House Construction/Commodities infrastructure

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Commodities infrastructure[edit]

Plumbing[edit]

Plumbing is a trade that supports a wide variety of services found in modern buildings and urban areas. At a basic level though, it is the craft that serves to provide clean, drinkable water to homes and businesses and conducts contaminated water away from them. To learn the theory and skill needed to construct and maintain the plumbing systems for large commercial buildings, install boilers, and other complex jobs, plumbers often receive years of training. However, the plumbing systems that bring hot and cold water to household fixtures (sinks, bathtubs, water closets, ...) and carry waste water away from them can be designed, built, and maintained by anyone who is willing to do careful research, invest in tools and practice, and proceed patiently and carefully with the work. It should be noted that as contracted labor only a certified professional should do plumbing in houses and commercial buildings due to the risk involved in maintaining water and sewer. The certification provides a level of guarantee about the capabilities of the professional and in some locations guarantees an insurance covering errors and damages.

Installation of Hot/Cold Supply and Waste Lines, Shower and Tub Valves, Hot Water Heater, Water Purifier/Softener and Fire Suppression System

Plumbing Codes[edit]

Many local, regional, and national governments enact regulations that apply to the way buildings are constructed. These regulations are put in place to protect citizens from dangerous conditions. The regulations that apply to a trade such as plumbing are called "codes." Codes exist for general building, electrical work, plumbing, and other aspects of construction. Governments may write their own codes or use codes developed by outside authorities.

In many cases, the regulations are developed as a result of lessons learned through accidents and injuries. As trade experts analyze the flaws in a building that cause or contribute to fires, poisoning, falls, or other mishaps, they add rules to the relevant codes to reduce the chance of recurrence.

Plumbing codes are often associated with inspections. An inspection is done by a trade expert, designated by a government body, who checks work being done to a building to make sure that it is done according to the code. Some government bodies do not inspect work being done. There is a minimum standards code regulated by the U.S. government called the BOCA code. The only places that do not regulate and inspect plumbing are doing so illegally and should probably be avoided as the potential for drinking water contamination is extremely high. Many states have their own code but it can only be more stringent than the BOCA code, not less. One historical figure who gave momentum to the use of building codes in the United States was the early American Benjamin Franklin.

Water Supply[edit]

Pressure[edit]

Drainage and Venting[edit]

The drain should be at least 1 1/2" and should enter a pipe, sized by local plumbing codes, before exiting the structure to septic tank or sewer system. The ptrap of a lavatory or drinking fountain may be 1 1/4", no horizontal waste pipe under 1 1/2" should ever be installed and should in no case carry a fixture load beyond the size of a double lavatory OR a bathtub, but not both. A 2" pipe is needed for a kitchen sink or shower unit.

Most states require at least one 3" vent through the roof, this is usually the vent serving the bathroom fixtures. Other vents may usually penetrate the roof at 2". Local codes influence the height of the pipe through the roof usually 12" to 24", depending on how far north you are located.

Septic/Sewage Systems[edit]

How the septic tank system works - A typical septic system, consists of an underground tank, a distribution line and a soil absorption drainage field. Waste water leaves the home through an underground pipe connected to the septic tank. Baffles in the septic tank slow the flow of the incoming waste water and prevent sewage from flowing directly through the tank. Heavier solids settle to the bottom and accumulate as sludge.

The septic tank system is a natural sewage treatment and disposal system. By natural we mean that it relies on bacteria to digest and clean the waste water. Septic systems are biological systems and must have bacteria to work. The bacteria in the septic tank literally eat & digest the solids in the tank turning them into liquids and gases.

Raw household waste water will quickly clog all but the most porous gravel formations. A septic tank is a watertight chamber, which conditions the waste water to reduce clogging so that it may be more readily absorbed into the soil. The septic tank separates the settable and floatable solids, promotes the growth of anaerobic bacteria necessary to decompose the solids, and provides storage for the resulting sludge and scum.

Constructing a septic tank system:

  • Septic tanks should be located where they will not cause contamination of any well, spring or any other source of water supply.
  • The septic tank should not be located closer than 10 feet from any building. The tank should not be located in swampy areas, or in areas subject to flooding.
  • Slopes greater than 25 percent will cause considerable difficulty in construction, and may slide once they become saturated with effluent.
  • There must be no permanent cover placed over the septic tank or lateral lines.

Collectors[edit]

Materials[edit]

Valves[edit]

Pipes[edit]

HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)[edit]

Furnace/Air Conditioner Unit Installation, Supply/Return Air Ducts, Exhaust Ducts, Radiant Floor Systems, Air Purifier/Humidity Systems and Vacuum Systems.

How to reduce HVAC energy cost[edit]

Most home owners already have a HVAC system on their house to help them control temperature on summer and winter season. Too much cold can bring you sickness that is why heater is very helpful. And in summer season, air conditioner is very useful on cooling down your house.

Having a HVAC system installed in your house can definitely make your electricity bill high. Since it uses electricity, it will definitely increase your energy cost.

Using HVAC system on winter and summer season is inevitable. You might want to know how to reduce your HVAC energy cost.

Here are some tips on how to reduce your HVAC energy cost:

Maintenance- If you haven’t attended a maintenance program on your HAVC system, make sure you hire a HVAC service company to check your HVAC to see if it is working well. They will check if the parts are still in good condition and if your HVAC system heats and cools well. If you don’t maintain your HVAC system, it will soon get into worst condition.

Stable temperature- You also need to know the right temperature for you HVAC system. Most HVAC system have their temperature range to ensure its efficiency. You can check the HVAC system’s manual or consult a HVAC technician to know the most energy efficient temperature range. When using your HVAC system, don’t instantly put it on a higher temperature. For example, if it is a hot day, don’t put the thermostat on a higher level, you must first remove the heat using low temperature then make it high when the heat is gone.

Change Air filters- You also need to change the air filters of your HVAC system for at least once a month. It is to make sure that your HVAC system has uninterrupted and smooth air flow. Don’t be so lazy on changing it, remember that it will cost you a lot if your HVAC system malfunctioned. Most people don’t change an air filter. That is why their energy cost is rising and the worst is, they pay for the service of the HVAC technician because their HVAC malfunctioned.

Help control the temperature- When you are using your HVAC system, you can also help to control the temperature in your house. For example, it is very hot in your room. In order to make your room cool easily, you need to put curtains on your windows to block the heat rays from the sun.

You also need to make sure that your windows and doors are closed. You can also use the fan to spread the cold air in your room. Air conditioner will take so long on making your room cools if heat rays are entering your room and the windows and doors are open.

You need to know proper way of using and some other things about HVAC system so that you can prevent it from malfunctioning, spending money on the HVAC service and electricity bill.

Central Heating[edit]

Energy Harness[edit]

Water as a Heat Transporter[edit]

Water and Heat in Practice[edit]

Water Flow in Pipes[edit]

Pumped Water Flow in Piping Systems

Elements of Heat Transfer[edit]

Practical Aspects of Heat Transfer[edit]

System Design Basic[edit]

Electrification[edit]

An important document to read is the IEE Wiring Regulations (or equivalent).

Installation of Transformers, Service Panels, Switches, Outlets, GFI Outlets, Jboxs, Recessed Light Fixtures, Exhaust Fans, Fire/Security Horns and Emergency Lighting

Low-voltage systems[edit]

installation of wiring for Security Camera/Alarm, Telephone/Intercom/Internet Communications, Audio/Video Components, LV Light Fixtures and Home Automation Controllers