Introduction to ActionScript 2.0/Functions

 Introduction to ActionScript 2.0 Operators Functions Properties and Methods

Key concepts:

• Definition of functions
• Blocks
• Function declarations
• Function calls
• Parameters
• Return values
• Naming functions
• Callers and callees
• Functions in variables

Now that we've learnt all our operators, we can get to the next part: functions.

What is a function?

In mathematics, a function consists of an input, a process and an output. For example, if x = 3 is input into f(x) = 2x, we get the output 6.

In computers, a function is a collection of statements. When a function is executed, all the statements inside the function will be performed. A function may or may not have inputs, and a function may or may not have outputs. (The latter, of course, cannot be said of spreadsheet functions, which must have outputs.)

How can I declare a function with no inputs and no outputs?

Here's a simple function with no outputs and no inputs. Look at the code and we'll explain it step by step:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
}
```

Firstly, the first statement is a simple variable declaration statement we've already learnt before.

The second line has various elements:

• `function` is added to the beginning of a function declaration just as `var` is added to the beginning of a variable declaration.
• The brackets are for the inputs of the function. Although this function involves no inputs, we still have to add the brackets.
• The `:Void` part is for the output of the function. Normally, `Void` would be replaced by the data type of the output. Since this function involves no outputs, we use the keyword `Void` instead.
• The opening brace marks the beginning of a block.

A block refers to a group of statements enclosed by a pair of braces. These statements are to be performed in that order. In a function, the block is known as the body of the function. Later, we'll learn other applications of the block. Remember that we always indent the statements in a block. This is automatically done for you in the Flash API.

How can I call a function with no inputs and no outputs?

In order to use a function, we need to call it. Let's look at the above example again:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
}
```

`6`

In the function call above, we just called the function `addOneToSomeNumber`. The bracket after it is for the inputs of the function, which we'll cover in the next section. The computer performed the function, which involves increasing someNumber by 1. That's how we got the result 6.

How can I declare and call a function with inputs?

In programming, the input of a function is called a parameter or argument. Let's modify our addOneToSomeNumber function to accommodate the addition of any number to someNumber:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
}
trace(anyNumber);
```

`7undefined`

In this example, the code `anyNumber:Number` is put into the brackets. This is the input of the function and is written as `variableName:DataType`. Once input, anyNumber is known as a local variable. This means it cannot be referred to outside the function. That's why we could not trace anyNumber at the end.

Note that this does not result in an error, but the keyword `undefined`. Whenever we try to refer to a value that is not defined, Flash will return the value `undefined`. We will discuss `undefined` and its twin brother `null` later.

To call the function addAnyNumberToSomeNumber, we only need to put the value inside the bracket. The data type is not needed!

Now let's modify our code to have two inputs:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
}
```

`13`

The comma is used to separate the two parameters. This also works with three parameters or more.

How can I declare and call a function with an output?

Look at our addAnyNumberToSomeNumber code again. Suppose we don't want to touch the original variable, but want to get the sum of anyNumber and someNumber anyway. That's where a function with a return value comes in handy.

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
return (originalNumber + anyNumber);
}
```

`12`

In this function, the value of someNumber was passed on, but instead of changing someNumber, the function returns the sum of someNumber and 7 directly to the trace function.

Note that since this function contains only a return statement and nothing else, it would not make sense to call the function as a separate statement:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
return (originalNumber + anyNumber);
}
```

`Nothing happens`

See, nothing happens! The function is good for returning a value, but nothing else.

Also note that functions in return values can be used in a variety of versatile ways that is not limited to tracing. For instance, look at the following code:

Code Result
```var someNumber:Number = 5;
return (originalNumber + anyNumber);
}
trace(yetAnotherNumber);
```

`0.5`

In this script, the computer first evaluates the value addTwoNumbers(someNumber, 7), which equals 12. It then performs the operation 6 / 12, and finally assigns it to yetAnotherNumber.

To conclude, the syntax for declaring a function is as follows:

```function functionName(parameter1:DataType1, parameter2:DataType2...):ReturnDataType{
Statements;
return value;
}
```

How should I name my functions?

Like variables, you cannot use reserved words for functions, and the functions can only start with a letter. According to established naming conventions, good function names start with a action verb which can be concatenated with other words using CamelCase. Examples include eatWatermelon(), drinkWater() and smashVase().

What are callers and callees?

When a function is called, it is called a callee. When a function is called by another function, the calling function is called the caller.

The arguments object of a function can find the caller and the callee. The following example traces the caller and callee:

Code Result
```function uselessFunction():Void{
trace(arguments.caller);
trace(arguments.callee);
}
uselessFunction();
```

```[type Function] [type Function]```

Note that since functions cannot be represented in textual form, the computer traces [type Function], which just indicates that it's a function.

Can I put a function in a variable?

If you really want to, you can put a function inside a variable. Here's the syntax:

```var variableName:Function = function(parameter1:DataType1, parameter2:DataType2...):ReturnDataType{
Statements;
return value;
}
```

Here's an example:

Code Result
```var someFunction:Function = function(someString:String):Void{
trace(someString);
}
someFunction("Hello world!");
```

`Hello world!`

Wait, then what's the deal with the trace function?

By now, you may be wondering where you got the `trace` function when you've never defined it anywhere. Read the next chapter to find out!