Human Sexuality and Gender/Sexual Behavior
Masturbation[edit | edit source]
Masturbation and Young People The research done in the United Kingdom shows that masturbation is the most significant source of orgasmic pleasure for young people. In past studies it has been hard to research masturbation because of sexual privacy and societal standards. As time has progressed modern cultures have adapted to the fact that masturbation is no longer a shameful and problematic activity, but religious groups still hold it back from becoming a normal topic of discussion. In comparison, men start masturbating at an earlier age and do it more often then women. Masturbation has the possibility of playing a large role in establishing mature intimate relationships later on in life. It can also give people a better understanding of self, which leads to positive well-being and social competence. It is hard to say whether masturbation can replace sexual intercourse as a sexual practice, but there is evidence that shows a positive correlation between sexual self-esteem and masturbation. 
Female Masturbation[edit | edit source]
Masturbation among young women is controversial, but more common than most think. Twenty young women between the ages of 16 and 18 in a co-educational school in south England were asked to participate in one-on-one interviews to evaluate their attitudes on female masturbation. The one-on-one interviews several different categories of questions including, feelings toward the action of masturbation, why they felt that way, and if they had ever masturbated. Some had negative responses while others had more positive responses on the issue of female masturbation. The young women who showed negative responses stated discomfort with their bodies, or mystification and disinterest (Hogarth & Ingham, 2009). As for the young women with positive responses they showed more self worth and openness about the topic. 
Sex[edit | edit source]
Sex and Drug Use[edit | edit source]
Drug and alcohol use can have a negative effect on an individual’s judgment and can then lead to unsafe or risky sexual practices. Multiple studies were used to compare and contrast the relationship of high risk sexual behavior and substance use. A sample was collected from a group of gay men, bisexuals, and adolescents 12-17 years of age that showed an increase in the number of sexual partners and an increase in risky sexual behavior due to drug/alcohol use (Leigh & Stall, 1993). There is a higher possibility for some people to participate in riskier sex when they are under the influence, than if they are sober.
Three main types of drug effect on sexual behaviour need to be considered:Sexual side-effects of drugs, the therapeutic effects of drugs on sexual dysfunction, the use of drugs to control deviant or antisocial sexual behaviour. Adrenergic blocking hypotensive drugs are the most common in causing sexual side effects. Studies have shown failure to ejaculate and erectile impotence as common side-effects as well. Although these reports have evaluated it still does not state whether this dsyfunction is caused by loss of sexual interest and arousability. In the same sense oral contraceptives has effects to mood changes.
Gender Differences with Alcohol[edit | edit source]
Both men and women are greatly affected by the consumption of alcohol. As alcohol is consumed, inhibitations are lowered and clear-cut decisions become more difficult to make. For both males and females, alcohol has been proven to influence the measurement of a person’s attractiveness, bring forth unacceptable social behavior, help boost confidence, and lead to a complete loss of control, memory loss, and blacking out. These consequences can be viewed as aspirations or startling outcomes regarding sexual experiences for both genders.
Researchers Morten Hesse and Sebastien Tutenges (2008) conducted a survey at a vacation resort where alcohol and sexual encounters are often encouraged between adults. These two emphasized a cross sectional survey and introduced the Alcohol-Related Sexual Disinhibition (ARSD) and Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS), making a number of comparisons between behavioral patterns for each gender. While conducting this experiment, it was concluded that, “men tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women” (Hesse, Tutenges, 2008). Their research displayed a distinct difference between male and female sexual behavior concerning alcohol. This finding was an affirmation of the stereotypical social behavior of men and women. These two also found that both men and women who reported having sex with someone who was not their spouse had higher scores on the (DIDS) scale, making alcohol a significant factor with the sexual behavior of men and women (Hesse, Tutenges 2008). 
How Risky Behaviors Have An Effect On HIV/AIDS[edit | edit source]
Risky behaviors are prevalent among America’s audacious society. Psychological and environmental factors such as alcohol and drugs are the main justifications as to many got involved in these sexual encounters. According to Doll et al. (1989) usually less that 5% reported that they failed to use protection because they were high. The following research reveals that 95% of society faulted their actions on substances such as alcohol and drug use, so that they would not have to take full responsibility for their unintelligent actions. 
Drug Use and Sex[edit | edit source]
Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior for Exposure to HIV
In society, some people often act in risky behaviors when they are under the influence of marijuana or alcohol sometimes people abuse it and when they abuse it and when they abuse substances they often take part in unsafe sex. Doll et all (1989) usually less than 5% reported that they failed to use protection because they were high. Any discussion of research on the relationship of substance use to sexual risk taking must into account the limitaions of research methods used. The ideal to engage method for testing whether any drug causes indiviuals drug is administered to an experimental group and is withheld from a control group.
Affects of Sadism[edit | edit source]
Sadism is when a person is aroused through fantasy or behavior that inflicts psychological or physical suffering to another person. This type of sexual desire can lead to serious crimes. According to (Fedoroff 638-639), 39% of general population males have fantasies of "tying up" women, and 30% "raping a women". This percentage being very close can eventually make it difficult to distinguish violent sexual crimes from consented sexual situations.
References[edit | edit source]
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DRUGS ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR,Br. J. clin. Pharmac. (1976), Supplement, 83-90
- Hogarth, Harriet and Roger Ingham. (Nov/Dec 2009) “Masturbation Among Young Women and Associations with Sexual Health: An Exploratory Study”. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 46 issue 6, p558-567. doi: 10.1080/00224490902878993
- Hogarth,H.,& Ingham, R. (2009) Masturbation mong young women and associations with sexual health. Journal of Sex Research, 46(6), 558-567. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
- Leigh, B., & Stall, R. (1993). Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV. American Psychologist, 48(10), 1035. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
- Hesse, Morten, and Sébastien Tutenges. "Gender Differences in Self-Reported Drinking-Induced Disinhibition of Sexual Behaviors." American Journal on Addictions 17.4 (2008): 293-297. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 3 May 2011.
- Fedoroff, Paul. "Sadism,Sadomasochism,Sex, and Violence." Canadian Journal of Psychiatrics 53.10 (2008): 638-639. Web. 1 May 2011. <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=2b16281c-fee5-4f70-9dfa-25c8bbaea988%40sessionmgr10&vid=4&hid=13>.
3.Leigh, B., & Stall, R. (1993). Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV. American Psychologist, 48(10), 1035. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.