IGCSE Science/Section 2: Structures and functions in living organisms/Cell structure

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The organelles of an animal cell
The organelles of a plant cell
The organelles of a yeast cell

All living things are made from cells. Parts of cells are called organelles.


Most cells have these organelles:

Name Function
Nucleus to control the actions of the cell, by containing DNA or RNA
Cytoplasm a place for chemical reactions to happen, and it contains enzymes which speed up these reactions
Cell membrane to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell
Mitochondria to perform cellular respiration


Plants cells have:

Name Function
Cellulose cell wall to keep the structure of the cell
Chloroplasts to absorb sunlight to make for by photosynthesis, as they contain chlorophyll
Vacuole to store nutrients and food in the form of cell sap


Yeast cells have:

Name Function
Chitin cell wall to keep the structure of the cell
Vacuole to store nutrients and food


Animal cells only have the basic organelles, but plants have all the basic organelles and some more: a cell wall, chloroplasts and a vacuole:

Diagram showing the parts of animal and plants cells. Plant-only organelles are shown in green.