is the rate, and this can occur both in the solution of a liquid as well as a gas.  Since Supercritical Temperatures and Pressures, both effect the rate of equilibrium reactions and along with this, the rate of more atypical reactions.  Thus we can theorize that air resistance can, if present, increase the rate of reaction.  Air resistance is basically defined as the number of particles in the air.  The density of the particles and their number for a constant volume will determine the number of collisions that may occur.  When we throw heat and pressure into this equation, we’re basically saying that these particles are going to be moving faster (according to current theories in kinetic energy) and that these particles are undergoing changes in volume at the atomic level.

These changes in volume at the atomic level are due to the surrounding pressure on the atom.  The atom is then compressed, with the number of particles inside the atom thus being compressed to a higher density as well, similarly approaching the same image as the molecular scale. Most of the time, this atomic scale and molecular scale will not be exactly the same.  In this case, if the atomic scale were the same, then the interior pressure of the atom and the pressure of the solution would be the same, and if this were true, especially under very high pressures, then the interior volume of the atom would be at equilibrium between the atomic and molecular levels, and the release of heat would result.  The pressure would essentially force heat out of the volume of the atom by compressing it.  The resulting heat could possibly be sustained by the atom if it can be contained, but for the most part it will escape into the surrounding regions.  This is how the heat is transferred into solution.  

The inverse would essentially be described by the relief of pressure and the resulting expansion of the volume of an atom.  If the atom or molecule increases in size, the heat then travels into the atomic structure, being maintained as the energy of that atom (part of the nuclear charge I assume), and the heat from the solution has now been transferred into the atom, making the temperature of the solution slightly lower than before. As the solution lowers in temperature, we find a increase in volume, due to the change in internal pressure of the atom, which decreases, meaning the temperature of the internal workings of an atom are lower than normal, which can then induct subatomic ions known as beta particles into the structure, which are due to the equilibrium created between the bonding and anti-bonding orbitals (which is determined likely by the structure or mass of the atom).  Since this line essentially changes (it is an amount energy) which determines the actual energy of an atom (since things with greater energy will destroy that atom), then we ca n know exactly how much energy of an atom there is. If this line changes then basically what is happening is that we can calculate the new volume and the old volume, and the difference in volume, based on the density of the molecule.  This density of the molecule, if it changes, where the mass remains constant, will determine the change in temperature based on the change in volume.

Thus temperature changes are due to changes in volume, which is effected by changes in pressure.  Likewise, changes in pressure can also directly change the temperature of the solution, but since liquids are for the most part incompressible, then pressure changes could only occur in deep water environments or under extremely heavy substances.  These extremely heavy substances would naturally have a higher amount of pressure than lighter substances, making the pressure of substances important.  The substances, such as water, change in pressure based on depth.  As this depth increases, the location of a gravitational singularity within that mass becomes apparent, and when reached, results in the hurricane-like equilibrium which many molecules are known for.  On Earth, this would be found in or near the center of the planet.  At this point the gravity technically shouldn’t exist anymore. It should resemble a hurricane.  

Increased pressures at these depths should be effecting the volume of molecules, which if a gas would immediately become compressed, at which point any heat if produced would be released into the water.  In the case of volcanoes underwater, if the heat produced is great enough, then an amount volume can overcome this pressure, which if great enough will appear as a bubble.  It is likely that this is what is responsible for boiling, which can be observed as a gaseous bubble which then floats the surface and is released as a volume of water.  Essentially what is occurring is that the heat produced is entering the volume of the atom.  That atom then begins to increase in internal pressure, which is directly transferred to the volume as the heat increases the pressure, and thus increases the volume, thus resulting in the transfer of heat from pressure to volume, which at the end state or at the final state, results in the temperature of the atom being reduced back to it’s original temperature, at a volume a function of the same pressure, such that the amount of heat can in equilibrium effect either side to the same degree, volume or pressure, thus the relationship between volume and pressure is direct in relation to each other.  If this volume produced is great enough, then the amount pressure initial was enough to be greater than or perhaps equal to the surrounding pressure of the atom, and thus a bubble can then be produced.  This is boiling, which is now defined as the equalization between the atom and the solution an amount pressure.  

Thus for every molecule, a difference in volume can be found based on the amount energy of that molecule.  For every atom, the same amount energy can be found.  Molecular changes from atoms to molecules and molecules is the result of the anti-bonding orbitals being filled with a certain amount energy.  

If the energy of the atom, which is a constant, versus the energy of the beta particles, changes enough, then the energy of the atom will be overcome, the beta particles take over, and the atom is thus forced to rearrange itself so as to be at either a greater or equal to the energy of the beta particles.


In the case of boiling, we find a liquid becoming a gas due to the excitement of the beta particles within the atom.  The structure breaks, due to the anti-bonding electrons spinning at a velocity great enough to tear apart the internal structure of the atom.  If they are spinning fast enough, we can observe a flame, or sometimes just light.  The light is the first peak at a flame, and can be observed as the nuclear binding energy of an atom.  Thus when we observe semi-conductors, we find the band gap as the excitement at equilibrium between the valence and conduction band of the bonding and anti bonding orbitals.  At this energy level we find a the band gap occurring between the orbitals at the interior and exterior of the equilibrium line drawn between the interior and exterior of the atom, thus the internal energy of the atom is displayed slightly and we find excitation occurring as the release of light from within the interior of the atom to the exterior, thus Light.

In the case of non-semiconducting produced light, which occurs between the band gap of the nucleus of the atom rather than the volume, we can find excitation occurring between the alpha charges of the atom.  This is essentially the same principle, but instead of occurring between beta particle interaction, it is from alpha particle interaction. If the energy is great enough(being produced), then it should resulting in the excitation of the valence orbital, which if excited enough to not act as an insulator of such light, should then transfer the energy past the anti-bonding orbitals or rather just through and into this world.  Since anti-bonding orbitals are discrete, then there is a minimum level of excitation necessary in order to allow the production of light, as is the case with semi-conductors.  Once this minimum energy is achieved, anything greater will result with the degradation of the atomic structure.  By maintaining an exact energy level, it is possible to sustain the atomic structure of the atom.  Thus it is known that as energy increases past a certain point, then energy-energy systems begin to interact, leading to the victory of the greater energy system, resulting in the increase in energy overall.  The bonds which make up the two energy systems break, and the systems then combine.  

If a third or greater energy system exists, then they will exist in accordance to this energy system, and thus beta particles can be described by the third system being an alpha particle.  If this third system is the solution of a material and the ions are described by these two smaller energy systems, then we can observe ionic bonding as a result.  

Thus we can assume the following: Ionic Bonding in Solution a result of the level of energy, such that if the energy of the system known as the ionic solute, then whatever is attacking the solute, would have to have more energy than the solute itself.  This would have to be defined by perhaps the energy of the water molecule, or perhaps in this case, molecules.  The bonding energy of water to itself would be defined by dispersion forces, dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding.  The hydrogen bonding is perhaps the strongest as it relies upon hydrogen bonds forming Hydronium ions, in which chains of water are made.  The dispersion forces from the gravitational pull between the oxygen and proton atoms, with a mass of 18, and along with this, the electronegative and positively charged protons interacting with each other.  The dipole moment would be measured by the changes in electronegativity of the molecule, from atom to atom.

Since each atom has it’s own electronegative charge, and since a polar molecule is defined by the difference in electronegativity between atoms, then the dipole moment should be an amount movement defined by an amount electronegativity due to the number of protons as compared to the electronegativity itself.  In essence, the electronegativity itself is determined by the location and number perhaps of electrons, and their ability to interact with the protons such as to make a type of equilibrium, in which case, is always formed in order to create an atom.  Now since atoms are sometimes electronegative and sometimes not, then in order to understand the reason for the electronegativity it must first be understood what electronegativity is.

Electronegativity Electronegativity would be defined as the ability for an atom to gain a positive proton or nucleus of another atom.  The ability to attract protons would be defined by the stability and strength of an electric charge. Now since we assume the only interacting part of the atom is the valence shell of an atom, then the strength of an electric charge is determined by a complete valence. Now since complete valences do not count, for some odd reason, as an electronegative atom, then it is assumed that the number 8 corresponds to the number 0, such that 7 is actually the highest electronegative charge possible with 8 being considered a complete or neutral charge.  With this said, we now have to consider the mass of the atom as compared to this charge of 7, which defines the most electronegative atoms.  The more protons there, the less influence an electron will be able to have on its surroundings, as 1 proton, and 1 electron constitute a neutral charge, with the respective + and - charges. So electronegativity is basically a measure of the number of valence electrons, their location and speed, as compared to the number of protons, such that the electron furthest from the proton or nucleus will have the highest ionization energy.  Since a new valence would essentially begin at 1, it can be assumed at zero that there is actually no electronegativity at all, and this is the same as 8.  Mathematics has a similar function.

Electronegativity having been defined as the use of 7 electrons with the least number of protons, such that the most electronegative atom is the atom with the least number of protons and the most number of electrons, would in fact be the smallest atom with the number of 7 electrons. Atoms would gradually become more electronegative as a function of the charge of 7, where their electronegativity decreases due to the decreasing number of electrons by a factor of the charge of the electron which has a half-integer spin.  The protons which make up atoms in which the charge is 7 but the number of atoms is greater than 7 will still have electronegativity, but despite higher levels of energy, due to the greater mass, will actually have a lower electronegativity the smaller atoms. This is simply due to the number of protons being greater than normal. The theory is that every proton, for a generic periodic table atom, will have an electron, and since these charges can exist separately, then every proton has an electron a distance away from itself, such that for 17 protons there are 17 electrons such as is the case with Chlorine. In this case it is less electronegative than Fluorine.  Theoretically with a larger mass, there is a higher density of time, such that the velocity which allows an electron to be an electron exists at a discrete number away from the atom.  The velocity for electrons likely vary, and so electrons theoretically should be able to exist at this distance away from an atom such that the velocity, a distance over time, is the actual speed of the electron and not some other type of particle.  Since Chlorine has more mass than Fluorine, and since it is the distance of the electron from a mass that determines it’s ionization energy, and since the closer an electron is to another atom, the more electronegative, then it should be theorized that electronegativity is in part due to it’s ionization energy, since as it was earlier termed, the amount energy to break a system must be at least greater than or equal to the energy of a system. In this case the energy of an electron must be met, or exceeded, in order for the electron to be broken off or otherwise, Ionized.  Since the distance of this electron will be based on the mass of the atom, and since the mass of the atom will determine the amount time, such that the less time there is, the higher the velocity, then for two atoms of two different masses, the atom which has the higher mass will have more time, thus the electron must be further from this atom, and closer to the atom with a smaller mass. However, we have forgotten to include the distance, and so there will actually be a perfect number, a discrete amount, which will determine the exact distance away from a mass such that the distance over the time will be exactly the velocity necessary for a beta particle to be at the speed of electricity.  If we look specifically at distance, then it is the smaller atom which will have an advantage since the smaller atom can have a greater ratio distance:time.  The larger atom will have to require the atom the same ratio away from itself so that the electron is the correct distance away from that atom, and now we have two atoms in which the electronegativity varies, where the ratio between the two remains the same.

In this case, we will have to judge the atoms based on their measured electronegativity, and in this case, the smaller atom wins.  Basically what this means is that Fluorine, the smaller atom, will have a higher ionization energy. This is likely due to the factor of the ratio, in which both atoms will have the same exact ratio, but in reality, two different distances, over two different amounts of time.  When these two numbers are compared, we will find a coefficient to a ratio and this coefficient will determine the answer.  It is likely that there could actually be two different distances for the same amount of time if we consider time to be the angle, and the distance traveled to be the arc length, and the factor is then the number of radii present.  The number of radii will represent the coefficient necessary to know how far an electron is away from the nucleus of an atom.  It can also be considered that the radii represent the amount of time, the less of which the greater the distance, such that the angle becomes a measure of the arc length, and thus the proper coefficient necessary to determine perhaps a different effect.  In either case, the distance over time will be the same, but with time being variable based on its distance from the nucleus of the atom, then the distance required for a region very close to the atom versus very far from the atom will decrease over time.  In order to know this distance, the amount time per unit of mass must first be known.

In either case, the more mass, the more time, such that the electronegativity and thus the time has a greater effect on the distance of the location of an electron away from the nucleus of an atom, since the distance from the nucleus is not effect by time. This would be the effect of the neutral force between an electron and proton.  The valence electrons and the greater number of protons likely have difference in charge which is away from neutrality an amount and thus the strength of the bond is weaker, in the same way that ionic bonds are weaker than covalent bonds. Whenever anything is away from equilibrium, the strength of that reaction will be less efficient than an equilibrium reaction or bond type, which is really just a reaction. In other words, reactions and interactions seem to be the same thing, or perhaps reactions are just half and interactions are whole.  

Reactions[edit]

Kinetics

Kinetics is defined by the behavior of molecules on the interaction of their velocity, which is defined by most textbooks as speed (although this is partially untrue), and other sin-like behaviors in atoms and molecules [defined by the increase in temperature and pressure/volume or the presence light, heat, etc and other sin-like behaviors or sin-related variables]. This will include surface area for example, versus the interior or the body or mass of the atom, which is defined or related to cos. Cos will always be related to mass or gravity where Sin will always be related to volume or light. The two become very easy to differ. In the case of kinetics, we are looking at for example, the increase in the volume of particles, the increase in the temperature (kinetic energy) of particles, an increase in the number of particles(versus size), and an increase in thus the reaction rate as a total or sum of these concepts or theories. In the case of catalysts, we will assume that all catalysts are metals, and that all metals, especially transition metals, are at equilibrium as a fact that the s and p orbitals together can form a d orbital and this d orbital represents the interaction or part of an interaction and thus quantum tunneling and other such features which reduce the amount of time present in reaction (and thus the quicker the electron moves), the reaction itself then proceeds more quickly as it is closer to equilibrium than if it was not (thus a similar example is a titrated reaction when reacted to form a product with another mixture will produce the desired product more quickly than a non-titrated reaction[for example, acid-base reactions to produce a precipitate]. In most definitions, Kinetics is simply the number of collisions between molecules being increased (sin). The factors that allow this increased rate are thus sin-behaviors.

Concentration

Concentration is essentially the number of molecules present in a mixture for if a constant volume is used, then the number of molecules increases (meaning that the actual volume is less in a highly concentrated mixture, and greater in a less concentrated mixture). The more molecules present, the greater the surface area as compared to volume, and along with this, the greater the density between objects, which with mass, weight, and gravity, also means the greater the interaction between different species and those of the same species. The greater the interaction between these species, the less weight, gravity, and thus force necessary for interaction, and thus the slower an interaction can be (in extremely high concentrations), or the quicker the reaction (if the gravity between molecules or the intermolecular forces is less so, to the degree that an atom or molecule is no longer held static between two or more masses, or perhaps even one, such that the molecules are free to move around with enough force to increase the reaction rate by increasing the rate of movement of molecules), thus it is found that there exists two poles in which we find a very static mixture, where molecules of high concentration can prevent a reaction, and molecules of very low concentration which also prevent a reaction (since the masses are too far apart). In an equilibrium or tangent case as we could say, the perfect reaction mixtures occur when the concentration is not too high, nor too low, as the atoms or molecules are free to move around at their maximum pace, where the weight is not too much, nor not enough. In this case we find the science to simply be that the molecular interactions between molecules due to their mass specifically are the result of extremely high intermolecular forces due to the low bonding energies (the distance) between such interactions. In the case of anti-bonding, we are likely to find the exact reaction necessary in order to break the bonds apart, which is in part due to the kinetics (the increased sin values), and along with this, the correct amount of cos values (mass, weight, gravity, etc). The function of these two is the output in which we find a certain type of reaction mechanism, and thus a reaction speed, based upon the distances of masses from each other, and the resulting speed from this distance. Velocity and Acceleration can both be calculated from these numbers by mathematicians. In the case of objects that are extremely close to other masses, the absolute result of their interaction is the pure intermolecular forces discussed above, in which even a crystallization can form, or it can also form the extremely slow moving objects which result due to the low energy of the system (bonding). The two are thus considered the first two distances from which an object can either be a distance of 0, or 1. At a distance of 1, we find the radius and thus the arc length to be quite low, and thus the speed or velocity as well is likely quite low, where if a speed is high enough at this "orbital" of sorts, or the circumference surrounding a molecule, then we find as well that the kinetic energy and the force required to propel such an object at that amount gravity will be increased or greater. The increased for required is thus to thank for temperature, which in extremely high concentrations discussed will allow the movement necessary, which will then occur at a speed greater for the amount kinetic energy added, based on heat or the number of heat ions, and thus the speed of the movement itself will determine the reaction mechanism itself, and the rate at which it occurs, and whether or not a different reaction mechanism can occur, based on the speed at which one reaction mechanism passes through another, since interacting particles and the types of interactions that can occur, are based upon the entropy of behavior of reactions in which different parts of atoms interact to form new molecules in which certain amounts of energy (thus perhaps heat, as well as other types of input) can create certain types of mechanisms. This is collision theory in a nutshell, as of 2018.

Reaction Orders In a reaction we will typically find two types of reactions, and along with this, what is known as a zero order reaction where the minimum amount necessary for reaction is met, and thus if any new reactant is added, the reaction fails to continue. These reaction orders which are difficult to predict(but not impossible) are based on the basic concept the all atoms or molecules have a radius, and that this radius changes. The key idea here is that circles and atoms are essentially the same thing, thus we can use some basic laws in trigonometry to understand reaction mechanisms and the rates of reactions, in which we find surface area (a 2D thing or object) to exist in a 3D state. In this case, second order reactions can be understood as the idea that there exists for every radius 2 arc lengths. These 2 arc lengths will double and quadruple for the radius and total arc length respectively, which in this key idea is represented by the fact that 2 arc lengths on a single circle will in a way represent the 3D or Surface Area image of an atom or molecule. The reason for this is due to the representation of the two arc lengths amongst a single radius in which we find that a larger surface area is represented by the radii, in which the total arc length is greater. On the other hand, the arc length for a radius for a first order reaction, where the radius when changed (to represent another reaction), is exactly to the amount degrees, the same ratio, as to the radius, such that the reaction or surface area in contact can be accurately represented (according to collision theory). The angle represented is likely the mass of the object (cos) where the circumference or in this case, the arc length, represents the surface area. As the number of molecules increases, the mass increases, meaning the angle increases, where if the angle is kept constant, the radius increases, and thus the arc length increases to the same degree such that the original ratio remains the same. In the case the angle changes and the radius remains constant, where the arc length increases to the same degree, can be found the mass of the atoms(this hasn't been tested yet). [I will confirm the result] Rate orders can thus be understood as ratios where a second order rate doubles one number, but not the other, such that r:s(2) = second order and r:s = first order. Where [r:s{2}](2) = [2r:2s{2}]. This essentially means that the radius when doubled, also doubles the arc length (first order). If there are two arc lengths inherently, then the arc length is actually quadrupled(but really it is just 2 arc lengths that have been doubled). A first order reaction simply has that one arc length, or simply a single arc length, which if the radius is doubled, in order to maintain an original ratio, allows for the same rate to be applied to the arc length. The inherent fact that the arc length doubles proves collision theory is correct. What maintains the fact that a certain ratio exists? This is the key to predicting reaction rates, as every reaction will have a base, and the subsequent reactions from this base will all follow in the same order according to the base in discrete amounts of that base (induction), such that the base is something real and tangible. This is essentially the key idea of reaction orders. (In other words it's just ratios which are multiplied to a single degree, such that the different between a first or second order reaction is the number of arc lengths available (surface area) for an amount mass/concentration/molecules/volume. This is a slightly new field in these terms, but will be summed up shortly, another day.

Equilibrium Reactions

Equilibrium Reactions are defined as reactions that occur in both a forward and reverse direction.  More particularly, reactions that can occur forwards, can also occur backwards, where products can become reactants, and reactants can conversely become products, such that the products and reactants when mixed, will form a total amount in which the partial amounts, when measured against each other, such that the products are viewed conversely to the reactants being present, will produce a number defined as Kc, which represents the equilibrium amount of both products in reactants in a solution.  

This number, when compared to a number of approaching equilibrium, will be deemed as Q.

Since the time to reach equilibrium and equilibrium itself are two completely different numbers, we use Q to gauge how quickly or how effectively equilibrium can be approached, such that in the presence of a catalyst, Q will be closer to equilibrium for the catalyzed reaction than the non-catalyzed reaction, since non-catalyzed reactions always take longer, if at all. This would only be true if not enough heat, or some other unknown variable of some sort were unable to present itself to the reaction or the solution, in which we find our reactants and products slowly attempting to balance each other out.

Whether these products and reactants reach true equilibrium is a question for stoichiometry in which we know exactly how many moles of each molecule are necessary for a reaction.  In such a case, a reaction will not occur otherwise, and thus we can also know the exact number of molecules.  In either case, a true equilibrium reaction should have the ability to produce molecules as much as it does the ability to simply cause certain molecules to separate and reform back into their original product and into a new product, in other words, reactants and products.  

Otherwise, we find the reactants and products continuously forming and reforming until enough energy has been gained to create something new, which is unlikely unless the correct amount of heat is added.  This typically of the nature that if enough heat is added, or perhaps even enough pressure, then new molecules can be created.  Hess’s law would apply and the heat of formation understood.  Otherwise equilibrium reactions are typically enclosed to the subject of 1 group of reactants and 1 group of products, such that the rate of the two can be effected such that the forward reaction and the reverse reaction are both effected in such a way as to maintain equilibrium.

For the most part, this subject discusses Le Chatelier’s Principle, which discusses the situation in which equilibrium is suddenly thrown off.  In this case, the reactants and products, when Kc, can also form Q, and when they form Q, must again approach Kc.  

Q is an expression which denotes the approach of a reaction towards equilibrium from either the positive or negative sides (the product or reactant sides).  Now if we add more products, such that the equlibrium value is now positive, in order to become neutral once more, more reactants are produced, so as to create a balanced equation once more.  Once the correct number of reactants are produced, then technically the reaction should instantly seize and remain equilibrium but the truth is that the reactions are likely producing at a certain momentum and thus this momentum can be observed as the Collision Theory in action, where products being produced occur in a type of vigor or it’s inverse in which kinetic or potential energy once maintained will continue to be maintained unless other forces are present.  These forces will attempt to maintain equilibrium while following their own laws, which determine the ability for molecules to interact on the basis of Newton in which things in motion will continue to stay in motion until its resources have been relinquished.

With this in mind, we can assume that the kinetic energy, if effected by temperature, will also effect the reaction.  Kinetic energy is essentially just another way of saying that there is a lot of heat in a reaction, which is in part due to friction, a force in which the collisions and interactions of molecules are able to release particles of heat, otherwise theorized by me to be beta particles, which I assume is correct.

Since these beta particles are technically considered a part of the reaction, then by changing the number of these particles, we can actually change the rate of a reaction.  By adding more beta particles to the necessary side in which is considered to be an equilibrium reaction, a reaction can thus proceed, since the minimum energy required to react stoichiometrically is necessary for each reaction produced.  

Since pressure can also effect temperature, then it is also possible for the pressure to effect the rate of the reaction.  Pressure’s effect on kinetic energy or Collision Theory would be to increase the rate of the collisions which can occur, thus the pressure multiplies the number of reactions as a function of the volume, in which for two volumes when constant, a change in pressure in one will increase the number of reacts by a factor of pressure to the degree coefficient of the reaction number, such that the number of reactions will exist concurrently or according to the rate.  The rate, which is determined by the number of reactions for an amount time, will be determined by the frequency rate over time, in other words the number of rates completed over a certain period of time, which like velocity to angular speed, will determine the number defined as a ratio, which over a factor (pressure) will determine the number of reactions which occur within a given period, thus the rate as a frequency, can be determined for a constant amount of time.  Under a variable amount of time, such as on another planet, is perhaps another story.  This will be more difficult as all the equations will change, as all the variables have now moved slightly.  With this in mind, 1 control is needed and all of the variables when adjusted for will thus be correct.  

Since the number of molecules, and their pressure are interrelated, we can assume the pressure will contain the same behavior, as the pressure between the internal and external regions of an atom are always effected by changes, and then such changes must occur within a reaction in order for temperature to change, and thus volume as well.

Thus the pressure can be found for the reaction at the equilibrium rate, such that the amount temperature(and probably volume as well), can be compared to the Molarity (which partially contains the volume) and thus is able to have a direct effect on the reaction itself.  Once at equilibrium, the pressure must remain neutral in order for the reaction to be truly settled or neutral.  Once at this point, the number of molecules must be accounted for. Since the number of molecules is determined by the temperature, pressure, and volume for an equilibrium reaction, and since a certain number of reactions will effect the temperature, pressure, and the number of molecules, then a certain number of reactions are necessary in order to achieve either true equilibrium or a number + or - 1 away from it, or rather a half integer.  Once this is found, the reaction will be complete and can be checked.

Since the volume of atoms and molecules can vary, and the volume of molecules and other molecules can also vary, then a change in molecular structure will change the volume of the solution, resulting in slight changes in pressure. As the volume increases in solution, resulting from a decrease in molecular volume, the pressure increases, and as the molecular volume increases, pressure is released into the atomic structures, decreases the solution’s volume, and thus decreases in solution volume can be found, resulting in fluctuations in the vapor pressure of either liquid or gaseous solutions.

Since the Pressure varies dependent upon the number of molecules, and since each reaction is based on a certain number of molecules being present at a minimum, then the equilibrium pressure can be found be finding the right number coefficient for pressure such that for a comparison of forward and reverse reactions a certain number will reflect equilibrium pressure.  

This is based on the theory that at equilibrium, the input pressure (x) and the output difference in y (pressure) will have a value difference which from equilibrium ratios a function of the same can be found the pressure as well as the difference in temperature since pressure and temperature are essentially the same exact thing (it’s likely that two different number systems exist for each, 10 and 12 perhaps such as for distance and time).  Since for both temperature and pressure, there can exist a coefficient and a ratio, at which point the temperature, dependent upon the number of particles (coefficient for molar ratio), will when divided give the amount molarity for an equilibrium reaction, when used as an exponent.  Otherwise they are simply known to be inversely related, thus the exponent.  

In layman’s terms, the preferable terms, the molar ratio of the products to the reactants, when compared, in terms of temperature(such that the constant for temperature is used, which relates it to pressure) as a function of the equilibrium constant thus relates it to Kp the Equilibrium constant for pressure, which is otherwise just a comparison of the Temperature Relation in terms of a function of the exponent moles.  

These aren’t quite layman terms….

Typically n is related to RT as a coefficient, but since we know the coefficient and the exponent tend to share the same or similar quantities, then when related to RT as an exponent, which is more akin to a type of growth or change, rather than a number of, then we can find the relationship between the temperatures of the reactant and the product to be related to the amount of molecules per reaction.  Since the molecules in the reaction are dependent upon equilibrium values, the equilibrium constant is also dependent upon a complete reaction, and thus the reaction can then be related, in terms of an equation, and this gives us the Temperature Constant, such that PV=nRT where PV= RT^n, where P=1/V RT^n, Where 1 is simply now the Moles, V representing 1 Liter, thus Molarity, RT^n meaning P/P, where 1/V / 1/V = RT^n / RT^n which essentially tells s the same thing as Dalton’s Law, except we’ve somehow added temperature to the equation….

Thus we understand the Equlibrium Constant for Pressure as PV=nRT / PV=nrt Where PV=nrt = PVnrt such that P=Molarity RT^n = Molarity RT^n = P, such that n represents the equilibrium ratio between the left and the right side of the equation and 1 represents the constant for Volume, except we are now making our volume the constant, and 1 the variable, which we will set to whatever number we want.  Thus we treat 1 as x, and the equation is for the most part complete.  Last but not least, P/P is determined as the equilibrium constant, or the ratio in equilibrium at which pressure can be related at equilibrium ratios of molarity between multiple substances, and thus we find Kc used in place of 1/V such that 1/V = 1/(0)V such that 0 and 1 are set to the correct values, and with this we are able to achieve the correct ratio, no matter what exponent is used for 1.  Thus the equation remains correct.  With this said, The equilibrium constant must now be understand as compared to the equilibrium constant for pressure, as the equilibrium in pressure that is required between each side of the molecular reaction, such that when the equilibrium values are found between the products and reactants, the resulting pressure differential will be a function of the same, a rate in change of temperature, which can be found in the equation, Kp = Kc (RT)^a/(RT)^b such that a and b = products and reactants respectively.  

With that said, the equation still remains a mystery…

The equilibrium pressures between two different substances will basically be the pressures necessary to facilitate a reaction at the minimum, such that the total pressure of the system can be calculated, and any changes in total pressure will be equally reflected at their partial pressures, which like hess’s law require the exact minimum in order to operate, as a ratio. Just like calculus.

This will also be true for the number of molecules, which thus reflects Dalton’s Law, and can thus be discovered as the relation between molecules, which make up the products and reactants, rather than simply just the products and reactants as a superficial term.

Since the partial pressures, and the partial temperatures (hess’s law) all contribute to the minimum necessary for a reaction (total temperature being the temperature required for a reaction), such that in order for C and D the products to produce A and B, a certain amount of heat, or it’s inverse, the cold, is necessary for a reaction (endothermic and exothermic reactions). Along with this, for A and B to produce C and D, the same must occur, and thus there is a pool of heat particles, and a total pressure, from which such derivatives can be derived to form the two quantities necessary to form equilibrium, which is essentially what occurs in order to form a reaction.  

Since an endothermic reaction would produce an equilibrium exothermic reaction such that a+b = c +d, where c+d = a+b, then a total amount of heat, defined as q, required represents the partial amount necessary for a reaction.  Since two reactions are occurring simultaneously, in both directions, then the heat must be split according to the reactions which require at the minimum a certain amount of heat in order to function, as designated by all functions such that f(x)=y+q or f(x)=y-q or f(x)=x+q or f(x)=x-q.  Such that there exists x1 and x2, y1 and y2, dependent upon the reaction.  Pressure in this case would determine the quantity reaction such that the more pressure, the less heat necessary, as the amount of heat is thus increased as a function of pressure or rather, multiplied for a constant volume, where f(x)=p(y-q).  If the pressure is increased, then pv=nrt so the equation if p=nrt/v is multiplied by a function of pressure such that 2p=2(nrt)/v, where the volume remains constant, and the temperature is multiplied along with the number of molecules for a constant volume.  This is if the pressure is doubled.  The pressure in an equilibrium reaction, is thus a function of the same rate temperature such that for every molecule, the resulting pressure will be a coefficient of time.

Pressure

Pressure is essentially the compression of molecules such that if the number of molecules in a gas exists within a volume and if this volume is split, for the number of molecules remains the same, then the pressure will increase the number of molecules for an amount volume by a factor of the same.  

The pressure is described as the force which when applied to a region, increases the volume in terms of enthalpy and decreases the volume in terms of entropy, so that as pressure increases, so does the function of heat, which is due to the fact that heat is a particle, a beta particle, and thus its efficacy increases in the same fashion as atomic particles.  Atomic particles thus double as pressure doubles, and so heat will do the same. Heat is measured as a function of temperature, such that the temperature is related to Pressure via a coefficient which I imagine is simply to describe the nature of temperature as a particle. In other words, we find the function of R as the constant which allows temperature to be treated as a subatomic particle in relation to the other atomic ratios, which can be defined as N, the number of moles, or grams, since both are mass based numbers, to pressure, which can then be related to volume, such that pressure is defined as the force in which volume can either increase or decrease, and this is what changes the basis of molecular structures, and along with this, their resulting mass and the particles which surround them, or alpha and beta particles.

Since Pressure and Volume are directly related and since Pressure and Temperature are thus indirectly related, the change in volume is responsible for the change in state of matter, which is based entirely upon time, which is the missing variable in this equation, since time would separate the difference between pressure inside the atom and pressure outside the atom.

Over time, this difference can be determined as the function in which change in volume can occur.  The volume would change in accordance to the difference in internal and external pressure, which depending upon a rate of movement of the volume from one side to the other, would determine the rate, thus the volume can also be found at an equilibrium amount.

The partial volume of the atoms, and the total volume of the atoms, as compared to the partial volume of vacuum, can thus be found, giving us two numbers, the volume of the atoms/molecules, and the volume of the vacuum in which the atoms/molecules occupy, and along with this the Total Volume of both determines the absolute volume of the Total, which is what some scientists seem to be looking for.  A metal has the capability to contain both, unlike most other materials, since it’s lattice formation is not based upon atoms of different sizes, but instead can be based off of atoms of the same size.  Since the crystallization of metals is not necessary, as is with most other molecules, and since it can hold it’s temperature to extremely high heats, it can likely be used to pull apart the beta particles of most atoms until only an alpha particle remains, which can thus be removed from a pure vacuum, only possible through understanding time.

Calculating Amounts of Products and Reactants in Equilibrium Reactions

For an amount reactants added, an equilibrium reaction must shift in a direction towards the region which is now imbalanced. This region is now the product side, since there are more reactants than products such that Kc is a number, where q is an expression, such that the number q becomes larger as the number of products increases, and smaller as the number of reactants increases, meaning that q is a much smaller number than normal. If q were suddenly a much larger number in this reaction, then we could assume that the number of products has drastically increase or that a loss in the amount of reactants has been discovered, thus the importance of understanding the maintenance of equilibrium such that if equilibrium becomes lost, and the distance from equilibrium too great, then it may become impossible to repair a system.

If we begin a reaction with only a product, and the reaction is perhaps catalyzed or for some reason exists, then the reactants will be produced.  If the molar ratio between the products and reactants is 4 to 4, then the number of molecules reactants will be the same as the number products, and so the equilibrium amount for the two will be the exact same number unless the number of products and reactants vary.  In this case we will find the number of molecules for 1 reaction to occur such that if the ratio were 1:3::4, then the number of products 4 would produce reactants 1 and 3, such that for ever 4 product molecules, 3 and 1 reactant molecules would be produced.  

In an example, the moles produced are 2 to 1:1 reactant molecules, such that the beginning ratio in molarity is 1 and 2, or 1 and 2 moles.  Since in an equilibrium reaction, the 2 ::1:1 ratio would have to be complete at equilibrium, and since 1:1 is represented as 1 and 2, then in order to produce the correct ratio 2, then then only 1 mol of each is used in order to produce 2 moles 2. Thus we have 1 extra mol which creates what is considered a reaction in which 2 limiting reagents exist, and the other mole is just extra, which can participate in the equilibrium reaction as a mixture between useable and unusable molecules, but for the most part can be ignored temporarily as the other two molecules present as the limiting reagents will remain nothing more than caps on what we can consider a potentially unlimited reaction(or just 2 mols as is presented).  

Thus when we find the change which defines the approach from q to equilibrium, it will always be the minimum which defines the balanced equation.  Thus for 1:1::2, the amount change in the reactants::products will be accordingly by the same coefficients for a constant amount x.  X remains the constant amount since there is only one number, Kc, at the end, which is what defines equilibrium and all reactions in general.  That point is known as the point of balance, which is what defines stoichiometry as a whole and perhaps even parts of chemistry as a science, which relates it mathematics and the study of systems of equations, otherwise known as molecular reactions and some study of entanglement.

Thus since we define the equation by Molarity (a more realistic reaction) versus Moles (A balanced equation defining the minimum for just a single possible reaction such that a number of reactions can occur to make up partial and total reactions, where a total reaction is defined as a series of reactions occurring over time).  

Since for each reaction we find what is essentially 1 molecule of each reactant producing 2 products, then we know that 1 mol of reactant will also produce 2 mol of the product, and that it is in fact almost completely negligible that the excess reactant is even present. Even in greater quantities, the minimum will determine the total, such that the absolute minimum will grant us the ability to determine the amount change, which will be a function of the balanced equation in which, for 1:1::2, the change will also be a function of the same, such that x=1:1::2, where y is a product of the output in which (unknown equation here), such that the original Molarity, measured to the constant Volume, will output the number of moles estimated to have been changed, reduced, or increased, as a function of the total sum constant to the original number of reactants/products present.  

Thus the function of the total, represented as partial amounts is given.  For a given input, such that x + x = y, we can find that the input, if given, or y, if given, will change such that for the ratio 1:1::2, a change in the same amount will occur. The change can thus be compared to the original amounts, giving us a new equation, otherwise known as the equilibrium concentration.

This concentration tells us the amount change necessary in order to achieve equilibrium, and thus is determined by subtracting the input in order to achieve the output for an amount change, such that input+-change = output.  

Since the reaction can occur at a peak, and can be thrown off and from equiibrium, we can use a parabola to graph the equation, which can occur actually in 4 directions, positive, negative, and in increasing and decreasing amounts.  

Endothermic reactions require heat to produce products, and thus and increase in temperature will produce more products.  Since the inverse reaction is exothermic, then by reducing the heat, the reaction can return to equilibrium.  

An exothermic reaction produces heat as a product, and thus adding heat increases the rate of the inverse reaction as a result.  Thus by adding heat, we add more products, which in term means that more reactants must be produced in order to balance the equation in which heat must then be absorbed, and balanced into the chemical reaction as particles within the structure of the atom.

Thus if heat is required as a reactant, then adding more heat will add more reactants, which in turn will cause a shift to products, in order to absorb the heat, which then becomes balanced until the heat disappears once more.  More products are produced for the same amount heat an endothermic reaction can occur, which in turn produces heat from the reaction.  The rate at which products are produced then increases until equilibrium is achieved.

Catalysts

Catalysts are items, such as molecules, and in a way perhaps, heat, among other things, according to the definition, but then can’t be because they are considered a type of force in which an amount energy is present, but this applies to a lot of things, so we’ll just say items which are able to conduct energy differently in such a way so as to lower the actual energy required in order for a reaction to occur by relating a reaction closer to equilibrium such is found in transition metals by the nature of their combined s and p orbitals to form the d orbital, which is responsible for the necessary lowering in energy which describes quantum tunneling, in which less energy is required to transfer electrons from one side of the medium to the other, as if devoid partially of an amount time, such that the activation energy is lowered not through the use of energy itself but through some other means, such as a vacuum, which seemingly is devoid of all energy whatsoever. And in this aspect, we consider metals to be true catalysts, while other catalysts, in the form of acids and bases, relate to equilibrium, which is responsible for the lower energy necessary to create a reaction, which is really just a type of equilibrium but is not considered an “equilibrium reaction” in chemistry, but rather just a stoichiometric reaction, which requires a balanced equation and thus is simply just the minimum requirements necessary for reaction. Since a reaction is not always at these requirements since certain amounts of energy are necessary in order to allow a reaction to occur, (which only occurs once the necessary requirements are met), then that means the closer to equilibrium a reaction is, the less energy required to approach equilibrium, at which point, the reaction can then truly begin, and thus there is no real fast or slow step, just a waiting period until equilibrium is reached. This is based on the theory that equilibrium is fundamental to reactions and only reactions can occur at equilibrium otherwise all that can be discovered is a dull or lame buzz in which nothing at all occurs.  

Acids and Bases can also be used to catalyze a reaction by providing the necessary energy in order to achieve the required amount of energy to begin or to create the initial amount, which then instantaneously leads to the final amount, in which we find either an exothermic or endothermic reaction.  So, acids and bases when present have an amount potential energy, which is the difference between the acidity and the alkalinity. The greater the difference, the greater the amount energy, such that if the amount energy is enough, then the acid or base can be used to catalyze the reactions but not only this, it can produce the desired result, if necessary, based on its amount and quantity and quality.  

The Acidity and Alkalinity of a Substance is based upon two theories, in which one theory aims at the number of molecules, and the other theory aims at movement of such molecules in solution.  Essentially the protons and the hydroxide ion, or more specifically, the electrons, of which consist of the hydroxide ions, exist in solution such that the number, if greater in protons is an acid, and if greater in hydroxide ions (otherwise considered to just be those electrons) are instead greater in number, is alkaline.  Since an electron alone cannot fully describe alkalinity, we instead use the highly electronegative oxygen atom which is responsible for the insane charge that makes up an alkaline substance known as a base.

Since we’re mostly going to be talking in terms of Molarity, we will find that it is the density of the protons that makes it acidic, since the higher the molarity, the more acidic a substance.  Along with this, as different substances appear, we will find that the most acidic substance and least acidic substances will be based off the ability to gain a proton, and to lose a proton, and the energy related to this interaction, which when according to the vigor of the atom in relation to water.  The vigor is likely defined as the want for the proton to reach an electronegative site, whether it belongs to water or some electronegative atom, such that a type of equilibrium can be achieved.

Gold can likely be made if hydrogen becomes aqueous in a solution of liquid gold, with electricity added.

Basic Concepts:

Difference in Energy across equilibrium: From a negative to a positive integer, an amount energy is the total of the two partial amounts, where zero represents equilibrium and the integers represent the value energy, with the positive and negative signs representing the type of non-functional unit (cos or sin respectively). Rates: Rates are equilibrium reactions, and shall occur one at a time, for a certain amount time. The number of reactions which occur can be measured.

InterMolecular Forces Defined as the gravitational and electromagnetic forces between molecules and partial molecular bonding of the proton to electronegative atoms. Bonding between molecules. [What holds molecules together?] Mass - Dispersion Forces (Gravity) [ Strong Force ] Energy - ElectroMagnetism (Dipoles) [ Magnetic Moment ] Volume - Protons (Hydrogen) [ Protons outside of Volume ]

IntraMolecular Forces Defined as interacting wave functions of positive atomic nuclei and negative electrons at different rates of equillibrium. Types of bonds between Atoms [What holds atoms together?] Mass-Sigma bonds[Internal Molecular Bonds] Energy - Bond Energy Volume-Pi Bonds[External Molecular Bonds]

Liquids Viscosity [Viscous and Non-Viscous Liquids] Defined by the Molecular Length and Saturation of molecular structures[Chain-Like] as compared to the Density of the volume of those molecules, in which the intermolecular forces are defined by the mass and density combined. [Why are certain liquids difficult to stir?] Mass - Chain Length (Dispersion Forces) Energy - Electromagnetism (Dipole Bonding) Volume - Density (State of Matter)

Polarity [Polar and Non-Polar Liquids] Described by the Symmetry of the Electronegative charges of a molecule over an area, in which a Dipole Moment or Non-Polar region determines the total reach of an Electromagnetic Field. [What causes atoms to bond together?] Mass - Symmetry (Structural) Energy - Electronegativity (Intramolecular Electronic Movements) Volume- Affected Volume (Dipole Moment)


Solubility Solubility is defined as a general term to describe the method in which atoms and molecules are able to combine in a solution [ Why are certain elements invisible in water?] Mass - Cohesive Forces Energy - Capacity Volume - Adhesive Forces

Solute Mass - Density of Solute (Entropy) Energy - Magnetic Fields of Solute (Polarity) Volume - Movement of Solute (Enthalpy)

Types of Solvents Solvents Mass - Weight of Solution ( Density ) Energy - Polarity of Solution ( Structural Mechanisms ) Volume - Heat of Solution ( Conductivity )

Surface Tension Mass - Structural Bonding (Mass:Mass Ratios) Valence - Intermolecular Bonding (Molecular Bonding Ratios) Volume - Molecular Bonding(Volume:Mass per Atom/molecule ratio)

Cohesivity - Cos Non-Functional unit describing Mass-based behavior of a Wave approaching Particle Behavior Effects on solubility: Molecules tend to form a singularity for a total volume, meaning their intermolecular forces are very high. In a solid this would be a material which is difficult to tear apart from the central mass.

Adhesivity - Sin Non-Functional unit describing Volume-Based behavior of a Particle approaching Wave Behavior. Effects on solubility: Molecules tend to separate from one another for a total mass, thus increases the surface area of the molecule, while the volume remains the same, distributing the mass in all directions away from a singularity. In a solid this would be something which shreds very easily into very many pieces without wanting to remain a single piece or particle.

Solubility of liquids: Liquids will either remain cohesive (viscous) or adhesive(non-polar). Some cohesive liquids can also be adhesive (honey), and some adhesive liquids can be viscous(oil). The fact that oil when hot easily moves around without sticking to a surface, and the fact that it pools together is the non-adhesive cohesive abilities of oil, however to be truly cohesive or supercohesive the oil would have to turn into a sphere, like a drop of water on a nanomaterial.

Relationship of Cohesivity and Adhesivity to intermolecular forces: Cohesion can represent the mass-like behavior of particles, thus cohesion between particles would represent what could be an increase in density in relation to a center of mass. This would be representing by bonding orbitals in an atom or molecule. Thus molecules such as non-polar substances which have extremely low energy requirements for electrons to become anti-bonding, or the nuclear charge in general, have greater potential where 1-0, 0 representing mass, 1 representing volume, are greater in potential towards volume such that the number representing 0 is very low, and the number represnting 1 is thus very high, meaning the amount of energy to become for example a highly volumetric gas (such as something under high pressure or temperature) is very low, and thus since low represents in this case 0, or cos, and 1 represents sin, the amount sin vs cos is greater such that sin:cos would be a sin dominant molecule, which most non-polar short chain molecules can represent. Their cos behaviors will also be present in varying amounts, depending on for example the chain structure, and the type of singularity present, and its location amongst an atom. Methanol for example is highly cos, polar, yet also has very strong properties of what may seem like a sin based particle, but it doesn’t. Thus in terms of 1:0 as a number, being very low, gives methanol the ability to appear sin-like without actually being such. Methanol is a polar substance, with a high octane, meaning it takes more pressure for it to ignite. It’s detonation speed is very high, higher than ethanol, which is also a polar substance. Thus Methanol should display behaviors of cohesivity. In terms of intermolecular forces, the polar nature of the substance, along with the hydrogen bonding of the hydrogen-oxygen molecules to other hydrogen molecules means that the intermolecular strength is very high. The density of the molecules to each other can be question, but since methanol in itself is a very cos-based molecule, in solution it should have a very sin behavior. Thus we find its low vapor pressure… meaning it is more volatile. This can be observed in a number of experiments. Since non-polar items are defined as sin, and polar items as sin, then chain type must be defined as well, since this will determine whether or not a substance will be liquid or solid. If a chain is non-polar, then the dipole moment should remain at a minimum. The increase in dipole moment, and thus the increase in polarity, thus will determine a polar chain. A greater dipole moment represents a greater degree dipole force. Thus cohesion represents a greater dipole force. Adhesion would represent more-nonpolar items. In varying degrees, each of these forces should represent, in different amounts, a different molecule such that from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 respectively to cos and sin or cohesion and adhesion, a series of molecules is available in the same function we find pH and density.

Thus solubility and non-solubility is very much likely simply the number of similiarities and differences in these different sub-fields, pH, Density, Polarity, etc.

These sub-fields thus should be recognized.

In order to test the idea, some examples are found.

Water and Ethanol versus Butane and butanol 1.85 Polar and 1.66 Polar versus 0non-polar and 1.66Polar 7 and 7.33 versus none and 16.10 pKa ~7.xx 0 and miscible versus 61 mg L−1 (at 20 °C (68 °F))[wiki] and 80 g/L 0Carbon - 2Carbon versus 4Carbon and 4carbon

Why ethanol is more soluble Butanol vs ethanol - Chain length, Polarity, pH Butane vs Ethanol - Chain Length, pH

Solids in Liquids Polarity Acidity Miscibility

Miscible and Immiscible

Solubility Miscible Miscible Solvents are capable of forming a number of bonds which replicate what are known as a series of hydrogen bonds which allow for a molecule to become a part of the chain of water molecules.

Immiscible Immisicible solvents are unable to become a part of the chain of water molecules, or otherwise, and thus form their own chains or remain separate in solution, perhaps in the form of a crystal.


Crystallization Crystalization is the Cotangent form solubility in which a precipitate or solvent from miscibile and immiscible items forms a structure which is Cos dominant, otherwise a type of singularity forms in which crystalline structures protrude outwards lacking a spherical volume, which would define a sin dominant feature, since Volume is related to Sin. Mass - Allotrope Mechanisms Energy - Conductivity of Material Volume - Distance of twinning

Emulsion Emulsion is Tangent form of solubility in which Miscibile and Immiscible items form a structure which is Sin Dominant, and thus a circumference otherwise known as a type of bubble forms, perhaps lacking an interior mass-based structure or singularity. Mass - Internal Structure - Non-movement of miscibile items Energy - Particle Behavior and wave size (number or size of particles versus makeup of particles themselves) Volume - Movement of immiscible material

Tangent - Fluid Dynamics A water drop falling into a pond experiences from a cos dominant unit as a mass falling into a wave-based unit of volume, at which point a transition from mass-to-volume based behavior is experienced, and if the force is great enoguh, a volume-to-mass behavior or inverse results with the water drop being reformed and launched back upwards in the direction of the fall. Adhesive forces are responsible for the dispersion of the water droplet into separate units, so as to describe sin, or volume, which in adhesive forces is the dispersion of a droplet, where cohesion represents the inverse, where the water droplets then come back together to reform into a droplet if the magnitude is at equilibrium.

Summary of Solubility: Yet Unfinished

Solubility seems to primarily consist of even or cos behavior. Sin behavior is described as insobule or heterogenous solutions. In the case that insoluble or hetergenous solutiosn exist as a homogenous solution, emulsion is the case. In the case that in homogenous solutions or soluble solutions a precipitate forms(a type of hetergenous solution), then crystallization or precipitaiton is the case. This is for liquids.

Yet more remains undiscovered as is the case for liquids.

Precipitation Precipitation is the degree (rate) at which a molecular substance crystallizes under variables such as pressure, temperature, etc.

At low pressures, precipitation in air for example would be defined as rain. Clouds would be defined as an emulsion, between a liquid and a gas, and thus we find precipitation of a liquid being due to the cold, which is defined by cos, and thus when an emulsion loses equilibrium, it will become either sin dominant or cos dominant, and such the vector becomes lost, and the emulsion, or whatever concept it is, will simply separate back into their non-functional units. Thus the liquid of water, in a cloud, and the air, whatever it is that is holding it, which is the inverse reaction, basically stops. In this case we’ll just have to assume that it is a type of gas. Such as air. A mixture of gases.

Precipitation thus in a liquid of a solid is likely of the same sort, in which an emulsion between the ions and the liquid, or the solid and liquid form an emulsion, barely visible perhaps, and when equilbrium is lost between the solids and liquids in the emulsion, we thus find the precipitate beginning to form, thus at certain temperatures, we find the distillation of certain particles from a liquid, thus the inverse is true as well, and we will find solids forming precipitating form a liquid under the correct conditions. This is perhaps the case for solids under very deep underwater conditions. Since pressure, especially underwater, can become extremely high, and since if high enough, equilibrium can be lost of an emulsion, otherwise known as a solution at times, then when equilibrium is lost, the precipitate can form. The Crystal on the other hand, forms due to equilibrium, where like hess’s law, under a certain preset amount (variable] certain criteria are met and the closed circuit which defines equilibrium is formed, and thus waves can form a particle, two derivatives are present and an integral is created. A hypotenuse so to speak, and it can only exist under these conditions otherwise it falls apart, and is lost.

Crystalline Emulsions - The reason for life? Perhaps. A Perfect equilibrium between the two vectors should result in the desired effect. Votality - Votality is rate (effect) at which the rate of vaporization occurs based on the minimum amount heat necessary to reach the heat of vaporization. The rate is thus defined as 1 equilibrium reaction, and thus a number of these defines a rate over a period of time.



Vapor Pressure - Vapor pressure is the density of molecules(gas) over the surface area of a liquid-to-gas equilibrium. Cos - Density of Molecules (Vapor Pressure)[Mass] Tan - Equilibrium with Solution (Equilibrium Pressure/Temperature)[Energy] Sin - Kinetic Energy of Molecules (Vapor Heat)[Volume] As the kinetic energy increases, so does the heat. As heat increases, so does the volume. For a constant volume, the pressure or density of molecules, or the number of molecules for a constant volume, will increase. The higher the vapor pressure, the more difficult or less volatile a liquid, for a constant volume, since the pressure is increased. As pressure increases, the surface tension of a liquid will for a certain amount energy, heat of fusion, gas-liquid, experience a change in state in which the liquid, for a constant volume, will reach equilibrium between the volume, and the pressure so that the amount pressure and the amount volume become a function of the same, where the temperature and the ____ also become a function of the same. Since volume and pressure are directly related, this can occur quite easily. Pressure can become volume, and volume can become pressure, if the volume is compressed (cos), and pressure volume if the pressure can expand(sin). Thus if the vapor pressure is extremely high, the pressure can become volume, and the molecules will be more likely to enter a liquid state, if the pressure is high enough. If the pressure is low, the pressure of the liquid will thus become volume, in the gaseous state, rather than the liquid state. Volatality is thus based in a heterogenous soluton of liquid-gas on equilibrium between the pressure on the liquid(gravitational), and the resulting equilibrium created which allows the pressure to volume (heat of vaporization) to begin, forming the first vapor since (pressure -> volume (constant) -> heat) where if the amount heat is great enough, then the heat of vaporization will thus occur, forming a vapor equilibrium reaction in which q+reactant(l) = product(g). Literally the pressure on the substance will force heat, and thus vapor to form, and this is thus why liquids in space do not magically vaporize.


Complete.



Mathematical Units of Chemistry Non-Functional Units Mass -m- grams[Cos] Volume -L- Liters[Sin]

Basic Functional Units Vapor Solid Liquid


Alpha Behavior

Beta Behavior Heat -q- | [Calorie] = q=mcs T[dmass/dvolume = f(temperature)=Cheat]

Density -d- grams/Liters [mass/volume] Temperature - K- Solubility -m- [Molality] = Moles of Solute : Kilograms of Solvent [divide] m=mol/kg Concentration - M- [Molarity] M= Moles Solute : Liters of Solution Saturation - - Votality - - Vapor