History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Stations/6ML Perth/Notes

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6ML Perth - Transcriptions and notes[edit]

1880s[edit]

1880[edit]

1881[edit]

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1890s[edit]

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1899[edit]

A high-class concert was given last evening at the Egan-street Wesley Church as a preliminary source of revenue in connection with the Rainbow Festival to take place shortly in Kalgoorlie. There was a fairly large attendance. A choice programme was presented, the contributors being all more or less well known here for their abilities as performers of music. The vocal section included numbers by Miss Teresa Maher, Miss Alice Maher, Miss Ida Browning, and Miss Alice Coulter. Miss Maher's renderings of "The Toilers" and "The Fire-side," also of "Pierrot," which was one of her encore numbers, were in that talented young lady's best style, and were accordingly much enjoyed. Miss Mather's items "Ben Bolt" and "The Gift" secured for the popular young contralto very hearty receptions, while the songs " Asthore," by Miss Coulter and "Life's Lullaby" by Miss Browning secured for the vocalists deserved applause. Mr Leslie Harris contributed one of the gems of the evening, a violin solo "Mazurka" (Wieniawski), to which Mr H. N. Clare played the pianoforte accompaniment. It was a performance of a highly meritorious character and inspired a strong wish that Mr Harris' playing may be frequently heard in Kalgoorlie in the future. The applause that greeted the number was very hearty, and continued till the violinist reappeared and supplemented his original performance. Mr Walter Ruse, whose fine voice was in good order, sang "The Yeoman's Wedding" and "Alia Stella Confidante," having the advantage of a violin obligato played by Mr Harris for the latter number. Encore recalls were his fate too. Mr J. Todd gave "The Bedouin Love Song" in good style, and Mr Fred Eddy helped to make up the bill by conscientious renderings of "Conquered" and "Anchored." The concert was opened with a clever pianoforte duet by Misses E. James and L. Tonkin. The pianoforte accompaniments were given by Miss Tippet, and Messrs H. N. Clare and Mandeville Musgrove and were throughout of a high order of merit. Mr Musgrove also introduced the second half of the programme with a much appreciated pianoforte selection.[1]

THE ENLISTED. The undermentioned are the names of those already enlisted as members of the Western Australian Mounted Infantry for service in South Africa. The names are subject to alteration, as they will not be finally approved until shortly before the departure of the unit from the colony:— . . . 47. Mandeville Musgrove, 27 years (Eng.), railway employe, served three years in 20th Hussars.[2]

1900s[edit]

1900[edit]

1901[edit]

1902[edit]

1903[edit]

1904[edit]

1905[edit]

MARRIAGES. MUSGROVE-MATTHEWS.— On September 27, at St. Paul's, South Fremantle, by the Rev. A. L. Marshall, Mandeville, son of John Musgrove Musgrove, of Hadleigh, Suffolk, England, to Marjory, daughter of the late William Matthews, of Adelaide, S.A. S.A. papers please copy.[3]

1906[edit]

1907[edit]

1908[edit]

1909[edit]

CHARITY CONCERT. A decided novelty was billed for Victoria Park last night, when the auxetophone, a mamoth gramophone, was at work, the accompaniments to the songs being played on the Themodist pianola. The effect was marred by the heavy wind blowing, but sufficient was shown to display the merit of the powerful song reproducer and with the accompaniments was most lifelike. Mr. M. D'O. Musgrove played the accompaniments. At intervals the band gave some choice selections, and the concert apart from weather conditions was most enjoyable, and should result in a fine addition to the funds of the league.[4]

1910s[edit]

1910[edit]

1911[edit]

1912[edit]

1913[edit]

ENTERTAINMENTS. . . PIANOLA RECITAL. Nicholson's held one of their popular invitation recitals in their well-appointed and artistic piano salon on Saturday night, in the presence of a large and markedly appreciative audience. The programme consisted of selections on the pianola — the piano was a Bechstein Boudoir Grand — and vocal items by Mr. Harold Devenish and Miss Madge Scott. Mr. M. D'O. Musgrove, the firm's manager, presided at the pianola and also played the accompaniments on the same instrument. Many of the audience afterwards took the opportunity to personally thank Mr. Musgrove, as representing the firm, for the enjoyable evening which had been provided. The management are arranging for a gramophone recital on July 5, and another pianolo recital on July 19. The programme on Saturday night was as follows:— Prologue Pagliacci (Leoncavallo), the pianola; Callirhoe Air de Ballet, No. 4 (Charminade), the pianola; songs (a), "Molly's Eyes" (Hawley), (b) "To Anthea" (Hatton), Mr. Harold Devenish; variations on a German Air (Chopin), the pianola; ballad, "Thine Eyes so Blue and Tender" (Lassen), Miss Madge Scott; Sonata, op. 27, No. 2 (Moonlight) (Beethoven), the pianola; song, "Sands o' Dee" (Clay), Mr. Devenish; Liebeswalzer, op. 57, No. 5 (Moszkowski), the pianola; song, "Gleaner's Slumber Song" (Walthew), Miss Scott; Rhapsodie Hongroise No. 12 (Liszt), the pianola.[5]

1914[edit]

1915[edit]

1916[edit]

POSTAL AND MILITARY APPOINTMENTS. MELBOURNE, Saturday. The following notices appear in the "Commonwealth Gazette":— . . . Reserve Forces: Members of rifle clubs to be lieutenants temporarily (for duration of war), Sinclair James McGibbon, Harry George Jeffreson, Hugh Oldham, Walter Richardson, Mandeville Doyly Musgrove.[6]

1917[edit]

1918[edit]

1919[edit]

1920s[edit]

1920[edit]

1921[edit]

1922[edit]

1923[edit]

1923 01[edit]
1923 02[edit]
1923 03[edit]
1923 04[edit]
1923 05[edit]
1923 06[edit]
1923 07[edit]
1923 08[edit]
1923 09[edit]
1923 10[edit]
1923 11[edit]

NEW COMPANIES REGISTERED. The following new companies were registered at the Supreme Court during the past week:— The Metropolitan Agency, Limited; registered office, Harper's Buildings, Howard-street, Perth; capital, £1000 in £1 shares. Musgrove's, Limited; registered office, 92 William-street, Perth; capital, £25,000, in £1 shares. Ventura Motors, Limited; registered office, 873a Hay-street, Perth; capital, £30,000 in £1 shares. Commonwealth Company: Australian National Products, Limited (incorporated in N.S.W.); registered office, Perpetual Trustee Buildings, St. George's-terrace, Perth; John Morrison, attorney.[7]

Changes in Musical Circles.— At the invitation of the directors, the shareholders and members of the staff of Nicholson's, Ltd., met at the firm's warehouse in Barrack-street, Thursday afternoon, to say goodbye to Messrs. M. D. Musgrove, A. T. Gray, R. D. Scott, and F. C. Kingston, who are leaving the company's service in order to start business on their own account. Mr. Stodart in presenting to the gentlemen mentioned cheques and other mementos on behalf of the firm, in appreciation of its goodwill and kindly feel-ings towards them, expressed regret at having lost their services, but commended their enterprise in having decided to embark on a business of their own. He felt sure that the training which they had received in the house of Nicholson's would stand them in good stead, and that they would carry with them the traditions of the firm, to serve as a guiding star in their new venture. Mr. Stodart assured them that he would do all in his power to assist them, and he welcomed the friendly rivalry which would result from the establishment of the new enterprise. Messrs. Musgrove, Gray, Scott, and Kingston suitably responded, and were subsequently the recipients of handsome presents from the members of the staff. [8]

GENERAL NEWS. . . . There was a large gathering of shareholders and employees at Nicholson's music warehouse on Thursday afternoon, the occasion being a valedictory to Messrs. M. D. Musgrove, A. T. Gray, R. D. Scott, and F. C. Kingston, who are retiring from the firm's employment to commence a business of their own. Mr. Stodart, on behalf of the directors, presented the retiring employees with cheques and suitable mementos, which, he said, were intended to be a slight expression of the firm's appreciation of their long and faithful services and an earnest of the directors' goodwill and kindly feelings towards them. He hoped that they would carry the traditions of the house with them to their new enterprise and prophesied that the friendly rivalry which would hereafter exist be-tween them — and which he welcomed — would stimulate all to put forward their best efforts to advance, and improve their respective businesses. Messrs. Musgrove, Gray, Scott and Kingston expressed their thanks and were subsequently presented with handsome souvenirs by the members of the staff.[9]

1923 12[edit]

MIRRORGRAMS. Sparks, Snaps and Silhouettes. (BY OUR OWN RADIOLOGIST.) . . . Mr. M. D'O. Musgrove, who used to entertain summer strollers in Claremont with the latest "hits" per medium of front lawn broadcasting concerts, is striking out on his own in the musical world under the dubbing of Musgrove's Ltd. Many associate the new concern with Nicholson's but there is definitely no connection between the old and the new, each being a separate and independent enterprise.[10]

MUSGROVE'S LTD. THE HOUSE FOR PIANOS. "There is no truer truth obtainable By man than comes of music." Thus the poet's words — thus all poets in varying harmonies of phrase. What music is to the home and social circle the individual person feels within the range of his or her experience; but what it is to the community, perhaps, is fully grasped only by those whose part it is to satisfy the urgent need of the people to be moved by concord of sweet sounds. How great this want is none is better able to appreciate than the members of the firm of Musgrove's Ltd. For more than twenty years they have been associated in studying this need, in assessing the high quality of the musical taste of the public, and in combining their experience and professional qualifications to the satisfaction of it. The names of the members of the firm, consisting of Mr. M. D'O. Musgrove, managing director, Mr. A. T. Gray, Mr. F. C. Kingston, and Mr. R. D. Scott, are household words in musical circles. In order to give their experience wider scope and to introduce to the Western public a greater range of instruments of the highest class, they have combined to launch the firm of Musgrove's Ltd., which they are determined shall, from its inception, be recognised as the House of Quality in the local musical world. Under Mr. Musgrove, as managing director, the various departments are co-ordinated, but each is in charge of an expert. Mr. Gray is responsible for pianos and player pianos, and he has signalised the birth of the firm by securing the exclusive agency for instruments of such quality as the Cable, Schiedmayer, Orpheus, and Allison pianos, each of them possessing individual features that will make varying appeals to different people, but all uniting in the possession of the qualities of strength and beauty of construction and exceptional tone values, qualities whose appeal is universal. Besides these pianos, for which the firm has the exclusive agency, other well-known makes will be stocked. The phonograph and the musical instruments departments are under the direction of Messrs. F. C. Kingston and Mr. R. D. Scott, respectively, which fact guarantees the high standard that will be maintained in each. The firm, after very careful consideration of many makes of talking machines, decided to accept the exclusive agency for the Brunswick phonograph and records. This instrument is well described as "all phonographs in one," possessing, as it does, the best characteristics of other makes, whilst being distinguished by three features entirely its own, namely, the Brunswick Altona reproducer, which plays all records at their best — a turn of the hand adapts it to any make of record. The Brunswick all-wood oval tone amplifier, a valuable aid to perfect tone reproduction; the Brunswick record-filing system with convenient arrangement of drawers for filing records. These exclusive attributes of the Brunswick lift it into a class by itself. To music lovers all instruments under the skilled and sympathetic touch of the artist give delight. But there is one which, if the product of first class constructors, makes an irresistible appeal to the senses. This is the violin. It is, therefore, not matter for surprise that Mr. R. D. Scott is resolved that whilst only various instruments of the highest grade shall be stocked in his department, special attention will be devoted to violins to secure that the demands for quality of the music loving public, and the insistence upon perfection in these instruments by convents, schools and the profession, shall be satisfied to the full. The extreme care which the firm has given to the selection of the instruments that are stocked is manifest also in the design and decoration of the House for Pianos at 92 William-street, opposite Queen's Hall. To the perfect enjoyment of music every sense must be in harmony. Recognising this, the decoration of the show rooms was entrusted to the artistic supervision of Mr. W. A. Ramage, with results that Musgrove's Ltd. confidently leave to the discriminating judgment of the wide circle of friends that the members of the firm have made among the public of the Stale over many years. The ground floor is devoted to pianos, and every facility is provided among artistic surroundings to test and appreciate the superior stocks of these instruments. On the first floor are housed the phonograph and musical instruments departments, and here, too, a meticulous artistry and careful attention to the comfort and convenience of customers are evident, whilst audition rooms of the most modem design ensure that the Brunswick records of songs and instrumental and dance music by artistes in the highest ranks of the profession shall be heard under the most perfect conditions. The reputation of the firm's personnel is so long and firmly established among music lovers in the State that the names of Messrs. Musgrove, Gray, Kingston, and Scott have only to be mentioned to guarantee that the claim of Musgrove's Ltd. that theirs is and will continue to be the House of Quality in all that pertains to music in the musical world of the State will be fulfilled in every respect. The best musical instruments in their particular classes may be purchased for cash or on terms at prices which are an assurance that the public will get the advantage of the wide experience of members of the firm in selection and purchase.[11]

"Music Hath Charms!" Musgrove's Ltd. Sets Out to Prove It. Right down through the centuries, through all the records of history and tradition, music has held its place in the lives and hearts of men. Its soothing influence, its inspiration, its power of bringing out the very best that is in man, has long been recognised, till it seems a world without music would be a very dull place indeed. The pages of mythology chronicle the story of Orpheus, whose lute "drew stocks and stones and trees," and though nowadays the said late Mr. Orpheus would cut about as much ice as the irrepressible snake charmer, music still reigns undisputed Queen of our feelings and emotions. UNACCUSTOMED SOUNDS. The members of "The Call" staff are not at any time impressionable people, but for the last few days we've been loth to click out a noisy typewriter and thus drown the unaccustomed sounds of music floating through our windows. The source was not difficult to discover, for Musgrove's Ltd., have just opened their new premises in William-street. Human nature craves for the soothing touch of music, and from twenty years experience of this need Messrs. Musgrove, Gray, Kingston and Scott, who are fostering the new firm, are well fitted to sate that thirst. All of the quartette, well known from their association with the Western musical world, have combined in their new premises to provide for music-lovers not only instruments of the highest class, but also to give clients the benefit of their experience and musical taste. Mr. A. T. Gray, who has individual charge of the pianoforte section, has secured the exclusive agencies of the Cable, Allison, Orpheus, and Schiedmayer pianos, instruments that reach the apex of beauty and tonal excellence in their class. Other well known makes are, of course, also stocked. The Brunswick phonograph is to be the arc light of Mr. F. C. Kingston's department. This magnificent instrument possesses three distinctive features — the Altona reproducer, an all-wood tone amplifier and a record-filing system. Added to its other superb qualities this trio of innovations proves the judgment of the firm in securing the exclusive agency of such a high class make. GLORIES OF HARMONY. While the piano thrills as a master breathes life into the keys, and a phonograph makes possible the universal "broadcasting" of the world's orchestras and vocalists, they are both surpassed in pure beauty of tone and glorious melody by the throbbing responsive notes of a violin as a skilled performer portrays his very soul through the artistry of the bow and strings. The violin department has been entrusted to Mr. R. D. Scott, whose pride in his section bans all inferior makes. He is determined that schools, music teachers and professional performers will be well attended to at Musgrove's. As an appropriate setting to their fine range of musical ware Musgrove's Ltd., have had their premises artistically decorated, attention being given to the acoustic properties of the audition rooms and the securing of the right musical atmosphere. Musgrove's claim that theirs is the House of Quality, and with four such names to back it up their claim does not seem the least exaggerated. Perthites are keen music-lovers, and they will find that their wants will be always attended to at Musgrove's, Ltd., 92 William-street, opposite Queen's Hall.[12]

THE CHARM OF MUSIC. The Place for Pianos. "He that hath no music in himself, nor is not moved by the concord of sweet sounds, is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils . . . let not such men be trusted." So said wise old Shakespeare, with a truth that will always live. Probably it is music, and not love, that makes the world go round "the music of the spheres," as Shakespeare said elsewhere. It is quite certain that music influences people very greatly, and a musical instrument in the house will mean many happy evenings. For that musical instrument be sure to try Musgroves Ltd., of 92 William-street, opposite Queen's Hall, which is controlled by men so well known in musical circles as Messrs. M. D'O. Musgrove, A. T. Gray, F. C. Kingston, and R. D. Scott. This firm has a fine show of pianos and Player pianos, and besides many well-known makes, have the exclusive agency for such excellent instruments as the Cable, Schiedmayer, Orpheus, and Allison pianos. Most interesting in the well-fitted phonograph and musical instrument department is the Brunswick phonograph, for which Musgroves are sole agents. This instrument has the Altone reproducer, which gives perfect tone reproduction and an excellent record filing system. Violins of the highest quality are also stacked. Audition rooms, artistically and comfortably furnished, which allow customers to listen to any record or musical instrument with the greatest possible pleasure, are installed. The firm's building is well worthy of a visit.[13]

A NEW STAR. In the Firmament of Music and Melody. The Advent of Musgrove's Ltd. Perth bids fair to become well-known as the city of music. Taking it by and large, its music houses are by a long way the most attractively set out of its great variety of supply stores. That it has so many of them in a prosperous condition is a compliment to the intellectual status of its citizens. There is always some saving grace about the music lover, even if he be a lover of ragtime stuff. So into this firmament of harmoniously arranged semi-quavers, quavers, and crotchets, has lately swum a new star. It has taken up its position at 92 William-street, and the name over doorway is "Musgroves, Ltd. The House for Pianos." The members of this new musical firm, Mr. D'O. Musgrove, managing director, Mr. A. T. Gray, Mr. F. C. Kingston, and Mr. R. D. Scott, have been known to the various musical public of Perth for a number of years. For there are various musical publics. The piano public will have none of the gramaphone public, and the classical ivory tickler looks with scorn upon the one who works the pedals of the mechanical player-piano. And there are others. Each has its own love, and Musgrove is out to cater for all sections. Quality and efficiency is to be the motto of the new firm, and the large range of high-class pianos and players is under the direct supervision of the expert, Mr. Gray, long recognised as one of the foremost piano men in the State. The exclusive agency for such favored instruments as Allison Schiedmayer, Cable, and Orpheus instruments should direct the public eye to a large extent in the direction of the new establishment. Mr. F. C. Kingston has charge of the phonograph section, which includes the exclusive agency for Brunswick machines, a talking instrument which is making an excellent impression among those who like their music in cabinet form. It is said to be "all phonographs in one," containing as it does all the best features of other machines as well as some exclusive features of its own. The musical instruments department as distinct from ivory keys, and mica diaphrams is directed by Mr. R. D. Scott, and the violin is to be given high place in the new emporium. Mr. R. D. Scott knows a good violin, and he knows a good violin is liked by all music lovers. Therefore none but instruments of the highest quality in the various grades will be found within the doors of Musgroves, Ltd. A great deal of trouble has been gone to to make the interior decorations of the premises acceptable to the aesthetic minds of music buyers, and it must be said that Mr. W. A. Ramage in this respect has been most successful. The comfort of customers has been well catered for, and with all the advantages the new musical palace is is bringing to bear, its name as the "House of Quality" should soon be on every tongue.[14]

1924[edit]

1924 01[edit]

Wireless Week by Week. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics. Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. By LONG WAVE. . . . Some months ago it was rumored that Messrs. Nicholson's, Ltd., were going to broadcast, but from information to hand it was thought that, owing to the large iron tank on the top of the warehouse of D. and W. Murray, Ltd., absorbing most of the radiation, the project would have to be abandoned.[15]

1924 02[edit]
1924 03[edit]
1924 04[edit]
1924 05[edit]
1924 06[edit]

Port Paragraphs CAUSTIC COMMENTS — ON AFFAIRS AT FREMANTLE. . . . The Fremantle Bowling Club tendered a complimentary social to Mr. J. A. Gustafson (singes champion of Australia), and the club rooms were well filled with an enthusiastic gathering of members and visitors. A meritorious musical programme, arranged by Mr. Digby Beard, was thoroughly enjoyed, and Mr. M. D. O'Musgrove at the piano added greatly to the excellence of the numbers rendered. Felicitous speeches, admirable in their brevity and wit, combined with a dainty repast, completed a festival which will long be remembered.[16]

CITY IMPROVEMENTS. The majority of the people engaged in occupation in one portion of the city know very little in regard to what is taking place in other parts and have no idea of the extent of money that is being expended in building and improvements in Perth at the present time. During the week I had a chat with the Town Clerk (Mr. Bold), and the Acting City Building Surveyor (Mr. A. E. Horner), and on reference to the records found that the following buildings and works have just been completed, are nearing completion, or are in course of construction:— W.A. Trustee and Agency Co., £39,000; Winterbottom's Ltd., £36,000; Swan Brewery, £29,000; Aliance Insurance Co., £20,000; Y.A.L., £17,000; Queen's Hall, £18,000; Hyem, Hester (Hay and George streets), £18,000; W.A. T.C., £16,000; Diocesan Flats (Mount-street), £15,000; Shaftesbury Theatre, £10,000; H. V. McKay, £9,600; Falk and Co., £7,000; Druids' Hall. £6.700; Broadhurst and Co., £6,500; Malcolm-street flats, £5,850; Michelides (Roe-street), £5,700; Michelides (Beaufort-street), £4,700; City of Perth Electric Light Department, £5,200; Beaufort Arms Hotel, £5,000; Y.M.C.A., £3,000; Musgroves, Ltd., £3,000; Karrakatta Tea Rooms, £3,000; and Mr. M. B. Thomas's Hay-street shops, £4,500. This gives a total of £287,350, but to this must be added at least £50,000 for other city im-provements apart from dwellings, and these also add considerably to this amount. The figures given are also merely, the bare estimates submitted to the corporation officials with the plans for building, and it is well known how these expenditures are exceeded as the work progresses. Take again the £29,000 stated as the expenditure of the Swan Brewing Company, it is well known that when the whole of this work is completed, and the new plant has been installed, the company will have to pay something between £150,000 and £160,000. Then the West Australian Trotting Association is spending approximately £70,000 on their new grounds within the city boundaries, and £60,000 has been voted by the City Council for making the roads of the terraces. With these additions it will therefore be seen that the works in progress, and the few just completed, involve an expenditure of approximately £550,000. Nearly the whole of this work is being undertaken by private enterprise, and it indicates very forcibly the great faith that the commercial section of the community has in the future prosperity of the State. At the same time it provides a useful object lesson of the productive wealth of the country, when a population of' approximately 350,000 can produce the means to expend over half a million sterling in city improvement. It is interesting also to note that during the past five years the value of buildings erected has been as follows:— 1919, £210,635; 1920, £399.519; 1921, £334,309; 1922, £514,061; 1923, £659,265. As there is six months of the year to run it would appear that a record will be established this year, but with the works in progress, and what has been accomplished in the previous five years, it represents a total of £2,668,789; a wonderful achievement for such a small community.[17]

1924 07[edit]
1924 08[edit]
1924 09[edit]
1924 10[edit]

LYRIC HOUSE. Music's Local Shrine — Enterprise of Musgrove's Limited. It was Ruskin who, with his profound sense of symmetry in the Arts, said: "A well-disposed group of notes in music will make you sometimes weep and sometimes laugh. You can express the depth of all affections by those dispositions of sound; you can give courage to the soldier, language to the lover, consolation to the mourner, more joy to the joyful, more humility to the devout." It was appropriate that his reference should have been inspired by his main topic, which was the Influence of Imagination in Architecture. The two arts are complementary. Music, to find its (Photo Caption) This Magnificent Building of four-stories is now in the course of reconstruction and will be opened at an early date as a Modern Music Warehouse by Musgrove's Limited. (End Photo Caption) highest expression, not only must have the essentials of the composer's works; the craftsman's skill in a wide range of instruments; a delicate sense of moods, and a deft capacity to express their thousand variations, which are the attributes of the artist; it must have a setting in which harmony of line and color make a fitting environment for the art. It was with a full realisation of this fundamental truth that Musgrove's Ltd., when the amazing expansion of their business in a short period of months forced them to seek more extensive premises than those occupied at 92 William-street, sought a new and permanent home. Years of experience in the musical world fully advised the members of the firm of what was needed. A central position was requisite — one which would be convenient to music lovers of city and of the country. A building large enough to supply even the extraordinary demands for space made by the wonderful growth that attended the firm's enterprise was an essential. It must, too, be easily adaptable to the peculiar needs upon which Musgroves Ltd.— establishing from the first the highest standards as suitable only to the art and profession to which they ministered — insisted. It must, in short, be capable of transformation into a home of music, a "Lyric House" in which the muse that moves most vibrantly the emotions should be installed in surroundings meet to her dignity, and illimitable power. In the building, previously occupied by Messrs. P. Falk and Co., in Murray-street, overlooking Forrest-place, and adjacent to the G.P.O. and the railway station, Musgrove's Ltd. found a suitable location. In the skill of architects and decorators, enthusiastically responsive to the ideals animating the firm, they secured the ready assistance which is transforming the original structure into "Lyric House," a magnificent home of music on whose four floors will be gathered the best that the world has to offer in musical instruments and works; where local musical art will have a rendezvous; and the profession an academy which will be an inspiration to and a source of culture. Several considerations moved Musgrove's Ltd. to their new enterprise. The first and most pressing was a purely utilitarian one. The extraordinary growth of business demanded more commodious premises than those in which as a distinctive musical firm the principals commenced operations so short a time since as December last year. Eighteen hundred square feet of floor space housed the initial undertaking — twenty-three thousand square feet will be included on the four floors of "Lyric House." It is unnecessary to point the moral of the expanded figures; they speak for themselves. They are an expression of public confidence in Musgrove's Ltd., and of faith in the professional skill and business methods of the principals, a faith built up on more than 20 years' association with the music-loving people of Western Australia. They are more — they are a testimony to the confidence of Musgrove's Ltd. in the art to which they minister and in the local public's appreciation of that art. For though "Lyric House" will be a music emporium in which musical compositions, including every kind from the classical to the popular, will be available, and instruments of every description on show and on sale, it will also be, as said, an Academy of Music in which visiting artists and local devotees may entertain and be entertained, may instruct and be instructed, amid conditions most favorable to the cultivation of the spirit of music. The ground floor, as it was in the original building, has been lowered six feet to the plane of the street. Two magnificent windows disclose a parquetry inlaid flooring on which the finest products of the musical instrument makers of the world will be presented to the public gaze. Entering from the street, the ground floor space will be devoted, amid a chaste color scheme of black and white, to the smaller instruments. Towards the centre depth — the frontage is 36 feet and depth 160 feet — steps lead to a raised section which will hold the music department. Along one side a gallery in black and glass overhangs the department, and contains the respective sections of educational, band, orchestral, popular and jazz music; at the other side five sound-proof rooms give ample accommodation for "trying over" the pieces that attract the attention of patrons. These sound-proof rooms — they are found on several floors — are a special feature of the remodelled building. They are unique in Perth. Especially on the top floor are they remarkable. Jumping for a moment the intermediate floor that these rooms may be described, the visitor will meet on the top floor a design for the accommodation of music teachers and the profession generally without a peer in the State, and unexcelled in any part of Australia. The front portion of the floor, overlooking the street, occupying nearly 40 by 40 feet, will be a reception room in which visiting artists may be entertained or professional conversaziones be held. Fifteen sound-proof rooms will occupy the long rear portion of the floor, a passage way leading between, as they are distributed on each side. The walls of these rooms are of plastered coke brieze; a composition wholly impervious to sound. The doors are double-lined and baize-covered. Windows to each afford pleasant natural lighting in the daytime. Of various sizes, to meet the different needs, every room is commodious. They will be available to the teaching profession — its vocal, instrumental and elocutionary exponents — on hourly, daily, weekly or leasing terms, and undoubtedly will constitute a centre in which the sublimest of arts may be cultivated free from any distraction that would hinder its development. To return to the "top" section of the first floor and the music department. Here will be contained, too, the section for player rolls, and one of the "try-over" rooms on this level will be specially set aside for trying rolls — not instruments. The larger instruments — pianos and players — will be housed in four showrooms on the ample front portions of the first floor. The different makes, of which Musgrove's Ltd have a large variety, will have their special section — Australian, British, Continental and American. The finest products of British manufacture — Mar- (Photo Caption Start) M. GEORGES BADER, French Trade Commissioner in Australia, who has returned to Sydney after a visit to France with the object of fostering trade relations between the two countries. (Photo Caption End) shall and Rose, London, makers to the late King Edward VII.; John Brinsmead and Sons, piano makers since 1837; Allison Limited, whose instrument is fittingly described as the "Great English Piano" — will be numbered among them. Among American pianos and players it is only necessary to mention the product of Cable Company, whose pianos and Solo-Inner players have established an unique reputation, and the pianos and players of R. S. Howard Co. Such names is Schiedmayer, Neumeyer, and Scheel guarantee the extraordinary quality of the Continental pianos handled by Musgrove's Ltd. On this first floor, too, is another novel addition to the aid of musical art which the firm resolved from the beginning sedulously to cultivate. It is a concert room, large enough to seat comfortably some 300 persons well-lighted and artistically decorated. A platform at the rear right wall will accommodate instrumentalists and vocalists in the many recitals which will be a feature of "Lyric House." The basement — only technically may it be so termed, as it is but three feet below the street level — will be the home of phonographs and records. No other instrument will find habitation there. The "Brunswick," which attained immediate popularity on its introduction to the local public by Musgrove's a few months since; "His Master's Voice" and the "Rexonola" will be featured on this floor in a variety of design, but uniformity of their respective qualities, suitable to the needs of every circumstance. Four audition rooms, sound-proof, on this floor will enable records and instruments to be conveniently and in comfort tried over by patrons. Much more could be said; but space forbids. Music is to have an artistic home in Perth. Comfort and taste are the distinguishing features of "Lyric House." The eye will be attracted by soft, and delicate furnishings and decorations; the ear will be enthralled by the most magnificent instrumental productions of the world's foremost manufacturers. The staff is expert in every department. The music department will be under the direction of one of Perth's most prominent teachers in the person of Mrs. Sutherland Groom, L.A.B.T.C., Mus. Aust., who will be assisted by a fully-qualified staff. Variously situated at the rear of the building are the workshops where repairs of every kind will be effected by skilled craftsmen; and despatch rooms to supply country order demands and city requirements. The convenience and comfort of the public and staff have been in every way considered. For the latter a luncheon room, tastefully decorated, has been provided. The whole establishment, whose stupendous growth within a few months to the premier position in our musical world, is a testimony to the critical recognition of the public, will be supervised from offices overlooking the ground floor window display, by the gentlemen — Messrs. M. D. O. Musgrove, R. D. Scott, A. T. Gray and F. C. Kingston — whose inauguration of the firm created anticipations among music-lovers which have not been disappointed. In "Lyric House," which will be opened about the middle of the month, music has a shrine in the State.[18]

SOCIAL. . . . A pleasurable couple of hours were spent at the Repertory Club last Friday afternoon. The cosy reception room was fragrant with the scent of sweet peas and roses, which were well arranged in every available nook. The occasion was an "at home" in honour of Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Zelman, the well-known Melbourne violinist and soprano; who gave two concerts in Perth during the past week. There is a delightful Bohemian air about these Repertory Club gatherings. Probably much of the success of such functions is due to the energetic secretary, for not only is she a most efficient officer, but a personality brimming over with enthusiasm and activity. Mrs. Dunckley possesses that invaluable asset, the gift of being able to create an atmosphere — and a very attractive atmosphere at that. A short musical programme added to the pleasure of the afternoon, Mrs. Thompson, Mr. Newman and Mr. Morgan contributing vocal items. Mrs. Eugene Levinson played in her usual finished style a pianoforte solo and Mrs. McCrostie recited. Mr. and Mrs. Moran were much appreciated in a charming duet, in which their voices harmonised perfectly. Miss Ottawa accompanied some of the singers. The same evening Mr. and Mrs. Alberto Zelman were the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Musgrove in the new and charmingly appointed rooms recently opened by Musgrove's, Ltd., in Murray-street, Perth. Mr. and Mrs. Musgrove received their many guests at the entrance. They then proceeded upstairs to the attractively arranged salon, the long, quaintly narrow room being cosily arranged with lounges, easy chairs and settees. Brief speeches of welcome were voiced by Mr. Musgrove, and Mr. H. B. Jackson, to which Mr. Zelman replied in a happy way. Some local musical talent of very high standard lent an additional note of pleasure and interest. Each item contributed was by a member of Musgrove's firm. Miss Hillhouse delighted everyone with her two piano solos rendered most charmingly on a beautiful instrument. Mr. Iffla and Mr. Samuels were heard in pleasure-giving songs. Light refreshments were handed round before the guests dispersed, having enjoyed a couple of interesting and enjoyable hours.[19]

1924 11[edit]

MUSGROVES LIMITED. PERTH'S NEW MUSIC WAREHOUSE. UP-TO-DATE APPOINTMENTS. Dignity, splendor, without ostentation, and, above all, easeful comfort, are the dominant notes in the interior furnishing of the four-storied building secured as a warehouse for Musgrove's Ltd. This edifice was recently the warehouse of P. Falk and Co., and upon being taken over, carpenters and decorators were set to work to convert it into a music warehouse, on lines which have proved successful in other parts of Australia, America, and the Continent. The growth of Musgrove's Ltd. has been little short of wonderful. The company was formed twelve months ago by four men whose aggregate experience in the music trade of Australia exceeds 80 years. A start was made with a small shop in William-street, where player-pianos, musical instruments and phonographs were sold. After a few months it was found that the volume of business done necessitated much larger and more commodious premises. A search rewarded them, for they were able to secure one of the best sites in the city, adjacent to the railway station and new G.P.O., on which a four-storied building, with a depth of 168 feet and a frontage of 36 feet on each floor, stands. Two plate-glass windows of moderate dimensions make an imposing facade to the building, the parquetry floors of which are brilliantly lighted from above. At the entrance to the shop is a large hall, arranged for the Musical Instrument Department, and lined with glass show cases containing instruments of many kinds. A sound proof demonstration room for the convenience of intending purchasers is tucked away in a corner and away from distractions. The stairs, balustrades and woodwork are of massive type and black in color, a contrast being secured with white panelled walls and pillars. Stairs leading from the hall to the front of the building point the way to the managerial and general offices. A few steps down from the main hall is the Phonograph Department, where is to be found a magnificent collection of period, upright, and table model phonographs from the well-known Brunswick factory. Brunswick models are prominently displayed, together with large stocks of 'His Master's Voice' and Rexonola. Four sound-proof try-over rooms run along one wall, being partitioned with diamond lead-lighting, the result being very effective. Facing these rooms, the stocks of records are kept on shelves, the pressure of a button releasing the protecting panelling. At the end of this department are the spacious showrooms, set apart for the display of the wide range of ma-chines. From the hallway, again, stairs lead to The Music Floor. This is a new department inaugurated with the opening of the building, and is under the direction of one of Perth's prominent music teachers, assisted by a staff of assistants with musical qualifications. Comprehensive stocks of music — educational, classical, standard, popular and jazz — are here for the selection of the public. Above the music counter runs a gallery the entire length of the department, with a return at the end, where bulk stocks of music are kept and country mail orders are dealt with. Upon entering The Piano Department a fine display of grand pianos meets the eye in a long vista, upright pianos and organs being arranged around the wall. British manufacturers are represented by Marshall and Rose, Brinsmead, and Allison, American by Cable and Co. and R. S. Howard and Co., and Continental by Schiedmeyer, Scheel, and Neumeyer. In this showroom luxuriously upholstered and cushioned chairs are provided for the comfort of patrons. Six special showrooms are arranged around this department, each appealingly furnished. The lighting is by the semi-direct principle, with an ornate dome of leadlights. The first floor reached with the aid of the lift discloses a further piano showroom and Concert Hall, under construction, and which it is hoped will be completed at an early date. The top floor has been converted into a home for music teachers of Perth. Fifteen sound-proof Teaching Studios are provided with walls of coke-brieze be-low the plaster. Double baize doors are fitted. Already a long line of brass plates on the doors shows they are in occupation. Facing the street on this floor is a reception room of 40 square feet, for the use of teachers as well as visiting artists. The staff has not been forgotten in the wealth of arrangements, for luncheon and rest rooms are provided. At the back of the premises are to be found the workshop, polishing, tuning and repairing rooms. Without doubt, this magnificent warehouse brings Perth into line with the many splendid music houses of the Eastern States and is a tribute to the ability and foresight of Messrs. M. D'O. Musgrove, A. T. Gray, R. D. Scott and F. C. Kingston, who form the backbone of the company.[20]

REAL ESTATE. ALTERATIONS IN MURRAY STREET. Still another of the buildings in central Murray-street, which was originally used as a warehouse, has been reconstructed internally. For many years, and until quite recently, the premises at 233 Murray-street were occupied by Messrs. Falk and Co., but a reconstruction has turned the place into one of the latest of improvements in music salons for Musgroves, Ltd. Originally the ground floor was about 6 ft. above the street level, but, in order to make the building suitable for a shop, portion of the main front, consisting of part of the basement and ground floor was removed, and the remainder carried on steel joists. Again, portion of the ground floor extending back 44ft. had to be lowered, in order to bring it in line with the street level, and now the approaching stairs to the basement and the elevated portion of the ground floor has given the opportunity of displaying goods in the double showroom which can be viewed from the entrance. The second floor is divided into rooms of sound-proof construction, which are to be used by music teachers. This, together with the first floor, which is to be used for additional showrooms and recital hall, are approached by either a lift or stairway, and entrance can be gained through the shop or by a separate entrance from the main frontage in Murray-street. The main structural alterations to the buildings, and certain of the internal fittings, were carried out by A. James and Co., whilst the remaining rooms, etc., were executed by Messrs. Thomas and Harrison. The whole of the work was done under the direction of the architect, Mr. E. Le R. Henderson, and were to the order of the new tenants, Messrs. Musgroves, Ltd.[21]

1924 12[edit]

Musgrove's Ltd. First Anniversary in New Home Phenomenal Success of Local Company. There probably never has been in Perth a quicker rise to popularity and a more meteoric progression than that of the House of Musgrove, called Lyric House, in Murray-street, Perth. It is a tribute to the earnestness of Perth's music loving public and its capacity for musical description that this is so, for it is the continually increasing stream of public support which has enabled Musgrove's to make the strides it has. Musgrove's is an entirely Westralian concern, and it really began many years ago inside the four walls of that well known and respected musical firm Nicholson's. For all the members of Musgrove's learned their business and gained their wide experience in those precincts, and adding to that wealth of knowledge a full measure of modern thought initiative and enterprise, they came out to give to the public the combined benefit of the mixture. The firm was formed by four of the best known men in the music trade in W.A., namely, Messrs. D. O. Musgrove, A. T. Gray, R. D. Scott, and F. C. Kingston, and they commenced the business of selling pianos, gramophones, musical instruments and music on a floor space of about 1,800 square feet in William-street, just 12 months ago. The new music shop soon became well known, and business expansion speedily demanded more space. The warehouse of P. Falk and Co. in Murray-street, was acquired on long lease, and so altered and improved is its interior that Musgrove's may be said to occupy a palatial home to-day. The company occupies all four floors of the building, totalling 23,000 square feet. The magnitude of the business they are now handling may be judged from the number of big agencies they hold, numbering among them in the British piano section, Sir Herbert Marshall and Sons, John Brinsmead and Sons, Allison Pianos Ltd., and other firms whose agencies they hold and whose products have made British pianos famous throughout the civilised world. American agencies are represented by The Cable Co., makers of the famous Solo Inner-Player-Piano, and R. S. Howard Co. Musgrove's Continental agencies include Schiedmayer and Sohne, Carl Scheel and Neumeyer pianos. Sole representation of Brunswick phonographs and records, the company is in a position to offer the public the world's greatest phonograph value. The educational advantages of these instruments have already been amply and capably demonstrated by Mrs. Rose Atkinson, who will always be prepared to act in an advisory capacity to schools, colleges, etc. The same high standard of quality distinguishes all small musical instruments, with the result that "Lyric House" can proudly rank as the foremost music warehouse in Western Australia. The warehouse itself is fitted out on the most modern lines, a handsome entrance hall being the first section the customer enters. From this hall, in which small musical instruments may be purchased, the basement which has been raised to the level of almost a ground floor, can be completely overlooked, and the whole showroom of gramophones and other instruments are in view. This floor is but four steps below the floor of the entrance hall, and on it are four record "try-over" rooms, and two handsome audition rooms for the trying of the famous Brunswick instruments. All the rooms are sound proof, but the enterprising spirit of Musgrove's has gone further in the installation of four of the latest record trying machines, by means of which customers may sit in the open and hear their records without interfering with the other machines right alongside them. This ingenious contrivance is called the 'Audak,' and is well worth a trip to Musgrove's to inspect and study. Above this floor is the general music and piano floor replete with system, comfort and convenience. It is only a temporary home for the pianos, however, for as soon as arrangements can be completed the floor above will take care of the big instruments. There are five sound-proof rooms for the trying of pianos, and every assistance is re-dered intending purchasers in their choice. On the top floor are the teachers' rooms, each sound proof and well lighted, and Musgrove's hold that they are more than probably the finest suite of teaching rooms in the Commonwealth. On this floor there is also a hall which may be used for lectures or recitals. The interior of the building is done in black and white throughout, and the effect given is one of "quality" and soundness. Musgrove's have made a phenomenal step forward in twelve short months, and as it is true that youth will be served, this company is an ex-ample of the service of youth, in putting before the public an up to date, modern and efficiently equipped building where it should always be a pleasure and a delight to shop.[22]

BIRTHDAY RECITAL. To celebrate the first anniversary of the establishment of the firm, Musgrove's, Ltd. gave a birthday recital at their music rooms, Murray-street, yesterday afternoon. An interesting programme of vocal and instrumental items was rendered, and was received with appreciation by the audience. Mrs. Rose Atkinson sang "Twickenham Ferry" brightly, and Mr. Bryn Samuel gave a vigorous rendering of Aylward's "Song of the Bow," the accompaniment being played on the Cable solo inner player, which was skilfully manipulated, and proved to be a fairly satisfactory substitute for the human accompanist. The sweet tone of the Brunswick phonograph was revealed in a reproduction of Schubert's "Ave Maria" as a violin solo by Jascha Heifetz. The cabaret orchestra, under the direction of Mr. Irwin Lawrence, gave a number of crisp selections. Raffs "Tarantella" was given as a piano duet by Misses D. Woods and J. Musgrove, and Miss Anetta Hillhouse played on the piano Rachmaninoff's "Prelude in C Sharp Minor." The Hawaiian Melody Makers gave selections on the steel guitar and ukulele, and a "Concert Waltz" by Frime revealed the effective use to which the Cable solo inner player can be put in rendering piano solos.[23]

MUSGROVE'S LTD. Musgrove's Limited ("Lyric House") are out to see that the citizens are supplied with the musical instruments that will afford them the maximum amount of enjoyment at the minimum of cost. From its inception this enterprising firm has met with a gratifying response from music lovers, and it now comes along with a special Christmas offer. The reduced prices hold good only to the end of the year, so buyers are advised to get in early. Their pianos are presently offering at from 85 guineas, and their players from 160 guineas. Every instrument is fully guaranteed for 25 years. Musgrove's are now showing a new shipment of mandolines of the best Italian make. Prices range from thirty shillings, with complete outfits from £2 10s. Ideal Christmas gifts are the small size mandolines for children. These are priced at twenty-five shillings, and are easy to learn and easy to play. These lines are also supplied to the trade. This Christmas offer is so exceptional that an immediate inspection is earnestly advised. Those who are on the lookout for a splendid instrument for themselves or as Christmas gifts for their friends should note that this offer will be withdrawn at the end of the year. It looks as if "Lyric House" will experience a busy time during the next fortnight.[24]

1925[edit]

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BROADCASTING DEMONSTRATION. Much interest is being taken in the broadcasting demonstration concert to be given in Queen's Hall this evening. The stage is being fitted up as a replica of the studio at 6WF, and the concert will be conducted exactly in the manner of a studio concert. This will give wireless enthusiasts an opportunity of seeing the working of a studio. A programme of outstanding interest has been arranged by the musical director, Mr. A. J. Leckie, Mus. Bac. It includes numbers by the popular Wendowie Quartette, songs by Miss Veronica Mans-field and Mr. Rhys Francis, instrumental items by Mr. Hugh McMahon, and the Two Dunstalls, a talk by Dr. J. S. Battye, and the first performance of a short one-act play, "Lucifer and an Angel," by Miss Doris Gilham and Mr. Herbert Millard. Seats may be reserved at Musgrove's.[25]

1925 04[edit]
1925 05[edit]

BROADCAST PROGRAMMES. The following wireless programmes will be broadcast from 6WF (the Westralian Farmers, Ltd.). during the week ending Friday, May 22. Programmes are subject to any alteration owing to unforeseen circumstances:— . . . WEDNESDAY, MAY 20. 3.30-4.30: Afternoon to be announced. Popular Night.— 8.0: Musical items from Messrs. Musgrove's Concert Hall, as follows: — Piano. French Suite, No. 16. (Bach), Miss Veronica Kenniwell: song. "Bluebells from the Clearings" (Walker); recitation, selected. Miss Bessie Durlacher; piano, "Arabesque in E." (Debussy). Miss Veronica Kenniwell; song, 'A Widow Bird Sat Mourning' (Lidgey), Miss Essie Pickering; musical items from the studio. 9.0: By the kind permission of Mr. William Russell we broadcast the second act of 'Peg of My Heart.' at His Majesty's Theatre. Leading part played by Miss Nellie Bramley.[26]

1925 06[edit]

STUDIO JOTTINGS. (By Harold B. Wells.) The broadcasting station 6WF commences its second year of programmes this week. Those who have watched the development of the station must feel an inward joy that during each month of last year the programmes were bettered either by variety or quality. . . . "Everybody's Night" is on Friday, when items from the Luxor Theatre will be given and followed by a talk by Mr. A. E. Stevens (Technical Adviser to the W.A. Division of the Wireless Institute) on matters concerning wireless. On Saturday night next a concert organised by Messrs. Musgrove, Ltd., will be relayed from their concert hall, and at 8 p.m. the "Dance Night" will commence, when 6WF's jazz orchestra will play the latest numbers from London.[27]

STUDIO JOTTINGS. (By W. R. WELLS.) There will be some new faces — and to listeners-in new voices — at 6WF this week. . . . On Wednesday afternoon the transmission will be for listeners who miss the Saturday night jazz. In the evening Mr. D'O. Musgrove will hold a recital of the solo inner player and phonograph. This is the outcome of many requests for "more player, please." Thursday evening is devoted to "music, melody and song." Miss Zoe Lenegan will sing items by Coleridge-Taylor, Mendelssohn, and Brahms, while Mr. Theo. Meugens, who recently scored a most gratifying compliment from the adjudicator at the recent Eisteddfod, will contribute some tenor numbers. Bonheur, Wallace and Wagner will be drawn upon later by Mr. Basham, who is to give some 'cello solos. "Recital Night" is on Friday. The session, however, will begin with a radio talk by the energetic president of the Subiaco Radio Society, Mr. W. R. Phipps, who as an amateur transmitter is frequently heard on the air with his call sign 6WP. When Mr. Phipps has finished speaking of aerials and other things, a switch over will be made to Musgrove's concert hall, where the recital arranged by Mrs. E. C. Campbell is being given. Mrs. Campbell is being assisted by Miss Ruby Davis (contralto), Mr. Charles Iffla (baritone), and Miss Veronica Kenniwell (pianiste). It is interesting to note that these recitals are to be given for six weeks, and listeners-in generally, as well as students of music, will find much in them of value and entertainment. Upon the conclusion of the recital Mr. Sheard will give some items from the studio.[28]

MERELY ATOMS. . . . Rumor has it that consideration is at present being given to a proposal for the establishment within the State of a "B" class broadcasting station.[29]

1925 07[edit]
1925 08[edit]
1925 09[edit]
1925 10[edit]

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. . . RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . The relayed transmissions from Messrs. Musgrove's Lyric Hall point the way to better programmes. They certainly are very enjoyable.[30]

1925 11[edit]
1925 12[edit]

B Class Proposals

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. . . RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . We have heard rumors of a B Class station locally. Whilst W.A. is only allowed one A Class station, a small-powered newcomer would be welcome. If the proposed station eventuates it will bring W.A. in line with the other States, all of whom have one or more B Class stations.[31]

1926[edit]

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WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. . . RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . On Wednesday last a delightful lunch-hour concert was broadcast from Messrs. Musgrove's Lyric House. Vocal items by Miss Lyle Hocking and Mr. S. Morrell were particularly enjoyable. The Lyric House orchestra also helped to complete one of the most pleasant programmes we have heard.[32]

1926 07[edit]
1926 08[edit]
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1926 11[edit]
1926 12[edit]

1927[edit]

1927 01[edit]
1927 02[edit]

B Class Proposals

MORE BROADCASTING. Applied for In W.A. WILL START IN 6 WEEKS. If Approval Granted. If an application, which was lodged yesterday, is granted by the Commonwealth authorities, a second broadcasting station should be established in Perth within the next month to six weeks. This was the information given today by Mr. W. Faraday, of the Westate Engineering Company, who stated that a request had been submitted that his company be permitted to operate a "B" class station. For those who are unaware of the difference between an "A" and "B" class station it may be mentioned that 6WF, which is allowed to use 5 kilowatt of power, and have its programmes controlled to a certain extent by the authorities, derives the major portion of its revenue from the licence fees of listeners, for of the 27s 6d paid to the Commonwealth approximately 22s 6d of it is paid over to the broadcasting station. With The "B" Class Station, however, the power is usually limited and the revenue is derived solely from advertising in its many forms. Mr. Faraday stated this morning that it was recognised that advertising would have to provide the bulk of the revenue of the station. Many promises had been given and if approval for the erection of the station were obtained, he was hopeful of being able to run a programme from 7.30 a.m. until 11 p.m., with intervals, of course, during the day. So far as the standard of the programmes were concerned, he hoped to make them popular with plenty of modern music, but would not dwell unduly on the educational side of the subject. While Politically He Had No Bias, the station would no doubt receive revenue from this source, in the form of advertising. While a definite wave-length had been applied for he was not in a position to divulge what it was, for the question of wave-lengths primarily came under the Geneva Convention. He was hopeful, however, that if approval for the erection of the station were granted that the use of a temporary wave-length would be consented to. It was suggested that Mr. Faraday was taking An Unexpected Action in view of the fact that a Royal Commission is shortly to investigate the whole question of wireless, including broadcasting stations and revenue, but the director of the Westate Engineering Co. said that if they were to wait until the Commission had looked into things, nothing would be done, he thought, until late next year. He was, therefore, prepared to take a risk.[33]

B Class Proposals

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. Local wireless circles are freely commenting upon the advent of a "B" class station for Perth. This, it is understood, will be commencing broadcasting within the next few weeks. The wave length used will be in the 200-300 metre band, but particulars as to the power, etc, to be employed, are not yet available.[34]

1927 03[edit]

B Class Proposals

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . No further details are yet available as to the proposed "B" class station for Perth, but we understand a power of 2½ kilowatts will be used at the inception of the station, with a wave-length of 275 metres.[35]

1927 04[edit]
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1927 06[edit]
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1927 10[edit]
1927 11[edit]
1927 12[edit]

B Class Proposals

Wireless Week by Week. . . RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . Amateur Activities. It has hardly been possible to chronicle anything of amateur interest for some months now, as activities in this direction have only been marked by a few spasmodic transmissions. With the coming of summer a greater tranquility was anticipated, but this has not been so, and at present quite a number of local amateurs have passed through the flux stage of rebuilding and are now actively engaged in interstate and international communication. Foremost of these is 6AG (the acknowledged sponsor of broadcasting in W.A.), his present-day short-wave phone, unostentatiously carried out, being a revelation, and to listen to him conversing in everyday generalities to a fellow amateur in New Zealand and a minute later pass the time of the day with another professional worker in Java surely stresses the milestones that have been passed with shortwave telephony within a few years. The ease that he converses in speech with stations thousands of miles away puts to shame all other forms of rapid communication. In Morse work quite a number of local amateurs are creating interest, and 6MU of Cottesloe has a nightly wongi with a brace or so of Yanks, and one occasion, with the aid of the Q list (international abbreviations), enabled him to have a connected yarn with a German amateur. 6WP is interested in phone, and distant reports stress his success in this sphere; 6SR, with a 4000 volt transformer and electrolytic rectifier, pines for an equal voltaged D.C. generator, when the snap of a switch gives unfailing voltage and rectifiers boil no more; 6VP will shortly be under the new call sign of 6PK; a 201A wilts under 500 volts; Raytheon rectified A.C. reports will be appreciated. An old timer in 6BO recently wiped the dust off his 1200-volt generator and rescued the 120-watter from the juniors who were playing with "daddy's valve"; he promises phone (semi-broadcasting) on 200 metres, expressing the opinion that the 40-metre band has lost its lure. While not in the amateur category, we learn that a proposed B class station will be commencing at an early date, it being located at Mt. Lawley.[36]

1928[edit]

1928 01[edit]
1928 02[edit]

B Class Proposals

Proposed B Class Stations. If rumor is fact, W.A. is soon to have a surplus of B class stations within the near future, as we have heard from interested parties that plans are almost finished, whilst in others everything is ready. Nevertheless, we notice with some misgiving that there is a notable absence of erection of the greatest necessity, the aerial system, or at least a number of them, to correspond with the proposals vouchsafed for by jade rumor. We learn authoritatively, that at least one private concern is nearing finality with their proposal. Progress up to the present has been retarded owing to the Wireless Commission's recommendations being considered, and we are informed this B class service will be in operation some time during June. A wave length of 270 metres is proposed, and the initial power will be 1½ to 2 kilowatts.[37]

1928 03[edit]

Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove

PEN PORTRAITS. Music, Fishing, Shooting. A somewhat varied and adventurous career has been the life of Mr. Mandeville D'Oyley Musgrove, the managing director of Musgroves, Ltd., Perth. He was born in the northern county of Cumberland, England, in 1872, and went to schools in London, Glasgow, France, Germany and Holland. The study of analytical chemistry at St. Thomas' Hospital, London, occupied (Start Photo Caption) MR. MANDEVILLE D'OYLEY MUSGROVE (End Photo Caption) the first years of his life on leaving college, and later this was succeeded by a turn in the British cavalry as bandsman with the 20th Hussars. In 1893 Mr. Musgrove, at the age of 21, set sail for Australia and landed in Victoria a few weeks later. For some time he was teaching music at Horsham, but in 1895 was attracted to the gold fields of Western Australia like so many other people. Here he only spent a few months before leaving on a return visit to England and Norway. Twelve months later he was again in this State and joined the Railway Department. His connection with this branch of State service was severed twelve months later when he went to the Boer War with the 2nd Western Australian contingent (1900.) After the cessation of hostilities he came back to Perth, but it was not long before he left for Melbourne in connection with the opening of the Commonwealth Parliament. Following his trip East he returned to his position in the W.A.G.R. Department and took part in the construction of the Kalgoorlie water scheme. At the beginning of 1902 he joined the firm of Nicholson's, Ltd., with which he remained for 21 years and nine months. In December, 1923, in conjunction with others, he founded the business of Musgrove's, Ltd. Apart from his interest in the musical education of the rising generation, Mr. Musgrove is a keen worker for local charities, which he and his firm are continually assisting. His hobbies are music, fishing and shooting, and he continued to take an interest in military affairs for many years after the African campaign. During the Great War he took an active part in the Cottesloe-Claremont Rifle Club, obtaining the rank of lieutenant in the reserve forces.[38]

1928 04[edit]
1928 05[edit]

B Class Proposals

CONTROL OF WIRELESS. Federal Attitude. MINISTER QUESTIONED. CANBERRA, Friday. A good deal of suspicion on both sides of the House of Representatives was shown at question time yesterday over the reported intention of the big broadcasting stations of the Commonwealth to enter a merger, but the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) assured members that the Government had no intention of allowing a powerful monopoly to take control of broadcasting. The first question came from Mr. Thompson (C.P., N.S.W.), who asked if there was likely to be a monopoly. To him Mr. Gibson said that the Government intended to retain control of broadcasting. It had already refused to hand over moneys due to one company, which had failed to supply the type of programme demanded by the department, and was prepared to do so again. He told Mr. Mann (Independent, W.A.), that the P.M.G.'s. Department was holding up the granting of "B" class station licences in Western Australia until the return of the Director of Postal Services (Mr. H. P. Brown) from Europe, after which there would be a reallocation of wave lengths. He followed this by informing Mr. Fenton (Labor, Vic.) that the Government approved of the coming co-ordination and desired it. He denied having heard that pressure had been brought on the South Australian stations to force them to allow themselves to be swallowed up by 3LO.[39]

RIGHTS OF W.A. Relayed Programme Question. What is in the wireless "wind"? Just at the moment matters in connection with broadcasting in Australia appear to be in the melting pot. Stations are effecting amalgamations; there are rumors of sales and monopolies, of relay stations, of "B" class stations, and what not? Meanwhile Mr. H. P. Brown, Australia's representative at the Washington Conference, is still in London preparatory to returning to Australia, when no doubt many of his recommendations, as a result of his worldwide study, will be put into effect. Recently, however, there has occurred at irregular intervals, but with regular persistence, reference to the possibility of using shortwaves for the purpose of supplying an all-Australia programme. At first those concerned with radio in the Commonwealth regarded it as one of those suggestions which one knew to be nice in theory but impracticable of being carried out, but it has been pushed up before public notice on so many occasions recently that one is constrained to believe that there is "a nigger in the woodpile" somewhere. [40]

1928 06[edit]

B Class Proposals

"B" STATION LICENCE. Another Applied For. People interested in wireless have heard a lot about the new stations, which are going to relieve the tedium in this State of listening to one station's programme, night after night, but nothing seems to have come of it. Application for a "B" class station was made some months ago by Mr. Faraday, of North Perth, but nothing further has been heard of this, although it has been reported that much of the material required is lying in bond in the Customs shed. If the delay is with the department in granting a formal licence then it is about time that that department — it is controlled from Melbourne — woke up and did something. If on the other hand Mr. Faraday has decided to go no further with the project the public would be interested to know. Hopes were raised that something would be done for wireless in this State when it was reported that 3LO had secured the control of the local "A" class station, but even this negotiation appears to have fallen through. It is learned that an application for a second "B" class station has recently been lodged for operation in this State, and it will be interesting to see what fate it meets with; whether the ardour of the promoters will wane should they be kept waiting in suspense concerning their licence, or whether the scheme comes to fruition. It is understood that principal interest in the proposal comes from South Australia and it will be interesting, to know whether Mr. A. L. Brown, late manager of 5CL, Adelaide, who arrived by the transcontinental train today, has any interest in the concern.[41]

B Class Proposals

RADIO PLEASURES. "B" Station for W.A. BROADCASTING PICTURES. Within a few minutes of the finish of the Melbourne Cup it should be possible, within a few months, for owners of wireless sets in Australia, and especially South Australia, to receive by radio a picture of the horses as they pass the post. Mr. A. L. Brown, late manager of Broadcasting Station 5CL Adelaide, and now in Perth as representative of the Australian Television Company and the National Musical Federation, explained today that the companies he represented had progressed a long way towards the making available for public benefit and pleasure radio photographs. He wished to make it clear at the outset that there was a distinct difference between radio photographs and television. BROADCASTING PICTURES In the case of television, experiments aimed at broadcasting a moving picture, so that the actions of the players in a theatrical production or a horse race could be portrayed for the benefit of "lookers-in," but with radio photographs a "still" photograph was broadcast. In the case of moving pictures, it is a well-known fact that the passing of 16 pictures a second is required to give the optical illusion of movement, and some difficulty has been experienced in making a televisor which can transmit and re-ceive photographs at such a pace. With the ordinary photograph, it is claimed to be much more easy, and produces much better results. Mr. Brown said that workshops had been erected in Adelaide, and it was expected to have the manufacture of the apparatus in hand before very long. The contrivance was quite a simple affair, being fitted into a small cabinet, about the size of the ordinary crystal set. APPARATUS TO COST £5 It would cost in the vicinity of £5. and would be worked in conjunction with any good receiving set of four valves or over. The satisfactory range of the apparatus should be up to about 500 miles from the transmitter. The ability to transmit a fixed picture would give a great fillip to photography, for items of pictorial interest during the day could be broadcast from time to time. Asked in which State the innovation would first be introduced. Mr. Brown said that arrangements had been made to start in South Australia, although he anticipated it would spread to the other States as soon as it had been thoroughly proved to the people in that State. The Television Company had been formed in October last, and development work was proceeding satisfactorily. NEW BROADCASTING STATION. Mr. Brown said that his visit to Western Australia was primarily to establish a "B" class station for the broadcasting of entertainment. Because the revenue derived from listeners' licences went in the main to the "A" class stations, it was necessary to secure support from local business people in the nature of advertising matter to be broadcast. Quite a number of firms, Mr. Brown said, had expressed their willingness to support the venture in this way, and upon his return to Melbourne in a few days' time definite arrangements would be made to proceed with the building of the station. He did not desire to indicate exactly where the. station would be erected, but said it would be in the metropolitan area, and certainly this side of the Darling Ranges. The wave length of the station was a matter for determination by the Commonwealth authorities, but it was proposed to have a power of 1000 watts. Invited to say when Western Australian listeners would first hear the station "on the air," Mr. Brown said that a lot depended on the Commonwealth Government, but if there were no difficulties in the way the first programme would be transmitted before the winter: had passed.[42]

1928 07[edit]

B Class Proposals

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. THIS STATE'S POSITION. Deputation to Mr. Bruce. Introduced by Mr. E. A. Mann, M.H.R., a deputation from the Wireless Development Association of Western Australia waited on the Prime Minister (Mr. Bruce) at the Esplanade Hotel yesterday afternoon. It was complained that broadcasting in this State at present was stagnant, and in a "frightful condition." Messrs. H. A. F. Bader, H. Truman, and R. Wilkes were the spokesmen. The deputation's case was put forcibly by Mr. R. Wilkes. He said that the Postmaster General's Department appeared to be absolutely unable to realise the actual position regarding wireless in Western Australia. From the deputation's point of view the position today was "absolutely frightful." More broadcasting licences had been cancelled than were in existence at present, and the very small market in the State was flooded with secondhand sets, or parts from sets pulled to pieces for resale. At one time there were 117 dealers in the State — now there were only 14. Small companies had lost everything they had possessed. Scarcely anyone in the Eastern States appeared to realise the desperate nature of the position locally. If the position in Victoria were one-quarter as bad as it was in Western Australia there would be such an outcry there that the Government would be compelled to move faster than it had up to the present. The Government made a huge blunder when it created a monopoly in broadcasting in Western Australia. Two or three favoured companies in the East had made big profits, while the local company had shouldered a huge loss. The local proprietors went into the matter as a commercial proposition, and had they made any profits they would have pocketed them and made no complaint. As it was their gain in other directions had been so great that their loss was a book loss only. Apart from the lack of talent for programmes, the local officials had shown a singular lack of enterprise and foresight. The Postmaster General (Mr. Gibson) appeared to have displayed a total disregard of the interest of traders and listeners, who were paying the piper. The Prime Minister: I am afraid we cannot get on with this deputation if you are going to put it that way. "Prepared to carry the Baby." Mr. Wilkes expressed his regret. He continued that it was singular that the applications for new "A" class licences for Western Australia had all been from Eastern States' companies, who had shown their willingness to "carry the West Australian baby" and offset their losses in West Australian revenue out of their profits in the Eastern States. Mr. Gibson's refusal had prevented the rich Eastern States companies from carrying the burden, and Western Australia from getting the benefit of additional stations. The Government now had before it applications from a company to start "A" class stations in every State of the Commonwealth. This it was desired, should be granted, subject to the condition that the first station be erected locally. That was necessary because every other State was already well catered for. The requests were:— (1) That additional "A" class licences be granted and that it be a condition that additional stations be erected in Western Australia before elsewhere. (2) Relay stations be provided in country districts at the earliest possible moment. (3) That "B" class licences at present held up be granted immediately. (4) That qualified amateurs be encouraged for the time being, to broadcast alternative programmes. Prime Minister's Reply. The Prime Minister replied that in regard to the granting of further "A" class stations in Western Australia, according to the revenue at present received locally it was perfectly obvious that it was not sufficient to provide decent programmes. That had been the whole trouble in Western Australia. To grant further licences would mean that the revenue would have to be apportioned between two three or four stations, which could only have the effect of making the position very much worse. The alternative suggestion that if an Eastern State's application was granted it would have to build in this State first was amazing. The only way to deal with the question was the provision of better programmes to encourage the people to buy listening-in sets. The best possible entertainers were required and they should be given an income that would enable them to provide the best programme. With regard to rebroadcasting one speaker had taken a very gloomy view of the possibilities by saying it could only be attained by sending over telephone wires. If that theory was accepted it must be realised that the post office would have to provide additional wires, as the trunk lines were already overloaded. In view of the present position and progress of wireless he was not going to let the Commonwealth in for the provision of special wires for rebroadcasting, costing many thousands of pounds, more especially in view of improvements possibly being brought about in the meantime, making the work all for nothing. Concerning "B" class licences it might be necessary to alter the whole of the operations of these stations and it was not proposed at present to grant any further licences. In New South Wales there were all sorts of wave lengths causing confusion. The whole question of wireless was being considered by the Government.[43]

1928 08[edit]
1928 09[edit]

Pertinent Paragraphs. Returned the other day from a trip abroad Mr. M. D'Oyly Musgrove, the head of the big Murray-street musical firm, whose name is blazoned at the top end of Forrest Place. A brilliant pianist himself Mr. Musgrove has for years taken an enthusiastic interest in musical affairs and in those with talent. And though he would not admit it for the world his ability as an artistic critic would rarely be questioned. Though his vocation is a musical one Mr. Musgrove is a great man for the out-of-doors. Healthy, outdoor sport has in him a great supporter, and particularly is this so in the case of swimming. At a number of our carnivals he has held the watch and his quiet, likeable personality has spurred on more talkative but less efficient sporting enthusiasts to do some thing really worth while. Motoring is another of Mr. Musgrove's fresh air relaxations and he drives his fine car well.[44]

1928 10[edit]

(Royal Show 1928). MUSGROVE'S, LTD. Broadcasting music with the strength of a full band, a Brunswick panatrope in front of the stall of Musgrove's, Ltd., more than spoke for itself. Using a new method of reproducing music from ordinary phonograph records, the panatrope is described as "the ultimate in musical reproduction." The principle employed is the audio-amplification used in wireless, and the panatrope does, in fact, amplify wireless, when used in place of, or in addition to, the usual audio stages. With a moving coil cone speaker, the instrument operated entirely from a light socket, and both records and wireless broadcasting are clearly audible at a distance of several hundred yards. For in-door use the panatrope can be modified in volume. Some attractive portable phonographs, including the Decca and the Vocalion makes, were on view in the stall, and also a Eufonola player piano. Since its introduction to Perth the latter has become one of the most popular models of its type. It is stated that more and more people are turning to the player piano, for it has become recognised as an instrument of great musical possibilities. The Eufonola is of the "modest price" class, but this classification is in no way a reflection upon its intrinsic merit, but rather an illustration of the advantages of high production. Popular airs and classic studies were played yesterday, and the ease of operation and high standard of execution of the instrument made a favourable impression on all listeners.[45]

1928 11[edit]
1928 12[edit]

1929[edit]

1929 01[edit]
1929 02[edit]
1929 03[edit]
1929 04[edit]
1929 05[edit]
1929 06[edit]

CARS. Registrations. . . . 23325, Mandeville D'O. Musgrove, 11 Chester-road, Claremont, Falcon Knight.[46]

1929 07[edit]
1929 08[edit]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. BROADCAST BREVITIES. OBSERVER. . . . (Subiaco Radio Society Radio Exhibition). . . MUSGROVE'S, LTD. The Stromberg Carlson set shown by this firm, and moderately priced, is a complete electric set with a distinctly aristocratic appearance. The efficiency of the set is of a very high order, and it is specially made to suit the local voltage and frequency. This set has already been in great demand locally, and inquiries showed they are selling like the proverbial hot cakes. It is a set ideally suited for the broadcast listener. The Brunswick electric panatrope exemplified the beauty of modern gramophone reproduction with magnetic pick ups and valve amplifiers. An attractive exhibit was the combined radio (Stromberg Carlson) and electric gramophone, either unit being available at the turn of a switch. This unit was one of the most admired at the exhibition.[47]

1929 09[edit]

B Class Proposals

WIRELESS EXHIBITION. New Era in Broadcasting. THE OFFICIAL OPENING. The prospects of the Australian Broadcasting Company opening a "B" class broadcasting station in this State at an early date were envisaged in the speech of Sir Benjamin Fuller last night, when the broadcasting station 6WF was officially opened under the new arrangement. Actually the Australian Broadcasting Company, of which Sir Benjamin is director, took over the entertainment side of the station as from Sunday, but last night a gala night was presented, and the speeches and a number of operatic items were given from the Wireless Institute's annual exhibition, held at Temple Court Cabaret. The exhibition was opened by Mr. S. H. Witt, chief radio engineer for the Commonwealth Government, at the invitation of the president of the Wireless Institute, and he described in brief the wonderful advances which have been made in the science since the early research of Maxwell and Hertz, and also alluded to the wonderful growth of the Wireless Institute as revealed by the annual exhibitions, which had originally been held in a room, but now demanded Perth's largest floor space. Sir Benjamin Fuller, in inviting the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. S. R. Roberts) to proclaim the new station 6WF open, said the Australian Broadcasting Co. realised its responstbilities, and was fully aware of the demands of the public for a very improved service in every department. It was the company's intentions to use only the very best artists that are obtainable locally, in conjunction with those imported from overseas. With only one station this variety of entertainment was somewhat limited, but it was to hoped that in a short period an announcement of great importance would be made which would make it possible for them to follow on similar lines to those adopted in the other capitals. Mr. S. R. Roberts proclaimed the new era in broadcasting. He said the change in the wave length of 6WF should have the most beneficial effects, not the least of which would be that listeners would now be able to purchase a variety of receiving sets, which in the average should be more efficient and less costly than sets hitherto procurable for use under the old conditions. The traders have a heavy responsibility to the listeners from the standpoint of ensuring that sets offered for sale are possessed of characteristics needed to provide satisfactory reception at the lowest possible cost. Following the speeches, the Celebrity Quartette, comprising Lilian Gibson, Rene Maxwell, Alfred Cunningham, and Charles Nieis, contributed concerted and individual items, which were loudly applauded by the attendance of approximately 200 people.[48]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. BROADCAST BREVITIES. By OBSERVER. . . (exhibition) . . . MUSGROVE'S LTD. A comprehensive display that attracted considerable attention was made by Musgrove's, the Stromberg Carlson "Treasure Chests" receiving due praise as befitted this quality receiver. The three-valve electric, with single dial control, pick up facilities and extreme selectivity coupled with its moderate price has made it a popular line. A six valve Treasure Chest was always the centre of a group of admirers. This set is capable of enormous amplification and will pick up the East with an indoor aerial, likewise perfect local reception is obtainable, minus any aerial. The Strombergs are finished in old gold metal cases, and employ full wave rectification with R.C.A. valves. Illuminated dial controls add to the appearance of a handsomely finished escutcheon plate. Two and three valve battery models of the Airzone metal-screened sets showed them to be quality receivers at a moderate price and within reach of the slenderest purse. A new type of Magnavox is available, equipped with the luxide diaphragm, also a D.C. excited range which takes only 24 milliamperes field current. The Airzone portable was featured and gave excellent results in operation. Amongst the new lines to Lyric House is the induction type disc motor for gramophones, also a full range of Raytheon A.C. valves.[49]

B Class Proposals

THE BROADCASTER. WIRELESS WRINKLES. (By VK6FG.) The whole of the transmitting plant at broadcasting station 6WF from the microphone to the aerial has been over-hauled by the engineers working under the direction of Mr. S. H. Witt, chief radio engineer of the Commonwealth Government, and Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick, superintending engineer. . . . NEED FOR A SECOND STATION. One need which the writer has consistently advocated is that of a second station in Western Australia. With the reduction of the wave lengths of 6WF this need becomes all the more imperative. For those living in the country the position is not quite so bad, for being out of the immediate "shock area" of the local station, they are able to tune in the Eastern States without difficulty. Locally, however, only those sets which are truly selective will be able to tune in 5CL, 3LO, 2FC, and 2BL while 6WF is running on full power. This means, in effect, then, that a proportion of the sets at present in use in the metropolitan area will be tied down to listening to the local station. No matter how good one station's programme may be, there is always a need for diversification, and that is the reason for the need of a second station. A "B" class station is wanted, and wanted badly, so that the listener who does not want to listen to, say, an account of a boxing contest may tune in to some bright music or other attraction. There are many interests willing and anxious in this State to conduct a station of this kind, and it is up to the department to hurry up the matter of allocations. If reports be true, there are several hundred applications for stations awaiting decision.[50]

B Class Proposals

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. AMATEUR NOTES. (By VK6FG) There are persistent rumors that a "B" class station is to be erected in Perth at an early date. In this case the company named is a new entrant into the field of those previously discussed by those who claim to have some knowledge of what is taking place below the surface of things. Private advices inform me that between 250 and 300 applications have been made throughout Australia for "B" class stations, but that the matter was being held up temporarily, while "A" class station matters were straightened out. It is hardly to be regarded as feasible that the authorities would grant all licences applied for, so some difficulty may be experienced in sorting out those who will not. Doubtless of this 300 odd, several applications have been made from Western Australia. In other States "B" class stations are controlled by companies interested in musical instruments, newspapers, and religion, and it is not expecting too much to anticipate that applications from similar organisations in this State will be made. From the point of view of diversified programmes, a "B" class station would be a great acquisition to the State, for there are many people who would prefer to listen to a lecture or good music while a boxing contest is in progress, and vice versa. It is only to be hoped that the authorities will see to it that the successful applicant agrees to maintain a high standard of programme entertainment. How far an early decision may be affected by the political crisis in Federal affairs will remain to be seen.[51]

B Class Proposals

THE BROADCASTER. What's Wrong with Radio. DISAPPOINTMENT OF 6WF. (By VK6FG.) Most people in Western Australia were prepared to give the local broadcasting station a chance to change over from 1250 to 435 metres in wavelengths and to make due allowance for the sudden transfer of interests generally. Different people had different ideas of just how long such a change over should take, and how long it would be before the station was running normally. Everyone wished the station well and were prepared to accord it goodwill. Those who thought the changeover would take a few days and those who thought the business might take a couple of weeks have both been disappointed. It is just three weeks since 6WF was reduced in wavelength, after some preliminary tests. The position today is anything but satisfactory. Listeners have got tired of heaving excuse after excuse for the failure of the station to put out a decent transmission. On the mechanical side of the business this is what listeners complain of: (1) Lack of volume (between 257 and 250 miles from the station). (2) Background of hum. (3) Distortion of music and muffled speech. (4) Bad fading. There does not appear to be very much left to say, which may be good about the station and letters from listeners both in town and country indicate that they are quickly getting "fed-up" with affairs as they are. A number are threatening to cancel their licences and the fact that traders in the city have disposed of at least £1500 worth of new material since the end of August rather indicates that if the present regrettable position continues, there will be many more complaints. Those listeners living well out in the wheatbelt confess that the local station is not worth listening to and now turn to the Eastern States stations for their entertainment. Some have raised the question of whether 6WF is merely running to give the Eastern States listeners a chance of listening in for two hours after their local stations close down. No matter how good a programme may be put on, poor or bad transmission can spoil it entirely. QUALITY OF PROGRAMMES And that brings us to the question of programmes. Analysing the position impartially, what is the difference between the programmes now and those of the old era. There is one big improvement and that is in the presentation of the programmes. This fact is acknowledged gladly. There certainly is more sparkle and zip in the manner in which the programme is run, but what of the items? We have had members of an operatice quartette on and off for the past three weeks, a lecturer who has now exhausted his repertoire of broadcasting stories and generally, the old and familiar artists we knew from the open-ing of the station almost. Where are the wonderful programmes we have been promised? The highly paid artists, the frequent changes and that variation which is the spice of broadcasting? Instead, Mr. Stuart Doyle, managing director of the Australian Broadcasting Company, told the Federal Arbitration Court the other day that at the present time the company is losing between £10,000 and £15,000 a year and even went so far as to submit confidential statements regarding the company's financial position to the Court. Of course, the company is still to take over some of the other broadcasting stations, and payable ones at that, so that the financial position of the company should be bettered, a little later on but in this State the company would doubt-less make an excuse which reasonable folk would be likely to admit. What is the use of presenting a high-class programme to have it mangled out of recognition by poor transmission? All the same, the fact remains that stripped of its better presentation, the programmes are not very materially different from those of the old era, and gramophone music figures just as much if not more so, than before. The extra sessions accommodate some sections of the community, particularly the traders, but it is the quality of the even-ing programmes which count among listeners in this State. NEW STATION WANTED. Obviously the first thing necessary is to have a transmission worth while. Everybody is heartily sick of the present bungling and monotonously regular apology. Even at this late stage it would perhaps be better to scrap the present gear and establish a new transmitting plant altogether and in doing so consideration would need to be given to a new location. There are several places which recommend themselves, but somewhere along the top of the Darling Ranges, where the city electricity supply is avail-able, commends itself best. Such a station would serve both city and country, although some measure of fading may still be experienced. It would leave the way clear for a "B" class station or two in the city and would not interfere with relay stations along the eastern goldfields railway line and along the Great Southern. Unless many new listeners in the city, and particularly in the country are to become hopelessly disgusted with broadcasting, and many old licences cancelled. It will be necessary for the authorities to act with hitherto unprecedented celerity, Will they do it? Time will tell.[52]

1929 10[edit]

B Class Proposals

WIRELESS NEWS. BROADCASTING. Notes from Station 6WF. (By "Radio.") The staff of the local station has been very busy of late, as they have put over the air descriptions of the main Centenary celebrations, giving frequent reports of the East-West air race, dealt with the Royal Show, and many other important items, as well as handled many complaints regarding the transmissions. These have improved as far as the metropolitan area is concerned, but country listeners, to put it mildly, are far from being satisfied. The strangest feature of the transmissions is that they are highly regarded in the Eastern States, where 6WF is undoubtedly the "star" station and is listened to by hundreds between 11 p.m. and 1 a.m. each night. Locally the need for one or two "B" class stations is urgently felt, as there is no alternative station available, now the Eastern State stations are beyond the reach of most of us, when an item is on the air which does not appeal. Music is the most sought after thing, and if there was a "B" class station or so broadcasting records and player piano items to listen to when wrestling descriptions, talks, church services, etc., which appeal to only sections of the community were being broadcast by 6WF, a longfelt want would be filled.[53]

1929 11[edit]
1929 12[edit]

B Class Proposals

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. "B" CLASS STATIONS. (By VK6FG.) So many rumors have from time to time during the last year been prevalent concerning "B" class stations in this State, that one is almost loth to mention the subject. A fresh rumor has developed in wireless circles, with what appears to be some foundation of fact, and if this prove correct Perth should have its first "B" class station at no far distant date. It is not possible at the moment to divulge who will be the controllers of the proposed station, but it should occasion no surprise when it is announced. All who have taken an interest in broadcasting in this State have realised the necessity of alternative programmes and the writer has on more than one occasion dwelt upon the necessity for this station. The present "A" class station could be the best in the world and still not suit everybody. Western Australia might well have two or three "B" class stations and still not be over-supplied from the listeners' point of view, although, of course, three stations would prove a problem in respect of finance. It is to be sincerely hoped that the present proposal will prove that the Commonwealth Government has at last devoted attention to the poor man's amusement and taken definite action in the matter.[54]

Musgroves' Dividend. Musgroves Ltd., one of Perth's largest music warehouses, has declared a dividend of 6d. per share for the quarter ended December 5. The payment of quarterly dividends is something that is greatly appreciated by shareholders. Most people like to see some return for their money at less intervals than six or 12 months, and when they know, as in this case, that they have to wait only for three months they can make their dispositions accordingly and with greater convenience to themselves. On the present price of the shares this rate of dividend is equal to approximately ten per cent. The directors are not tied down to this amount, for if business brightened sufficiently they would as lief make the dividend 9d. as 6d. It was rumored a few weeks ago that no dividend would be paid this quarter, but those who know something of the business of the company, and the excellent manner in which it is being conducted, placed no credence in, the suggestion.[55]

B Class Proposals

NEW BROADCAST STATION. Granted to Musgroves Ltd. WILL OPERATE IN MARCH. Advice was received today that permission has been given Musgroves Ltd., the well-known musical dealers, to erect and operate a "B" class broadcasting station from their premises in Murray-street. Mr. F. C. Kingston stated this afternoon that the firm would endeavor to put on a really good programme at all times. Having a musical warehouse they had every facility for doing so, and on their staff were many fine vocal and instrumental artists, so that there should be no shortage of entertaining items. Quotations and specifications are being received for an up-to-date plant, which will be crystal controlled. The power has not yet been decided, but will be between 250 and 500 watts. The station will be located in their present premises, using the existing recital room as a studio. This has been used for broadcasting for the last two years and gave excellent results. The instruments will be placed in an adjoining room which has been used by a music teacher for some time. The new station does not expect to get on the air until about March. The hours of service have not yet been decided, but the new station will be on the air at times when 6WF is off thus providing an almost continuous programme throughout the day. The new station will co-operate with 6WF in the matter of programmes, so that when lectures are on at one station musical items, etc., may be given from the other. Mr. F. C. Kingston, a director of Mus-groves Ltd., will control the station.[56]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. Musgrove's "B" Class Licence. Mr. F.C. Kingston, a director of Musgroves Ltd., announced yesterday that the company's application for a licence to operate a "B" class wireless station had been granted and that the new station would be on the air about March next. The wave length would be in the vicinity of 300 metres, the power was expected to be 500 watts and the studio would be located on the top floor of Musgrove's Building, Murray-street. The programmes would be arranged so that listeners would be catered for when 6WF was off the air during the day and would provide an alternate station to tune in to each night. "In view of the uncertainty of the position," said Mr. Kingston yesterday, "we had not committed ourselves as to plant but we will immediately arrange for the erection of our plant which is to be on the most modern lines. The transmission will be crystal-controlled. This new station is just what is needed to increase the growing interest in radio in this State, where the licences are approaching the 5,000 mark for the first time, and while it will mean a great deal of work for us it should be a great benefit to listeners and the trade. One of the chief advantages of the new station will be the provision of alternate broadcasts and will give listeners for the first time a variety of stations in their own State. We hope to serve all listeners from, Geraldton to Albany and Perth to Kalgoorlie." As the owners of the new station are music warehousemen they will have unlimited opportunities of broadcasting all the latest gramophone records and player-piano rolls, which are used so successfully by Melbourne amateur stations like 3EF and 3BY. In addition there are vocalists and instrumentalists on the staff of the company and their house orchestra, which was disbanded some time ago, will be brought together again. The station will be on the air when 6WF is off, probably between 11 and 12.30 in the morning, 2.30 and 3.30 in the early afternoon, 5 and 6 in the early evening and 7.45 and 10 each night. The station will be on the air on Sundays, and the evening session on that day will probably be from 7 to 9. Thus there will be no conflict with Mr. Howell's musicale which is, perhaps, the most popular session from 6WF and which begins at approximately 8.45 p.m. Mr. Kingston will be the manager of the new station which so far is unnamed.[57]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. "B" CLASS STATION. Radio circles were pleased when information was given in this paper at the beginning of last week that a "B" class station was to be erected in Perth at an early date. For some time it has been urged that an alternative programme to that put on the air by 6WF would make a great difference with listeners, and so it should. Those who don't like jazz or classical music may be enabled to listen in to some other entertainment when a second station is on the air. I had the pleasure of an interesting talk with Mr. Musgrove and Mr. Kingston a few days ago concerning the station which Musgroves Ltd. are to erect. Both representatives of the firm are anxious to make the station a good one, and one which would have wide public appeal. It is expected that tenders and full details will be received immediately after the resumption of business in the New Year, and with an early decision after the various schemes have been investigated, it is hoped to have the station on the air towards the end of March, and certainly before the Easter holidays in April. Those who propose going into the country, to Rottnest or any of the various holiday resorts therefore should not forget to provide for a wireless set. No callsign has yet been applied for but it has been suggested, and both Mr. Musgrove and Mr. Kingston approve, that 6ML would be most fitting. It does not conflict with any amateur callsign here, represents the initial letters of the firm and the two consonants are sufficiently clear to avoid misunderstanding over the air. The engineer in charge is to be Mr. Harry Simmonds, who was better known to the amateur world a few years ago as 6KX. A competent young radio engineer he should prove a success in his present position. No decision has yet been made regarding an announcer, but as there is much preliminary work to be done before the station goes on the air this appointment may not be made for some time. A "B" class station as is well known does not derive its revenue from licences, but has to secure revenue from advertising over the air and other avenues. Therefore, some organisation in this direction will be necessary before the less important details are given attention. No announcement has yet been made respecting wavelength, but the chances are it will be in the region of 300 metres. Most of the custom built sets have a range of from 250 to 600 metres and naturally it will be desired to keep the station safely inside this range. A wavelength of some where about 300 metres would avoid, too, the nearest harmonic from 6WF. It is pleasing to learn that even at this early stage there is a spirit of co-operation between the existing station and the new "B" class organisation. By co-ordination between the two stations much may be done to give the programmes which will not clash and which will provide good alternative items. The new station has not definitely fixed on the hours which it will be on the air, but the tentative programme will be: 11 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.; 2.30 to 3.30 p.m.; 5 to 6.30 p.m.; 7.30 to 10.30 p.m., and Sundays from 7 to 9 p.m. With an unlimited choice of gramophone records and pianola rolls and with many talented musicians on their staff, Musgroves should be in an ideal position so far as musical programmes are concerned, but will need to organise some of the other features of the programme, which, however, should not be difficult. The new station will have the goodwill of the whole of the wireless community, which since the alteration of wavelength of 6WF has been finding difficulty in bringing in some of the Eastern States stations.[58]

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. Two Stations in March. (By "Radio.") The news that permission to operate a "B" class station has been granted by the Chief Wireless Inspector (Mr. J. D. Malone) to Musgrove's, Ltd., the well known Perth music company, has been hailed with enthusiasm by every wireless listener in the State, as when the new station comes on the air in March next, we shall have a choice of two local stations, which is something we have been waiting and hoping for for years. Financial difficulties consequent on the small revenue received from licences here, compared with other States will preclude Western Australia from being given relay stations until the more advanced wireless states are satisfied, so that our only hope for variety is from enterprising firms who are prepared to run B class stations. This is the first station of its kind here, and it is possible that another may follow. The new station will be situated in Musgrove's Buildings, Murray-street and will be under the management of Mr. F. C. Kingston, one of the directors of the company, who is already busily engaged in preparing for the erection of the station and the hundred and one details which are necessary. The company will have at its disposal all the latest music and methods of reproducing it, and we shall hear piano rolls for the first time. Listeners to the amateur stations 3BY and 3EF, Victoria, heard many fine programmes consisting of gramophone records and rolls broadcast alternately. The new station will have a crystal controlled transmission, and it will be in pleasing contrast to the transmission of 6WF, which, though better than it was, will never be perfect until new apparatus is provided and the transmitter re-erected in a suitable place out of the city. The future of radio is now very bright, and shortly there will be 5,000 licences in existence in this State. It is not too much to say that in the middle of next winter — the most popular time for wireless — that there will be at least a 50 per cent, increase in the above figures.[59]

Over the Ether. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. By OBSERVER. . . . W.A.'S FIRST "B" STATION. News hailed with delight by all Western Australian listeners, is the announcement of the granting of a B class license to Messr. Musgrove's, Ltd., the well-known music warehouse-men, of Murray-street, who, it is anticipated, will have the station ready for service early next March. In congratulating Messrs. Musgrove's on their signal honor of being allotted the first B license in W.A., we know that we voice the sentiments of all who are connected with wireless, that their public spirited action will achieve the full measure of success that it rightly deserves. May their wireless venture be a highly prosperous and successful one, which will add further dignity to broadcasting in this State. It is opportune to mention that Messrs. Musgrove's have for some years past been regular contributors to the programmes from 6WF, the Brunswick Panatrope hour and various other musicales being conducted by the firm. They have always shown the highest appreciation of the musical art and coupled with a choice of items, this could not help but please all tastes. These are indeed happy auguries for listeners. When 6ML is at their service for a full programme transmission, the yearnings of other days, when many listeners often wished for a lengthy extension of the Panatrope sessions, and many other items which added zest to a jaded programme will be realised. In conformity with modern practice and we think, the first instance in Australia with broadcast stations, the new station will be crystal controlled, which, apart from its ability of maintaining a constant wave length, confers other technical and practical advantages. The wave length has not yet been decided upon, though the choice of a suitable one for local conditions would seem to lie in the neighborhood of 300 metres, so as to be reasonably clear of interference from 6WF's powerful transmitter. The significance of two local stations is quite obvious to listeners. Hitherto, Western Australia has been the only State where a solo station only existed, and this, apart from the lack of alternative transmission, made the task of the programme compilers an unenviable one. The spirit of tolerance is an excellent virtue, for which we Westerners are justly renowned, and the present record license position and continuity of increase shows that the advent of the A.B.C. in our midst has been more than appreciated. This success we feel sure, is due in no small way, to the excellent management and uncommon ability of Mr. Basil Kirke in handling 6WF's destiny. With 6ML, and 6WF in operation, we anticipate a threefold increase in the license position. After all, black and white figure statistics are the only true, measure of broadcasts success.[60]

1930s[edit]

1930[edit]

1930 01[edit]

AMATEUR BROADCASTING. NOTICE TO OPERATORS. WITHDRAWAL OF WAVE LENGTHS. Restrictions From March 1. According to a circular issued by the Postal department to operators of amateur wireless transmitting stations, broadcasting from these stations will shortly be placed beyond the reach of most listeners. At present the amateur stations providing broadcasting programmes operate in the wave length band from 200 to 250 metres. These wave lengths are the longest which amateurs are permitted to use, and they are the only amateur wave lengths to which ordinary types of broadcast receivers will tune. The Postal department has issued a notice that this band is to be withdrawn from amateurs so that two "B" class broadcasting stations, one in Newcastle and one in Perth, may use it. It was arranged that the change should be made from today, but as neither of the "B" class stations is yet ready to begin transmissions amateurs will be permitted to continue to use the wave lengths until March 1. Experimenters in Victoria complain that the withdrawal of the wave lengths is unfair. At present there are nearly a dozen amateur stations in Melbourne providing first-class programmes, which are received by thousands of listeners every Sunday night, and are welcomed as an addition to the services of the principal stations. Victorian listeners will receive little benefit from the new "B" class stations, which will be too far away to provide satisfactory services for Victoria. In addition, Victorian listeners will lose the amateur programmes. Experimenters contend that even if it be desired to allot wave lengths within the present experimental band to "B" class broadcasting stations, amateur stations should be permitted to continue to use the band when the "B" class stations are not transmitting.[61]

APPROPRIATE PROGRAMMES. Mr. Basil Kirke, station director of 6WF and his staff deserve the praise which was bestowed by listeners as a result of the pleasing programmes which were broadcast during the week. Also sharing in this in no small way, were the efforts of Bert Howell and his Ambassadorians, who on many occasions provided delightful orchestral items, which really proves the worthwhileness of a wireless set. It is pleasing to note the increasing use which is being made of portables, and is a factor which is yet too little appreciated by listeners, who do not fully recognise the charm and entertainment value which can accrue to open air outings and picnics when a portable is an inconspicuous, but, by no means inanimate object. On the score of programmes it was pleasant, to say the least, to listen to a choice selection of records. Especially was this noted on Christmas Day, when first class entertainment was provided. The A.B.C. enters the New Year with pleasing prospects for the future, especially in this State, where real interest in radio is being rekindled, as distinct from the attraction of broadcasting as only a novelty. Further addition will come to listeners by the inauguration of Messrs. Musgrove's B class station at the beginning of March.[62]

BROADCASTING FROM 6WF. Criticism of New System. Mr. W. E. Coxon writes:— "Sufficient time has elapsed since September last, when the Australian Broadcasting Company and the Postmaster-General's Department assumed the control of broadcasting in Western Australia, to arrive at some conclusion as to the advantage, or otherwise of some of the changes that have been made. From a broadcasting standpoint, Western Australia, of all States, is the most unfavourably situated. Its large area and small population — much of it lying in the tropics with consequent poor receiving conditions — and the long distances from the broadcasting stations in the Eastern States make conditions differ greatly from that of the other States. It is unfortunate that, when regulations governing wireless are made, Western Australia must accept them whether they are adaptable to this State or not, and, as far as wireless is concerned, very little, if any, consideration has been given this State in the past. It is certain that a much greater number of licences would now be in existence if the particular needs of Western Australia had been investigated during the first years of broadcasting. "It does not matter how excellent one single programme is, it will not create the interest that a variety of programmes will even if of lesser merit. For years the several applications for 'B' class licences from this State have received no encouragement from the Postmaster-General's Department, and, because of conditions that existed in the East, the holding up of all 'B' class licences had to apply to Western Australia, and yet this State was without a 'B' class station. This is evidence of ignorance of the wireless posi-tion in Western Australia. The approval of an application by Musgrove's, Limited, will certainly stimulate interest in radio in Western Australia, but it seems more than a coincidence that, following a change of Government, the licence should be granted . A reply to an application by that firm a few months ago practically amounted to a refusal to grant any 'B' class licences. The enterprise of a com-pany in entering the field of broadcasting in Western Australia is, indeed, to be commended, and its efforts deserve every success. Let us hope also that any future applications from Western Australia for 'B' class licences will receive encourage-ment rather than what has been in the past — discouragement. "The change of wave-length of 6WF as made by the Postmaster-General's Department has proved a lamentable failure. The State's geographical position is such that a long-wave broadcasting station is a necessity. It makes no difference to that position even if the Timbuctoo Broad-casting Company provided the pro-grammes, and this fact seems to have been lost sight of by those that inaugu-rated the 'new era.' The most reliable stations in Europe from a service point of view are those that are broadcasting on a long wavelength, and the conditions make it even more necessary here. Remedy with Department. "Where a service is maintained by a licence fee it should be the aim of the authorities to provide that service. In Western Australia at present it is not being done. The remedy lies within the power of the Postmaster-General's Department only. . .[63]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . New Broadcasting Station. Musgroves, Ltd., who intend to erect a new B. Class broadcasting station at their premises in Murray-street, have received a letter from the Director-General of Posts and Telegraphs advising that they have been allotted 6ML as call sign and a wave length of 297 metres. Tenders for the erection and installation of the plant have already closed and it is expected that by next week the successful contractors will be known. The company hope to have the station in operation by the end of next March.[64]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. WONDERS OF TODAY. (By VK6FG). . . . NEW "B" CLASS STATION. Tenders, which have been considered for some weeks, may be finalised within the next three or four days, as a result of which Perth's new "B" class station 6ML will be erected. One of the first steps which Musgrove's Ltd. took in respect of the es-tablishment of a station was to acquire the property on which their business now stands. The erection of masts to carry the aerial is a complicated job, and certainly one which it is not desired to repeat. 6ML has been granted permission to use up to 300 watts in the aerial, which although of small power compared with 6WF should be ample for a radius of 250 miles. While results may show that it has even better carrying power. The wavelength allocation of 297 metres (approximately 1000 kilocycles) should be suitable too, for it should avoid harmonics from 6WF and be sufficiently well separated to avoid trouble. "B" class stations do not receive any financial help from the Commonwealth, so the station will be thrown upon its own resources in this regard. Doubtless the 4000-odd listeners will be added to with the appearance of a new station, and with the present financial outlook the station cannot expect to show profits. They should, however, earn the goodwill of the listeners by providing an alternative programme.[65]

BROADCASTING STATION. Tenders for 6ML. SUCCESS OF ADELAIDE FIRM. The National Musical Federation Ltd., of Adelaide, the owners of Broadcasting Station 5KA of that city, are the successful tenderers for the construction of a "B" class station for Musgrove's Ltd. of Perth. In making the announcement this morning, Mr. M. Musgrove said that the tender provided for the new station to be handed over on or before March 19, and from advices which he had received the tenderers were making every effort to be ready before that date. The station, which will be known as 6ML, will operate on a wave length of 297 metres, with an output in the aerial of 300 watts. The transmitter will comprise a crystal oscillator, an intermediate amplifier, a power amplifier, a modulating unit, together with filament supply and high tension supply, with smoothing devices. The aerial masts, which will be of steel, are being erected by Musgrove's themselves, and will rise 60ft. above the roof of their building in Murray-street. This work will be put in hand almost immediately, and it is expected that by the middle of February the transmitting units will be shipped from Adelaide. STATION PERSONNEL. The engineer-operator of the station will be Mr. Harry Simmonds, well known among amateur radio operators here, and the announcer will be Mr. Archie Graham, who is at present associated with 6WF. Mr. Graham has appeared as an entertainer at 4QG (Brisbane), 2BL (Sydney), 3LO (Melbourne), and 5CL (Adelaide), in addition to the Perth station, and was for a time announcer for 5CL. The hours the new station will be on the air have been tentatively fixed, and are: Week-days, 11 a.m. to 12.30 p.m., 2.30 to 3.30 p.m., 5 to 6.30 p.m., 7.30 to 10.30 p.m.; Sundays. 7 to 9 p.m. Mr. Musgrove said today that the initial programmes would be drawn up after consultation by him with the programme director, but they were determined to secure the best artists offering. A system of sponsored programmes would be introduced on a similar plan to that adopted in America, where firms bought so much of a station's time on the air and submitted entertainment interspersed with advertising.[66]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. 6ML to Open in March. A new wireless broadcasting station, 6ML, to be operated by Musgroves, Ltd., of Murray street, Perth, will be opened before March 19. Mr. M. Musgrove announced yesterday that his company had accepted the tender of the National Musical Federation, Ltd., of Adelaide, the owners of station 5KA, for the construction of the company's "B" class station, which would be situated in Lyric House, Murray-street. The tender provided for the completion of the station by March 19, but it is understood that the successful tenderers intended to endeavour to have the station ready before that date. The new station will operate on a wave length of 297 metres and will be able to be received by all sets which cover the normal broadcasting band. The power will be only 300 watts, but as the transmitter will be of the latest type, the range of the station will probably extend beyond Albany, Kalgoorlie and Geraldton, which it is intended to serve. The aerial system will be on the roof of Musgrove's buildings and the masts will be 60 feet high. Arrangements for the construction and erection of these parts are now being made. Mr. C. F. Kingston, one of the directors of the company, will be in charge of the station and Mr. A. Graham will be the announcer. Mr. Graham is well known to local listeners, being the "Archie" of "Archie and Watty", radio entertainers. Mr. H. Simmonds, a local amateur radio operator, will be the engineer-operator of the station. The hours that the station will be on the air have been provisionally fixed as follow:— Weekdays, 11 a.m. to 12.30 p.m., 2.30 to. 3.30 p.m., 5 to 6.30 p.m. and 7.30 to 10.30 p.m.; Sun-days, 7 to 9 p.m. The station will thus fill in the gaps between 6WF's day sessions and provide the long-awaited choice of programmes at night, when the majority of radio enthusiasts are listening. Mr. Musgrove said yesterday that the company would not spare, expense in placing programmes of the highest standard before the public. As in the Eastern States and other parts of the world, a system of sponsored sessions would be introduced under which advertisers would buy so much of a station's time on the air and supply entertainment interspersed with advertisements. While the latest music would be broadcast by means of gramophones and player-pianos, the company intended to include in its programmes the best artists available as well as concert parties and a special orchestra.[67]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. BETTER BROADCASTS. (By VK6FG). . . . "B" CLASS STATION. Finality has at last been reached in the matter of the construction of 6ML, the State's first "B" class station. The contract went to the National Musical Federation Ltd., of Adelaide, better known to wireless folk as 5KA, for the federation maintains a "B" class station in our sister city. The company promised to have the station on the air in eight weeks, with an output of 300 watts and with a piezo-electric crystal maintaining the frequency. The two masts necessary are not included in the contract, and these will be erected by the owners of the station, Musgroves, Ltd., themselves. They will each be 60ft. tall and be built of steel. The type of aerial to be employed is being left very largely to the tenderers. Those with the modern broadcast receivers will be able to bring in the new station, which is on 297 metres, without any difficulty, as the majority of these sets cover a scale of from 200 to 600 metres.[68]

1930 02[edit]

Over the Ether. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. BROADCAST BREVITIES. BY KILOCYCLE. (Photo Caption) MR. F. C. KINGSTON. Manager to Messrs. Musgrove's broadcasting station, 6ML.[69]

BROADCASTING. LISTENERS' COMPLAINTS. Need for Government Action. (By "Radio.") Heralded by an intense publicity campaign, which attracted the attention of many persons hitherto unconcerned with wireless, what was termed the new era in radio was ushered into Western Australia on September 1 last when the Australian Broadcasting Company took over the presentation and provision of programmes from 6WF, Perth, and the Commonwealth Government through the Postmaster-General's Department assumed control of the actual transmissions which, from that date, were on a wave length of 435 metres instead of the dual transmissions on 1,250 metres and 104.5 metres. Much was expected from the change but the only gain, as far as listeners are concerned, has been an improvement in programmes at the expense of the disadvantages to be mentioned later. From a general point of view it is satisfactory to be able to record, as on December 31 last, the highest number of licences, 4,727, ever known in this State. Apart from those two factors, everything seems to be wrong and, after several months, the early murmurings of complaint have now swollen into a torrent of criticisms by dissatisfied listeners, both city and country, who have something unpleasant to say about everything but the programmes. The most disquieting feature of the present state of wireless in Western Australia is the unsatisfactory service being rendered to country listeners, to whom wireless is an incomparable boon. City dwellers could be deprived of wireless without grave consequences but to country listeners the inability to receive news, market and weather reports and other information of similar importance, to say nothing of entertainment items, is a serious matter. The broadcasting service is one maintained by a licence fee, and having paid his fee the country listener is entitled to receive the service. At present, in many districts, country enthusiasts are unable to hear the station at all on the new wave length and, when they can log the station, poor daylight reception, fading, distortion and the broadly tuned and poor quality transmission are in sharp contrast to their previous results on the old wave lengths when they did get a reliable service. This is reflected in the 350 odd cancellations during the four months from September 1 to December 31, and in the demand for a return to the old wave lengths. In the city, listeners join hands with their country confreres in condemning the poor quality of the transmissions which are not better by the obviously inefficient way in which the control apparatus is operated. To these complaints, metropolitan listeners have a grievance of their own — 6WF, being situated in the city and on a wave length in the middle of those used by the Eastern States stations they are prevented from logging those stations. Distance lends enchantment to the ear as well as the view and many listeners, who found insufficient variety in the programmes of one station, were kept satisfied by their ability to tune into programmes in other parts of Australia. Unless the station be moved out of Perth and its blanketing effect thus obviated, many city listeners would prefer to see the station return to its old wave lengths. Generally speaking, the trouble lies in the change of wave length and the poor transmissions, which are reproduced by apparatus that is obsolete and which should never have been used for the new wave length. Many Wireless Enthusiasts. There is a great deal of interest in wireless in this State and, if this is properly exploited, it is reasonable to assume that the licence figures could eventually be increased to the vicinity of 20,000. To, do this would, of course, mean a main station, within 50 miles of Perth and relay stations in important country centres as well as several "B" class stations. To expect this, within many years, is to be unduly optimistic, as there are the demands of other and more populous states to be satisfied and so far as wireless has been concerned there is an unfortunate tendency on the part of the Commonwealth Government to regard this State as "only Western Australia and anything will do." The increase in licences, from 3,888 in September to 4,727 in December indicates the interest in radio and justifies the demand that the Government take some action to alleviate the present state of affairs. The question of the wave length is an open one, many desiring a reversion to the dual transmissions, while, on the other hand, a large body of opinion favours the retention of the new wave length providing the station is rebuilt, moved out of the city, increased in power from five kilowatts to ten, and constructed in such a way that it will provide a reasonably sharply tuned single carrier and modulated according to the latest methods. An important advantage of the existing wavelength is that it enables the use of the latest receiving sets. A new station would be costly, and unless strong pressure is brought on the Government, Western Australia will probably be neglected as before. There is no doubt the listening public, who pay their fees, are entitled to service, and the Government, should not spare expense in providing this. Pending the consideration of rebuilding the station, the authorities might consider a proposal which would give immediate relief. The transmission should be continued on the 435 mefres wave length but on half a kilowatt power, as was used in August last, when the first tests were made on this wave length. Those tests were of excellent quality compared with the quality when the full power of five kilowatts was used, and were reported to have covered nearly as wide a range. With the smaller power the modulation was better and the multiplicity of waves avoided. At the same time to enable the country listeners to hear the programmes at least after dark, the authorities should again operate on the 104.5 wave length, as well as from 6 p.m. onwards. This wave length gave satisfactory reception to country districts, and something must be done for the country people, for whom the half loaf of night reception on 104.5 metres would be better than the state of no bread existing for too many today. As it is, the department can thank the short wave stations, which are received here very well, and the combination radio-gramophones, which provide relief from some of the worst: transmissions, for holding the interest to many other listeners who would add their quota to the daily letters of com-plaints. Next winter, when nearly every-body attempts to tune in to stations in the East, there will be many more complaints of interference from 6WF. Programmes Satisfactory. As far as the programmes are concerned, it is generally conceded that there has been an improvement. There is room for further improvement, but it is obvious that with the poor quality of the transmissions, and, in parts of the country, the inability of listeners to receive the broadcasts at all, it would be a waste of money for the company to put on any better programmes than they are because the management and the artists never know how their efforts will be transmitted to listeners. For instance, on Sunday, January 26, there was a glaring example of what occurs after the company has done its part of the contract. During Mr. Howell's broadcast from the Ambassadors Theatre, which was probably the most popular, and, certainly the most expensive item of the week, there were no fewer than 17 distinct interruptions to the transmission of the programme, and on four occasions the concert had to be stopped while items were given from the studio during repairs or adjustments to the transmitting apparatus. One can imagine the feelings of Mr. Howell, who gives much care to his programmes, on hearing from friends how the concert sounded from a loud speaker. The views of the Australian Broadcasting Company's manager can safely be imagined. Amid all the dissatisfaction with existing affairs, there looms one hope for the future. That is the early commencement of our first "B" class station, 6ML, to be operated by Musgroves, Ltd. This station will provide variety for listeners, and being on modern lines its transmissions should be in such contrast to those of 6WF that the Government, in shame, will have to effect an improvement or be held open to the scorn of those who will point out that 6ML, run by private enterprise, and receiving no share of listeners' fees, can offer to the public better quality broadcasts than 6WF with the resources of a national Government behind it.[70]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. BROADCAST BREVITIES. BY KILOCYCLE. (Photo Caption) MR. H. T. SIMMONS. The well-known Perth experimenter, who has been appointed chief engineer to Messrs. Musgrove's new broadcasting station, 6ML.[71]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. (By VK6FG.) 6WF'S TRANSMISSIONS What is the future of broadcasting in Western Australia? One almost fears to look ahead. 6ML with its crystal controlled wave, will be on the air soon, and it will be interesting to hear what sort of a transmission it puts out. It should be good. But what if 6WF with its several harmonics interferes with 6ML? Then it will be impossible to listen to either station. It may be looking at the hurdle before we come to it, but this is sometimes necessary. The transmissions from 6WF recently are sufficient to cause comment by their irregularity. At one session, or during part of a session, they are fair to good; not as good as many of the stations in the Eastern States, but providing little to growl about. Then almost in the twinkling of an eye everything seems to go wrong. What was loud-speaker strength had died away to the merest whisper in the city, speech is not understandable, and the listener switches off in disgust, it is not possible to say just where the trouble is, but it should not take a board of competent engineers devoting their attentions exclusively to the station more than a week to locate the bother, even if they had to monitor each section individually and collectively. It is no good, however, letting matters drift on as they have been doing since the writer first called attention to the state of the station some months ago.[72]

MUSGROVE'S BROADCASTING. Arrangement of Programmes. Mr. R. Brearley, formerly musical director of 3AR, Sydney (sic,Melbourne), has been appointed advertising manager and programme director for Musgrove's broadcasting station 6ML, which, it is hoped to open on March 24. Mr. Brearley said today that the station's broadcasting times would be:— 11 a.m. to noon, 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m., 3 p.m. to 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. to 7.30 p.m., and 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. As far as possible these times had been arranged to prevent both 6ML and 6WF from being on the air at the same time. The station would feature dancing music one night a week and classical music an-other night. On other nights the programme would be general.[73]

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. . . . (By "Radio.") In a little over a month listeners in Western Australia will have the choice of two local stations for the first time, and those located within five miles of the transmitter of 6WF are going to find trouble unless their sets are most selective. On Saturday night an official of the Wireless Institute, speaking over 6WF, warned those with unselective sets that they would be receiving both 6WF and 6ML at the same time; and it is common knowledge that many of the existing sets used by city listeners can receive 6WF on any part of the condenser dials. There is always a shock area near, the transmitting plant of a powerful station, and it is unfortunate that a very large proportion of wireless enthusiasts in this State are so situated in regard to 6WF. This is another argument for the removal of the station out of Perth. Last weekend, using my own two-valve modified Reinartz set and an all-electric three of local design kindly lent for testing, I could receive the local station on any part of the condensers with my usual 40 foot aerial. On reducing the aerial to a few feet of wire I found the electric set most selective, and there would be no trouble in logging both the stations on that. The same applied to the two-valve set. Unfortunately, the reduction in the length of the aerial often makes interstate reception impossible, and it is very likely that in the coming winter only those with big sets and special selective circuits will have the pleasure of logging the other Australian stations. Reports will be welcomed, after 6ML comes on the air, from city listeners who can receive both the local stations without trouble and from those who have no difficulty in logging the stations in the Eastern States as well. In each case full details of the set and aerial systems should be given, as well as times and dates the stations were logged, and the quality of reception. Correspondents should note that the two local stations would not be properly separated if there is the slightest background of 6ML when listening to 6WF, or vice versa. . . . Programme Director for 6ML. Mr. Ronald Brearley, formerly musical director of 3AR, Melbourne, and a member of the Ambassadors orchestra, has been engaged as programme director for the "B" class station, 6ML. During his engagement with 3AR, Mr. Brearley introduced a special hour of gramophone recordings and arranged his programmes in such a way that this hour became one of the most popular in Melbourne. It is the new programme director's intention to arrange his programmes here so that they will include a balanced selection of items which will cater as far as possible for the tastes of everybody. He and his 'cello will probably be heard in solo numbers.[74]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . New Broadcasting Station. Work has been commenced on the new broadcasting station, 6ML, to be operated by Musgrove's, Ltd., Murray-street. Alterations are being made in the top floor of Musgrove's Buildings to house the transmitting plant which is on the Manunda (due at Fremantle to-day). The aerial masts are due to arrive at Fremantle by the following interstate steamer and are to be erected by March 8. It is expected that the first tests of the new station, which will operate on 297 metres, will be made about March 15. According to advice received by Musgrove's, Ltd., from the National Musical Federation, Ltd., Adelaide, who has the contract for the erection of the transmitter, that company's engineer (Mr. Ashwin) is due to arrive in Perth, today.[75]

WIRELESS EXPANSION. Perth's New Station. ENGINEER ARRIVES. With the arrival this morning of the engineer, Mr. Edward Ashwin, plans for the establishment of 6ML, the new broadcasting station to be operated by Musgroves Ltd. will be rapidly advanced. Mr. Ashwin, who hopes that all will be in readiness to commence operations about a fortnight hence, is engineer of 5KA Adelaide, and was previously associated with the station now known as 5CL Melbourne and 7ZL, Tasmania. 5KA is conducted by the National Musical Federation Ltd., which has the contract for the erection of the transmitting plant required for 6ML. STATION DESCRIBED. Referring to the new local station, Mr. Ashwin said that it would have a transmitter power of approximately 500 watts and a wave length of 297 metres. It was built along the lines of the latest practice of modern wireless transmission. One of the features was that it would be crystal controlled, which meant that the station could not move its wave length without another crystal being installed, and that listeners-in would always find the crystal control station in exactly the same place on their tuning dials. This form of control had been widely used in different parts of the world for about two years past. Most of the American stations were operated on it, but the only other of which he had a knowledge in Australia, outside those operated by amateurs, was that of 3DB, Melbourne. The transmission of 6ML would consist principally of two units, one being a complete 50 watt crystal control transmitter and the other unit a 50 watt linear amplifier. The latter fed the aerial and it was on this unit also that the power reading was taken. The whole of the plant required for the new station is aboard the Karoola, which is due at Fremantle this evening. (Photo Caption) Mr. E. Ashwin.[76]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Wireless Station 6ML. Satisfactory progress is being made with the building of the new wireless station, 6ML. The alterations to the top floor of Musgrove's buildings, where the transmitter will be housed, have been completed and the ceilings and roof are being opened for the installing of the masts which, with the transmitting plant, will arrive by today's interstate steamer. The station will be on the air daily between 11 a.m. and noon, 12.30 p.m. and 2 p.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. and 7.30 p.m., and 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. and between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. on Sundays.[77]

NEW PERTH STATION. Arrival of Engineer. In the opinion of the engineer, Mr. Edwin Ashwin, the new Perth broadcasting station 6ML should be functioning in a fortnight. The cost of the plant and installation will total about £1,500. Mr. Ashwin arrived in Perth by the Great Western express yesterday morning from Adelaide. Mr. Ashwin has been associated with wireless for years. Originally he was at Station 5AB, which later became 5CL. Subsequently he worked on 7ZL, Hobart, (Photo Caption) MR. E. ASHWIN. and is now engineer for 5KA, Adelaide, which is run by the National Musical Federation. The plant which he will install in Perth reached Fremantle last night on the steamer Karoola. Discussing the plant yesterday, Mr. Ashwin said that the transmitter power was about 500 watts and the wave length 297 metres. The apparatus was built on the lines of the latest Melbourne transmitters. A feature was the crystal control. This meant that the station could not move its wavelength without installing another crystal. With such constancy in the broadcasting medium, listeners could rely on picking up the station at exactly the same place on their tuning dials. This system had been in general use in America for the last two years, but was not in vogue in Australia. Apart from amateurs, only station 3DB, Melbourne employed it, as far as he was aware. The transmitter consisted of two units, one being a complete 500-watt crystal-controlled transmitter; and the other a 500-watt linear amplifier which fed the aerial. It was from the last-named unit that the power rating was taken.[78]

SPECIAL ADVERTISEMENTS. THE "STROMBERG-CARLSON." THE ROLLS ROYCE OF RADIO. Prepare NOW for the era of alternative programmes, soon for the first time, to be available to Perth. Get a SELECTIVE set, a set that will enable you to tune in either 6WF or 6ML, whichever you prefer, without interference from the other station. The "Stromberg-Carlson" is super-selective; is high-powered, and may be had in either "All-Electric" form, needing no batteries, or a Battery-operated set; and either form may be had as either 6-valve or 3-valve model. THE ALL-ELECTRIC "6" .. .. £47 THE BATTERY "6" .. .. .. £42/10/ THE ALL-ELECTRIC "3" .. £30 THE BATTERY "3" .. .. £15/10/ SPEAKERS (the only "extra") from 37/6 MAGNAVOX DYNAMIC SPEAKERS, IN CABINETS, from £8 (D.C.) and £11 (A.C.). Detailed Price Lists Free on Application. RING B1917 FOR A DEMONSTRATION AT HOME. NO OBLIGATION. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED, "The House of Distinction," LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-ST., PERTH. NEW ARCADE, FREMANTLE.[79]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. Progress at 6ML. Rapid progress has been made by Mr. E. Ashwin, of the National Musical Federation of Adelaide, with the installation of the transmitting plant for Perth's new wireless station, 6ML, to be operated by Musgroves Ltd. on a wave length of 297 metres (10,010 bilocycles [sic]). The plant arrived by the Karoola on Wednesday last and was delivered at Musgrove's Buildings on Friday. In the intervening days Mr. Ashwin has made so much progress that he will be able to test the transmitter as soon as the aerial masts are erected, which will be some time during the week. The aerial system will be in the form of a three-wire flat topped L-shaped aerial and a six wire counterpoise. The aerial masts will be 65ft. high and including the buildings, will be about 130ft. above the ground. The 50-watt crystal controlled transmitter has been erected and the assembling of the 500-watt linear amplifier will be completed by tomorrow. Tests will be first made with a power of 50 watts and then with the full power of 500 watts. Asked to give an estimate of the distance over which 6ML will be received, Mr. Ashwin said he was unable to give any specified distance as he was not yet sufficiently familiar with local conditions. A similar station in Adelaide, 5KA, which, however, used only 300 watts was regularly heard up to 300 miles but 3DB (Melbourne), which used 500 watts was heard over much greater distances. In fact 3DB was received better in Adelaide than the two Melbourne "A" class stations, 3LO and 3AR, which used ten times the power of 3DB. Occasional reception of a station took place at much longer distances and, at times, a Bruce Rock listener had reported that he was able to log 5KA (Adelaide). The new station should be regularly heard by anyone within 300 to 400 miles of Perth. The programme director (Mr. R. Brearley) is preparing a special programme for the opening night, the date for which has not yet been decided upon but which will be either March 19 or 26. The new station will be on the air each day from 11 a.m. till noon; from 12.30.p.m. to 2 p.m.; from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m.; from 5.45 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. and from 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. On Sunday evenings a programme will be broadcast between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m.[80]

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. Notes and Comments. (By "Radio.") . . . The opening transmissions from 6ML are to be made with due ceremony and a special night will be arranged to celebrate this welcome event in local radio. Particulars are not yet available but the management are determined to give the listening public something to make the date stand out in their memories.[81]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. Programme Arrangements at 6ML. The programme director of the new Perth wireless station 6ML (Mr. R. Brearley) is busily engaged preparing items for his first week's broadcasting which will begin either on March 19 or 26. On the opening night a special programme will be arranged and will probably extend beyond the usual closing hour of 10 p.m. In arranging his programmes, Mr. Brearley is co-operating as far as possible with 6WF so that there will be no overlapping. Mr. Brearley said yesterday that every Wednesday night at the new station would be devoted to dance music and, instead of an indiscriminate choice of records, a series of numbers by one band would be broadcast interspersed with light vocal numbers. By using one band there would be no variations of tempo and rhythm and it would be difficult for listeners to distinguish whether a record or an actual performance was being broadcast. On Thursday nights the programme would consist of classical numbers and on other nights an attempt would be made to give a programme that would appeal to the average taste. There would be no talks or lectures from the station. "It is the intention of the management," said Mr. Brearley, "to keep the standard of the broadcasting as high as possible and with that aim in view no artist will be allowed to speak or sing from the station without first submitting to a voice test. All records to be used will be tried over before being broadcast and as far as possible each session will be arranged to form a complete concert or recital. For the first time in Perth player piano music will be broadcast and the player piano will also be used to accompany 'cello and vocal items. Arrangements have been made with West Australian Airways, Ltd., to broadcast incidents noted by pilots on their flights. The proprietors of the station, Musgrove's, Ltd., Murray-street, Perth, will be glad to receive reports from listeners as to the volume and quality of the transmission, listeners stating their distance from the station and the type of set used. Comments on the programmes will also be welcomed, and every endeavour will be made to comply with requests for particular items. The first tests from the station will probably be made on Monday next.[82]

1930 03[edit]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. Test Transmissions From 6ML. The masts to carry the aerial system of the new Perth wireless station, 6ML, will be erected today, and as soon as the aerial and counterpoise are fitted everything will be ready for the final adjustments of the transmitting plant for the opening of the station on either March 19 or 26. Using 50 watts power on a makeshift aerial slung from the control room to a neighbouring building, tests were carried out by the engineers of the station yesterday, and there will be further tests with the same aerial between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. to-day. These trial transmissions are being made by the engineers purely for their own purposes, and are no indication of the quality or volume of the final transmissions from the station, as they will be on the full power of 500 watts on the permanent aerial system. The tests yesterday were clearly received in the metropolitan area as far as Fremantle, from where reproduction by loud speaker was reported.[83]

Operating Wave-Traps. With station 6ML coming on the air, selectivity of programmes — with the majority of home made sets — will only be obtainable with the aid of a wavetrap. To get satisfactory results from one of these, extreme caution must be exercised in order that there are no snags in its application to the set in use. Among the types of wavetraps which can be made and fitted at home, one of the most effective is the series autocoupled type, and provided it is well made and properly fitted should prove most reliable. It will practically always cut out a powerful local station easily, and does not reduce the strength of the other station being received. Moreover, it does not affect the general operation of the receiver to any noticeable degree, and it merely requires setting once and for all to eliminate the local station. A very convenient form of this wavetrap was described in detail in these columns about two months ago. In use the trap is connected in series in the aerial lead, as follows: Join the aerial lead to the A1 or A2 terminal, on the wave trap, and connect A to the aerial terminal on your set. The aerial lead should be tried on both the A1 and A2 terminals to see which gives the best results. A point which should be borne in mind by those amateurs who wish to fit the trap inside the cabinet is that of position. The trap must be kept well away from the tuning coils, otherwise it should be kept outside. For example, it can often be screwed to the outside of the cabinet, but see that it is not too near the coils inside. The minimum distance for real safety is about 8 inches in most cases. A good and safe scheme is to put the trap in series with the aerial lead at the point where the aerial enters the house, for example, on the window ledge. The important point, then, is just to keep the trap well away from any of the coils in the receiver, and with that made clear, let us see about the adjustment. This, also, is decidedly important. Before you connect the trap in circuit, switch on your set and tune in the desired station. Now detune until the volume of this station goes down to about half. Next, connect the trap in the manner already described, and start with the trap condenser somewhere about its minimum capacity, that is to say, with the little knob fully unscrewed. Now proceed to screw down the knob with the aid of a screwdriver, keeping your hand well away from the trap coil. After a little while you should find a point where the volume of the local station suddenly goes down almost to nothing and comes up again to full strength as you pass beyond this point. Try and locate this point as accurately as you can, and you will probably find that when you have found it exactly the local station will disappear. If it does, proceed to return the tuning of the set towards the exact setting for the local station until it begins to come in again. Then return to the trap and have another shot at the adjustment, seeking to find the exact point which makes the local station disappear as completely as possible, so that it is only heard when exactly tuned in and then only at much reduced strength. When the local station is required it is a simple matter to disconnect the trap from the set; or, if you find this troublesome, yon can easily fit a little shorting switch of the plain on-off type, with one side connected to the aerial terminal on your set, and the other side to the aerial lead. The switch can be placed on the wave-trap itself, which would simplify its connections. When you have the switch in the "on" position, you have the aerial brought straight through to your set with the wavetrap cut out. With the switch in the "off" position, the wavetrap is in operation. There is nothing very complicated about this wavetrap. It is just a matter of building it with good quality components and using it in the proper manner. Even under the worst conditions it should so cut down the volume of the unwanted station that you will only hear it when it is exactly tuned in.[84]

Wireless News. BROADCASTING. Notes and Comments. (By "Radio.") That the recent severe criticisms of the quality of the transmissions from 6WF were not based on rumours only is shown by the fact that during January there were 134 new licences taken out and 102 cancellations, giving a net gain for the month of only 32. This is very disappointing but will possibly have the effect of stirring the authorities in Melbourne to action. There were at January 31 last 4,759 licensed listeners in the State, and the 5,000 mark has still to be reached. It is hoped that the opening of the new station, 6ML, will have the immediate effect of increasing the number of listeners. There will be no talks of any kind during the night programmes from 6ML. This rule was laid down by the programme director (Mr. R. Brearley), who aims at making these sessions purely of an entertaining nature. Station 6WF continues to include talks in its programmes after 8 p.m., and many listeners think that the programme arranger should, as far as talks are concerned, follow the lead of 6ML and rigorously exclude them from the night programmes. Co-ordination Between Stations. It is pleasing to note that as far as possible the managements of the two stations intend to arrange the respective programmes to avoid overlapping. Thus as Monday and Friday are popular nights at 6WF, it was decided that Wednesday night would be the popular night at 6ML. Between 7 and 9 p.m. on Sunday there is a church service from 6WF, and 6ML will provide during those hours a musical programme for those who do not listen to church services. The advantage of having two stations is obvious, as listeners can tune from one to the other and from both programmes select items to their liking. As well, the combined services will mean that there is something being broadcast daily from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m. from one station or the other. A disadvantage of the two stations will be that persons with inselective sets will, in the city area, receive both programmes at once. Owners of such sets should, if possible, make their sets selective now by shortening their aerials, altering their coils, or by other methods, instead of waiting until 6ML is on the air. . .[85]

PREPARING PERTH'S NEW WIRELESS STATION. (Photo Caption) Yesterday workmen on the top of Musgrove's, Ltd., were busily erecting scaffolding preparatory to raising 6ML's wireless mast into position today.[86]

Broadcasting Stations. Many listeners have inquired as to the difference between "A" class and "B" class wireless broadcasting stations. An "A" class station, such as 6WF, is a public utility. It is permitted to employ any power allotted to it by the Commonwealth Government and must not sell its time on the air for advertising purposes. "B" class stations depend on the sale of advertising for their revenue and are limited to 500 watts power. They do not receive any proportion of listeners' licence fees while the "A" class, stations are kept going by their share of this revenue. There are eight "A" class stations in Australia — 3LO and 3AR (Victoria), 2FC and 2BL (New South Wales), 4QG (Queensland), 5CL (South Australia), 7ZL (Tasmania) and 6WF (Western Australia) — all of which use 5,000 watts, except 7ZL, which is operated on 3,000 watts. The "B" class stations are 13 in number, as follow:— 2GB, 2BE, 2UW, 2UE, 2KY, 2HD and 2MK (New South Wales); 3UZ and 3DB (Victoria); 4GR (Queensland); 5KA, 5DN (South Australia) and 6ML (Western Aus-tralia).[87]

Over the Ether. WIRELESS NEWS, TIPS AND COMMENTS. BROADCAST BREVITIES. BY KILOCYCLE. EARLY OPENING OF 6ML. Perth's New "B" Station. So rapid has progress been made with the installation of the plant for Messrs. Musgroves "B" class station, located at their musical warehouse, Murray-street, that it is anticipated it will be in operation earlier than originally proposed. The installation engineer (Mr. E. Ashwin) in conversation with a representative of this paper, pointed out that 6ML embodies the latest advances made in broadcast station design, incorporating crystal control, separator stage, and linear (Photo Caption) 500 watt linear amplifiers at 6ML amplification on the amplifier stage. These technical terms imply that everything possible is done, in the interests of perfect transmission,and in a view of the plant confirms the opinion that Western Australia has, through the enterprise of Musgroves, acquired a fine broadcast station. The wavelength to be used is 297 meters, and initial tests have shown there will not be the slightest trace of interference from 6WF in the metropolitan area. As regards the range of the new station this can only be confirmed under operating conditions, but as a conservative estimate, a radius of 300 miles should be spanned. Another point in favor of good medium distance reception is the choice of the wavelength, a similar wave used in the Eastern States, showing a remarkable tendency for long distance work. A technical description of the plant will no doubt prove of interest. The actual operating room, comfortably houses three panels comprising the rectifiers, oscillator and modulator, and the amplifier. Each valve is supplied with a separate high-tension tapping, (Photo Caption) Crystal central oscillator, intermediate amplifier and modulated amplifier. rectified A.C. being used for the oscillator and modulator, and a D.C. generator for the amplifier. Each circuit is neutralised and screening of the oscillator stage and controls is a further refinement. The initial wavelength of 297 metres is generated and controlled by a quartz crystal, which definitely maintains this wavelength. The output from the oscillator is of the order of only 3 watts, which is passed on to the separator stage with a subsequent output of 7 watts. The modulators then come into play, and the output is increased to 60 watts. The wavelength is now a modulated wave in conformity with the impressed voice variations spoken into the microphone, and to obtain further power the modulated output is now amplified by the 500-watt amplifier, consisting of two 250 valves in parallel. From this point the circuit is coupled to the aerial, and the wave is radiated. It is a matter of some difficulty to imagine that this small piece of quartz crystal is directly controlling the whole output, and during its operation it is in a state of mechanical vibration at a rate of little over a million periods a second, though the movement cannot be seen so imperceptibly small is it. The studio control conforms to latest practices, and special attention has been given to all acoustic effects of the studio to eliminate echo and reverbration. The programme sessions have been arranged, so that they will dovetail with the existing sessions from 6WF, and listeners will have a transmission all day, and the choice of either programme during the evening. The hours are 11 a.m. to noon, 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m., 3 p.m. to 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. and 8 p.m. to 10 p.m. Sunday evening session 7 to 9. In order that some idea of the effective day and night range of the station may be gauged, listeners are requested to forward reports to Messrs. Musgroves, Murray-street, Perth. For convenience in tuning, those listeners who receive 3DB, 255 metres will find 6ML a little above this tuning point. 2KY, Sydney on 280 metres is also a guide point, though possibly only country listeners receive this latter station. 6ML TESTS. Using an improvised aerial, suspended within the building, and an arrangement as inefficient as one could wish for, the 60-watt oscillator of 6ML has been proving its efficiency in some initial tests conducted by the engineering staff, by having its transmissions heard at speaker strength as far as Fremantle, and local reports state excellent reproduction has been obtained. With the 500-watt amplifier and the proper outdoor aerial, in operation the tests presage excellent transmission from our new station. The opening night scheduled for Wednesday, 19th inst., is to be a gala performance, and a first-class programme under the directorship of Ronald Brearley has been arranged.[88]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. 6WF IN THE COUNTRY. (By VK6FG.) It was my fortune last week to take a trip into the East Murchison, approximately 70 miles from Perth, and at least 500 as the crow flies or the radio wave travels. Throughout the trip I made inquiries as to how transmissions were coming through, and upon the state of radio generally. Outside of the city there is a more genuine appreciation of wireless as a means of entertainment than there is within it. It is I suppose because of our many other interests, which conflict and frequently put wireless into the background. Not so in the country. There it is frequently, the only daily touch with the city and all that it means to out-backers. Generally speaking, within a range 200 miles of Perth there were frequent complaints about 6WF — they hadn't had a chance of hearing 6ML. Fading was bad and with it frequently came distortion until many had despaired of receiving a worthwhile programme. The further away from the city, the better became the reports. One set owner who is situated about 100 miles north-east of Meekatharra and who uses a four-valve set said that he had no fault whatever to find with 6WF as it now is. The programme at night comes through much better than ever before, although day light reception is not good. His only complaint is that even at that distance from Perth he frequently is unable to separate 6WF from 2FC, Sydney. As it was midday, when we passed through, no opportunity presented itself for testing out his assertion. All the Eastern States are received here at good strength and much enjoyment is received from them. One thing which to a wireless enthusiast was immediately noticeable was the ineffective aerial systems which a majority of stations use. Only once or twice was a really good aerial encountered; the remainder were usually about 35 feet above the ground, with one insulator at each end and the lead-in flapping about in the breeze, and no doubt helping to cause a trouble which has been incorrectly set down as fading. These people were wholeheartedly wireless enthusiasts, and despite the fact that replacement of dry batteries was frequent, they were keen to maintain daily contact with the city.[89]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. Official Opening on March 19. The manager of wireless station 6ML (Mr. F. C. Kingston) announced yesterday that the station would be on the air as from Wednesday, March 19. The first transmissions would be those of the official opening ceremony beginning at 8 p.m. and the programme would be extended until 10.30 on that occasion instead of the usual closing hour of 10 p.m. The new station will operate on a wave length of 297 metres and will use a power of 500 watts. It should be clearly heard within 300 miles of Perth. A special programme of varied musical numbers has been arranged for the opening night and the artists to broadcast will include Contessa Philippini, Misses R. Hawse, G. Cuncliffe and G. Musgrove, Messrs. H. Dean, G. A. McDonald, F. L. Robertson and R. Brearley. The announcer, Mr. Archie Graham, who will in future be known as "Archie, of Musgrove's," will provide humorous items. There will be no reproduced music on this programme, but when gramophone records are being broadcast, a machine with a double turntable will be used and this will greatly limit the delay between items. On Wednesday night, March 26. the first dance session will be given and will be on lines entirely new to local listeners. The masts to carry the aerial have been erected and standing 65 feet above Musgrove's Buildings, in Murray-street, form a new city landmark. The L-shaped three-wire aerial was raised into position yesterday and the counterpoise will be fitted today. The engineer (Mr. E. Ashwin) said yesterday that tests on the permanent aerial with 50 watts power would be made on Thursday evening and reports from listeners would be welcomed. The final tests on the full power of 500 watts would be made at the end of the week.[90]

Over the Ether. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. BROADCAST BREVITIES. BY KILOCYCLE. WAVE TRAPS AND THEIR USES. From next week wireless conditions in the metropolitan area will be considerably altered with the advent of active operation by 6ML. In this connection some anxiety is felt by many that their sets will be incapable of tuning out one transmission in favor of the other. With the average valve set that has any pretence of selectivity, even that given by the judicious use of reaction, little or no interference should result. Nevertheless, when a set suffers from flat tuning, due to high resistance coils and tuned circuits, coupled with the disadvantages of using a long aerial, it is possible jamming may result, and in order that the position may be satisfactorily understood, the theory of interference and the use of wave traps will be more or less fully discussed and also the more prominent methods of alleviating the trouble. Referring to Fig. 3, which is drawn to represent three phases of the incoming wavelength and known as the resonance curve, the base line represents wavelength, and the vertical the intensity of signal strength. Points marked 6ML and 6WF have been so marked for purposes of the discussion, it being understood these points have been placed in an exaggerated form to fully stress the basis of the article. It is desired to tune in 6ML, and it is found 6WF is still audible. Reference to the continuous curve, which represents the resonance curve of the set, shows that whilst its maximum signal response is for 6ML, it is also wide enough (or technically called "flat") to embrace the wavelength position of 6WF at fair strength, consequently both transmissions are heard. This condition can be caused, and often is the case, by an overlong aerial, and as before mentioned by high resistance circuits which tend to flatten out the curve. The broken curve A shows an alteration, inasmuch that while a lower maximum strength is still obtained for 6ML, a position of inaudibility exists for 6WF. This corresponds to an all round reduction of signal strength, with a corresponding sharpness of tuning which is brought about by a reduction of aerial length. This is the simplest expedient of all, being done by the wise use of the pliers, and needing no further alterations to the set. It is recommended where distance reception is not the lure and purely local broad-casts are desired. In some cases the length of the aerial can he reduced to 30ft. with beneficial results to selectivity and little noticeable reduction of volume. The broken curve B represents another set of altered conditions, and shows the extreme selectivity and maximum sensitivity obtained by an extremely well made receiver where very low losses only exist in the tuned circuits. This is the most desirable circumstance of the lot, but conversely is the hardest to obtain, calling for at least one or more stages of sharply tuned high frequency coupling circuits and specially wound inductive coils. Therefore I leave this type in the care of the experimenter. This leaves us so far with the reduction of aerial length to gain our ends, and as is often the case, there is no wish to tamper with the aerial as the enchantment for DX reception is still uppermost. Reference is now made to the continuous curve again, and the point of 6WF specially noted, when it can be asked why should it not be possible to tune out this point of higher wavelength and obvious lower volume by a tuned circuit preceding the set itself? If so make up a circuit as Fig. 2 this becomes a tuned oscillatory circuit, and whatever position of wavelength it is tuned for, it offers to this wavelength an infinite resistance and makes the incoming oscillation flow around and around this circuit, which in effect means it does not allow it to pass through. Therefore if this circuit is tuned to 6WF's wave and connected between the aerial lead in and the set, Fig. 3, we constitute a series wave trap, and with all its apparent simplicity one of the most efficient, the components being a 35 turn coil and a .0005 variable condenser, the predominating capacity tending to improve the efficiency of the unit. Whilst it is manifestly advantageous to have a wave trap of this type, it is only natural to expect it to bring certain disadvantages, the main one of these being that the wipe out effect is by no means sharp, and in the case of receiving a distant station on a wavelength closely approximating to that of the interfering station, both stations will be cut out. But for local use only it will be found most efficient. Refinements in wave trap design have been made from time to time in order to gain the utmost efficiency, and for those who desire a rejector unit, which possesses all merits and no demerits, allowing for distant reception without local interference, attention is drawn to the Brookman's rejector which is the design of an English technical journal. In the main points this unit is a series wave trap as already discussed with the important exception that two small variable condensers are used and the aerial is connected to their mid point. The circuit is depicted at Fig. 4. The coil being a 40 turn and the variables forms densers of .001 mfd., a switch S is shown to short circuit the rejector if required. The theoretical application of this type is a little more involved than the simple series wave trap, but as a broad outline one condenser acts as a capacity coupling to the set, and the two condensers in series as the wave trap tuning control. Variation of C1 and C2 are interdependant, and actual operation will show the best position. A method similar in technical results to that of shortening the aerial, is to insert a .0003 variable in series with the lead-in and returning for each station, this type will often act as well as reducing the physical dimensions of the aerial, and moreover is a much easier operation, while this article treats the use of wave traps in general, there are a multitude of methods (acceptor circuits) that could only be discussed at length, and again no rejector or waveup can be efficient if an appreciable pick-up effect is obtained by the coils and stray couplings inside the set.[91]

MUSGROVE'S LTD. Musgrove's Ltd. have decided to suspend payment of the usual interim dividend of 6d. per share until the results of the year's trading have been ascertained and placed before shareholders at the next annual meeting. This decision has been reached, I learn, through the heavy commitments necessary to meet the liability of purchasing Lyric House, in Murray-street, and erecting a B class broadcasting station. While negotiations were proceeding for the purchase of Lyric House, the company, in order to make its position secure, purchased the freehold of Brown's Buildings, which has now been placed on the market. "Although present business conditions generally are not as promising as one would wish," states a circular issued to shareholders by the managing director, "they (the directors) look with every confidence to the future prosperity of the company."[92]

Tone triumphant Stromberg-Carlson. Radio Station 6ML Calling! — On Wednesday next, March 19, Musgrove's Broadcasting Service Station, 6ML, will be officially opened. From the many congratulatory messages received from listeners during the preliminary tests, we believe that the quality of both transmission and programme will leave little to be desired. And, for the first time in the history of Western Australia, listeners will have the choice of TWO local programmes from which to select the items they like best. But — it is necessary that the Radio Receiver should be of good quality and modem design. Above all, SELECTIVE. Such a receiver is the Stromberg-Carlson. If a receiver is not SELECTIVE, and the tuning is "broad," interference between the two programmes must result. Get a modem receiver. The cost is not great. The return, in many, many hours of pleasure during the years to come, will be out of all proportion to the expense entailed. And, not only does the Stromberg-Carlson enable you to select items from BOTH local programmes, but the TONE is natural and full; in striking contrast with that of less modern sets. Get the MOST from the programmes provided by 6ML and 6WF — use a MODERN set — a Stromberg-Carlson. PRICES AS LOW AS £15/10/. Speakers (the only "extra") from 37/6. MUSGROVE'S Limited Lyric House — Murray-street.[93]

MODERN MARRIAGES. Are They too Spectacular? By RENEE. Dance lovers and hostesses will welcome the news that the first dance night at the new broadcasting station, 6ML, will be held on March 26. These dance nights have proved very popular with the Eastern States hostesses, the problem of supplying dance music for their guests being solved by turning on the radio. Should these special nights prove popular in Perth they will become a regular part of 6ML programmes.[94]

THE BROADCASTER. Radio Wrinkles. OPENING OF 6ML. (By VK6FG.) Wednesday evening will see the official opening of Musgrove's new "B" class broadcasting station to be known as 6ML. The station itself is established on the top floor of Lyric House in Murray-street above Musgrove's music emporium, and is well situated from the point of view of performing artists, although from other aspects, it is close to 6WF and is alongside of tramlines and power lines. However with a well-made studio there should be no need to fear interference from this cause. The station has been testing on and off for some time now, and the majority of reports indicate that the transmissions should be good. The creation of this station will soon ferret out the unselective sets, for with the broadly tuned apparatus, it may be difficult and well-nigh impossible to separate the two stations, particularly if the sets are within close range of the stations. This will mean that those with unselective sets will require to make them selective. To do this without reconstructing the whole set, may be accomplished with a wavetrap, a piece of apparatus inexpensive in itself although as an addition to the set it will not add beauty to the outfit. To the set owner who is inexperienced in wireless ways, I would say, keep your coupling coils as loosely coupled as possible consistent with results. This will help an unselective set as much as possible, but if it is then found that there is interference, consider whether it would be better to reconstruct the set, or to add a wavetrap. Some sets which are fairly up-to-date in design and performance will be satisfactory with a wavetrap, but there are others, so obsolete that the cost of a wavetrap might well be saved and put towards the cost of a new set. When 6ML comes on the air on Wednesday evening, some time will be taken up with speeches when quite figuratively speaking, the bottle of wine will be smashed over the oscillator. Following this — about 8.30 p.m.— the musical programme will commence and continue for two hours. Among those to appear will be Contessa Filippini, Rita Hawse, Jean Musgrove, Musgrove's Piano trio. Horace Dean, G. A. M'Donald, Frank L. Robertson, Ronald Brearley and "Archie," with Miss Gladys Cunliffe at the piano. All wireless enthusiasts wish 6ML the best of luck in their new venture, the engineer an absence of trouble, and the performers a host of radio friends.[95]

SPECIAL ADVERTISEMENTS. THE "NEW EUFONOLA" PLAYER PIANO. UNAPPROACHABLE VALUE AT 190 GUINEAS. No other player piano, sold at the price of this instrument, can equal it in value and in musical performance. In appearance it is more than equal to many players costing far more, whilst its ease of operation, and the facility with which perfect expression can be obtained establishes its claim to be called "the player with the human touch." We want you to call in and try this instrument for yourself. No obligation is incurred, but should you decide to buy, we will quote exceptionally generous terms, and, if you have a used piano, will make a fair and just allowance for it. COMPLETE PIANO CATALOGUE, FREE TO ANY ADDRESS. TOMORROW — LISTEN TO 6ML. Our new Radio Station opens to-morrow — get your new set NOW, and enjoy the programme. Radio, Department, First Floor with all that's best in Radio, including Stromberg-Carlson, Brunswick and Philips Receivers, available on easy terms. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED. "The House of Distinction." LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-STREET, PERTH. NEW ARCADE, FREMANTLE[96]

NEW BROADCAST STATION. 6ML Services Begin To-morrow. Tomorrow evening at 8 o'clock the first transmissions from 6ML, Perth's new wireless station, owned and operated by Musgrove's Ltd. on a wave length of 297 will be made. There will be a brief opening ceremony at which Dr. J. S. Battye, who has been connected with wireless broadcasting in this State since its inception, will be the chief speaker. The next two hours will be devoted to a varied musical programme during which there will be no interruptions for talks or news services. There will be 36 items in that period of between three and four minutes' duration each and the programme will conclude at 10.30 p.m. with a special good night number. During the last few days the station has been on the air testing on full power and everything is in readiness for the opening night. Listeners over a wide area should have no difficulty in receiving the station as reports have already been received, regarding transmissions on half power only, from as far as Carnarvon, Meekatharra and Albany, while a listener at Moonee Ponds, Victoria, telegraphed that he had logged the station at good strength. The quality of the transmissions has been favourably commented on by all those who have written, to the owners and, owing to its crystal controlled transmitter, the station is always received at the same dial reading on the receiving apparatus. The advent of 6ML should greatly increase the number of listeners, and when the figures for this month are re-leased it is almost certain that for the first time there will be 5,000 listeners in Western Australia. Contessa Philippini will sing on the opening night, "Estrellita," "The Little Damosel" and "The Kerry Dance," and Miss Rita Hawse will include in her items "Love's Old Sweet Song" and "Smilin' Thro'." Mr. Frank L. Robertson will feature the Prologue from "Pagliacci" and "King Charles" and Mr. Horace Dean (violinist) will play "Aubade" among his numbers. Cello solos by Mr. Ronald Brearley will include Handel's "Largo," "On Wings of Song" (Mendelssohn) and Kreisler's "Leiblesleid." Flute solos by Mr. G. A. McDonald and numbers by Musgrove's Piano Trio will complete the musical side of the programme, while the announcer (Mr. Archie Graham) will provide diversion in "What is not on the air to-morrow." The regular broadcasting hours of 6ML will be between 11 a.m. and noon. 12.45 p.m. and 2 p.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. and 7.30 p.m. and 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. on week days and 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. on Sundays. On alternative Sunday afternoons from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m. a short address and choral singing will be broadcast by the International Bible Students' Association.[97]

6ML ON THE AIR. Official Opening Tonight. Perth's new wireless station 6ML, which is owned and will be operated by Musgrove's Ltd., will be on the air for the first time officially tonight, when the opening ceremony will be performed. A "B" class station, 6ML will operate on a wave length of 297 metres. For the first time in history two broadcasting stations will be operating locally. Mr. F. C Kingston, a manager, at the company, will act as manager of 6ML; Mr. R. Brearley will arrange programmes; Mr. H. Simmons is engineer, and Mr. A. Graham is announcer. Mr. Kingston will be in charge of ceremonies for the first half-hour tonight, and will call upon listeners to tune in. So that they may do so to the best advantage, a record will be played. Mr. D. O. (sic) Musgrove will announce the company's policy, and will introduce Dr. J. S. Battye, who will declare the station officially open. Mr. Kingston will address listeners on matters of interest associated with the new station, and will introduce the staff. The whole of these proceedings will not occupy more than half an hour, and at 8.30 a commencement will be made with a varied musical programme lasting two hours, and introducing talented artists yet to be heard on the air.[98]

Wireless News. NEW BROADCAST STATION. 6ML Begins Services To-Night. Tonight, for the first time, wireless enthusiasts in Western Australia will be able to listen to either of two local stations. This welcome chance is brought about by the opening this evening of 6ML, a "B" class station owned and operated by Musgrove's, Ltd., on a wave length of 297 metres. For six years wireless progress here has been retarded by the fact that there was only one local station, and a big increase in licences is expected to follow the opening of the new station. Mr. C. F. Kingston, a director of the company, will act as manager; Mr. R. Brearley is the programme arranger; Mr. H. Simmons, the engineer; and Mr. A. Graham, announcer. There will be a brief ceremony tonight at 8 o'clock, when Mr. D'O. Musgrove will introduce Dr. J. S. Battye, who will formally open the station. Then there will be an uninterrupted programme of two hours, to which many artists, new to radio but well-known on the concert platform, will contribute. The programme, for tonight will be:— 8. p.m.: Official opening ceremony. 8.30: Waltz, Musgrove's Piano Trio. 8.34: "Summer Night," Rita Hawse (mezzo-soprano), 'cello obbligato by Ronald Brearley. 8.38: Russian Folk Songs, Horace Dean (violin). 8.42: Prologue from the opera "Pagliacci," Frank L. Robert-son (baritone). 8.45: Largo, Ronald Brear-ley ('cello). 8.48: Elegia from Trio in D Minor, Musgrove's Piano Trio. 8.51: "Love's Old Sweet Song," Rita Hawse, 'cello obbligato by Ronald Brearley. 8.54: Air from Concerto, Horace Dean. 8.57: "Uncle Rome" and "When Childher Plays," Frank L. Robertson. 9.0: "Lullaby," Ronald Brearley. 9.4: "Song Without Words," Musgrove's Piano Trio. 9.8: "I'm a' Longin' fo' You," Rita Hawse, 'cello obbligato by Ronald Brearley. 9.11: "Capriccio", G. A. McDonald (flute). 9.14: What's Not on the Air Tomorrow, Archie of Musgrove's. 9.19: "Aubade," Horace Dean. 9.22: "Can't Yo' Heah Me Calling Caroline?" Musgrove's Piano Trio. 9.25: Offertoire Op. 12, G. A. Donald. 9.28: "Smilin' Through," Rita Hawse, 'cello obbligato by Ronald Brearley. 9.31: "Brahm's Waltz," Horace Dean. 9.34: "Estrellita," Con-tessa Filippini. 9.38: "On Wings of Song," Ronald Brearley. 9.41: "My Wild Irish Rose," Musgrove's Piano Trio. 9.45: "Il Colloquio Ma-zurka," G. A. McDonald. 9.48: "The Island Spell," Miss Gladys Cunliffe (piano). 9.51: "Leibesleid," Ronald Brearley. 9.54: What's Not on the Air Tomorrow, Archie of Musgrove's. 9.59: "The Little Damosel," Contessa Filippini. 10.1: Aria, G. A. McDonald. 10.5: "Simon the Cellarer," Frank L. Robertson. 10.9: Nocturne, Musgrove's Piano Trio. 10.30: "The Kerry Dance," Contessa Filippini. 10.17: Marche, Gladys Cun-liffe. 10.20: "Just a Cottage Small," Contessa Filippini. 10.24: Finale from Trio Op. 29, Mus-grove's Piano Trio. 10.27: "King Charles," Frank L. Robertson. The regular broadcasting hours of 6ML will be between 11 a.m. and noon, 12.45 p.m. and 2 p.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. and 7.30 p.m., and 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. on week days and 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. on Sundays. On alternative Sunday afternoons from 3 p.m: to 4 p.m. a short address and choral singing will be broadcast by the International Bible Students' Association.[99]

NEW BROADCAST STATION. Official Opening of 6ML. For the first time in the history of radio in Western Australia, listeners had the choice of two broadcasting stations last night when 6ML, owned and operated by Musgrove's, Ltd., of Lyric House, Perth, came on the air. The station was formally opened by Dr. J. S. Battye and Messrs. Musgrove and F. C. Kingston, directors of the company, also spoke. After the opening speeches a programme of varied musical numbers was given and the announcements of the items were made in an intimate manner, new to local listeners. There was a large number of guests at the studio to witness the proceedings, including:— The Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. S. R. Roberts), the Superintending Engineer (Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick), the Radio Inspector (Mr. G. A. Scott), Mr. C. J. Shannon, representing the directors of the Australian Broadcasting. Co., Ltd., the manager of station 6WF (Mr. Basil Kirke), Professor A. D. Ross and the president of the local division of the Wireless Institute of Australia (Mr. Frank H. Goldsmith). In introducing Dr. Battye, Mr. Musgrove said it was the aim of his company to present programmes of a high musical quality. He was very pleased to receive from Mr. Kirke, on behalf of his directors, a floral tribute in the form of a horseshoe with their best wishes for the opening night of the new station. "Broadcasting is playing a part in modern life in the dissemination of music and learning, said Dr. Battye, "equal to that played by the spread of printing in the 15th century." He added that radio was a big force in the life of the community and was especially welcome to those who lived in the backblocks. It gave them lectures on educational and general interest subjects, vocal and instrumental music by local artists and the reproduction of gramophone records of the best artists in the world. The value of the new station, which gave listeners alternative programmes, could not be overestimated and it should lead to a marked increase of interest in radio in this State. After the ceremony the guests were entertained at supper by the owners of the station and they listened to the programme which was reproduced on an all-electric receiver. A long toast list was honoured.[100]

NEW BROADCAST STATION. 6ML Service Opened. Last night, for the first time, wireless enthusiasts in Western Australia were able to listen to either of two local stations. This welcome change is brought about by the opening last evening of 6ML, a "B" class station owned and operated by Musgrove's, Ltd., on a wave length of 297 metres. For six years wireless progress here has been retarded by the fact that there was only one local station, and a big increase in licences is expected to follow the opening of the new station. Mr. C. F. Kingston, a director of the company, will act as manager; Mr. R. Brearley is the programme arranger; Mr. H. Simmons, the engineer; and Mr. A. Graham, announcer. There was a brief ceremony last night at 8 o'clock, when Mr. D'O. Musgrove introduced Dr. J. S. Battye, who formally opened the station. The regular broadcasting hours of 6ML will be between 11 a.m. and noon, 12.45 p.m. and 2 p.m., 3 p.m. and 4 p.m., 5.45 p.m. and 7.30 p.m., and 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. on week days and 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. on Sundays. On alternate Sunday afternoons from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m. a short address and choral singing will be broadcast by the International Bible Students' Association.[101]

WIRELESS PROGRAMMES. . . . 6ML PERTH, 297 METRES. 11 a.m. to noon: Reproduced music (gramophone records and player piano rolls). 12.45 p.m. to 2.30: Reproduced music. 3 to 4: Reproduced music. 5.45 to 7.30: Reproduced music and at 7 p.m. a brief summary of news from the air prepared by the pilots of West Australian Airways Ltd. 8 p.m.: Overture, "The Merry Wives of Windsor", Cleveland Symphony Orchestra. 8.4: "Harlequin", Norman Trenaman (baritone). 8.7: "La Cinquantaine", Ronald Brearley ('cello). 8.11: "Tell Me Gypsy", Marjorie Payne (contralto). 8.14: "Dance Macabre", Cleveland Symphony Orchestra. 8.18: "Drake Goes West", Norman Trenaman. 8.22: "Herbertiana", A. and P. Gypsies Orchestra. 8.26: "Lullaby", Ronald Brearley. 8.29: "My Ships", Marjorie Payne. 8.33: "White Acacia", A. and P. Gypsies Orchestra. 8.37: "This Locket That I Wear", Gladys Moncrieff and Frank Titterton. 8.41: "I Used to Love her in the Moonlight," The Captivators. 8.45: "Dervish Vigil," Norman Trenaman. 8.48: "E.B. March", The Band of H.M. Coldstream Guards. 8.52: "Traumeri", Ronald Brearley. 8.55: "East and West March", The Band of H.M. Coldstream Guards. 8.59: "Shine Bright Moon," Gladys Moncrieff. 9.4: "I'm Marching Home to You," The Captivators. 9.8: "The Blind Ploughman", Norman Trenaman. 9.12: "Lady of the Morning", Copley Plaza Orchestra. 9.16: "Ma Little Banjo", Marjorie Payne. 9.19: "I Never Guessed", Copley Plaza Orchestra. 9.23: "Pipes of Pan are Calling", Marjorie Payne. 9.27: "A Garden in the Rain", Rubinoff's Orchestra. 9.31: "Liebestraum", Ronald Brearley. 9.34: "Blue Hawaii Waltz", Rubin-off's Orchestra. 9.38: Vocal Duet from "The Blue Mazurka", Gladys Moncrieff and Frank Titterton. 9 42: "Why Can't You?" Bernie's Orchestra. 9.46: "I Am Alone", Gladys Moncrieff. 9.50: "Used to You", Bernies Orchestra. 9.54: "Cuckoo Waltz", Municipal Band. 9.57: "Radio Impressions", Johnson's Orchestra. 10.0: "The Goodnight Song."[102]

NEW BROADCAST STATION. Opening of 6ML. "In the olden days books consisted of manuscripts prepared and read by monks. Music was almost the prerogative of the churches, and the public had no place in reading or music. The advent of printing brought about a change, greater ever than Caxton and Gutenberg ever expected. Broadcasting is doing in this 20th century what the advent of the printed book did in the 15th century." So spoke Dr. J. S. Battye when officially declaring broadcasting station 6ML open. This "B" class station was erected by Musgroves Ltd., of Lyric House, Perth, and operates with an output of half a kilowatt on 297 metres. The plant was installed under contract by National Musical Federation of Adelaide the owners of station 5KA the installing engineer being Mr. Edwin Ashwin. Introducing Dr. Battye, Mr. D'O. Musgrove traced the growth of the firm from 1923 and of its early interest in radio, and the long desire of the company to have a station of their own. "We have aimed at a high standard of music, and we shall endeavor to maintain it as long as we are on the air," he said. "We hope to contribute in no uncertain extent to the entertainment of the public who are fortunate possessors of wireless sets." He thanked Mr. Basil Kirke, of 6WF, on behalf of the Australian Broadcasting Company, for the floral horseshoe presented, and which was placed at the foot of the main microphone throughout the evening. Dr. Battye said that every endeavor to extend the use of wireless throughout this and the other States must have a definite benefit to the community at large. They had been taught at school that there were seven wonders of the ancient world, but during the last fifty or sixty years the development of the physical sciences, particularly electricity, had produced more wonders than the ancient world ever dreamed of. Such wonders had been absorbed into the life of the community and were now regarded as necessary. Of these, broadcasting stations had brought pleasure and education to the people, particularly to those people who by their situation were denied the advantages those living in the city enjoyed. At the conclusion of the official opening the guests of the evening were entertained to supper. Among those present were the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Colonel. S. R. Roberts), Dr. J. S. Battye, superintending engineer (Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick), Collector of Customs (Mr. H. St. G. Bird), radio inspector (Mr. G. A. Scott), Mr. C. J. Shannon (representing directorate of the A.B.C.), Mr. Basil Kirke station manager 6WF), and Professor A. D. Ross. Many toasts were honored during the supper, the speakers generally stressing the point that, with two stations on the air the alternate programmes offered should prove an inducement to more people to become interested in radio. During the evening Mr. Musgrove, on behalf of the company, presented Mr. Ashwin with a gold tiepin as a memento of his visit, and also with a wallet of notes as an expression of satisfaction with the work of Mr. Ashwin and of felicity between the two parties.[103]

West Australians and Broadcasting. At the opening of the new broadcasting station 6ML on Wednesday evening, Professor A. D. Ross, who is chairman of the University's Music Board, announced that of the three music scholars of the University of Western Australia who had completed their three years' course of training at the Conservatorium of Music of the University of Melbourne, two were the official pianists and accompanists of the National Broadcasting service in Victoria. Miss Mabel Nelson, the first scholar to complete the course, had been appointed last year to station 3AR in Melbourne, and this year Mrs. Mulvany (Miss Edith Parnell) had received the corresponding appointment at 3LO. That, said Professor Ross, was evidence that in Western Australia we had musical talent equal to any in the Commonwealth, and that in broadcasting as in other professions, the young people of our State were gaining positions of distinction.[104]

Detailed Figures. For the first time since broadcasting came into vogue in Australia, the net increase in listeners' licences in Western Australia during February was greater than in any other State. The increase was 98. Queensland had a net gain of 34, and Tasmania 16, while the other States showed a substantial decrease, as follows:— Victoria, 1,969; New South Wales, 55; South Australia, 197. In September last, when the Australian Broadcasting Company took over control of station 6WF, Perth, there were 3,888 licences held in the State. It is believed that there will be about 5,000 by the end of this month. Considering also the advent of the new station 6ML, the future of broadcasting in this State is believed to be bright.[105]

BROADCASTING. MUSGROVE'S B STATION. Official Opening of 6ML. The march of wireless progress in W.A. was quickened on Wednesday evening last with the official opening of Western Australia's first B class station which is owned and operated by Musgrove's, Ltd., Lyric House, Murray-street. Through the initiative of this enterprising firm, a modern crystal controlled station, operating on 297 metres and using 500 watts, has been installed. The opening session proved that the transmission was all that could be desired. An ample and clear volume with a fine programme, which sparkled throughout provided a feast of entertainment for listeners. A galaxy of talented artists, including Rita Hawse, Contessa Fillppini, lean? Musgrove, Horace Dean, G. A. McDonald, Frank Robertson and Ronald Brearley compounded a programme which throughout was of artistic and musical merit, and a delightful evening's entertainment came to a close with reechoing expressions of pleasure and gratification for the sponsors of our alternative broadcast programme. The announcer's task was carried out by Mr Archie Graham in a manner that earned him every commendation. The usual brief intervals between items were thronged with quips of a humorous nature and a commentary which flagged not for a moment. The utility of broadcasting in the entertainment and educational spheres cannot be questioned, and though the initial programmes from 6ML were of high standard, subsequent sessions set a new angle from which to view the pleasures that will accrue to listeners with our two stations. Previous to the opening a graceful tribute was paid to 6ML by Mr. Basil Kirke and the directors of the A.B.C. by the presentation of a floral horseshoe, which it is hoped will follow its legendary tradition and be an augury for a very successful future for 6ML.[106]

6ML Calling! OUR OWN BROADCASTING STATION, 6ML, Was Opened on March 19 by Dr. J. S. Battye, and will be on the air Daily from 11 a.m. to 10 p.m. SUNDAY EVENINGS, 7 TO 9 o'CLOCK. ALTERNATE SUNDAY AFTERNOONS, 3 to 4 O'CLOCK. If you have a Radio Receiver, be sure to tune in 6ML on 297 Metres. If you have no Receiver you are missing some Wonderful Musical Entertainments, and we advise you to write us immediately for particulars of Stromberg Carlson The World's Best Radio Receivers. Price from £18 upwards. Complete with Speaker. Easy Terms Arranged. Musgrove's Ltd. LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-STREET, PERTH.[107]

SPECIAL ADVERTISEMENTS. They said: "We Want REAL Music!" There are still any number of people who will not have wireless within their doors. This is not just a fad on their part; it is a conviction. At some time or another they have heard something that did not sound like good music. It has come to them from a dark corner in the house of a friend. They have been told "this is a concert relayed from the Theatre Such-and-Such." "So THIS is Wireless," THEY HAVE SAID — NOT REALISING THAT IT WAS A CASE OF BAD, RECEPTION. And because of this, they would have none of it. And they will not be content with reception that is less than realism. We, at Station 6ML are presenting programmes and marketing receivers to satisfy the ear of these critical listeners. Call in — let us convince you. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED. LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-STREET, PERTH. NEW ARCADE, FREMANTLE. [108]

SPECIAL ADVERTISEMENTS. "INVENTION'S SUPREME CONTRIBUTION TO MUSIC." THE DUO-ART REPRODUCING PIANO. The superb instrument which is not only a magnificent pianoforte and a player-piano without equal — but is also a REPRODUCING Piano — rendering an exact facsimile of the pianist who recorded the roll — and practically EVERY great pianist records EXCLUSIVELY for the Duo-Art. Let us post you a brochure, fully describing this unique instrument. Prices range from 275 guineas and liberal terms can be arranged. HEAR IT OVER 6ML. One of the features of the transmissions over 6ML is the broadcasting of the actual playing of Paderewski and other of the most famous pianists — through the medium of the DUO-ART. Listen in for it. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED, "THE HOUSE OF DISTINCTION," LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-ST., PERTH; NEW ARCADE, FREMANTLE.[109]

COUNTRY RECEPTION OF 6ML. A South-Western reader in communicating details of his results with the above station, states that reception on a four-valve set gives audible reproduction at 100 yards away from the loud speaker. Quality and reproduction are excellent, with only a little fading. I shall be pleased to receive from readers further reports on the reception of 6ML.[110]

1930 04[edit]

AMAZING VALUE IN AN UPRIGHT CABINET RADIO. THE APEX 7-VALVE ALL ELECTRIC — £47/10/ COMPLETE WITH BUILT-IN MOVING COIL SPEAKER. Housed in an attractive upright cabinet of polished mahogany, it is a genuine Neutrodyne employing 7 valves and one rectifier, specially constructed for local voltage. You simply plug into the ordinary electric light socket, turn a control, and there you are — EASTERN STATES AND LOCAL STATIONS are brought in with perfect clarity and in tones that have depth and are perfectly natural. High notes, low notes — all come in clearly in their proper relation. There are no extras to buy. It is complete with valves and speaker. RING B6131 AND WE WILL DELIVER A SET ON TRIAL WITHOUT OBLIGATION. LISTEN IN TO NICHOLSONS RADIO HOUR FROM 6WF (1 TO 2 P.M., MON-DAY TO FRIDAY.) NICHOLSONS LIMITED, THE — BEST — IN — RADIO. PIANOFORTE SOLOS BY GREAT ARTISTS OVER THE AIR FROM 6ML. One of the most popular features of the transmissions from Musgrove's Broadcasting Station, 6ML, are the pianoforte solos by the greatest pianists of the world — Paderewski, Hofmann, Bauer, Cortot, Friedman, Grainger, and many others, reproduced by that unique instrument, the "Duo-Art" Reproducing Piano. No other piano can do what the "Duo-Art" does. For no other kind of piano do the great artists of the Concert Stage record. This wonderful piano reproduces every shade of expression, exactly as the recording artist played. And not only this, for in addition, the "Duo-Art" is unequalled as a "self-expression" Player, and is a particularly fine pianoforte — a "Steck" — for hand playing. Listen in to 6ML — or call at Lyric House. You can obtain a "Duo-Art" for your own home, on attractive terms. Call in — to-day. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED, "The House of Distinction." LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-ST., PERTH; FREMANTLE AND BUNBURY.[111]

SPECIAL TESTS FROM 6ML. Perth's new wireless station, 6ML, is again broadcasting on full power, repairs having been effected to a part of the transmitter, which had developed faults. A series of special tests will be carried out on Saturday night, after the conclusion of the usual programme, at 10 o'clock, to enable listeners to compare the relative quality and volume when the transmitter is to be operated on 50, 150, 250 or 500 watts. The management will be pleased to receive reports from listeners on these tests.[112]

BROADCASTING. Receiving the Local Stations. Since station 6ML came on the air, officially, numerous letters have been received seeking information regarding the size coils to use for this station, the majority of which refer to their use with crystal sets. As the questions appear to be from novices I am more or less in the dark as to the replies which should be given. When an amateur submits a question in the following terms, "I have a crystal set, what size coils do I require for 6ML, he apparently credits me with supernatural powers. There are many types of crystal sets, some of which employ a variable condenser; others have two of these handy units; while others are operated without any tuning condensers at all. Then there are those sets which give reception with the aid of one honeycomb coil, others have two coils, and there are many of the ubiquitous slider and former type of sets still doing service. Generally speaking, with crystal sets, the operator cannot hope to obtain both sele-tivity and volume — one or the other must be sacrificed, and it is generally the former. Only a very selective crystal set will enable the operator to "tune up and down the dial," so those amateurs who are working ordinary types of crystal sets cannot hope to achieve any real success until such time as they become possessed of either a very selective crystal set or a valve set. Reception of either of the local broadcasting stations is possible on a crystal set by the simple process of changing the coils — usually a coil with 25 turns lower than required for 6WF will give you 6ML — but good quality tuning condensers, together with a respectable aerial system, are essential to achieve this. If crystal set operators, when submitting queries, give full details of the components and their values as used in their sets, it will enable me to answer their questions properly. Valve set owners, being, no doubt, more advanced in the science, are as a rule particularly careful to supply all details of their sets when submitting questions, so, in order to avoid any unnecessary delay. I must again remind my cat-whisker friends to assist me in this direction, so that I may then be better able to assist them.[113]

BANJO SOLOS over the air from STATION 6ML. Listen to the music over the air from Musgrove's Broadcasting Station, 6ML. Instrumental solo's, by experts — and not the least popular are the banjo selections. A sweet sounding instrument, the banjo. And remarkably easy to learn. We can positively guarantee to put you on the high road to success with this instrument in a space of a few weeks — just depending on how much time you can spare for practice. If you live out of town, our correspondence courses and instruction books will enable you to learn at home quickly, easily and WELL. New patent Banjos and Banjolins are priced from £7/10/. "Supremus" models of the Whirle Dance Banjos are priced at from £6/10/. Fully descriptive lists of these and other models, free. Terms arranged on any model. The New Windsor Patent Banjos and Banjolins Double the Volume of Tone. Beautiful instruments, these, in the richest of rosewood, or the finest figured walnut, pearl inlaid or polished ebony finger boards. All fittings heavily pleated, rich volume producing resonators permanently built on, 5-string and 4-string, G. Banjos, and Tenor Banjos, Banjolins that make of this a REAL musical instrument. No finer, more complete range of models available anywhere. Why not drop us a line, or call in for full particulars of these instruments, and our easy system of payments, together with our details of instruction courses for making you a proficient player? No obligation is incurred. A postcard will do. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED. LYRIC HOUSE, MURRAY-STREET, PERTH; and at FREMANTLE and BUNBURY[114]

UNLICENCED WIRELESS SET. A heavy penalty was asked in the Perth Police Court yesterday, when Norman Cohen pleaded guilty to a charge of having maintained an unlicensed wireless set in Menzies Flats. It was stated that a six valve wireless and gramophone, with an indoor aerial and tuned in to 6ML, was found in his rooms on March 31. Defendant explained to the inspector who found the instrument that he had only had the set a few days. The inspector, however, understood that defendant had maintained a set continuously for about six weeks. Cohen said that he had only been in Menzies Flats about three weeks, and during that time had had several sets left with him for trial for periods of 24 hours. When he bought the set referred to he took out a licence as soon as possible. He was fined £5, with. £2/3/6 costs. Mr. A. B. Kidson, Acting P.M., occupied the Bench.[115]

RADIO ROUND THE WORLD. PERTH has a "B" class station, which began broadcasting on March 19 on a wavelength of 297 metres, with a trans­mitting power of about 500 watts, and an estimated range of 350 miles. Capital is sup­plied by Musgrove's Limited - hence 6ML -­ a Perth music house; Ronald Brearley, formerly of 3AR, Melbourne, is director of programmes and publicity; and Archie Gra­ham - not our old friend Harry Graham of 6WF - is the station's first announcer. The National Musical Federation of Adelaide erected the transmitting plant, which is said to embody many of the latest features of transmitter design, including crystal control. [116]

Broadcasting Talkie Films. Station 6ML has completed an exclusive contract with the management of the Capitol Theatre for the broadcasting of any talkie films which may be screened at this theatre in the future. The first talkie to be broadcast will be "Rio Rita," which is now being screened. Reports regarding the strength and clarity of reception of these features would be greatly appreciated by the manager of station 6ML.[117]

1931 - Frequency Change

BROADCASTING. Interfering Stations. Two complaints, which are identical with regard to the questions raised, have been received during the week in connection with the reception of the programmes from station 6ML being "cut out" by interfering stations. It appears that a foreign station working on 293 metres manages to "chop in" during the hours of transmission of the local station, and, until about 8 p.m., reception of the programmes from 6ML are unobtainable. The mushiness and background noises from the foreigner who apparently closes down at 8 p.m., Perth time, spoils the listening-in period of one of my correspondents so much that he has been prompted to suggest that one or the other is encroaching on a wavelength which is not alloted to him. It will, no doubt, be of interest to my correspondents as well as to many other readers, to know that in the allocation of wave-lengths for the various stations, such stations are permitted to broadcast on a wave-band of five degrees on either side, that is, five degrees below and five degrees above the known wave-length of the station. For instance, station 6ML, working on 297 metres, is permitted to broadcast on from 292 to 302 metres, and the same method applies to all other broadcasting stations. This does not imply that the wave-length for transmissions can fluctuate, between the 10 deg. throughout the transmission. The variation is allowed owing to the fact that it is almost an impossibility to retain an exact wave-length to the millimetre day in and day out. Several factors have been taken into consideration in allocating the wave-lengths, among them being that of the intended power employed for the aerial output, and climatic conditions. As far as possible there are no two stations operating on the same power and wave-length. The climatic conditions also are an important factor. These conditions, which vary daily, are, for all practical purposes, beyond the engineer, with the result that he is permitted to work on a margin of five degrees each side of his allotted wavelength to rectify any possible errors. The fact that two stations working on wave-lengths (official) separated by only six degrees do happen to overlap occasionally does not infer that one of the two is not working on his correct wave-length more particularly when they are separated by thousands of miles.[118]

RADIO ROUND THE WORLD. PERTH'S new "B" station, 6ML, opened at 8 o'clock on March 19 with the introduction of the managing director, Mr. D'O. Musgrove, who then read a kind message from the directors of the A.B.C., to which was attached a "beautiful floral horseshoe for luck." Dr. J. S. Battye, B.A., LL.B., declared the station officially open. Among those (text missing from original) [119]

6ML. Sunday, April 20. 3.0 to 4.0: Choral items by "The Watch Tower Choral Singers"; address by Mr. A. McGillivray of New York. 7.0 to 9.0: Selection of Brunswick, Columbia and H.M.V. records. Monday, April 21. 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m.: Reproduced music and Steck Duo Art. 5.45 p.m. to 7 p.m.: Reproduced music and Steck Duo Art. 7 p.m.: Share market news by Messrs. Saw and Grimwood, St. George's-terrace, Perth. 7.3 p.m.: Re-produced music and Steck Duo Art. 8.0: An evening of the latest records released by Messrs. Musgrove's Ltd., Perth. Tuesday, April 22. Sessions, 11 a.m. to 12. 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m. 3 p.m. to 4 p.m. 5.45 p.m. to 7.30 p.m.: Reproduced music and Steck Duo Art. 8 p.m.: This night is to be devoted to testing the ability of listeners to tell 6ML which is reproduced music and which is the actual artist or artists performing. Each item will be announced by number only. This contest should create interest, and 6ML will be pleased if listeners will forward answers addressed to the programme director. The all-talking and singing picture "Rio Rita" broadcast from The Capitol Theatre by permission of the Capitol Theatre managing director, Stanley N. Wright.[120]

Reserve Power for "6ML." In order to ensure that an efficient supply of power will always be available for broadcasting the programmes, station 6ML has completed the installation of a rectifying unit to supply the last panel of their plant with power. This will be an alternate source of supply to the generator, and will ensure at all times an efficient standby in case any unforeseen trouble develops in the other unit. Amateurs' reports still pour in regarding the strength of reception from 6ML, last week's mail containing letters from satisfied operators from such points as Roebourne, Rawlinna and Peak Hill.[121]

A NOVEL BROADCAST. 6ML is to be congratulated on its success in broadcasting to listeners a particularly fine relay of the talking picture "Rio Rita" now starring at the Capitol Theatre. While this alliance of talkies and broadcasting is by no means new, its utility being recognised as soon as the phonofilm became a practical proposition, it is the first occasion in which we believe a new system of tapping the talkies was used, and which completely did away with theatre noise and other incidentals of the audiences, acclamation thus enabling the broadcast to be invested with a clarity that was really astounding, and convince listeners of the excellence of this picture. It is usual, or has been the case in past occasions, to pick up the talkie programme through a microphone placed adjacent to the sound reproducing apparatus, but the staff at 6ML adopted the novel idea of intercepting the programme at the monitor control of the theatre, thereby obviating all extraneous noise. The ease with which the dialogue could be followed, likewise the excellent sound portrayal of the song numbers only whetted one's keenness to view the picture as a complete productlon.[122]

1930 05[edit]

STROMBERG-CARLSON RADIO. THE ALL-ELECTRIC SCREEN GRID FOUR. The All-Electric Screen Grid Four is specially designed to give perfect reception and particularly good selectivity in local broadcast stations, with the most satisfactory long-distance receptions. It utilises: 1 type 224 Screen Grid — 2 type 227 — 1 type 245 Power, and 1 type 280 Rectifier Valves. INTERSTATE RECEPTION GUARANTEED. PRICE, £37/10/. LIBERAL TERMS ARRANGED. STROMBERG-CARLSON — RADIO'S FINEST EXPRESSION. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED, OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF STATION 6ML. MURRAY-STREET PERTH, and at FREMANTLE and BUNBURY.[123]

WIRELESS BROADCASTING. . . . 6ML TONIGHT. 8. "Around the World by Radio," a novelty night from 6ML, arranged by 6KK (sic, 6KX); we leave Western Australia, proceeding across the Indian Ocean listening to station 6ML; 10. close down.[124]

1930 06[edit]

"6ML Here." Mr. F. C. Kingston, manager of Musgroves "B" Class Broadcasting Station. It is the introduction of this second station on the air in the West that has helped to popularise radio locally.[125]

BROADCASTING. ADDITIONAL B CLASS STATIONS. CANBERRA, Thursday. The Postmaster-General (Mr. Lyons) today announced that B class wireless broadcasting licences had recently been granted to the following: 2AY, Albury; 2MO, Gunnedah; 2XN, Lismore; 3KZ, Melbourne; 3TR, Trafalgar; 3BA, Ballarat; 4BC, Brisbane; 4MK, Mackay; 5AD, Adelaide; 6ML, Perth; 7HO, Hobart.[126]

EXCEPTIONALLY FINE SERVICE. The staffs of both 6WF and 6MLare deserving of every eulogy for the manner in which the stations were kept on the air beyond the usual sessions, for the purpose of broadcasting results of the first test match. Listeners are apt at times to be non-committal on any special efforts to give them an improved service, but the many eulogistic remarks that have been expressed by listeners in appreciation of the special services from both 6WF and 6ML, shows that at least these were highly appreciated, especially so in the country districts, where the broadcast information was the first source of gaining details of the latest scores.[127]

1930 07[edit]

New Broadcasting Station For S.A. This Week. 5AD, WITH 1,000 WATTS, ON 229 METRES TO OPEN ON SATURDAY. The Register To Supply One Hour's Programme Weekly. In the absence of the Premier (Mr. Hill) in Canberra, the Attorney-General (Mr. Denny) will represent him and declare the station open. Other speakers on Saturday night will be, Senator Daly, the Postmaster-General (Mr. Lyons), the Lord Mayor (Mr. Bonython), and the leaders of the Liberal and Labour parties in South Australia. The official opening is set down for 8 p.m., afterwards a musical programme will be given by a number of leading artists. At 10 p.m. dance music will be broadcast, and the station will close down at midnight. DAILY SCHEDULE. Station 5AD will broadcast from 3 p.m. to 11 p.m. during week days. On Saturday and Sunday the hours will be from 6 p.m. until 11 p.m. and 6 to 10 p.m. respectively. The transmitting set was designed by Mr. Harry Kauper, one of the best of Australia's radio men, who left recently for England. Mr. Kauper was chief engineer at 5CL for many years. The set was constructed by Mr. E. M. Ashwin, and Mr. W. Maddocks, prominent Adelaide radio engineers with the assistance of local electrical firms. Experts who have heard the set in operation say it is one of the most efficient of its type in Australia. Excellent reports have been received of the experimental transmission last week, when only 140 watts were used. When full power is employed it should be heard all over Australasia. THE TRANSMITTER. The transmitter is crystal controlled, with low power modulation, and has four main units, the crystal oscillator and modulator, the linear amplifier, the rectifier and the power amplifier. To avoid hum, no generators will be used in transmission, the power for the big valves coming from the alternating current mains through a step-up transformer and mercury vapour rectifier. The studio is 70 feet by 20 feet, being nearly as large as those of 3LO Melbourne and 2FC Sydney. It has been lined with sound absorbing material, and its acoustic properties have been described by Professor Kerr Grant, Professor of Physics at the University, as excellent. SPONSORED PROGRAMMES. The Register News Pictorial will supply the programme from 5AD, every Tuesday from 9 to 10 p.m. The Advertiser will give a programme from 8.30 p.m. till 9.30 p.m. every Thursday. The News will contribute an hour next Wednesday. The latest news from The Register and The Advertiser will be broadcast as it is received. Mr. Ashwin will be assisted by Mr. Maddocks in the control of the technical side of the station. Mr. Ashwin was connected with 5CL when that station was housed in the Grosvenor many years ago, and also when the transmitter was moved to Brooklyn Park. Two years ago, Mr. Ashwin remodelled the transmitter at 7ZL Hobart, and installed the transmitting gear at 6ML, Perth. Mr. Maddocks was for four and a half years connected with 5CL. (PHOTO) Mr. H. Kauper. Mr. E. M. Ashwin, who is in control of the technical side of station 5AD, working on the transmitting gear, which he assembled.[128]

1930 08[edit]

FEDERAL NETWORK. NEW CHAIN OF STATIONS. 5AD Adelaide, Linked. A nation-wide chain of broadcasting stations has been formed and will be known as the Federal network. The stations associated in this chain are 6ML, Perth; 5AD, Adelaide; 3DB, Melbourne; 3BA, Ballarat; 2GB and 2UW, Sydney; and 4BC, Brisbane. Relays of musical programmes will be carried out from time to time, and the stations concerned will co-operate in other ways. The first relay was made last week, when the opening programme of Station 5AD was carried to Melbourne, Ballarat and Sydney. Until line facilities are made available it will not be possible to relay to Perth or Brisbane.[129]

RADIO IN OTHER PLACES. STUNT plays and relays are sometimes taken seriously by listeners who tune in after the introduction is concluded. Thou­sands of people were preparing to rush into their wartime cellars when a clergyman’s idea of an air raid on London was broadcast some time ago; and when a Czech play, "Fire at the Opera," was broadcast recently. many listeners in Prague ran to the opera house to retrieve their roasted relatives. On July 19, the Perth "B" class station, 6ML, put over a description of an air raid. They were helped substantially by a publicity air raid, arranged by picture show people to advertise a flying picture. Hundreds of people lined the streets to see the action; while hundreds more list­ened-in, hearing the rattle of defending Lewis guns, and the roar of attacking 'planes, and above them all the announcer's voice, describing direct hits on the advertising theatre, several prominent city buildings, and on the broadcasting station itself.[130]

THE FIFTH TEST. BROADCAST FROM 6ML. Realising the tremendous enthusiasm prevailing over the forthcoming Fifth and Final Test Match, 6ML (Musgrove's Limited) will Broadcast to listeners scores and details of play throughout the entire game, which will be played to a finish. LISTEN IN! LISTEN IN! LISTEN IN! Be in the fashion and secure a STROMBERG-CARLSON RADIO. Listen in! and enjoy this historic game to decide the destiny of the Ashes, in the comfort of your own home. STROMBERG-CARLSON — RADIO'S FINEST EXPRESSION. ALL ELECTRIC SETS. PRICE FROM £15/10/. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED, Perth, Fremantle, Bunbury.[131]

Meeting of the League. . . . A request by Musgrove's, Ltd., the owners of 6ML, to be able to broadcast league matches was acceded to.[132]

1930 09[edit]

(Start Photo Caption) The Studio of Station 6ML, Perth. (End Photo Caption)[133]

6ML, PERTH. Successful "B" Class Station. Station 6ML, Perth, was opened with due ceremony on March 19 last, and has been on the air ever since, averaging 47 hours a week. This is a "B" class station, and is owned and operated by Musgroves, Ltd., of Murray-street, Perth, and has played an important part in the progress of wireless in this State. Its transmissions are of good quality, and its programmes more than favourably compare with many "B" class stations in other parts of Australia. Daily sessions of general musical items are given, and there is a regular children's hour between 7.30 and 8 p.m. Each Monday evening a selection of the latest gramophone numbers is broadcast; Wednesday is a special dance night; on Thursday the items are mainly of a classical nature; and on Sunday evening a special concert programme is given. The other evening programmes are of general appeal.[134]

PROGRESS OF WIRELESS. DEVELOPMENTS IN W.A. THE PAST YEAR REVIEWED. Marked Increase in Licences. (By "Radio.") The improvement of the transmission from 6WF was followed by the erection of our first "B" class station — 6ML, owned and operated by Musgroves Ltd. The effect of this new station on the development of interest in radio during the past year cannot be overestimated. Then came the test cricket broadcasts in which both stations were prominent. The interest in the present series of tests was greater than in any previous series, and the fact that progress scores could be obtained over the air, led to a marked increase in the sales of sets and of licences, no fewer than 1,235 licences being taken out in July — a record for the State. Persons who had not taken much interest in radio "listened" in for the first time and, apart from the cricket scores, were quick to realise the advantages of radio as an entertainment. In the city large crowds gathered round every loudspeaker, while in the country the interest was intense. It is not too much to say that the prejudice against radio has now disappeared and in its place has come a wireless sense. . . . The new carrier wave telephone system between Perth and the Eastern States should be in operation next year and this will enable outstanding events to be relayed from stations in the East direct to 6WF and 6ML. Thus we may now prepare to listen to a full description of the Melbourne Cup of 1931. Like test matches this will bring broadcasting further before the general public and will sharpen the wireless consciousness. We can look to the future of broadcasting in Western Australia with optimism and there will be much disappointment if, within 12 months of the erection of the new station, the licences have not passed the five-figure mark.[135]

6WF'S BIRTHDAY. Happy Gala Night. "There are close upon 7500 wireless licences in force at the present time, just about double the number in operation when 6WF, as operated by Westralian Farmers Ltd., was handed over to the Commonwealth and the Australian Broadcasting Co., said Dr. J. S. Battye at the first anniversary birthday party held at the 6WF studios last night. About 100 guests of the A.B.C. were present in the large studio during the early part of the evening, from where a special gala-night programme was given. An attractive supper was provided in the reception room, after which dancing was carried on till the early hours of the morning. The manager of the station (Mr. Basil Kirke), with his wife, received the guests, read to the gathering and to listeners a telegram of welcome and congratulation from .the chairman of directors (Mr. Stuart Doyle). Dr. J. S. Battye, during an interlude in the programme, traced the progress of wireless in this State from the inception of broadcast station 6WF. He said that while the Westralian Farmers commenced the service with a laudable object, they were faced not only with a lack of interest in broadcasting, but a strong prejudice against it. Once the difficulties of the change m wavelength were overcome by the new company and with the co-operation of the public, the Press, the university, the Wireless Institute, and other organisations, the position began to improve until now it was in a most hopeful position. One factor which assisted greatly in the increase of licences was the establishment of 6ML, which provided an alternative programme and allowed for a diversity of interests to be catered for. When the new relay station was established in the vicinity of Katanning there should be a further increase in licences. Speaking generally, Dr. Battye said that wireless was helping to break down national and geographical barriers, and its consequent destruction of the intol-erances which ignorance breeds among peoples living within narrow circles had yet to be fully estimated. It was an effect which was inevitable, because broadcasters could not be other than an educational influence. It was clear that when the possibilities of broadcasting as a formal and deliberate means of education were considered there could be no doubt that an instrument of incalculable value would be shaped for the service of mankind.[136]

AN INVESTOR'S DIARY. . . MUSGROVES LIMITED. (Through Messrs. Saw and Grimwood). MUSGROVES LTD. The well-known Western Australian firm of music dealers, Musgroves Ltd., have published their figures for the year ended June 30, 1930, and net earnings of £994 resulted. This profit does not compare very favorably with £7124 for 1929, £15,624 for 1928, and £15,531 for 1927, but the unhappy time being experienced by similar institutions throughout the Commonwealth must be remembered. Musgroves' chief source of revenue was hitherto derived from sales of player-pianos, but in these days of radio de luxe the once popular player has been relegated to the background, and the wireless set has taken its place. The directors, anticipating this state of affairs, were not slow in opening a radio department on a large scale, and this has, during the past year, been considerably augmented, and advertised by the broadcasting station, which is owned and operated by Musgroves Ltd. under the name of "6ML." This venture, although just arriving at the self-supporting stage, has proved a very valuable asset in the popularising of the firm's goods, especially radio sets, gramophone records, pianos and player pianos. The chairman in his report describes this new wireless station as a "milestone in the progress of Musgroves Limited." This is undoubtedly so, but what may be regarded a a "millstone around the company's neck" was the purchase at peak prices of two buildings in Murray-street.— Lyric House and Brown's Buildings. Concerning this the chairman stated: "In the report of the previous year's business your directors reported having purchased Brown's Buildings. At that time there appeared to be no reasonable prospect of ever acquiring Lyric House, which, on account of its position and fittings, was pre-eminently suitable for our business. When, therefore, the opportunity to purchase Lyric House arose, the directors immediately took advantage of the chance to make it a permanent home." He goes on to say that the earliest opportunity will be taken to dispose of Brown's Buildings. This is undoubtedly a very wise resolution, but when a sale does eventually take place it would appear that nothing short of a miracle can possibly save the company a loss of many thousands of pounds. From the published figures it would appear that a loss of £693 was experienced over the retention of Brown's Buildings for the year, and if no greater loss than this is sustained for the next few years it will probably pay Musgroves to hold on to the property until conditions and prices for city property improve. The purchase of Brown's Buildings cost Musgroves £46,298 10s, and the deposit on Lyric House was £5000, but the purchase price is not disclosed and the company's contingent liability for the balance is not shown on the balance sheet. The total freehold property is therefore £51.298. Other assets are: Broadcasting plant, £1679; furniture and fittings, £5678; stocks, £32,649; debtors under hire-purchase agreements, less unaccrued interest, £63,430 (these accounts are secured by lien over goods); sundry debtors, £4530. Against the hire purchase accounts, £1000 has been reserved for bad debts and £200 has been set aside to cover sundry debtors in this connection. Other assets total £3510. On the liabilities side appear: Paid capital, £70,000; premium on shares, £971; bills payable, £2113; sundry creditors, £3238; taxation, reserve, £200; bank overdrafts, £68,403. The general reserve stands at £15,750. Analysing the above figures, one comes to the conclusion that the financial position is sound enough. Sundry debtors at £67,315 practically offset bank overdraft of £68,403; the only other liabilities amount to £5515. against which there are assets of £94,815, which gives a surplus of £24,815 after allowing for paid capital of £70,000. This surplus of £24,815 could not, of course, be sold at that figure, but supposing it to be worth £10,000, at least, it would appear that Musgroves could afford to lose this amount on the properties purchased before the shares would have a paper value of less than 20s for every £1 share. Musgrove's house appears to be fairly well in order from a musical trade point of view, but its ventures into the realms of real estate have been, to say the least, unfortunate. The fully paid £1 shares are quoted 10s seller on the Stock Exchange, and, at that figure, should have good speculative possibilities. Shareholders received 10 per cent. until about last December, but recent dividends have been passed.[137]

6WB

KATANNING ROAD BOARD. MONTHLY MEETING. The meeting of the Board held last Saturday was of more than ordinary interest, a number of matters apart from the usual "roads and bridges" work being dealt with. These included a decision with respect to the establishment of a branch factory of the Hume Pipe Co. at Katanning, the question of equipping the Town Hall with a "Talkie" outfit, the attitude of the Board regarding declaration of the York-Cranbrook road through the Board's territory, and the establishment of kerbstone markets. Another subject of interest was that of bookkeeping methods, following an investigation by the Assistant-Secretary into the finances of the Town Hall. The only member absent from the meeting was Mr. A. V. McDougall, the Chairman (Mr. A. Prosser) presiding over an otherwise full meeting of members. . . . Wireless Station. It was reported that; although no definite information had been received regarding the installation of a wireless station on the Great Southern, it was believed that it was to be erected close to Katanning. The fact that the station had been named 6KA was regarded as significant.[138]

"ARCHIE" ON THE AIR. NOW WANTS TO PUT OTHERS ON. ARCHIE GRAHAM, known by young and old over the air as "Archie" made a lot of friends as announcer for 6ML, in Perth, and is now seeking to make more by putting more wireless into more homes. Mr. Graham has had as extensive an experience in radio work as most men of his age, both as an entertainer and on the technical side. He started with 3LO in London, and then went for a time on the Tivoli Circuit through South Africa, and so to Australia. As soon as his contract was through he was snapped up by the Radio stations and became a popular feature of the programmes of 4QG, Brisbane, 2FC and 2BL, Sydney, 3LO and 3AR, Melbourne, 5CL, Adelaide and 6WF, Perth. Archie seems to have the wanderlust. Anyhow, as soon as 6ML started he wandered over there. Now ill-health makes it necessary for him to take an open-air job and he has moved ground again to take up the handling of A.W.A. Radiola Receiving Sets for Phonographs Ltd. But with all his wandering, he doesn't get far away from the entertainment stuff. (Start Photo Caption) Archie Graham. (End Photo Caption)[139]

1930 10[edit]

THE ADVERTISING ARTS BALL. THE COSTUMES REPRESENTING "THE WIRELESS NEWS AND MUSICAL WORLD." "The Wireless News Two." "The Wireless News Two" was awarded the prize for the most original costume at the Advertising Arts Ball held at Temple Court on Thursday evening last. The head decorations were made from large silvered Philips valves, and the set, with its tuning dials, rheostat, etc., is shown as standing on a table. 6WF and 6ML are represented with their call signs on large silver valves on the front of the tablecloth, looking into the set are all of this well-known make. The valves and components shown in this and the back view, under the familiar covers of "The Western Australian Wireless News and Musical World." Looking into the back of the receiver, where can be seen the Philips A415, B405, Philips eliminator, transformers, coils, etc. Thanks is due to Messrs. Unbehaun and Johnstone, Philips distributors in W.A., for supplying the attractive silver valves and many attractive posters, giant components, etc., that were the main features of the make-up. The table draping at the back was a splash of colour with attractive posters of many well-known radio lines.[140]

SOMETHING NEW. General Motors on the Air With Excellent Programme. Despite the unfavorable weather conditions prevailing last night thousands of Perth listeners picked up the General Motors Broadcast through 6ML. The broadcast provided a new development in radio entertainment in Australia, and the programme was popular with local listeners who are eagerly awaiting the next effort from the big motor firm. The entertainment was RELAYED FROM SYDNEY to the short wave station 3ME Melbourne, and then rebroadcast here by 6ML. The General Motors Concert Orchestra was heard in a series of numbers under the baton of Mr. Howard Carr. Songs by Miss Muriel O'Malley, the General Motors Quartette, and a talk on motors by Mr. Norman ("Wizard") Smith, the holder of the world's ten mile record, and Mr. Lawrence, of General Motors, completed the programme. These broadcasts, which will be continued at intervals, will be known as the General Motors Family Party Hours. Listeners-in are looking forward to the next.[141]

1930 11[edit]

"Station 6ML" Here. MANAGING Director D'Oyley Musgrove, of Musgroves Ltd., has seen one of Perth's biggest musical warehouses grow from the smallest acorn, but just when everything seemed to be 100 per cent. the introduction of wireless gave Musgroves and other musical businesses the big K.O. D'Oyley Musgrove visioned the possible dwindling of the gramophone and the player piano with the growing popularity of wireless, and he made provisions for it, and not only did his firm start in the radio business on a big scale, but they installed the first "B" class radio station in the West and daily and nightly 6ML are on the air. Although the upkeep of the station has been a costly affair, Mr. Musgrove knows that his firm and his station are on the right lines, and happy and bright times are ahead of this progressive firm.[142]

A Sport King. LISTENERS-IN to the 6ML broadcasting station often wonder who the man is behind the personality voice that discourses so fluently on the sporting topics of the day. It is obviously the voice of a man who knows what he is is talking about. And when it comes to sport S. B. Gravenall — or "Gravy" — certainly does know his onions. In his heyday he was one of the best all-round athletes in the land. At Wesley College (Melb.), where he was later a master, he excelled in football, rowing, cricket, running, tennis and shooting. There was a time too when he was the best footballer in Australia — but added to his own ability in these games he is a first class coach of others, and his close study of a every branch of field sport makes him an authoritative critic besides.[143]

1930 12[edit]

STROMBERG-CARLSON RADIO CONSOLE. Radio Receivers make fine Christmas presents and the new Stromberg-Carlson Two-valve Radio Console makes a particularly fine family gift. One of the many good reasons for choosing a Stromberg-Carlson Radio as the family present, is that, it will be a permanent possession in the home and with it there is a wealth of music, classical, popular, an abundance of dance music and entertainment, as provided by the Broadcast Stations. It will brighten the home generally and is equally enjoyable by every member of the family, young and old alike. SEE AND HEAR THIS NEW TWO-VALVE RADIO CONSOLE — IT'S MARVELLOUS! "The Finest Radio Receiver at the Lowest Price Ever Produced in Australia." Cash Price £19/10/; Special Xmas Terms £3 Deposit and 7/6 Weekly. MUSGROVE'S LIMITED. OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF STATION 6ML.[144]

1931[edit]

1931 01[edit]
1931 02[edit]
1931 03[edit]

STATION 6ML. Birthday Celebration. The first anniversary of the foundation of the 6ML broadcasting station was celebrated in the studio, Lyric House, Perth, on Thursdav night, when a gala programme was presented. The large attendance included the Deputy Director, of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. S. R. Roberts). In a short speech, in which he remarked upon the educational value of broadcasting, Dr. J. S. Battye said that thousands of listeners were grateful to those who were responsible for 6ML, and for the results that had been obtained. The station had been a valuable complement to 6WF, for no one station could cater adequately for the variety of interests among listeners. That the two stations were coping with these interests was shown by the fact that the number of wireless licences in this State had increased by leaps and bounds, and was now double what it was at Christmas, 1929. 6ML had specialised on the musical side of broadcasting work, and by presenting first-class music, both vocal and instrumental, it had done much to improve musical education in the State. Mr. M. D'Oyley Musgrove, in reply, thanked Dr. Battye for the sympathetic interest he had taken in the station. The founders of the station had hoped by presenting a better class of musical programme to improve the musical standard in Western Australia. The popularity of the station was due in no small measure to the co-operation its founders had received from the Deputy Postmaster-General, and officials of the Australian Broadcasting Company, operating 6WF. The station manager (Mr. F. C. Kingston), in a review of the station's work since its inception, said that its efficiency had recently been increased by 22½ per cent. In January last the power of the station was increased by 50 per cent., and the present power in the aerial was 3½ times greater than it was 12 months ago. This increase in power had given the station a wider range, and had resulted in shoals of letters from grateful listeners in all parts of the State. The programmes were now being received over a radius of 300 miles, and it was hoped soon to complete arrangements for the transmission of programmes from stations in the Eastern States. An enjoyable programme of vocal and instrumental items by local artists was given, and at its conclusion those present were the guests of the management at supper and a dance.[145]

THE BROADCASTER. 6ML'S FIRST BIRTHDAY. . . . (By VK6FG) . . . Congratulations to 6ML on satisfactorily completing one year of service to the listening community. A birthday party was held in the studio on Thursday last, when a number of those interested in radio accepted the invitation of the management to be present. Dr. J. S. Battye spoke in appreciation of the service rendered by the station. The presence of a second station had materially contributed to the increase in listeners' licences during the year, and with an alternative programme to which to tune, it had gone a long way in filling the wishes of the general body of listeners. Mr. D'Oyley Musgrove and Mr. F. C. Kingston spoke on behalf of Musgrove's and the station. For the first 12 months of its service 6ML has a high record. It has been on the air regularly, and the quality of the transmissions have been of a superior quality. The recent increase in power has been all to the advantage of the more distant listener, while the programmes generally have been well selected and compare favorably with similar stations in other States. The station, which draws its revenue from advertising, has naturally felt the effects of the depression, as have other businesses, but it has shown a courageous front and listeners will wish it successful second year.[146]

1931 04[edit]
1931 05[edit]

GOLDFIELDS BROADCASTING. "B" Class Station Granted THREE-YEARS LICENCE. (By VK6FG) Goldfields Broadcasters Ltd., a recently formed company, has been granted a licence by the Commonwealth authorities to erect and operate for three years a "B" class broadcasting station at Kalgoorlie. According to the company's prospectus, approximately half the shares are available for purchase in this State, the remainder being available to investors in South Australia. Those prominently connected with the proposed station are Mr. E. Ashwin, who was the constructional engineer for broadcasting station 6ML, Mr. Don. Gooding, and Mr. W. H. Tucker, all of Adelaide. It is learned that the station will have a power of 1000 watts into the final amplifier and will use the latest screen-grid transmitting valves throughout. The wavelength will not be decided upon by the authorities until the location is definitely settled, but it is expected it will be between 200 and 300 metres. The design of the station will be such as to comply with the very latest in overseas practice. Because of the efficiency of the apparatus it is expected that the station will be clearly heard in Perth by owners of sets using two valves and over, and it is hoped that the station will be operating within a few weeks. No callsign has yet been designated.[147]

MUSGROVE'S LTD. Music for the Winter. With the coming of winter thoughts naturally turn to the means of providing entertainment in the home and there is no better entertainment than music. The well-known house of Musgrove's, Ltd., Lyric House, Murray-street, Perth, has an experience of the musical requirements of West Australians extending over more than 30 years and its policy since the inception has been one of service and value. Among the many special lines displayed in the commodious showrooms at Lyric House are Bechstein, Marshall and Rose, Squire and Longson and Lyric pianofortes. A player piano solves many problems of home entertainment and the Lyric player piano, specially designed for Australian conditions, which is sold at a price within the reach of every home is one of the most popular players on the market. The purchase of one of these instruments is made easy by a system of gradual payments and old pianos are accepted as part payment with a liberal allowance. The advance of radio has progressed to a stage of remarkable attainment, together with a simplicity of operation, in the last two years that earlier difficulties of aerials, batteries and tuning are now eliminated by all electric sets which operate by a switch as easy as turning on a light. The Stromberg-Carlson range of radio receivers is within the reach of everyone and Musgrove's, Ltd. have a complete stock of all Stromberg-Carlson sets from the Lucan two-valve receiver at £19/10/ to the phonoradio combinations which are a masterpiece of entertainment, combining as they do all the advantages of a wireless set and a gramophone. The quality of the reproduction of records through these phonoradio combinations is said to be in advance of anything obtained by mechanical means. Musgrove's Ltd. are the owners and operators of broadcasting station 6ML which is very popular with many listeners both in the metropolitan area and in country districts. A wide variety of Brunswick and Rexonola phonographs and Brunswick records is displayed at Lyric House, and the new Panachord record offers surprisingly good value in popular music for 2/6. In this music warehouse are facilities for the inspection, comparison and selection of all kinds of music and musical instruments and a staff of experts are always at hand to give demonstrations and to supply every need.[148]

WIRELESS WONDERS AT THE LOCAL EXHIBITION. Success at Perth Town Hall. The annual wireless exhibition, held in the Perth Town Hall on Thursday and Friday last, was a record one. The magnificent display of wireless apparatus, outlining the progress made by radio in the past twelve months was a revelation to many of those who attended. The local wireless firms were well represented, displaying wireless and gramoradio receivers as well as components and speakers, of very fine workmanship and neat designs. Several rather novel ideas were in evidence, amongst which was a device for boiling water without fire or any visible heating apparatus. A crystal set, capable of receiving 6WF was fitted into an ordinary wireless valve. The "electric eye" was also demonstrated, this device being a ray of light focussed on a cell which in turn is connected to an electric bell. When a shadow is thrown on the cell, the bell commences to ring, and stops immediately the shadow is removed. Another idea, on the dictaphone principle, would record a voice and immediately afterwards reproduce the words through a loudspeaker. Quite a number of local amateur transmitters were there, with their sets installed showing neat construction and design. Just after 8 p.m. on Friday, the voice of Mr. E. T. Fisk, of Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., came over the land line from Sydney and was relayed by 6WF and reproduced in the hall by several loudspeakers. During the evening the artists of 6WF made their appearance on the platform in musical numbers, this being the first time that many listeners have had the opportunity of seeing them. The relaying of the various musical items and speeches was carried out by 6ML on Thursday night and 6WF on Friday night. The exhibition was under the auspices of the wireless institute. The proceeds of a function which is to be held in the Buckland Hill Town Hall on Friday next will be devoted to the relief of the unemployed in the district. There will be dancing, community singing and orchestral items, and card players will be catered for. Fifty good prizes have been donated and supper will be provided.[149]

1931 06[edit]
1931 07[edit]

1931 - Frequency Change

6ML'S WAVE LENGTH. Proposed Alterations. PRELIMINARY TESTS. The radio inspector's department announces that, due to the increasing number of broadcasting stations in Australia, the department has found it necessary to alter the frequency of Station 6ML, operated by Musgrove's Ltd. It is intended that this station shall operate on 80 kilacycldes (341 metres), and in order to ascertain the relative efficiency of such a change, observations are being carried out by experienced observers. Test transmissions of one hour's duration, commencing at 10 p.m. — after the station closes down its usual programme — will operate from tonight, and the observers are being asked to comment on the relative strength of signals, quality of transmission fading and distortion and interference from other stations.[150]

1931 - Frequency Change

BROADCASTING. New Wave Length Tests. In connection with the change of wave length which is to be made shortly, tests were conducted from broadcasting station, 6ML Perth between 10 and 11 o'clock last night on 341 metres. Owing to the increasing number of radio stations in Australia, the Postmaster General's Department has found it necessary to alter the wave length of 6ML from 297 metres, which is being used at present, to either 341 metres or 255.5 metres. The tests last night were made with a power of 50 watts, which is about one-tenth of the power normally used. The owners and operators of the station, Musgroves. Ltd., of Murray-street, Perth, announced that they would appreciate reports on the test transmission from listeners, particularly in regard to interference if any, from station 6WF. The dial reading for the wavelength of 341 metres is about 15 degrees higher than for 297 metres. The radio inspector (Mr. G. A. Scott) has, in order to ascertain the relative efficiency of the transmissions on 341 and 297 metres, arranged for observation to be carried out by competent listeners. Mr. Scott will be pleased to receive comments on the relative strength, of the signals, the quality of transmissions and the amount of interference from other stations. Observers are also asked to give a comparison of fading and distortion on both wavelengths. Further tests on 341 metres will be carried out from station 6ML tonight and tomorrow night between 10 and 11 o'clock.[151]

1931 - Frequency Change

THE BROADCASTER. Local Transmission Tests. . . . (By VK6FG). During the past week station 6ML has been conducting experimental tests on wavelengths other than that for which it was originally licensed. It is understood that the purpose of these is to determine a wavelength which will provide a better broadcast service to the country districts for the dissipation of the same amount of energy — 500 watts. It is difficult from the point of view of the city listener to make a comment on the transmissions which will be of value to 6ML, and of necessity reports from the country areas must be awaited to determine whether the experimental transmissions have been reaching the rural dweller better than the fixed ones. When 6ML was on reduced power during the experiments volume naturally fell off considerably, and there was a slight background of mushiness, but when the higher power was tried on the altered wavelength it would be difficult to discriminate between the quality of the transmission on any of the frequencies tried. 6ML at all times was sharp in tuning, with good depth of modulation. The tests showed that so far as the station itself is concerned it is capable of fitting in the band at almost any place. TROUBLE WITH 6WF. On the highest wavelength tried, trouble, however, was experienced, not with 6ML, but with interference from 6WF. Even with the most selective sets 6WF comes in over so many degrees of the tuning condenser that were three or four more stations to start up in Western Australia they would have to be fitted in the waveband on either side of 6WF and would be blotted out because of 6WF's broad tuning. That this is due to the high power used is to an extent correct, but that the difficulty is inherent in the station is shown by the fact that in other States there are a number of stations operating, yet cause no trouble by broadness of wave. Take Melbourne, for instance. 3LO and 3AR are two stations with high power, while there are half a dozen 'B' class stations — all erected within an area of a few miles, yet when I was holidaying there some time ago a set stationed almost in the middle of them was able to tune in one after the other without any interference. If it is not possible to sharpen up the tuning of 6WF it would not appear wise to bring 6ML's wavelength any closer to 6WF's, and a hasty judgment on this point would not be wise, for opportunities for a thorough test are necessary. Should it be definitely proved that little variation to the existing conditions can be made, what are the alternatives? One would be to shift 6WF out of the city altogether, so that the ground wave to metropolitan listeners would not be so strong, or else reduce the power of 6WF to about that of 6ML. Curiously enough it will be remembered by experimenters that when 6WF came down from 1250 metres to 435 metres preliminary tests were made on low power, and while the volume was sufficient for local sets, encouraging reports were received from the country. It will be interesting to observe what the department does in the matter, for without a relay station for supplying a service to the country the position is full of complexities.[152]

1931 - Frequency Change

6ML'S NEW WAVE LENGTH. Owing to the requirements of the Postmaster-General's Department the wave length of 297 metres, which has been used by station 6ML since its inception, will be abolished for Western Australia some time in August. The owners and operators of the station (Musgrove's Ltd., of Murray-street, Perth) were given the choice of two new wave lengths, 264 metres or 341 metres. Tests were conducted on both wave lengths last week, and listeners were asked to report on these transmissions. The Manager of station 6ML (Mr. F. C. Kingston) said last night that 85 per cent. of the replies indicated a preference for the 264 metres wave-length. The company had decided to allow the choice of the new wave length to be governed entirely by the views of listeners, and he had therefore notified the department that it had chosen the lower wave length. The change from 297 metres to 264 metres would be made on a date to be fixed by the department.[153]

1931 - Shortwave Simulcast; 1931 - Frequency Change

264 METRES FOR 6ML. Mr. H. Kingston, manager of Musgrove's Ltd., which control station 6ML, stated today that approval had been given by the Commonwealth authorities for a wave length of 264 metres instead of 297 metres, which the station is now using. The alteration to the wave-length will become operative from Wednesday next. Possibly, during the two succeeding days the full power of 300 watts in the aerial will not be utilised. However, after the initial adjustments have been made, transmission on full power will be restored. It is contended that the transmission on this new wave-length will be just as good as on the existing one, and that listeners will experience no difficulty whatever in tuning in the station. 6ML will be off the air during the day sessions on Wednesday next, but will recommence at 5.45 p.m. on reduced power. During the day alterations to the set and aerial will be made, and tests carried out. Mr. Kingston also stated that the firm was considering the installation of a short-wave transmitter which would simultaneously broadcast the programmes from 6ML. A wave-length of somewhere betwen 60 and 100 metres was contemplated, and a reply from the authorities, to whom the matter had been referred, was now awaited.[154]

1931 - Frequency Change

6ML's New Wave-Length. Beginning at the 5.45 p.m. session on Wednesday next, broadcasting station 6ML (Musgrove's Ltd.), will operate on a wave length of 264 metres instead of 297 metres. The new wave length will be found about 10 degrees below the existing wave length on the tuning condensers of receiving sets. There will be no morning, midday or early afternoon sessions on that day. Next Monday, Mr. Eric Donald, formerly of station 3UZ, Melbourne, will begin his duties as announcer at 6ML. On Sunday next, beginning at 6.15 p.m., 6ML will take part in the biggest combined broadcast in the history of broadcasting in Australia when 13 "B" class stations from Brisbane to Perth, linked, together to 5KA, Adelaide by land lines, will broadcast a recorded lecture by Judge Rutherford, of America. The broadcast has been arranged to coincide with an important convention of the International Bible Students' Association at Ohio, United States of America.[155]

PUBLIC WEDDING. Bride is Excited. AN UNIQUE EVENT. When Hoyts Theatres Ltd. announced their intention of arranging for a public open-air wedding as a medium to bring the cause of the Golden Apple Appeal prominently before the public they entertained no doubt of their ability to secure a couple contemplating matrimony who would be willing to take the role of principals in this novel ceremony. Their optimism proved to be well founded. A dozen couples applied in answer to the advertisement in "The Daily News." One couple got into touch with the company's representative, Mr. Bert Snelling, at 1 a.m. today, while another couple was waiting at his office before 9 a.m. The selection has fallen on MISS MAY WHITEMAN and MR. STEVE STYLES. Preparations are necessarily hurried, but arrangements were well in hand for the ceremony, which is fixed for tomorrow at 1 p.m. A photograph of the bride and bridegroom-to-be appears in these columns. DECOROUS CEREMONY. Hoyts promise that the procession and concert which they staged to assist the appeal last Friday will be completely surpassed by the novelty and color of tomorrow's ceremony and accompanying celebration. The point is stressed that the marriage is a genuine ceremony and will be performed in that atmosphere of dignity and decorum the occasion demands. It is anticipated that a tremendous crowd will congregate at the railway station reserve at 1 o'clock. Hoyts are erecting a special dais, which will be elaborately dressed. An orchestra and organ will also be in-stalled and Mr. Keith Watts, popular Perth tenor, will provide vocal accompaniment. The entire service will be broadcast by Station 6ML, Musgroves, who will also instal loud-speakers so that those unable to get near the dais may follow the service. Preceding the service a concert will be presented by several of Perth's leading artists, the arrangements for which are now in the hands of Messrs. Keith Watts and Snelling. The bride and bridegroom will leave for the ceremony from Hoyts Capitol Theatre, the groom arriving at 1 p.m. and bride with her retinue shortly after, and, at the conclusion of the ceremony, will return to the Capitol where the wedding photographs will be taken, and thereafter to Temple Court Cabaret for the wedding breakfast, which the management of Temple Court Cabaret are kindly providing. The public may witness this breakfast from the galleries and loges, and attention is directed to a notice elsewhere. GIFTS FOR COUPLE. Following gifts have been kindly promised to the bride and bridegroom:— Hoyts Theatres Ltd., 25 guineas, and a year's pass to Hoyts Theatres, WA.; John D. Dobson, jeweller, Murray-street, Perth, wedding ring; Epstein Bros., Piccidally Cafe, wedding cake; Temple Court Cabaret, wedding breakfast (for 30 guests); Corot and Co., Barrack-street, wedding dress; Roselea Nursery, Forrest-place, bride's and bridesmaids' bouquets; Mr. Harry Rex, Hostel Rott-nest Island, week's honeymoon accom-modation; W.A. Airways Ltd., honey-moon aeroplane trip; F. Siegrist, hair-dressers, Hay-street, hair waving and manicure; Mallabones Ltd., William-street, travelling case; George Nelson, Hay-street, bridal shoes; Alex Kelly, Hay-street, bridegroom's shoes; Cox Bros., William-street, complete suit and outfit for bridegroom; Hummerston and Bate, Hay-street, gift for groom; Caris Bros., table set; Mr. Hicks, of New Ideas, window dressers and showcard writers, Temple Court wedding breakfast decorations; Illustrations Ltd., photographers, photo of bridal group. Bon Marche will present a cheque to the funds to mark the ceremony. Motor cars taking part in the ceremony are being kindly donated by: Messrs William Attwood Ltd.; Yellow Cabs, Packard sedan; Messrs. Adams Motors Ltd.; Messrs. Sydney Atkinson Ltd., and Consolidated Motors Ltd., and the Tourist Bureau are undertaking the honeymoon arrangements. PRE-MARRIAGE SHOPPING. Today, the bride and bridegroom have had a strenuous but delightful time visiting various stores, obtaining the special licence and finalising details, the bride in particular being happily engaged in matters dear to every woman's heart. On Saturday morning the bride and groom will pay a visit to each of the stores to personally thank the donors for their gifts. Details and times of the visits will be published tomorrow. On Saturday afternoon, Hoyts Theatres gifts will be presented on the stage at the Capitol Theatre. Among the artists participating in the concert preceding the ceremony and at the breakfast are Mr. Eddie Callow, James Miller, Keith Watts, George Simmonds, Ron Brearley and Miss Mignon Jago.[156]

PERSONAL. Mr. Eric Donald arrived in Perth this morning to take up the appointment of chief announcer at 6ML (Musgrove's Ltd.). He commences his duties on Monday next.[157]

1931 - Frequency Change

BROADCASTING. New Wave Length of Station 6ML. Readers are reminded that, commencing with the 5.45 p.m. session today, station 6ML will broadcast on its new wave-length of 264 metres (1,136 kilocycles). This wave length was decided on after numerous tests, and will replace the old one of 297 metres. It will be found that the transmissions will come in with the tuning condenser dial lowered between 8deg. and 12deg.[158]

1931 - Frequency Change

BROADCASTING. To the Editor, "The West Australian." Sir,— I would like to bring before the public another injustice offered our State by the Commonwealth Government. For over a year station 6ML has been broadcasting on a wave length that radio enthusiasts have become used to, and as it is, in my opinion, the only station that supplies a sufficiently interesting programme to induce one to take out a licence it is most unfair that they should be requested by the P.M.G. Department to change their wave length so that the same may be given to another station, possibly an Eastern States station. It seems hard to understand that, although a "B" class station such as 6ML is largely accountable for the increased number of licences, it receives no assistance whatever from the revenue received from licences, and, then meets an obstacle such as asking it to change its wave length in favour of a new station. Perhaps the P.M.G. would be kind enough to explain the position to the satisfaction of radio enthusiasts.— Yours, etc., PUZZLED.[159]

1931 08[edit]

CALLED BY WIRELESS. Constable's 500-Mile Dash. HURRY TO FUNERAL. An announcement made from 6WF and 6ML last Sunday evening had a sequel which served as yet another instance of the service of wireless to the back country of Western Australia. Constable Tom Penn, of Meekatharra, was away in the bush on Sunday, and when he returned he heard from Constable T. Fawcett, who had been listening-in to Perth on his four-valve receiving set, that his brother, David Angus (Gus) Penn (24), had died in St. John of God Hospital that day. If Constable Penn himself had heard the announcements he would have had less than two hours to catch the train for Perth, so as to arrive in Perth in time for the funeral on Tuesday. But when he returned to the Meekatharra station the train had gone. Mr. Frank Davis, of Meekatharra, provided the solution. He offered his car. With his wife and his brother, Mr. E. S. Penn and his wife, Constable Penn left Meekatharra at 1 a.m. on Monday morning. Hard driving down the Wongan line brought the party to Northam on Tuesday morning, and to the Karrakatta Cemetery gates at 10 a.m., just in time for the funeral service. Travel-worn and tired, the Meekatharra party was able to pay a last tribute to the brother. Gus Penn, son of Mr. and Mrs. T. R. Penn, of Seventh-avenue, Maylands, had been in the employ of the Midland Railway Company at Mingenew.[160]

1931 09[edit]

MUSGROVE'S LTD. The Pioneer "B" Class Station. It is now 18 months since station 6ML opened, and during that period Western Australia has advanced very considerably in the matter of radio and broadcast entertainment, says a statement issued by Musgrove's, Ltd. Up to the time of 6ML going on the air, there was only one programme available, and listeners' licences totalled under 4,000. Now licensed listeners number nearly 10,000, which is a clear indication of the value of alternate programmes. It is not contended that 6ML has been solely responsible for this big increase, but it is certainly owing to the fact that a second programme has been available, thereby enabling listeners to make their choice, that many have become interested in broadcast entertainment. The conducting of a broadcasting station, and the presentation of regular and varied programmes of an acceptable standard, is not the easy matter one would imagine. Station 6ML is on the air 8¼ hours a day, and to provide different programmes every day for this spread of hours is in itself a very difficult matter, and when the diversified tastes of the listening public are taken into account, the problem becomes even more difficult. Our efforts in this direction, however, have been quite successful, judging by the thousands of appreciative letters which we have received from listeners, regarding both our transmission and our programmes. We are, however, never satisfied, and are constantly searching for new ideas and improvements, and we can assure listeners that it will be our constant aim to give nothing but the best at any time, and wherever an opportunity presents itself to better the transmission, the plant, the programmes, the staff or the service, listeners can be sure that it will be taken. Many changes have already been made. The plant has been so added to and improved that it is doubtful if the suppliers would recognise it now. Studio equipment has been improved and added to, so that no matter what the occasion or how large an assembly of artists is required at any one time, they can be properly handled, and annoying waits and pauses eliminated. Relay equipment has also received very especial attention, and the station engineer has designed and constructed highly efficient portable remote control units for outside relay work, which is month by month increasing in popularity. In pursuance of this policy, we have ordered from overseas the very latest type of speech or first stage amplifier. This unit is at present in transit, and should arrive in Perth and be ready for installation at the end of the month. This amplifier incorporates the very newest improvements, and represents the last word in broadcasting plant. It is rated to give ten times greater amplification and efficiency in the first stage than the amplifier in use at present. Up to the present time the station has not been a financial success, but it is very gratifying to note the considerably increased interest being taken in this form of publicity. We are particularly pleased with the way listeners have reported on our transmission, and this has been of very material assistance in enabling us to make improvements and adjustments. These reports have been received from every part of the State, as far distant as Wyndham. We have also received very large numbers of reports from every other State in the Commonwealth, and we regularly have reports on our transmission from New Zealand. A few days ago we received a letter from a listener in Merced, California, reporting on our transmission and programmes, and advising that the programme fully justified sitting up until the early hours of the morning. In looking back over the past 18 months, we do so with a great amount of satisfaction in what has actually been accomplished, and difficulties overcome, and with this very valuable experience behind us and a well established service and station in operation, we are able to look to the future with extreme optimism, for we might almost say that broadcasting and radio are as yet in their infancy, and that there are big things ahead, big things to plan and big things to achieve.[161]

A SUCCESSFUL YEAR. TWO NEW STATIONS. A.B.C.'s Second Anniversary. Today is the second anniversary of the new regime at station 6WF, Perth, which consisted of the taking over of the programmes by the Australian Broadcasting Company and of the transmissions by the Commonwealth Government. Radio has made decided progress in this State and, to increase the popularity of broadcasting, the Radio Traders' Association will, today, begin the first "Radio Week" in the history of Western Australia. The erection in Perth of the first "B" class station, 6ML, played a large part in the development of radio, and the announcement that two new "B" class stations will be on the air shortly should help to swell the ever-growing number of licensed listeners. Despite many unfavourable factors, steady progress in wireless, as indicated by the reliable guide of the number of listeners' licences, has been made in radio in this State since September 1, 1929, which marked the beginning of what was called the new era in wireless. The outlook for the future has never been brighter and before the year is ended the number of licences in force should exceed the five-figure mark. The most important of the facts which assure of greater development in radio in the coming year is the decision of the Commonwealth Government to transfer the transmitter of station 6WF from its present unsuitable site in Wellington-street, to a position outside the city proper, and at the same time to bring the plant up-to-date by incorporating the latest technical improvements; to increase its power considerably and generally to give a service that will satisfy the majority of listeners. It is hoped that by this means the bugbear of the distant listener, distortion, will be obviated, and this should lead to an awakening of interest in radio in the country and to the renewal of many cancelled licences. The introduction of station 6ML gave listeners the choice of two programmes and helped to add to the number of licences. The new Kalgoorlie station is expected to be on the air by the middle of this month, and the second city "B" class station, to be operated by Nicholsons, Ltd. should commence broadcasting in October. With four stations from which to select their entertainment West Australian listeners will be well catered for. During the year the radio trade has flourished and the demand for all-electric sets, from those of two valves to phonoradio combinations, has been great. The high standard of efficiency of these sets combined with their simplicity of operation, has played its share in popularising broadcasting, which is one of the cheapest forms of entertainment. The closing of city picture shows on Sundays should increase the radio audience considerably on that night, and the special programmes broadcast from 6WF and 6ML on Sundays, should cause many amusement seekers to listen-in at their own sets or at those of friends. Tonight to mark the second anniversary of the taking over of the programmes of 6WF by the Australian Broadcasting Company, a special programme will be broadcast between 8 o'clock and 11 o'clock, to which leading radio artists will contribiite. Many guests, including the Postmaster-General (Mr. A. E. Green, M.H.R.) have been invited to the studio to watch proceedings.[162]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . 6ML News Service. Commencing on Monday, a special news service will be broadcast from 6ML. Arrangements have been made for a summary of the news to be put on the air direct from the offices of: "The West Australian" and "The Western Mail" twice a day, at noon and at 7.15 p.m. The transmission is being made in cooperation with Musgrove's, Limited.[163]

NEW RADIO STATION. SERVICE FOR GOLDFIELDS. Official Opening Tomorrow. KALGOORLIE, Sept. 13.— During the past week Messrs. E. Ashwin and D. Gooding, radio engineers, of Adelaide, who built the plants for 6ML (Musgrove's, Ltd., Perth), 5CL and 5AD (Adelaide), as well as for stations in Tasmania and Queensland, completed the installation of the plant for the Goldfields "B" class broadcasting station, whose call sign is 6KG. Test transmissions commenced yesterday, and will be repeated daily throughout this week. The station has a wave length of 246 metres and the management has applied for permission to use considerably more power than that originally granted, owing to the large inland area over which the service will operate. The application has been favourably received by the Postmaster-General (Mr. A. E. Green), who will perform the ceremony of opening the station, either in person or by telephone on Tuesday. The opening concert, however, will not be given, until the following week. The plant, which is similar to all modern transmitting apparatus, is crystal controlled ;with a high percentage of modulation, and consists of two units, one being a complete 50-watt transmitter and the other a linear amplifier, which has a capacity of 500 watts. The apparatus is mounted in metal frames, totally enclosed in aluminium panels to prevent accidental contact with the live parts. The control apparatus completes the plant, power for which is obtained from a generator and a rotary converter. The aerial is 80 feet high, with a span of 200 feet, and consists of two steel masts guyed in three places. The station is situated on the outskirts of Kalgoorlie and on practically the highest section of country on the goldfields, 1,200 feet above sea level. Mr. R. Saunders, well known through his association with "Rex and Don" of 5CL (Adelaide) has been appointed manager by the company, which is essentially a goldfields enterprise. Mr. C. Gordon will be the assistant announcer and Mr. E. Ashwin, engineer. Misses G. Williams and J. Harvey will be the "aunties," who will conduct the children's hour and the housewives' session. As far as possible local talent has been recruited for positions at the station. The children's hour will be from 6 p.m. to 6.30 p.m. daily, and the housewives' session from 11 a.m. to 12 noon. From 12.30 p.m. to 2 p.m. the latest news, weather reports, and lunch hour music will be broadcast, and a similar session will be given again between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. The evenings will be devoted to musical programmes and news items. The opening concert will probably be given at the Kalgoorlie Town Hall on September 21 next. The tests that have been carried out during the past two days have proved highly successful, but the station's ordinary programmes will not be commenced until next week. For the next few days only the low-powered unit at the station will be utilised for broadcasting.[164]

PURCHASERS' STORIES. Land and Homes Inquiry. FURTHER EVIDENCE. Among the witnesses heard today by the Royal Commissioner (Mr. Justice Dwyer) who is inquiring into the operations of Land and Homes (W.A.) Ltd., was one who said he was a Pole and could not read the contract he signed, another who said she left her glasses at home and also could not read the contract, and got the wrong block, and a third who said he signed in a hurry under the belief that it was a hire-purchase agreement from which he could withdraw simply by forfeiting payments he had made. Mr. Ross McDonald (instructed by Robinson, Cox and Wheatley, is presenting the case for the purchasers, and Mr. F. W. Leake (instructed by Northmore, Hale, Davy and Leake) is watching the interests of the company. . . . HIS SCOUTMASTER. Henry Trethowan Simmons, in charge of the transmitting plant at 6ML, and living in Mt. Lawley, said that in March, 1930, he was taken to Westminster Garden City with men named Bennett and Roach. Bennett was formerly a Scoutmaster of witness, and came to see witness at Musgrove's. He spoke of a block that another Scout had had and could not pay for, and he wanted witness to take it over. Eventually, thinking that he could drop the purchase merely by forfeiting his deposit, he signed what Lilburne and Bennett told him was a hire-purchase agreement. When he was pressed to sign it was seven minutes to 11 o'clock, and as witness had to start the transmitter at 11 he was in a hurry to get away. When he found he could not keep up the payments he sought to drop the purchase, but proceedings were taken and judgment obtained against him. . .[165]

"B" CLASS BROADCASTING. To the Editor, "The West Australian." Sir,— May I be permitted to correct one or two wrong impressions which have been formed owing to the wording of statements in "The West Australian" of September 14 in reference to the opening of the Kalgoorlie "B" class broadcasting station. The Perth "B" class station, 6ML, was built and installed by the National Musical Federation, Ltd., of 83 Flinders-street, Adelaide, of which I have the honour to be a director and also general secretary. Mr. Ashwin was at that time a radio engineer in our service, as also when my company built and installed station 5KA, Adelaide (1,000 watts), and is a radio engineer of high attainments. 5CL, Adelaide, was built by Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia), Ltd., under contract to Central Broadcasters Ltd., of which company I was an original founder, also director and general secretary from its inception in 1924 until 1927. Mr. Ashwin and Mr. Goodwin were associated with our chief engineer, Mr. E. J. Gunner, in the installation of the very efficient temporary low-power transmitter with which 5CL first went on the air while the 5,000-watt transmitter was under construction. I mention these facts because they are matters of history in the Australian broadcasting world and to accord honour where honour is due. I should like to congratulate West Australian listeners upon the installation of the Kalgoorlie station and also upon the large increase in the number of licensed listeners in the State which is a distinct tribute to the popularity of 6WF and 6ML. During my visit to your beautiful capital city, I am anticipating with pleasure the prospect of hearing some high-class programmes from these stations. Radio has long since become a public utility and, with further improvements looming in the immediate future, all of which will make for public convenience and benefit, broadcasting is, I am sure, destined to fill an even higher place in public esteem than at present.— Yours, etc., A. RAWLINGS CAMPBELL.[166]

THE BROADCASTER. Elimating Unwanted Stations. BCL LICENCES. (By VK6FG.) With the Kalgoorlie station 6KG now on the air, just below 6ML, and with the promise of 6PR on the air on 341 metres during October, a number of inquiries have been made for an efficient wavetrap which will trap out one station. During the past week 6KG has been testing on low power, and comes in just below 6ML. In the city it is practically impossible on an ordinary set to cut out the local station. Superhets, and sets with high selectivity may be successful, but the ordinary run of sets will prove disappointing to many listeners. Indeed, on many of them a relatively few degrees on the condenser dials brings in either of the two local stations, due principally to the great power and broadness of tuning of 6WF. It is to be hoped, therefore, that 6WF will be rebuilt on more up-to-date lines, or removed well away from the city, when 6PR comes on the air, otherwise a wavetrap may be necessary, and the following information may be of assistance to those who contemplate building one, if only for the purpose of tuning-in the Eastern States broadcasting stations. Wavetrap circuits may be divided into three classes, viz., rejector, acceptor, and bypass filter circuits. The rejector circuit opposes the interfering signal, the acceptor circuit extracts energy from the interfering signal and prevents it getting to the receiver, while the bypass circuit offers it a path of low impedance to earth. The rejector circuit may be either in shunt or series, as the illustration shows. The shunt rejector prevents signals both above and below the wave length to which it is tuned from being received. It is properly constructed with a large capacity and low loss inductance, the capacity predominating. The series rejector rejects the signals to which it is tuned from being received. The series rejector circuit is employed to advantage to eliminate signals from a local broadcasting station which might otherwise prevent reception of other signals.[167]

THE BROADCASTER. Scrambled Radio. CAREFUL HANDLING NEEDED. (By VK6FG) It is far from my desire to be an alarmist, but it is my considered opinion that unless certain matters in connection with radio in this State are taken in hand promptly and firmly by the authorities, there will be such an inglorious ether tangle that it will take several years for radio here to recover from the shock. Let's set out the points in something like order, though not necessarily of importance. 1. New Kalgoorlie station is right beneath 6ML's wave. 2. 6WF's tuning remains unnecessarily broad. 3. When 6PR comes on the air, possibility of blotting out by "A" class station. 4. Possible interference with commercial reception by 6PR. Considering the first point, it is doubtful whether more than a dozen or so amateurs and probably half that number of broadcast listeners in the metropolitan area, have heard 6KG. The writer heard the station weakly a few nights ago, and then through a background of 6ML. It was not 6ML's fault, for they have had their wave-length allocated for some time. The allotting of 6KG to a wavelength so close to 6ML means that city folk cannot hear 6KG, even with high-power sets, while goldfields centres cannot hear 6ML. At the moment, and without considering the arrival in the broadcasting field of Nicholson's Limited, it means that the State only has two stations for the benefit of metropolitan listeners, for it is the metropolitan area which supplies the major part of the licence fees. Outside of the city the position is even worse. Within a range of from 200 to about 500 miles from Perth the success of reception from 6WF is variable, while because of the lower power permitted, 6ML fails to travel over long distances. WILL 6WF BE SHIFTED? The fact of 6WF's wave being so broad, as indicated in the second point, means that without particularly selective sets or the use of wavetraps, the choice of Eastern States broadcast stations is limited. On some of the cheaper two and three-valve all-electric sets it is impossible to entirely tune out 6WF from 6ML within a range of a mile or two of the station. Furthermore, it is reported by listeners from many parts of the city and suburbs that 6WF has "harmonics" up and down the band, which cause annoyance and interference. It was proposed to shift 6WF to a more suitable location, but nothing further has been heard of the project. The Radio Traders held a meeting of protest, but were more or less disarmed by the P.M.G.'s promise of early consideration. If the report be correct that investigation showed that such a large sum of money would be involved in the transfer and redesigning of the station, as to put the whole scheme out of court during the present state of the country's finances, then it will be a sorry lookout for local listeners. With many sets unable to completely tune out 6WF when on 297 metres, what will be the position when 6PR come on the air on approximately 341 metres? It would appear certain that 6WF on 435 metres, and under present conditions, will do much to blot out the transmissions. To compare the relative positions of the stations in the spectrum by wavelengths does not give a true understanding of the position; the correct method is to make all comparisons in frequency by kilocycles. Converting wavelength to frequency, it is disclosed that 6ML, on approximately 1010 k.c, has about 320 k.c. separation from 6WF (690 k.c. approx.), while Nicholson's on 880 k.c. is only 130 k.c. away. Thus while Musgrove's is separated from Nicholson's by 130 k.c., Nicholson's is separated from the "A" class station by 190 k.c. Normally such a separation would be more than adequate (American practice considers that 10 k.c. among well-tuned modern stations is sufficient), but in view of the fact that 6WF can be heard on many sets when tuned to 6ML, as the wavelength goes up (frequency goes down), the volume of the station causing interference can be expected to become louder. DIFFICULTIES OF RECEIVING. The final point of consideration does not bother the broadcast listener, but is nevertheless of interest in the radio world. Under arrangements made with Amalgamated Wireless of Australasia, the transmitting apparatus of 6PR will be at Applecross radio centre, from whence emanates the signals to shipping, the police shortwave set, and the emergency service to Rottnest Island. All the necessary aerials radiate from the 400ft. mast, and good engineers though they may be, one can foresee trouble ahead for VIP when 200 watts of modulated output is in the aerial of 6PR. If it be found that 6PR interferes with the reception of shipping signals, what will be done — shift 6PR or move the receiving station? Time alone can tell. However, without prompt action it would appear that radio in. Western Australia is fast drifting towards dangerous shoals, and it is to be hoped that those in authority consider the position which is set out above, in a spirit of perfect friendliness to all concerned. "B" CLASS STATION NOTES. Carpenters are still busy at Nicholson's Ltd. converting the concert hall into a studio. Professional staff has been engaged for the running of the studio, while the technical side is being at-tended to by A.W.A. The station 6PR hopes to go on the air during Show Week. The special Sunday night concerts promise to be particularly attractive. During October Mrs. L. Rossiter, soprano, will be among the new artists to be heard from 6ML. Others will include Miss Pat Jones and Mrs. I. Edwards (sopranos) and Mr. A. W. Cooper (tenor). On October 13 Miss J. Saunders will give a musical talk taking for her subject some of Beethoven's compositions.[168]

1931 10[edit]

BROADCASTING. 6WF's TRANSMITTER. Postal Department's Inactivity. ("By Radio.") Radio enthusiasts and the very large number of potential listeners, both in the city and the country, have been waiting for some time for a public announcement by the Postmaster-General's Department as to the date on which the promised removal of the transmitting plant of station 6WF from its entirely unsuitable location on the roof of Westralian Farmers' building to a site outside the city proper, together with the modernisation of the plant, will take place. On July 22 last, the Postmaster-General (Mr. A. E. Green), in making public the news of the proposed transfer, stated that this would be done in "the shortest possible time"; since then nothing has been done — as far as can be ascertained even the site has not been secured — and the feeling is growing in radio circles that the proposed removal of the transmitter of station 6WF will become one of the unfulfilled promises that have so disheartened West Australian radio enthusiasts. Inquiries at the Postmaster-General's Department, Perth, are answered by the statement that "nothing has been received from Melbourne for publication." Complaints regarding the transmissions from station 6WF, which are the responsibility of the Postmaster-General's Department, have been made so often by listeners, traders and the Press as to become almost a commonplace, and they have also been the subject of strong trade campaigns. These have resulted in some improvement in quality without removing the two vital causes of dissatisfaction. Briefly these are: (1) The tuning of the transmitter of 6WF is so broad that, in the metropolitan area, it is impossible, without a highly selective and consequently expensive receiver, to receive the stations in the Eastern States without interference from 6WF, and often it is impossible to hear them at all, while on many sets 6ML, the "B" class station, cannot be received without, to a greater or lesser degree, receiving 6WF at the same time. (2) In the country, owing to fading and distortion, it is impossible over a very large area of the State to hear station 6WF at all; or, if it can be heard, sufficiently well to hear for any length of time any programme item. In fact, experts state that the effective range of 6WF is only 35 miles, although in certain outlying areas at times it is received quite well. The result is that, whereas in 1929 there were three country listeners to one in the city, now, there are three in the city to one in the country. Commercially Sound Proposition. There is a wide field for expansion in this State, which has now become radio minded. The removal of the transmitter of station 6WF to a site outside the city and the consequent modernising of the plant would (1) result in the sharpening of the tuning so that station 6WF would not cause the interference with other stations that it does at present, and (2) give country listeners 50 to 100 per cent. better service. Those able to analyse the position feel that, if this is done, the number of licences will increase from about 9,500 to 20,000. Thus it would be a commercially sound proposition for the department to put into effect at once its promise to remove the transmitter, and it would be an action well merited by Western Australia, which was the only State in August to show a gain in the number of licences, all the other States, which receive infinitely better service, than Western Australia, showing declines in licences. A little of the past history of station 6WF and its transmitter will not be amiss at this stage. The plant was originally built to operate on a wave length of 1,250 metres and, on that wave length, gave reasonably efficient service. In 1929 it was altered to operate on a wave length of 435 metres, a wave length to which the plant was entirely, unsuited, and since then there has been a never-ceasing stream of complaints as to its lack of efficiency. About 18 months ago Western Australia was promised a relay station in the Great Southern district, which would have been a most welcome addition and which would have undoubtedly doubled the licences then in force. This was to be one of a series of five relay stations to be built in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Then came the financial stress and the relay station for Western Australia — the radio Cinderella of the Commonwealth — was cancelled while the other four, for States already amply served, were not effected and have been erected or are in the course of erection. These stations will be situated at Newcastle (N.S.W.), Rockhampton (Q.), Corowa (V.), and Crystal Brook (S.A.), and the political significance of their localities has not been overlooked by disappointed enthusiasts here. It was, therefore, at a time when all hope of improvement had been given up and a mass meeting of protest had been announced by the Radio Traders' Association, that the announcement in "The West Australian" of July 22 that the transmitter of 6WF would be removed and improved was received with great satisfaction by radio enthusiasts. In this announcement the Postmaster-General said:— I have been disappointed that up to the present it has not been possible to proceed with an expansion of the national broadcasting services of Australia, the sole reason for the delay being the extremely difficult financial position of the Commonwealth Government. It is generally known that plans were prepared to deal with the requirements of Western Australia, and that steps were actually taken to obtain additional equipment, but at the last moment the Government found it imperative to cancel the contract. Since this decision was reached, however, I have given further anxious thought to the subject, and definite steps have now been taken for the removal of station 6WF to another site and for the plant to be reconstructed in a manner ensuring the highest quality of transmission obtainable. Designs for the station equipment are now being prepared, and efforts are being put forward with a view to having the changes effected in the shortest possible time. It is recognised that the present station lacks something in quality and that, owing to its situation, the effective radiated energy is much less than the needs of the district require. The plans now being developed will remove those liabilities and will provide for effective radiation, giving much greater field intensity than has hitherto been practicable. It is realised that these measures are not adequate to the needs of Western Australia, but they will form a very important contribution to the greater expansion in the service which it is hoped to make as soon as the financial position im-proves. Mr. Green's announcement received the warmest endorsement of the leaders of the radio trade and of listeners. Professor A. D. Ross summed up the general feeling when he wrote:— There is now every hope for a great advance in wireless in Western Australia. With an efficient transmitter installed by the department, the Australian Broadcasting Company would be able to supply varied and interesting programmes with the knowledge that the pro-grammes would reach the listeners in a manner which would make them have true entertain-ment and educational value. Broadcasting has great possibilities in Western Australia, par-ticularly at such a time as the present. There is no cheaper form of entertainment than wireless, and during a period of depression the people of the State, whether in the towns or in the country, could derive knowledge, encour-agement and recreation through the medium of this national service. Immediate Statement Demanded. Mr. Green arrived in Perth on August 23, amplified his earlier statement and promised a station of greater power than any existing station in any capital city of Australia. Later, in replying to a deputation from the Radio Traders' Association, the Minister said: "I will use my best efforts to push forward the matter as quickly as possible." Hopes of radio enthusiasts ran high as they visualised, a new and efficient 6WF by Christmas — for experts were unanimous that the work could easily be carried out in four months at the outside. A strange silence then followed and now it is the strong belief of those in close touch with radio that the matter is at a standstill. It is felt that the plans for the removal have been shelved and it is feared that the whole proposal has been added to the graveyard which contains the ashes of so many hopes for modern and efficient transmission from 6WF. There appears to be some force at work against the improving of 6WF's transmissions and it would not be impertinent on the part of local listeners to say that the time is ripe for a full, frank and immediate pronouncement as to the fate of this latest proposal by the Minister (Mr. Green) or the perma-nent head of the department (Mr. H. P. Brown). At the deputation to the Minister, Mr. H. R. Howard, president of the Radio Traders' Association, said that the traders were up against a solid feeling on the part of the public which considered that owing to the disappointments that had been experienced, Western Australia had received poor consideration from the department in the matter of transmissions from 6WF. The feeling referred to by Mr. Howard is unabated and, unless some action is taken by the department, West Australian licence figures must follow those of other States and show a decline. The traders' association is considering two lines of action as a protest against the present position and these will be launched in the very near future. Effect on New Station. In discussing this subject an important aspect which is likely to put an end to any restraint on the part of listeners must not be overlooked. This is the opening of the new "B" class station, 6PR, next week. It is very pertinent to ask at this juncture, what will be the position of the new station if its transmissions cannot be received without 6WF's transmissions being heard at the same time? The new station 6PR is entitled to have a clear field on its own specified wave length. It has been pointed out that many listeners now cannot receive 6ML without a greater or lesser degree of interference from 6WF. Now 6WF operates on a wave-length of 435 metres and its frequency is 690 kilocycles; 6PR will operate on 341 metres and 880 kilocycles; and 6ML is on 264 metres and 1,135 kilocycles. If 6ML which is separated from 6WF by 445 kilocycles, is subject to interference by 6WF, it is rather a poor lookout for set-owners, as 6PR is only separated from 6WF by 190 kilocycles, especially in view of the fact that interference becomes greater as the frequencies become closer. In modern practice 10 kilocycles is said to be ample separation between sharply tuned efficient stations to enable reception without interference; and therefore, the separation of 190 kilocycles between 6PR and 6WF should be more than sufficient separation of frequencies to enable 6PR to be received without even a trace of background from 6WF. Following the opening of 6PR the complaints about 6WF's transmissions are likely to be greater than ever before and it is to be hoped that they will be such as to galvanise the department into long-awaited action.[169]

THE BROADCASTER. Station Notes. (By VK6FG) Last week, in the course of my notes upon "scrambled radio," I quoted the frequency of 6ML as 1010 k.c. The station has since pointed out that that was the frequency on 297 metres, but since they have come down to 264 metres, the frequency has advanced to 1135 k.c., which is correct, but does not alter the substance of my argument. In reply to another point they quote the fact that reports upon the station's transmissions have been received from a number of listeners in New Zealand and Victoria, while State listeners are spread from Bunbury and Bridgetown in the south to Carnarvon and Sandstone in the north and to Trayning to the east, a condition of affairs which must be regarded as highly satisfactory to the station. With the major issues involved in the discussion, the station director agrees.[170]

FOX-HOYTS RADIO CLUB. On Thursday evening next, at 6.30, the inaugural Fox-Hoyts Radio Club broad-cast takes place from 6ML (Musgrove's Limited). The broadcast will comprise the first of a series of talkietones, embodying musical items by many of the Fox Corporation artists, and speeches by world-famed celebrities. The talkietone will be relayed per medium of a Fox movietone sound film, and by kind permission of Western Electric through the medium of their talking picture equipment at Hoyts Capitol Theatre, and then through the transmitter of 6ML. An innovation in connection with the nightly announcements from 6ML will the broadcasting of certain registration numbers of members, who will be entitled to free reserved seats at Hoyts Capitol, Regent and Majestic Theatres. Furthermore, a membership drive is to be conducted for one month from October 8 until November 8, and to the member securing the greatest number of fresh membership registrations an alternate prize of £2 2s cash, or one month's pass to Hoyts Theatres, will be awarded. Application forms for the local Fox-Hoyts organisation may be obtained from 6ML or any of Hoyts theatres, or at Fox Movietone, Perth, the enrolment fee being 1s.[171]

DISPLAY BY MUSGROVE'S, LTD. (Start Photo Caption) Left : A general view of the pavilion. Top right : Section of piano and player piano display. Bottom right : Section of the radio showroom. Musgrove's, Ltd., are owners of broadcasting station 6ML. (End Photo Caption)[172]

MUSGROVE'S LIMITED. Musgrove's Limited, the well-known music people of Lyric House, Murray-street, Perth, also owners and operators of broadcast station, 6ML, had as usual a prominent and fine display of their exclusive world-wide agencies. Such pianofortes as the renowned Bechstein, Marshall and Rose, Steck Duo-Art, and Steck pianola pianos, and Squire and Longson were exhibited. More moderately priced, ant of such a grade that they are worthy to rank and were placed side by side with the other fine instruments, were the Lyric piano and player piano. These instruments are entirely of Australian production, specially constructed and designed for Musgrove's Limited, and prepared to meet the exacting requirements of Australian climatic conditions. They compare favourably with the world's best, and are said to be highly regarded by music lovers and teachers who know the importance of having in their homes an instrument that is above reproach in quality of tone and every other virtue. Convenient terms are available to suit everybody's income, and every instrument is fully guaranteed in writing for 25 years. Radio is booming and now forms an important part in home entertainment; in fact no home is complete without one. Songs, music, entertainment of all kinds, helpful talks, descriptions of thrilling events, and the news of the day, all come to you in the comfort of your own home by simply pressing a button. Wonderful progress in construction has been made during the past 12 months, and now Mus-groves have beautifully designed console models of Stromberg-Carlson sets, housing two, three, four, five and six valve receivers combined with a loud speaker, which operate entirely from the electric light supply in the home. They are practically foolproof and immune from service troubles. An important feature was the new Stromberg-Carlson convertible console, a new type of musical instrument which is a radio receiver now, and can be converted, at any time, to a phonoradio combination model, with very little cost to the owner. They are so constructed that a phonograph panel assembly for the reproducing of phonograph records may be installed beneath the lift-up lid, in a special recess provided. The convert-ible console has a uniform selectivity throughout the whole broadcast band, which is obtained by the use of band-pass filter circuit, electrolytic self-healing condensers, screen grid valve and Magnavox dynamic speaker of a type which has been matched to the penthode power valve, thus resulting in tone quality that far exceeds anything previously attained. Those receivers also make possible real interstate reception. Other new models incorporating the latest improvements in radio construction in the two and three valve receiving sets, are also available at considerably reduced prices. These include the Merlin, Lyric, and Dante sets, beautiful cabinet artistry, and tonal purity are of the many outstanding features. New and special models for battery operation have been designed with the receiver, batteries and speaker all housed in one handsome console cabinet, thus, making a complete unit. These are specially for country people. A complete range of Stromberg-Curlson models offer a varied and wide selection, all of which were exhibited in Musgrove's pavilion on the grounds. In radio equipment Musgrove's particularly call attention to the Magnavox dynamic speaker which assures freedom from rattles and distortion at any volume. These are obtainable for A.C. or D.C. mains, and battery operation. Raytheon valves have special four-pillar construction, cross anchored top and bottom, which gives them greater support at eight points instead of two as in ordinary valves. Brunswick and Rexonola phonographs and also the Lyric portable phonograph represented the exhibit of record reproducing instruments. There is a fine range of models which in beauty of design and clarity of tone will appeal to all.[173]

THE BROADCASTER. Growth of "B" Stations. DIFFICULTIES OF BROADCASTERS. (By VK6FG) Spearwood, in the vicinity of the Peel Estate, is to be the site of the proposed new "B" class station, if all goes well. The matter has been under consideration by the authorities in Melbourne for some time, and if certain variations sought by the concern behind the new proposal are agreed to, the station should be on the air in a couple of months. A large city concern, with a number of branches, is said to be the moving spirit behind the scheme, but until such time as a direct announcement is made nothing further may be said. The project has been under consideration for some time, and finality would now appear to be approaching. Originally it was intended to establish the station at Bunbury, it is learned, but certain difficulties, mostly technical, were in the way. It was then considered that a station outside Fremantle would fill the bill, providing Fremantle with a station close at hand, while at the same time meeting requirements so far as the desire to provide a service to the entire south-west of the State is concerned. If the amount of power sought is conceded by the authorities, the station should provide practically the same volume as the new station, 6PR, of Nicholsons Limited, while in other directions it will be up to date. At the present time the three local stations — 6WF, 6PR, and 6ML — occupy much the same time periods on the air, 6WF, of course, exceeding the other two because of the early morning and late evening session. It would not be surprising, therefore, if it was learned that the new station — if it comes to pass — will fill in many of the blanks of the daily programmes, and so provide listeners with the opportunity of a practically continuous programme from 7.30 a.m. to midnight on all nights except Sunday. While it is expected that recorded music will be largely drawn upon, inducement might be offered the musical folk of Fremantle, particularly, to provide artists, and as all "B" class stations derive revenue from indirect advertising, the idea of the "sponsored programme" doubtless will be closely considered. The almost sudden interest in "B" class stations is of interest as showing the revival of life in radio in the State, and as the only source of revenue is from radio advertising, it is assumed that those concerned have considered their outlook from the financial side. Use of Phonograph Records. Broadcasting stations are facing a somewhat cloudy outlook at the moment, what with the ultimatum of the phonograph record people, and the knowledge that the existing arrangement with the copyright people shortly expires. With limited incomes, it is only natural that "B" class stations should turn to recorded music, either in the form of piano rolls or phonograph records, for providing the musical entertainment from the studio. If this source of supply is cut off, it would for some little time at least inconvenience the stations. The phonograph companies are a sheltered industry as a result of the tariff on imported records; but as the Commonwealth — if it took over the provision of the national broadcast service — would be similarly affected by the ultimatum, there is a possibility that there might be a reduction in the incidence of the tariff, or else the complete removal of the present measure of protection. At present the two "B" class stations in Perth are controlled by companies interested in the sale of records. It is well known that the sale of records has fallen off considerably since the depression first made itself apparent, and If they were debarred from using the records for which they are agents — and for which they have to pay when they are used — one would assume as a natural matter of business that, were other agencies available from sources outside or inside Australia which gave the right to broadcast, they would consider the position in a somewhat different light. In the Eastern States, too, quite a number of the "B" class stations have got direct and indirect links with musical organisations, and so the whole position becomes gloriously involved. Practically all the "B" class stations are linked up under the Australian Federation of Broadcasting Stations for self-protection, and it is not to be assumed that they would give up the "ghost" without a spirited fight. What is to prevent such a closely-knit organisation — if it is really as closely knit as they would have us believe — uniting to provide its own programmes in the form of electrical transcriptions on talkie film, talkie tape, or other forms of sound reproduction? One can foresee the time when the broadcast stations would be supplied with daily programmes in just the same way as the picture houses are provided with programmes. Science never stands still, and the possibility is that if the phonograph people continue with their stand-and-deliver attitude, science may find a way out of the difficulty as unexpected as it would be unprecedented.[174]

1931 11[edit]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. By DETECTOR. . . . 6ML PARS. Next Friday evening the Salvation Army Band, under the baton of Mr. J. C. Palmer, will give another recital from 6ML. Included in the programme will be some old-time melodies, which will be rendered, so that listeners may join in with community singing. Following the recent successful radio dance in aid of charity, the Shell Company has arranged another popular entertainment, to take place on Thursday, November 12. It will take the form of a "party evening," and listeners are invited to organise parties in their homes for this occasion, as it will be marked with many novelty items. The entertainment will be broadcast by 6ML. The 6ML Fox-Hoyts Radio Club is growing rapidly, as many as a hundred new members being enrolled weekly. The first gathering of the club was held last Sunday evening, when over 350 members and friends responded to the invitation of Hoyts Theatres, Ltd., to witness a special screening of "The Yankee in King Arthur's Court." Other meetings will be arranged in the near future. Every Thursday, at 6.30 p.m., 6ML broadcasts a programme of Fox "talkies." On Saturday, November 17, 6ML will broadcast a special concert by the Western Australian Banjo, Mandolin, and Guitar Club, under the direction of Mr. G. H. Webster. In response to numerous requests, 6ML's classical programme, to be broadcast on Tuesday evening, will consist mainly of items by English composers. Mails from New Zealand include reports from listeners who have picked up 6ML. That the signals are received with good strength is made evident by the fact that full details of advertisements, and not merely titles of easily recognised musical items, are given. Other letters have been sent to 6ML by listeners in all States of the Commonwealth, and also from countries as far away as California. Station 6ML will broadcast the scores in the billiard match between Lindrum and Newman, which will be played this week in Musgrove's Hall.[175]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. By DETECTOR. . . . A NEW AMPLIFIER. Last week Musgrove's, Ltd., announced that they were installing a new speech amplifier which would appreciably improve the quality of transmission. The apparatus possessed various mixing channels for microphone and pickup work, and would enable background music of practically any kind to be provided for programmes of every description, while avoiding distortion which spoilt tonal balance. Part of the apparatus, which was being installed by stages, was in operation last week, with satisfactory results.[176]

1931 12[edit]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. By DETECTOR. . . . INCREASED STAFF AT 6ML. Mr. M. S. Urquhart (VK6MU) has joined the engineering staff of 6ML, and is engaged on the work of improving the station equipment with the station engineer. Since the new speech amplifier has been in operation the quality of transmissions has shown a marked improvement. It is the management's aim to make 6ML second to no B class station in Australia.[177]

1932[edit]

1932 01[edit]

THE BROADCASTER. Selectivity in Receivers. BETTER SETS WANTED. (By VK6FG) The time has arrived when people buying broadcast sets for their home are determined to ensure that receivers are amply selective. This will mean that many manufacturers of cheap electric models will have to revise their constructional ideas, or else go out of business. It is safe to say that a large number of the electric sets advertised in the "for sale — second hand" columns are there because of their inselectivity. Just as when radio first began to boom in this State, some manufacturers (not necessarily exclusively in this State) put out sets which in point of price attracted the unwary. Today they are not worth anything in a junk sale, and their efficiency when constructed was so low as to not be worthy of recommendation by the competent radio engineer. Much the same is the position today. The all-electric set has been produced in a multiplicity of models, all priced down to catch the person who wants a radio, but doesn't want to pay too much to get one. Salesmen are not backward in pointing out the good features of the set, but knowingly or unknowingly they do not mention, the weaknesses of the radio. First of all, Perth is one oi the few places in Australia which has 40 cycle current; most of the Eastern States towns have either 50 or 60 cycle sup-ply. When a 50 or 60 cycle transform-fer is used with 40 current, it invariably leads to heating of the transformer. This piece of apparatus becomes much hotter than it should, while the action of the rectifying valve is such as to promote a short life. If the voltages to the various valves in the receiving part of the set, are as a result, found to be higher than the manufacturers of the valves specify should be applied, it will not be long before the overloaded valves give out and replacements are necessary long before they really should be needed. While that feature is bad enough, per-haps an even worse one is the inselectivity of sets. How many electric sets in and around Perth can tune from station to station without having another local station playing in the background. 6WF is somewhat broad in transmis-sion, and the presence of a high power station right in the city creates difficulties which are hard to obviate, but it should be quite easy in well constructed sets, to tune in 6WF without hearing either 6PR or 6ML, while when tuning in 6ML no sound of 6PR or 6WF should be heard. Need for Selectivity. What is the cause of this inselectivity? Generally it is instructional weakness due to the adoption of a system known as direct-coupling of the aerial. In order to save knobs and also reduce expense, manufacturers of cheap sets have swung to direct-coupling of the aerial and as a aerial compensator have introduced band-pass tuning in subsequent stages in the set. Band-pass tuning is quite modern practice, when used with Variable-Mu and pentode valves tends to prevent what is technically known as "crosstalk," but the absence of loosely coupled aerial tuning has rendered nugatory to a large extent, the benefits of band-pass tuning. Those broadcast listeners who from time to time hear amateurs both on continuous wave and 'phone transmission, do so in about six cases out of ten, because of inherent weaknesses in their own sets. Amateurs work mostly on 20, 40 and 80 metres — well away from the broadcast band — and the majority adopt the usual protections against interference, such as the use of the supressors, earthing of high tension, sharp tuning of transmitter by employment and use of crystal control or M.O.P.A., etc. Cases which have come under notice recently indicate that the direct coupling of the aerial to the grid circuit has been the cause for not only interference from amateurs on one side and commercial stations on the other, but of inselectivity among the broadcast stations. Most of the commercial electric sets are provided with two aerial terminals and one earth terminal. They are usually referred to as the broad-tuning aerial and the sharp tuning aerial. Those listeners who are troubled with inselectivity will do well to shift their aerial on to the sharp-tuning terminal. This will alter the dial reading slightly, and may reduce the volume a little, but it should make for greater purity and less interference from other stations. If the inselectivity continues, secure about a seven-plate midget condenser and fix this in a position handy to the set. Sometimes it can be screwed into . the woodwork at the back of the set out of the way. If not, it may be accomo-dated on a small panel where the aerial comes into the room. Connect the aerial to one of the terminals on the condenser, and another piece of wire from the second terminal on the condenser to the aerial terminal on the set. By the adjusting of this midget condenser most of the inselectivity is overcome. If, however, the set continues to be in-selective it indicates that it is very poorly constructed, or else something is out of adjustment. Recently the set examined by an expert showed that the aerial coil was wound over the grid coil for almost its complete length; any won-der, that the set wasn't selective. The construction of a wavetrap at a cost of about 25s may then prove efficacious. It is preferable, however, to ensure when buying a set that it has the necessary degree of selectivity, and absence of hum. Indications are that be-fore long, manufacturers will abandon the direct coupled aerial and even if it costs more, resort to more selective methods and better technique.[178]

Pertinent Paragraphs. THE old fashioned idea of a musician was a man who sat at his piano or his violin most of the day and well into the night. The modern idea, as represented by Mr. D'Oyly Musgrove, of the big music firm that bears his name, is vastly different. Mr. Musgrove is a musician and a man whose interest in music extends far beyond his business. But that doesn't prevent him from having a great love of the outdoors. Swimming is his first favorite. His home in Claremont is close handy to the Baths and he spends a lot of his spare time in the water. When there is a carnival or a big event on it's usual to find him holding the watch, his services as time-keeper having been availed of for many years. Though not in the class of "Snow" Howson, "Yook" Stevens, Noel Unbehaun, "Pro" McKenzie and some of the others of Claremont's young brigade, Mr. Musgrove has some pace in the water and he is usually regarded as a prospective backmarker when there's a veterans' event coming off. In winter his favorite recreations are music and motoring.[179]

1932 02[edit]

1932 - Aerial Alteration

BROADCASTING. Altering Aerial of 6ML. Two workmen were engaged on the roof of Musgrove's, Ltd., on Friday altering the aerial of the company's B class broadcasting station, 6ML. The director of the station (Mr. F. C. Kingston), when asked the reason for the change, said that the chief engineer of the station (Mr. H. Simmonds) had been visiting the Eastern States recently and had inspected all of the stations in Melbourne and Adelaide in search of new ideas. Mr. Simmonds had accumulated some useful suggestions for improvement of plant, and these would be tested. He had also seen developments which justified a change in the aerial which had been contemplated by the company for some considerable time, and which was now being put into effect. The aerial was being changed from an inverted L type to a T type. This was expected to give better radiation and to ensure that the maximum power was radiated and none lost in the aerial system. It was hoped to have the alteration completed in time for tomorrow night's broadcast. Mr. Kingston added that the T type aerial would have been installed when the station was built had sufficient width of span between the masts been available. The reduction of wave length from 297 to 264 metres a few months ago had made the change possible.[180]

1932 03[edit]
1932 04[edit]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comment. BY DETECTOR. (Start Photo Caption) HEARD BUT NEVER SEEN. Mr. Bryn Samuel, station manager, who is responsible for the ringside boxing descriptions broadcast by 6ML every Friday night. (End Photo Caption)[181]

BROADCASTING. The Radio Exhibition. On Tuesday evening next at 8 o'clock, the efforts of the organisers of the Radio and Electrical Exhibition will have been consummated when the official opening will take place in the Temple Court Garage. For many weeks past the members of both organisations have worked strenuously to make the exhibition a notable event, and with the numerous and very latest electrical and wireless devices at their command they can with every confidence assure patrons of an interesting afternoon or evening. This will be the first occasion on which the electrical and radio traders have joined forces, and many of the large assortment of electrical time-saving devices which may be used in any household served with the electricity, will be displayed for the first time in this State. One interesting feature which will commend itself to every householder will be the very neat electrical clock. Absolutely silent, and made entirely in Australia this clock will be obtainable in designs suitable for any class of room or office. It is less cumbersome and far cheaper than the average 8 or 400 day timepiece, and the current it consumes is estimated at approximately one unit per month. Receiving Sets. As in the past the wireless section will comprise receiving sets of all types, from the humble crystal to the latent model superheterodyne. A special feature of this portion of the exhibition will be a complete absence of the unnecessary demonstrations regarding the tonal qualities of loud speakers. In the past it seemed to have been the one ambition of the exhibitor to illustrate the "loudness" of some component by means of the electrical pick-up and gramophone record. This, happily, will be entirely absent. Patrons will be able to inspect all ex-hibits and obtain information from the attendants without straining either their vocal chords or hearing. An added incentive to the patrons of the exhibition will be the chance of winning a handsome five-valve (including rectifier) all-electric console, valued at £37/10/. The announcement of the winner of this free gift will take place on Saturday evening, and patrons are reminded to be sure and retain the special portion of their admission ticket for this purpose. In conjunction with the allied associations well-known artists from stations 6WF, 6ML and 6PR will render concerts for the benefit of patrons, while the Saturday afternoon session has been set aside for children when each child attending will receive a gift of a bag of sweets. We live in an electrical age, and everything electrical will be on view at Temple Court garage next week; therefore to keep abreast of the times every citizen of the metropolitan area and elsewhere should, endeavour to attend at least one of the sessions, during the currency of the exhibition.[182]

6ML, PERTH. The Pioneer "B" Class Station. Owned and operated by Musgrove's, Limited, 6ML is the pioneer class "B" broadcasting station of the State. Officially opened on March 19, 1930, 6ML has provided regular programmes for more than two years and has played an important part in the radio development of Western Australia. Daily sessions of eight and a quarter hours are maintained, and programmes of every type are presented to listeners. A special feature of 6ML activities is the number of outside relays which are arranged, and particularly sporting events. The ringside descriptions of the boxing contests, which are broadcast each Friday evening, are extremely popular, and command a wide audience throughout the State. The plant was recently improved and brought up-to-date by the installation of a new speech amplifier, imported from overseas, and reputed to be the most up-to-date in the Commonwealth. Station 6ML was the first "B" class station in the Commonwealth to employ a crystal controlled oscillator, and also carried out the first relay from Western Australia to the Eastern States. This relay was put over a Federal network, of which 6ML is the West Australian station. This network is formed from the following "B" class stations:— 2UW, Sydney; 3DB, Melbourne; 4BC, Brisbane; 5AD, Adelaide, and 6ML, Perth.[183]

THE BROADCASTER. Australia's Broadcasting Problems. WHY NOT CALL IN CAPT. ECKERSLEY? (By VK6FG) It is becoming patent to those who have made a study of radio, and particularly of broadcasting, that the position in Australia is becoming tangled, to say the least of it. There is a general dissatisfaction with the programmes of the national stations, there is complaint from country listeners in many States that satisfactory reception cannot be obtained, and the department would appear loth to grant further broadcasting licences for the cities of the Commonwealth. The whole broadcasting business would appear to be due for thorough overhaul both from the technical and programme sides. During the week the cables told that Capt. P. P. Eckersley, one time technical director of the British Broadcasting Company and now managing director of the High Frequency Engineering Co. is sailing on the Otranto on April 30 for Australia. Capt. Eckersley is convalescent from an operation for appendicitis and he proposes during the trip to investigate broadcasting in Australia. No announcement has been made by the Federal authorities to suggest that the investigation is other than a personal one, but the opportunity should not be lost of securing to the Commonwealth the advice and assistance of such an expert as Capt. Eckersley, who is recognised as one of the outstanding radio engineers in the British Empire. Unique Difficulties. The fact that technical difficulties encountered in Great Britain are different from those met with here, should not deter the appointment, for Capt. Eckersley's experience both on the Continent and in America ensure that he has sufficiently wide mental vision to appreciate the differences in our problems from those of any other country. In Europe at the present time broadcasting is something of a modern Babel and it is only recently that efforts have been made to get order out of chaos. There have been two schools of thought. One is that each nation has the right to run its own broadcasting as it thinks fit, without interference from or reference to other nearby nations. The other is that broadcasting being international in character, it is necessary so to co-ordinate matters that harmony between all is the ideal, however difficult of realisation. The listener in Great Britain for instance may suffer in his reception of the local station by the "whistles" of European stations which are heterodyning on the local station's wave. This can only be obviated by an international arrangement and reallocation of wave-lengths. Position of "B" Class Stations. The "B" class stations because of their dependence upon advertising revenue to sustain them must perforce operate from the large centres of population. The national stations draw their revenue from the listeners and if the country can be induced to subscribe in its degree to the general pool it must be assured of a satisfactory service. The erection recently of stations at Corowa and Crystal Brook are evidences of a changing policy. At present there are two "B" class stations in Perth which have a separation of approximately 268 kilocycles, 6PR being on 882 k.c. (341 metres) and 6ML on 1150 k.c. (264 metres). Applications. have been lodged with the authorities for further "B" class stations but the reply has been that there is not room in the ether for further stations in Perth. The national station 6WF is on 695 k.c. (435 metres) so that the nearest "B" class station (6PR) is separated by 187 k.c. Such a statement would appear to afford little testimony for the selectivity of our broadcasting sets, for in America it is the policy that no station shall be within 10 k.c. of another. Here in Perth we are separated by hundreds of miles from the nearest "B" class station — Kalgoorlie — and thousands of miles from the nearest "A" class station and yet we are told the ether is congested. Unless the Commonwealth has a scheme which it has not yet unfolded, I still fail to see the wisdom of erecting the new 6WF at Wanneroo. It would be much better further inland, where with the greater power and immeasurably more radiation promised, it would still be audible at great volume in the city and yet supply the country. Furthermore it would ease the claim of the Commonwealth that there are enough "B" class stations here. Problems of Australia. Australia is differently placed. Because of the insularity of the continent there is no interference from stations which do not come under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth. The problems therefore are all within our own borders. One has only to look at the radio map to see that with the exception of Corowa and Crystal Brook the powerful broadcasting stations are established at the capital cities, and a further glance at the map shows that they are all practically on the seaboard. This policy was dictated in the early days, and ensured the serving of the greater number of population, but broadcasting is essential a community service. If there were any loss on it, the country resident doubtless would be called upon to contribute to the deficit in similar proportion to the town dweller. To the city listener, the radio is an alternative to the theatre as a means of entertainment; to the country man it is frequently his only entertainment and his only link with what we like to call our "civilisation." Therefore it is contended the countryman — and woman — is worthy of more than passing thought when the broadcasting policy is in the melting pot.[184]

1932 05[edit]
1932 06[edit]

OVER THE ETHER. Wireless News, Tips and Comments. By DETECTOR. . . . 6ML PARS. It will be noticed that 6ML has made an alteration to the time of the afternoon session, which will be extended by an hour, so that the station will be continually on the air from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Hitherto 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. has been a "dead" period on the air. Next Saturday evening's programme will be devoted to humorous items. A great deal of interest is being shown by listeners in the 6ML women's session. Fashion notes, beauty hints, recipes, and other useful items make the session interesting and helpful to women. It is conducted by Lady Edna, a member of 6ML's staff. "W.W." (Subiaco), writing, says:— "Our set is very rarely turned from the 264 mark on the dial, for taking it all round I think Musgrove's is a most interesting broadcast station."[185]

1932 07[edit]

6ML PARS. 6ML relays the "Cheerio" Club Dance Orchestra each alternate Wednesday night from 8.0 to 10.30. This makes a pleasing addition to 6ML's usual Wednesday night dance programme. Station 6ML receives many letters of appreciation from listeners. One says: "Congratulations on the excellency of your transmission and the quality of your programme. I like your idea of reserving different evenings for different styles of music. It is most disconcerting, after listening to a beautiful trio or quartet to be suddenly informed that "My canary has circles under his eyes." The membership of the "Cheerio" Club exceeds 1200. Approximately 200 persons attended the hike at Darlington last Sunday and had a most enjoyable time. Country listeners are invited to join the club. Special sessions of band music are broadcast each Friday evening. These have been very interesting and entertaining and have filled in the interval of studio music when the regular boxing relay from the Unity Stadium takes place. The regular Sunday evening Panatrope recital from Station 6ML is a very popular feature. One listener, "F.C.C.," Darlington, writes:— "I feel I must congratulate you on your programme last Sunday evening. As a listener-in since nearly the beginning of broadcasting in Western Australia, I have never enjoyed a session so much. The judiciously selected variety and excellence of the items made up a musical programme delightful to hear."[186]

1932 08[edit]
1932 09[edit]
1932 10[edit]
1932 11[edit]
1932 12[edit]

On the Air Conducted BY "MIKE" . . . 6ML's Improved Transmitter. The transmitting plant at Station 6ML has been constantly added to and kept up to date, and considerable alterations and additions, which practically amount to a reconstruction of the plant, are now being carried out. The result will be a more powerful signal, with a corresponding increase of coverage. The purity of the tone which has marked 6ML previously will also be maintained. . . . Salvation Amy Band. The programme from 6ML on Christmas Eve will take the form of a carnival programme from 8 till 10.30, and from then to midnight the Salvation Army Band will provide a programme of Christmas carols with vocal interludes. Consequently Station 6ML will give listeners two late nights, both Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve. The Salvation Army Band is recognised as one of the foremost bands in Perth, and a fine programme can be expected.[187]

1933[edit]

1933 01[edit]

BROADCAST BOUQUETS. And Other Offerings. 6ML's evening sessions are always musically bright. Last night 6ML ushered in the New Year with a special session of comedy and carnival music. At the special request of many listeners, 6ML will repeat the complete version of the music for the ballet "Petroushka" next Saturday, from 10 p.m. . . . 6ML's tone and power have improved very perceptibly.[188]

BROADCAST BOUQUETS. And Other Offerings. Station 6ML shows a decided improvement, both in transmission and programmes. . . . Western Australia listeners are still looking forward to a hook-up with the Eastern States chain. After the success of the Empire relay, the old excuse that the land line does not favor musical relays will not do.[189]

1933 02[edit]

TECHNICAL INFORMATION. Answers to Inquiries. (By "Electron.") A.E.A. (Ardath) would like to know in what direction the transmitting aerials used by the three local stations are situated. Answer: In the general sense, the transmitting aerial used at Wanneroo by station 6WF runs east and west (the old Westralian Farmers aerial ran north and south), 6PR runs from one mast direct to the transmitting station from south to north, whilst 6ML has its aerial erected north and south. Both 6WF and 6ML use aerials of the T type.[190]

1933 03[edit]

NEW BROADCASTING COMPANY. To take over the existing wireless station 6ML and to establish a new one with the call sign of 6IX, a company has been formed in Perth to be known as W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. The stations are both of the B class. As at present, 6ML will be operated from Lyric House, the headquarters of Musgrove's, Ltd., and 6IX at a later date will broadcast from Newspaper House. W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., will be jointly controlled by West Australian Newspapers, Ltd., and Musgrove's, Ltd.[191]

1933 04[edit]

6IX, Perth. The most recent development in local radio circles was the formation of a new company, W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., in which West Australian Newspapers, Ltd., and Musgrove's, Ltd., are partners, to operate the popular existing "B" class station, 6ML, and to put on the air a new "B" class station, 6IX. Station 6IX is expected to commence operations in June or July next, and it will be distinct in policy and programme from 6ML. The wavelength of 6IX will be 204 degrees (sic) and it will come in at the bottom of the tuning dial on receiving sets. It will be as powerful as existing "B" class stations. The transmitter of 6ML will remain at Lyric House and that of 6IX will be at Newspaper House. The management of station 6IX will attempt to do what has been urged by enthusiasts for so long — it will as far as possible transmit programmes during the hours (particularly on Sunday) that are now "silent." The aim of the management of 6IX will be to provide the best possible entertainment all the time. Side by side with the announcement of the opening of 6IX is the news that the Postmaster-General's Department is actively engaged in making additions to the East-West telephone line to enable the transmission of musical programmes from stations in the Eastern States to 6WF, Perth, for broadcasting to local listeners. The existing equipment is quite satisfactory for speech transmissions and the additions will enable musical programmes to be faithfully transmitted to Perth. When this is done, one of the greatest causes for complaint locally will have been removed as we will then be able to share in Australian-wide relays of notable singers and musicians, as well as hearing once or twice a week complete programmes from Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane or Adelaide stations.[192]

1933 05[edit]
1933 06[edit]
1933 07[edit]
1933 08[edit]
1933 09[edit]
1933 10[edit]

SATURDAY BROADCASTS. Trial Programme from 6ML. In connection with Saturday broadcasts, Mr. F. C. Kingston, of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., made the following statement yesterday:— "The listeners' letters which have appeared in 'The West Australian' during the past few days, requesting a musical programme on Saturday afternoons for the benefit of those listeners who do not take an interest in the various sporting fixtures, has been followed closely, and, as the management of 6ML is at all times keen to meet the wishes of listeners it has decided to transmit a musical programme tomorrow (Saturday) afternoon from 3 o'clock to 5 o'clock. This programme will be largely in the nature of an experiment and we would like all listeners who are interested to write and let us know if it meets with their approval, and if they would like it made a regular feature, as the continuance or otherwise will depend entirely on listeners' response."[193]

NEW WIRELESS STATION. EQUIPMENT FOR 6IX. Largely of Local Manufacture. Considerable interest was aroused yesterday by the display in one of the windows of Lyric House, Murray-street, Perth, of portion of the transmitter for the new "B" class wireless broadcasting station, 6IX which is expected to be on the air during November. The transmitter and the aerial system will be at Newspaper House, and the main studios will be at Lyric House. There will also be a news studio at Newspaper House to enable the prompt transmission of important news. The window display, includes the microphone, into which all announcements are made, the speech amplifier, which picks up and amplifies the minute currents from the microphone and the record pickup, and the drive panel, which next receives the current. This panel generates the carrier wave, which will be 204 metres, or 1,470 kilocycles. In it is the very latest type of temperature control oven, by which the crystal operating is kept always at the same temperature. The panel also modulates the signal received from the speech amplifier, and passes it on to the main amplifier in the form of modulated radio frequency. The signal passes through, a final amplifier, before it enters the aerial and is sent over the air to listeners. Other units in the window include a big rectifier, which supplies direct current to all units of the transmitter and which supplies a maximum voltage of 5,000 volts, and a tuning panel, which tunes the final amplifier. There is also a variable transmitting condenser with a capacity of 0.0001 microfarads. This was designed by Mr. H. T. Simmons, chief engineer of 6ML (W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd.), and was manufactured by Mr. F. A. Lee. of Perth. The station director of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. F. C. Kingston) said yesterday that, with the exception of this condenser, the microphone and the speech amplifier, the whole plant had been designed and built by the chief engineer and the engineering staff of the company. Mr. Kingston said that the plant contained the very latest ideas, including a special modulating transformer, which was now being adopted by the leading stations of the world, and is superseding the choke system of modulation. A feature new to Australia was the filament rectifier, which supplied current to all filaments instead of a filament generator, which was usual. A system of electromagnetic control had been installed in place of the older manual control. This meant that the plant would be started up and operated by the pressing of buttons instead of manual switches. It had been so arranged that if any part of the transmitter failed, the whole plant would be automatically switched off. The appearance of the apparatus and the method of assembly compared very favourably with that of any station in Australia, said Mr. Kingston, emphasising that the plant was almost entirely of local manufacture.[194]

1933 11[edit]

WIRELESS. 6IX NEXT WEEK. NEW RADIO STATION. Description of Transmitter. Radio enthusiasts will be pleased to learn that the new broadcasting station, 6IX, Perth, will be on the air next week, probably on Monday night. This new station, which will operate on 204 metres (about 17 degrees lower than 6ML on the tuning dial), is controlled by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., and will greatly add to the radio entertainment activities in this State, providing another welcome change of station. The equipment of the new station throughout is of the latest and best designs procurable and to the technically minded there are many devices of great interest in the new transmitter. The studios of 6IX, with the exception of the 'news' studio, are at Lyric House, Murray-street, and consist of a main studio and second studio, with a control room having vision of both studios, said the chief engineer of the company (Mr. H. T. Simmons) yesterday. The main studio has positions for three microphones of the condenser type, together with two record turntables and pickups, while the second studio is equipped with a condenser microphone and two record turntables. The main studio is used for the appearance of artists, and the second studio for recorded numbers. The only apparatus at Lyric House be-sides microphone and pickups is the control panel and speech amplifier, which are housed in a special "control room" completely screened by copper mesh. This is necessary to eliminate interference from 6ML, the transmitter of which is only 50ft. distant. The copper screening is earthed, and the radio frequency prevented from entering the various circuits in the control room. By means of the control panel, the various microphones, pickups and relays are brought into operation and the small currents therefrom are passed on to the speech amplifier and amplified to the desired strength before being passed over the direct transmission lines to Newspaper House. The speech amplifier is a very modern piece of apparatus, and operates entirely from the 250 volt mains, rectifying both low and high tension voltages for its own use. Indirectly heated D.C. valves are used in the first and second stages, while the third stage is a pair of 5 watt valves in push pull, giving a high audio output. A vacuum tube volume indicator is installed, so that the operator may keep the amplification at the same level for different artists or records, without having to rely entirely on the ear, which is not nearly as quick as the eye in perceiving changes in volume or strength. Five Units. From Lyric House, the amplified currents from the microphones and pickups travel over the special transmission lines to Newspaper House where the actual transmitter is located. The transmitter at 6IX consists of five panels or units, and is capable of supplying 750 watts of 100 per cent, modulated radio frequency current to the aerial system. Each unit has a specific function to perform. The control unit by means of automatic switches operated by current from the mains, switches on each of the circuits in the correct order, switching off automatically if any of the circuits are out of adjustment. This means that if a valve burns out, the automatic switchgear would immediately switch off the high tension current, preventing the remaining valves suffering from the effects of overloading. The engineer on duty would then replace the valve with a new one, push a switch and the automatic switchgear would be thrown into operation, switching on each circuit correctly. The rectifier unit contains apparatus new to Western Australia, in the form of a three phase full wave rectifier, capable of supplying 20 volts, 75 amperes, to light all the filaments of the valves. Usually a motor generator is used for this purpose, but at 6IX this moving machinery is replaced by stationary apparatus which proves to be more reliable and at the same time more economical to operate. The other apparatus in the rectifier provides 5,000 volts at 1 ampere, and 2,000 volts at 500 milliamps for supplying anode current to all valves. Both high and low tension rectifiers are fitted with inductor regulators to keep the output voltage constant and correct, so that if the power from the mains rises or falls below normal the inductor regulators compensate for the difference. The drive panel performs the important function of generating the oscillation, the frequency of which is 1,470,000 times per second, corresponding to a wavelength of 204.8 metres. This frequency is kept constant by a quartz crystal and to obtain a still greater degree of accuracy, and less chance of frequency variation, the crystal is enclosed in an airproof chamber and kept at a temperature of 130 degrees Fah-renheit, ensuring that the temperature about the crystal will remain the same both summer and winter. The temperature is maintained automatically by a thermostat which switches the heating units off when the temperature rises above 130 degrees Fahrenheit, and on when it falls below. The oscillator valve is a 10 watt valve, which passes on the current it generates to a 75 watt screen grid valve of the latest type. This amplifies the cur-rent and passes it on to a 250 watt amplifier valve. The Modulating Transformer. The current sent from the control room at the studio is fed into a submodulator, which is a 50 watt valve, and this in turn passes it to the 500 watt modulating valve. By means of a special modulating transformer the low frequency or speech currents from the modulating valve are passed into the anode circuit of the 250 watt valve carrying the high frequency currents. This transformer has two windings, each matched to the impedence of the valve circuit in which they are included. The transformer method of modulation gives a much higher percentage of efficiency than the choke system, which is usually employed, and is an innovation in Western Australia. The fourth panel contains the high power amplifier which is capable of supplying from 1,500 to 1,800 watts of power to the tuning panel. It also houses the bias rectifier system which supplies bias volt-age to all valves in the plant. The bias rectifier is fitted with a special cutout, so that if the bias fails for any reason, it causes the automatic switchgear to function and switches off all units. Pilot lamps on the control panel indicate the portion of apparatus which caused failure. The fifth panel is the tuning panel, which tunes the main amplifier to the correct frequency and passes the current on to the feeder lines which carry the current to the roof where the aerial system is erected. Here two lattice steel masts 130ft. in height support the aerial, a single stranded copper conductor containing seven wires of 16 gauge twisted together. The masts are 200 feet apart, and the lead-in from the aerial comes directly from the centre of the aerial vertically to the tuning house, midway between the masts. The tuning house contains inductances and condensers which tune the aerial to the correct wave length, and match the feeder lines to the tuning apparatus in the transmitting room. The feeder lines conduct the current to the aerial without radiating any power, thereby conserving power to be radiated by the actual aerial system and making for increased efficiency.[195]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . Station 6IX Tests. The new "B" class radio station, 6IX (Perth), which will commence regular transmissions next week, will be on the air each night for the remainder of this week, for testing purposes, from 7 to 10 o'clock (not from 6 to 7 o'clock as stated yesterday). It will also send out intermittent test programmes during the day. The operators of the station (W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., Lyric House, Murray-street) are anxious to receive reports on the strength and quality of the tests from listeners in all parts of the State and will appreciate advices from enthusiasts. Station 6IX operates on 204 metres which is between 15 and 20 degrees lower than 6ML on the tuning dial. On one set that logs 6ML at 35, 6IX comes in at 17.[196]

NEW RADIO STATION. 6IX BEGINS NEXT MONDAY. Programme Policy Outlined. (By "Radio.") West Australian radio enthusiasts — and their number has increased from 3,800 to 23,500 in four years — will welcome the announcement that the new local station, 6IX (Perth), will officially commence broadcasting next Monday night, when a special opening programme will be put on the air from 7 o'clock until 11 o'clock. Station 6IX will be operated by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (which focuses the radio interests of West Australian Newspapers Ltd. and Musgrove's, Ltd.), which also controls the pioneer "B" class station 6ML, and the programmes of the two stations will be arranged to provide entertainment to suit all tastes and, at the same time, to prevent any overlapping of subjects. The combination of a large modern newspaper organisation and a music house with years of broadcasting experience and the specialised ability to understand entertainment needs, will result in a big improvement in radio entertainment in this State. At present the radio public's greatest needs are a better Sunday service, and the avoidance of overlapping programmes, such as the sporting talks on Friday nights and the results of different events on Saturday evening. It is not an exaggeration to say that, except to obtain the correct time, a majority of radio receivers are not used on Sundays before the evening musical programmes. Station 6IX will end this state of affairs by providing musical programmes from 9.30 a.m. on Sundays, except when the national station 6WF is on the air. On Friday and Saturday evenings, when other stations are handling sporting subjects, 6IX will provide musical items which are beyond argument the most popular radio programmes the world over. 6IX and 6ML. Between them, stations 6IX and 6ML will from Monday to Friday provide continuous programmes between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m. To do this, a capable staff, first class equipment and careful organisation, are needed, and the management of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., is confident of entire success in its new policy. On Saturdays, between 7 a.m. and 12 midnight, one or other of these stations will be continuously on the air, except between 2 p.m. and 3 p.m., and 5 p.m. and 6 p.m. On Sundays 6IX will enter a field that is now unoccupied. From 9.30 a.m. until noon a musical programme will be given and the station will then go off the air from noon until 1.30 p.m., when 6WF provides entertainment. From 1.30 p.m. until 3 p.m. (when 6WF broadcasts again) 6IX will operate, and from 4.30 p.m. (when 6WF closes down) until 6 p.m. 6IX will again fill the now-vacant ether. The detailed schedules of stations 6IX and 6ML are as follows:— MONDAY-FRIDAY. 6IX. 6ML. 8.30 a.m.-11 a.m. 7 a.m.-8.30 a.m. 3 p.m.-5 p.m. 11 a.m.-3 p.m. 6 p.m.-11 p.m. 5 p.m.-10.30 p.m. SATURDAY. 6IX. 6ML 8.30 a.m.-12 noon. 7 a.m.-8.30 a.m. 6 p.m.-12 midnight. 11 a.m.-2 p.m. 3 p.m.-5 p.m. 6 p.m.-11.30 p.m. SUNDAY. 6IX. 6ML. 9.30 a.m.-12 noon. 7 p.m.-10 p.m. 1.30 p.m.-3 p.m. 4.30 p.m.-6 p.m. 7 p.m.-10.30 p.m.[197]

STATION 6IX, PERTH. MANY NEW FEATURES. Details of First Programme. (By "Radio.") All arrangements for the official opening of Western Australia's new "B" class radio station 6IX, Perth, next Monday night have been completed and listeners are promised an excellent programme to mark this important advance in local broadcasting. The opening ceremony will be performed at 8 o'clock by the President of the Legislative Council (Sir John Kirwan). In addition to the special features of the programme policy of the new station, as outlined yesterday, it has been decided to broadcast a church service each Sunday night at 7.30 o'clock. The service will, of course, be of a different denomination to that being broadcast by the national station, 6WF, Perth, and while 6IX is giving the church service 6ML will provide a musical programme. The care devoted by the management of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., which operates both stations, to the avoiding of any overlapping between the stations is shown by an analysis of the Sunday night items. Both stations come on the air at 7 o'clock, 6ML broadcasting religious matter until 7.20 o'clock and 6IX giving music until 7.30 o'clock. From 7.20 o'clock onwards 6ML will send out musical numbers while the church service relay is on the air from 6IX.[198]

NEW "B" CLASS STATION. MANY SPECIAL FEATURES PLANNED. INAUGURAL BROADCAST TONIGHT A FIRST-CLASS PROGRAMME. The State's new "B" class broadcasting station, 6IX (Perth), operated by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., on a wave length of 204.8 metres, will officially commence transmissions tonight. The range of organised radio entertainment available to the rapidly-growing radio public in Western Australia will be increased by the arrangement by which 6IX will provide alternate programmes from morning to night to the State's pioneer "B" class station, 6ML, ensuring a complete dual service throughout the week from these stations. The new station incorporates the latest in broadcasting methods and design. The masts of the transmitter, towering 135 feet above Newspaper House, have already become a striking feature of the city's skyline, being, from street level, higher than any other broadcasting aerial in the State. Tonight the opening ceremony will be performed at 8 o'clock by the President of the Legislative Council (Sir John Kirwan), and will be followed by a special programme lasting until 11 o'clock. The need for a powerful new "B" class station is shown by the vast growth in the number of broadcast listeners' licences in the State, from 4,122 in 1929 to 24,000 in 1933, the latter figure indicating the number of households that habitually listen in. Approximately, therefore, there are already quite 100,000 people in Western Australia who regularly depend for amusement on radio programmes, and to these 6IX should prove a boon. The station is operated by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., which focuses the radio interests of West Australian Newspapers, Ltd., and Musgrove's, Ltd., and which also operates the pioneer "B" class station 6ML, and the value of this alliance lies in the fact that it permits of the programmes of the two stations being arranged so as to provide entertainment to suit all tastes and, at the same time, to prevent overlapping of subject. A big improvement in radio entertainment should therefore result from the combination of a large modern newspaper organisation and a music house with years of broadcasting experience and the specialised ability to understand entertainment needs. News Services. One innovation at 6IX will be the establishment of three special new 10-minute evening news broadcast services, at 7.50, 8.50 and 9.50 o'clock, which will be prepared and supplied by the staff of "The West Australian." It is anticipated that this news service will be something entirely new in Australian broadcasting as it will keep people posted in the very latest news as it arrives. The "news" studio is situated at Newspaper House. Another want that 6IX should fill is the provision of a better Sunday service, and the avoidance of overlapping programmes such as sporting talks on Friday nights and the results of different events on Saturday evenings. On Sundays 6IX will henceforward provide musical programmes from 9.30 a.m., and a church service at 7.30 p.m. from a church of one of the leading denominations, after which the session continues with music until 10.30. On Friday and Saturday evenings, when other stations are handling sporting subjects, 6IX will provide musical items, for which hundreds of listeners have already expressed a desire. Between them, stations 6IX and 6ML will from Monday to Friday provide continuous programmes between 7 a.m. and 11 p.m. To do this, a capable staff, first class equipment and careful organisation, are needed, and the management of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., is confident of entire success in its new policy. On Saturdays, between 7 a.m. and 12 midnight, one or other of these stations will be continuously on the air, except between 2 p.m. and 3 p.m., and 5 p.m. and 6 p.m. On Sun-days 6IX will enter a field that is now unoccupied. Personalities. The leading personalities associated with stations 6IX and 6ML are Messrs. F. C. Kingston, station director; B. Samuel, station manager; Paul Daly, chief announcer at 6IX and producer to the management; Eric Donald, chief announcer at 6ML; Ned Taylor, the "early bird" at 6ML; and H. T. Simmons, chief engineer. (Start Photo Caption) A corner of the interior of 6IX studio at Lyric House; Part of the interior of the transmitting room at 6IX, Newspaper House.(End Photo Caption)[199]

1933 12[edit]

1934[edit]

1934 01[edit]
1934 02[edit]
1934 03[edit]
1934 04[edit]
1934 05[edit]
1934 06[edit]
1934 07[edit]
1934 08[edit]

Bryn Samuel

Pertinent Paragraphs . . . THOUSANDS of people have heard the voice of the young man whose photo accompanies this para-graph, for it belongs to Mr. Bryn Samuel L.A.B. popular manager of broadcasting stations 6ML and 6IX. Born in Wales he came out to Australia about 12 years ago and tried his hand at farming. He soon found out, however, that it was not his long suit, so he came to the city where he worked for a time on the advertising staff of the "West." Being musically inclined — he is the possessor of a pleasant baritone — he jumped at the chance of a job at Musgroves where he was put in charge of the record department. Later on he linked up with station 6ML and quickly rose to the position of manager. In his time he has broadcast over 500 boxing and wrestling bouts, one of the features of 6ML's programmes, being his bright comments from the Luxor every Friday night. Now that he has two stations to attend to he has not much time for sport, but is still particularly interested in soccer and rugby, both of which he played at school. Now and again, however, he finds time for a game of tennis and is well-known as a singer.[200]

1934 09[edit]
1934 10[edit]
1934 11[edit]
1934 12[edit]

1935[edit]

1935 01[edit]
1935 02[edit]

1935 - Restack

RADIO NEWS By "Valve". CURRENT NOTES. New Wave Lengths and Many Programme Features. CONCRETE evidence of the advancement of broadcasting in Australia is afforded by the recent decision of the Postmaster-General's Department to reallocate the wave lengths of all broadcasting stations in Australia. The rearrangement, which will come into effect as from September 1, will make provision for eight new regional stations in the national network, two of which will be situated in Western Australia. Incidentally, tenders for the new national broadcasting station at Kalgoorlie closed yesterday. They were invited for the complete station and provided for fulfilment as soon as possible after acceptance. Selection of the site is now under consideration within a five-mile radius of the Kalgoorlie Post Office, and the station will possibly be on the Coolgardie side of the goldfields capital. Tenders have already been received for the second projected national station near Wagin, and a survey of a block of land to be utilised for the station has been completed at Minding, 15 miles west of Wagin. Relay Stations Named. THE New South-west regional station, which will be known as 6WA, will have a wave length of 536 metres. The proposed national station at Kalgoorlie — 6GF — has been allocated a wave length of 417 metres. Of the local stations at present operating, the wave lengths of 6WF (435 metres), 6PR (341 metres), and 6BY (306 metres) will remain unaltered, while the wave length of 6AM will be changed from 275 to 280 metres, 6ML from 264 to 265 metres, 6KG from 246 to 248 metres, and 6IX from 204 to 214 metres. When the reallocation comes into full effect, 88 stations will be operating throughout the Commonwealth. Probably the station which will benefit most from the change in this State will be 6IX, as persons using certain old-type sets cannot at present tune in this station with any degree of quality or strength. On the new wave length, no listener should have difficulty in bringing in 6IX at a clarity equal to that of any other station. Increased Power for 6ML and 6IX. ANOTHER projected improvement of importance to listeners in this State will be the increase in the power of 6ML and 6IX from 300 to 500 watts unmodulated aerial power. The change will take place in two stages, the power advancing first from 300 to 400 watts and then, a month later, to 500 watts. Certain alterations and additions to the plants of both stations will be necessary before the power can be used with the maximum efficiency, and this work will be put in hand immediately. The strength of 6IX will probably be increased first, as the station was designed to accommodate a greater power than it has been using. The management of 6ML, which by next March will have been on the air for five years, has been endeavouring to secure permission for the increase for the last four years. While the change will not make any appreciable difference to reception in the metropolitan area, which is of ample volume, it should be a boon to listeners in the outlying districts. Many of these listeners are at present troubled by a considerable amount of static when they tune in to the "B" class stations, and the increase in signal strength should enable them to overcome this disturbance.[201]

1935 03[edit]

1935 - Power Increase

RADIO NEWS By "Valve" 6ML and 6IX to increase Power Soon. VARIOUS adjustments are being made to the plant of 6ML and 6IX preparatory to the increase of the power of the stations from 300 to 500 watts unmodulated aerial power. It is expected that the power of both stations will be advanced to 400 watts within the next few days, with a second increase of 100 watts a month later. When the change takes place, the management of the stations will be anxious to hear from listeners, particularly those with smaller receivers and country residents, as to the difference in reception.[202]

1935 - Power Increase

The "B" Class Stations. . . . Power Increased at 6ML and 6IX. THE first stage to the increase of power of 6ML and 6IX from 300 to 500 watts unmodulated aerial power took place on Monday night, when the strength of both stations reached 400 watts. A new intermediate "B" class amplifier is now working at 6ML, and it is planned to install another water-cooled valve at 6IX, thus ensuring an ample reserve of power. The management of the stations is anxious to receive reports, particularly from country districts, as to the quality and strength of signals.[203]

1935 - Power Increase

RADIO NEWS. WEEKLY NOTES. By "Valve". . . . Improved Reception from 6ML. SINCE the recent increase of power, reports of improved reception from 6ML have been received from various parts of the State. In some cases, it was reported, the strength had been doubled. The management announces that letters intimating that the reception from 6ML is superior to any other metropolitan "B" class station have come to hand from the following centres:— Yanmah, Wagin, Busselton, Boyup Brook, Jarrahwood, Salmon Gums, Tambellup, Mullalyup, Mornington Mills, Wilga, Whittaker's Mill, Northam, Merredin and Kalgoorlie. Residents of Kalgoorlie, Merredin, Northam, and Salmon Gums have also stated that the reception from 6ML is now at least equal to that from 6WF.[204]

1935 04[edit]
1935 05[edit]

RADIO NEWS By "Valve" COMMENCING next Monday 6ML's morning session will be extended from 8.30 to 9 o'clock. As a result 6IX's morning session will begin at 9 instead of 8.30 o'clock.[205]

1935 06[edit]

1935 - Power Increase

RADIO NEWS. WEEKLY NOTES. . . . Higher Power for Station 6ML. RECENTLY approval was granted by the Radio Inspector's Department, for an increase of aerial power for 6ML, and since then 6ML's engineers have been busy constructing new apparatus to carry the higher power. This work is now complete and 6ML is operating with 500 watts of power in the aerial, instead of the original 300 watts. Listeners in the metropolitan area and country districts should benefit in increased volume in their receivers, due to the greater energy radiated. The plant at 6ML has been modified, and an extra stage of amplification inserted between the modulated amplifier and the final amplifier. The valve in this new stage is one of the latest Philips 250-watt valves with the coated type filament, giving greater emission for lower filament wattage. The extra power developed in this stage is used to drive the final stage to an input of 1,500 watts, instead of the original 900 watts. An extra 600-watt valve has been included in the final stage, where there are now three 600-watt valves, instead of two, so increasing the normal power of the final amplifier to 1,800 watts. This gives a little reserve, as 1,500 watts is the maximum input allowed under licence. The modulation system has also received attention recently, and transformer modulation is now being used, replacing the old choke system, and resulting in a greater depth of modulation and better frequency range. The speech amplifier apparatus, microphones and crystal pickups have also been thoroughly overhauled and tested, and impedance matched to ensure level frequency response over a reasonable range. Listeners will notice an improved quality in 6ML's reproduction in their receivers, especially when new recordings are being played, as naturally the ability of the transmitter to reproduce natural sounding music from records depends upon whether the full musical vibrations of the various instruments have been faithfully engraved on the records. The latest process of recording has resulted in a great improvement in reproduction.[206]

1935 07[edit]
1935 08[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

NEW RADIO STATION. LOCATION NEAR MINDING. W.A. Broadcasters' Project. W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., controllers of stations 6ML and 6IX, has taken up the licence for a "B" class country relay station offered to the company by the Postmaster-General's Department. The actual location of the new regional station has not yet been determined, but it will be within 30 or 40 miles of the national relay station which is now being erected at Minding. The wave length allotted to the new station is 280 metres, and the power will be 2,000 watts in the aerial. This will make the station the most powerful commercial station in Western Australia, and equal to the most powerful commercial stations in Australia. At present the South Australian station 5PI is the only other commercial plant in the Commonwealth with an aerial power of 2,000 watts The call sign for the new station has not yet been determined. It will be used principally for relaying the programmes fron 6IX, having the effect of carrying that station about 150 miles into the most thickly populated country areas. The programmes will be carried by land line from Perth. In all probability, the country station will radiate independent programmes at certain periods, for the benefit of farmers and country people generally. It is expected that about 90 per cent of the country listeners in the State will be able to receive the programmes with a good standard of clarity. Tenders have been called for the erection of the station and plant, and tests are to be made in the area to determine the most favourable location.[207]

Restack 1935

Changing a Wavelength. QUITE a large amount of work has fallen upon the engineers of stations 6ML and 6IX, who have been working upon the plants of those stations for the past few weeks in preparation for the alteration of wavelengths which comes into operation on September 1. Station 6ML will change from 264 to 265 metres, and 6IX will move from 204 to 242 metres. For the alteration in wavelength the frequency of the vibrations given out by the crystal which controls the transmission has to be changed, and a series of tests has lately been carried out with the 6ML transmitter in the early hours of the mornings, so that the correct wavelength can be arrived at. This station is reducing its frequency from 1,135 kilocycles to 1,130 kilocycles, and as the margin of error countenanced by the Postmaster General's Department is only 50 cycles, plant requires very fine adjustment. Station 6IX, which is reducing its frequency from 1,470 kilocycles to 1,240 kilocycles, has been compelled to make more complicated alterations to the plant, and the length of the aerial will be increased by 60ft., while the feeder lines will also be adjusted. The station is installing a water-cooled tube which gives it a considerable reserve of power, and though the output allowed under the present licence is confined to 500 watts in the aerial, it will be able to move up to an aerial output of 1,500 watts, if necessary, without adjustment.[208]

Restack 1935

BROADCASTING CHANGES. Improved Reception Expected. In a statement published in "The West Australian" recently, the Postmaster-General's Department pointed out that the changes to be made in the wavelengths of several of the broadcasting stations in this State on September 1 would have nothing but a beneficial effect, and that listeners need not fear that their sets will need alteration. The concluding sentence of that statement was: "All receivers in use and for sale will be as effective under the new conditions as under the existing arrangement." To reassure listeners who do not understand the significance of the changes, that statement may be enlarged upon; for, in fact, the spacing of the stations along the dial of the receiver will be improved. Station 6IX, for instance, which is changing from 204 metres (at which some old sets cannot tune it in at all) to 242 metres, will occupy a better position in the broadcast band after September 1, and the reception of that station, which is also increasing its power substantially, will be greatly improved. There will be little noticeable alteration in the position at which 6ML is received, for the change in this case is only one metre — from 264 metres to 265 metres. Perth National station and station 6PR will remain on the same wavelength, and station 6AM will move from 275 metres to an improved position at 306 metres. A complete explanation of the position appears in this week's issue of "The Broadcaster."[209]

Transcriptions & Restack 1935

"B" CLASS STATION CHANGES. Gala Days for 6ML and 6IX. THE coming week-end will be an auspicious one for stations 6ML and 6IX, for the first broadcasts of the American radio programme transcriptions, for which W.A. Broadcasters recently secured the Western Australian rights, will coincide with changes in the wavelengths of both stations, and an increase in the output power of 6IX. About 100 of these programmes, recorded just as they were presented to listeners in America, have been shipped to Perth. Each of the two stations will give one recording a week, so that the transcriptions in hand should provide a weekly feaure for the next year or so. These programmes are the best — and incidentally the costliest — entertainment put on the air in America, and local listeners will have an opportunity of comparing our own standards of entertainment with those of the other side of the world. Phil. Baker, Lanny Ross, Rudy Vallee, Ruth Etting, John Boles, Bing Crosby and Al. Pearce and his "Gang" are among the artists who will be heard. Except for the final tests, the arrangements at both stations are ready for the changeover next Sunday. New crystals have been installed and are being adjusted to the new wavelengths, and the plant at 6IX has been prepared for the increase in power from 300 watts in the aerial to 500 watts. The wavelength of 6ML will be changed from 264 metres to 265 metres, and that of 6IX from 204 metres to 242 metres. Together with the increase in power, the change from 204 to 242 metres by 6IX will improve the reception of this station considerably, especially by old receivers which do not give the best results at the lower end of the broadcast band.[210]

Restack 1935

STATION CHANGES. As from September 1 all Australian national stations are dropping their old call signs and using new designations. Thus from that date the present 6WF, Perth, and 5CK, Crystal Brook, will be known as Perth National and North Regional, S.A., respectively. This new scheme is similar to that at present used by the B.B.C. Many changes in wavelengths will also take place on that date. Station 6IX will operate on a wavelength of 242 metres instead of 204 metres; 6AM, Northam, 306 (275); 6ML, 264 (265); 6KG, 246 (248) and the present 5CK, 469 (472). 6WF and 6PR will be unchanged. 6AM has also been authorised to increase its power to 1,000 watts.[211]

Transcriptions & Restack 1935

BROADCAST FEATURES. New Material for 6ML and 6IX. One of the last feature programmes to be broadcast by station 6ML under the present wavelength of 264 metres will be given tonight at 9.15, when a complete transcription of a nationwide American broadcast will be presented. This programme, which bears the happy title: "Everything is Lit Up — Including Phil Baker," is the first of a series of American recordings for which the West Australian rights were recently secured by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. It is a gala performance in which the star, Phil Baker, celebrated his second anniversary with the National Broadcasting Company of America, and the feature will be presented by 6ML just as the American listeners heard it. On Sunday 6ML's wavelength will be altered to 265 metres. The second of these recordings, one which might prove more popular with local listeners, will be broadcast by station 6IX on Sunday night at 9 o'clock, when that station will celebrate its change of wavelength from 204 metres to 242 metres and an increase in its aerial power from 300 to 500 watts. Those who saw Grace Moore in the film, "One Night of Love," when it was screened recently will be particularly interested, for this feature is the radio adaptation of the film, specially produced by a theatrical company for an American advertiser. The programme lasts for one hour and covers the whole story of the film, and the parts that were created for the screen by Grace Moore, Tullio Carminati and Mona Barrie are capably played, while the singing reaches a very high standard. Although the programme was produced purely as a medium for advertising, it includes not one word of aggressive "sales talk." The potential buyers of the product advertised are reached by means of an amazing competition (which, it must be understood, has no application whatever in this country). The requirements of the competition are very simple, and the prizes awarded are on a breathtaking scale. The records on which this programme reaches Australia are themselves interesting. They are about 15 inches in diameter, and about three or four times the thickness of ordinary gramophone records. Each of the four records making up the "One Night of Love" programme plays for 15 minutes, the thread running from the inside of the record to the out-side — the opposite way to ordinary records — and the turntable revolves at only 33 revolutions a minute instead of the usual 78. W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., has received about 100 of these transcriptions, and stations 6ML and 6IX will each broadcast one programme weekly for about 12 months.[212]

Restack 1935

BROADCASTING CHANGES. From midnight tonight, a number of changes will be observed by broadcasting stations in Australia, the radio branch of the Postmaster General's Department having reallotted wavelengths to provide for improved radio reception throughout the Commonwealth. In this State four of the stations at present in operation will change their wavelengths, which means simply that they will be found at different positions on the dials of receiving sets. Station 6ML will move only one metre — from 264 to 265 metres, and the change at 6IX from 204 to 242 metres will coincide with an increase in aerial power to 500 watts. The other changes will be in stations 6KG, which will move from 246 to 248 metres, and in 6AM, which will move from 275 to 306 metres, at the same time increasing its power from 500 to 1,000 watts. Perth National station (435 metres) and 6PR (341 metres) will remain on the same frequencies. Another innovation will be the alteration from call signs to longer titles, to be observed only by national stations. Under this rule 6WF will become Perth National and the new station in the course of construction near Minding will be known as South-West Regional. The proposed national station at Kalgoorlie will take the title of Goldfields Regional.[213]

1935 09[edit]

Restack 1935

A RADIO WEEK-END. THE NEW WAVELENGTHS. 6IX and 6AM Greatly Improved. There was much to interest and occupy radio enthusiasts over the week-end when a considerable number of wavelength alterations were made by Australian broadcasting stations. In Western Australia there were two main changes — 6IX, Perth, moving from 204 to 242 metres with an increase in power from 300 to 500 watts, and 6AM, Northam, moving from 275 to 306 metres, with an increase in power from 500 to 900 watts. The wavelengths of Perth National (6WF) and of 6PR, Perth, were not altered and that of 6ML, Perth, was changed from 264 to 265 metres, a change perceptible to skilled listeners with carefully calibrated sets. The alterations in wavelength and power of stations 6IX and 6AM will have a most beneficial effect on radio in this State, particularly within 100 miles of Perth. The new wavelength of 6IX will enable the station to be received on some sets which previously did not enable it to be heard, and the added power has brought the station into line with the other Perth stations, all of which were received yesterday at equal strength on a late 1935 model at Claremont. The higher wavelength and increased power of 6AM can be said to have given every listener in the metropolitan area a new station. Formerly the average city receiver gave excellent results with 6WF, 6ML, 6PR and 6IX, while 6AM was received with some difficulty and with a considerable amount of background noise and static. Now it will, judging by yesterday's reception, be heard on all Perth receiving sets without any trouble at approximately the former strength of 6IX. The addition of 6AM to the list of stations available for listeners in the metropolitan area to select their radio entertainment is particularly welcome on Sun-days. Good Quality Transmissions. The changeover of wavelengths at these two stations, following many hours of tests, was effected most efficiently. At 9.45 a.m. yesterday 6AM broadcast several records at its former power (500 watts) and then, at 10 a.m., increased this to 900 watts; the change was most noticeable and the tone of the new transmissions excellent. The management of the station is permitted to use up to 1,000 watts but, finding the quality of the transmissions at 900 watts satisfactory decided to use that amount of power. The change over at 6IX was equally without untoward incident and the new power will bring this station into many homes where it has not been heard before. The quality of yesterday's transmissions was, after some manipulation of the volume and tone controls, perfect on the writer's set at Claremont. Both stations 6IX and 6AM will be glad to hear from country listeners regarding reception of the new wavelengths and powers. In addition to wavelength alterations, the technical staff of the Postmaster General's Department is at present engaged in checking carefully with the latest apparatus the wavelength of every transmitter in Australia. This is being done to ensure that each station keeps exactly on its allotted wavelength, a necessary step in view of the closeness of the different channels allotted to present and intended Australian stations, between most of which there are only 10 kilo-cycles on each side of its allotted position.[214]

Restack 1935

COMMERCIAL STATIONS REACH MORE LISTENERS. LETTERS of congratulation are still being received by station 6IX, 6ML and 6AM, all of which have secured considerably better results since the changes in wavelengths took effect on September 1. In addition to the frequency changes, two of those stations — 6IX and 6AM — have increased their output power, which has enabled them to reach a wider circle of listeners, and a large measure of their success is due to the skill of the station engineers, upon whom fell the responsibility for the necessary alterations. All three stations are operating on Philips valves.[215]

1935 10[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

FIELD TESTS FOR SITE OF NEW STATION. ENGINEERS of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., have been conducting field tests to determine the most suitable site for the company's new station near Katanning. Several sites are now under consideration. The wave length allotted to the new station is 280 meters, and the power will be 2,000 watts in the aerial. This will make the new station the most powerful commercial broadcaster in Western Australia, and equal to the most powerful commercial station in Australia. At present the South Australian station 5PI is the only other commercial plant in the Commonwealth with an aerial power of 2,000 watts. The new station will be used principally for relaying the programmes from 6IX, having the effect of carrying that station into the most thickly populated country areas. The programmes will be carried by land line from Perth.[216]

1935 11[edit]
1935 12[edit]

1936[edit]

1936 01[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences & 6KX

NEW RADIO STATION. PLANS FOR NEW "B" CLASS STATION. 6ML-IX ENGINEER LEAVES FOR THE EAST. Western Australian listeners can now look forward with certainty to a new "B" class country transmitter. Preliminary work in connection with the erection by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., of a relay station near Katanning has been so speeded up in the past few weeks that now practically all that remains to be done is the selection and purchase of the equipment and its installation. The new station will have the call sign 6WB and, with a power in the aerial of 2,000 watts, will operate on a wave length of 280.3 metres. It will be connected by land line with the Perth studios of W.A. Broadcasters, and its main work will be the relaying of programmes from 6IX, although it is possible that some 6ML broadcasts will also be taken. In addition, essential news and market services for the special benefit of people on the land may be given independently. The site that has been selected and approved is a five-acre plot, 4½ miles north-west of Katanning, at an altitude of about 1,100 feet above sea level. This is one of the highest spots in the Katanning district, and at present is the fallowed field of a farming property. The area to be served by 6WB has a greater density of licenses than any other country area in the State, it being estimated from figures supplied by the Postmaster-General's Department that within a radius of about 100 miles from the transmitter approximately 9,427 of the State's country listening public of 10,700 are centred. These figures do not, of course, include listeners in the metropolitan area, who should have no difficulty in tuning in the new station. It is expected that more distant areas such as those around Merredin and even Kalgoorlie will also be served. Station 6WB will be essentially a country relay station, catering especially for the interests of the rural listening public. The hours of transmission have not yet been fully determined, but it is believed that they will largely coincide with those of 6IX, although there is the possibility of separate breakfast and dinner sessions originating at the Katanning transmitter itself. Detailed points of the programme makeup are still being considered, and here, too, nothing definite has been decided. Nothing much can be done in fact until the return from the Eastern States of the chief engineer of 6IX (H. T. Simmons), who left Perth recently by the Great Western express to investigate the matter of the most suitable technical equipment and to place orders accordingly. His work will take him as far afield as Brisbane, where he will pay special attention to the new type of quarter-wave aerial system recently put into operation by 4AK. On his recommendation the type of aerial system to be used by 6WB will depend, although it is considered likely that a single mast will be erected. No effort will be spared to secure the most modern equipment and to assemble and operate it according to the latest trends of radio transmission. Apart from the transmission room and other construction necessitated by the water-cooling system that will be used, there will be a further building to act as the engineers' quarters. There will probably be one engineer residing at the station and another living privately — possibly in Katanning — when off duty, and both may be called on to act as announcers for either emergency or independent transmissions. Alterations in the Perth studios have also been hinted, and it is quite possible that the increased work will bring about another studio in the present building in Murray Street, Perth. Things will be more or less left in abeyance here until the return of Mr Simmons in a few weeks' time. The matter of a landline to Katanning will receive attention, and then, with the purchase and arrival of the plant, work will commence on the actual erection of the station. When this begins it should not be many months before the new station is on the air.[217]

1937 - Newspaper Control; 1941 - 6MD Commences

Local and General. . . . W.A. Broadcasting Stations.— Replying to a question by Mr. J. Curtin in the House of Representatives recently, Mr. Parkhill, Minister representing the Postmaster-General, gave the following information regarding "B" class stations in this State. He said that four stations — 6ML Perth, 6KA Katanning, 6MD Merredin and 6IX Perth — were licensed by West Australian Broadcasters Ltd., the first three mentioned each having a registered capital of £12,000 in £1 shares of which 5,999 were held by West Australian Newspapers Ltd. 6IX Perth, although licenced in the name of West Australian Newspapers Ltd., is believed to be owned by W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. 6PR Perth is registered in the name of Amalgamated Wireless (A/sia) Ltd. and licenced in name of Nicholson's Ltd., the latter firm receiving £50 a week for operating the station plus 20 per cent. of value of advertising secured by Amalgamated Wireless as agents. The sixth "B" class station in the State was 6AM Perth and Northam.[218]

1937 - Newspaper Control

WIRELESS. . . . (BY N. M. GODDARD, B.E.) . . . B CLASS CONTROL. In the course of the recent debate in the Federal Parliament the Minister for Defence (Mr Archdale Parkhill) submitted a list of the B class (commercial) stations classified according to ownership or control. According to the particulars given Amalgamated Wireless (A'sia) Ltd., owns, or has some interest in the following:— 2AY (Albury), 3BO (Bendigo), 4PM (Port Moresby), 4TO (Townsville), 4CA (Cairns), 2GF (Grafton), 2GN (Goulburn), 2SM (Sydney), 3HA (Hamilton), 7LA (Launceston), 6PR (Perth) and 4WK (Warwick). The Melbourne Herald and associated publications are alleged to control wholly or partly the following stations: 3DB (Melbourne), 4BK (Brisbane), 4AK (Oakey), 4GY (Gympie), 5AD (Adelaide), 5MU (Murray Bridge), 5PI (Port Pirie), 6IX and 6ML (Perth), 6KA (Katanning) and 6MD (Merredin). J. B. Chandler and Co (Brisbane) control 4BC and 4BH (Brisbane), 4GR (Toowoomba), 4MB (Maryborough) and 4RO (Rockhampton). These are the largest groups but there are ten smaller combinations included in which are groups comprising 2HD and 5KA, 2GB and 5DN, 2GZ and 2NZ, and 2AD and 2LV.[219]

1936 02[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

KATANNING STATION. 6WB Construction. That the engineers of W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. were returning from Sydney, where they had purchased equipment for the new radio station, 6WB Katanning, was stated by the manager of 6ML (Mr. B. Samuels) today. "Land has been acquired and we are pushing ahead with the erection of the station as quickly as possible," Mr. Samuels said. "Although the station will be essentially a regional one, particular attention will be paid to items like market prices for the man on the land." An analysis of the licence figures, Mr. Samuels pointed out, disclosed that 90 per cent. of the country listeners were located within a radius of 150 miles from Katanning. "At the moment," he said, "nothing is being done with the Merredin scheme, which will be considered later.[220]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

MINDING or 6WB KATANNING? WHICH WILL BE OPERATING FIRST? The announcement of W.A. Broadcasters Limited that building operations on their new station, 6WB, about 4½ miles out of Katanning, will commence almost immediately, comes as a challenge to the Director-General of Postal Services (Mr. H. P. Brown) and the station 6WA. Minding, or 6WA, was promised some years ago, and when, many months after it was definitely announced that the station would be constructed, work started early last year, people in this district had fond hopes of listening to their own station by June; but, alas! February is here and Minding is still "under construction." And now comes the announcement by W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., that Mr. H. T. Simmons, their chief engineer, had just returned from the Eastern States, where he had purchased the equipment for the new "B" class station. 6WB is promised completion by June. Will the same fate befall it? Both 6WA (National Station) and the new "B" station will be connected to Perth by land lines and will relay, in the first instance, the programme of 6WF, and in the latter case the programmes of 6IX and 6ML. In both stations there will be emergency studios in case of accident to the land lines. As far as the "race" is concerned, Minding has a good start, as only the mast remains to be erected and the equipment installed, but despite the fact that £50,000 has been put aside for the construction of the national station, 6WB stands every chance of being on the air first. Mr. D. J. Abercrombie, engineer of Standard Telephones and Cables (A/asia) Ltd. has just arrived at Minding from the Eastern States to supervise the installation of the technical equipment.[221]

1936 03[edit]

Pertinent Paragraphs. WHEN the big he-men are tearing each other to pieces and the crowd are roaring themselves hoarse, there's one man who always keeps cool. And that's Bryn Samuel, manager of broadcasting stations 6ML and 6IX, who is heard over the air every Friday night describing the wrestling bouts from the Unity Stadium. A Welshman by birth, he came out to Australia about 14 years ago, and after trying his hand at farming and later at advertising work, he linked up with Musgrove's. In time he worked his way up and soon became manager of 6ML, and when 6IX was opened he also took over the managership of that station. In this regard he is best known as wrestling commentator, and during his association with broadcasting he has described close on 600 boxing and wrestling bouts. In private hours there's nothing he likes better than a game of tennis, while he still follows enthusiastically soccer and rugby which he used to play in his young days in Wales. Being musically inclined — he carries the letters L.A.B. after his name — he is also a singer who has been heard over the air in the past.[222]

1936 04[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

KATANNING "B" CLASS STATION. WORK ON 6WB SHOOTING AHEAD. The race is on! According to latest reports work has started on the new "B" class broadcasting station to be erected just outside Katanning for W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. Already the best part of the equipment to be used is being tested in Perth, and just as soon as the powerhouse is completed the 40 h.p. power plant will be installed and the transmitting gear will not be long behind. 6WB will take its place amongst the most powerful "B" stations in Australia, having a power of 2,000 watts and broadcasting on a wavelength somewhere in the region of 280 metres, between 6ML and 6AM. It will come as a surprise to many that two 130ft. wooden masts are to be used instead of the conventional metal ones. It won't be long now before crystal sets make a determined appearance in Katanning and small sons and yards and yards of wire, coils, sliding contacts, crystal detectors and other such like things will be getting tangled up in mother's feet and wished somewhere a long way away from the middle of the passage, or somewhere else where everyone can trip over them.[223]

1936 05[edit]
1936 06[edit]
1936 07[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

RADIO NEWS. By Valve. ITEMS OF INTEREST. The Progress of Station 6WB. GOOD progress has been made with the new B class station being erected at Katanning for W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., and it is hoped that it will be able to make a start with the testing in about five weeks' time. The two wooden masts, each of 130 feet, are now in position, and the 40-horsepower Diesel engine, which will generate the power, is now being installed. Two engineers are at present at work on the wiring and about half of the transmitter has been delivered to the site. The remainder of the transmitter is expected to reach Katanning in the next two or three weeks. The new station, which will be known as 6WB. will have a wavelength of 280 metres, and a frequency of 107 [sic] kC. The object of the station will be to provide a programme suitable for country listeners at a time most convenient to them. In the main the station will relay programmes from station 6IX, but a separate studio is being provided in Perth to enable 6WB to broadcast its own programme when this is in the best interests of country listeners. The new station will also possibly relay important features from station 6ML. Station 6WB will be one of the most powerful commercial stations in Australia, with a power of 2,000 watts, compared with the 500 watts of the present commercial stations in Perth. It has been estimated that from 85 to 90 per cent of country listeners in this State are situated within 150 miles of the new station.[224]

1936 08[edit]
1936 09[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

WIRELESS WHISPERS. And now for some really good news about W.A. Broadcasters new country relay station, 6WB, Katanning. For same time past many wild guesses have been made concerning the time when it will be on the air. One gloomy pessimist was heard to say the other day: "Maybe they will give it to us for a Christmas present." Now the manager, Bryn Samuel, states that they have fixed a tentative opening date for 19th September. That's good to hear but we must realise that the date is given purely on the assumption that everything goes ahead without a hitch. Anyway don't be surprised if you hear the new voice testing during the next week. The gale, that hit so disastrously the new South-West Regional station at Minding, did not leave 6WB untouched. The high winds completely carried away the newly erected aerial wires between the two 130ft masts. A halyard at the top of one of the masts was also damaged and one of the engineers had to shin up to the top of the mast to fix it. However, all the damage has now been repaired. The Chairman and Secretary of the Katanning Road Board have been invited to attend the official opening of 6WB, which will take place in Perth.[225]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

WIRELESS WHISPERS. . . . Everything is set for 6WB to make its debut next Saturday. The programme for the first week has already been well planned and everybody connected with the station is working as hard as they possibly can. . . . There were 70 applicants for the job of early morning announcer for 6WB, Katanning, and if the final selection is made in time, the successful appli-cant will make his debut with the opening of the new station.[226]

Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove

DEATHS. . . . MUSGROVE.— On September 18, 1936, at Subiaco, Marjory Jane, dearly beloved wife of M. D'O. Musgrove, and loving mother of Jean (Mrs. N. Ames, Wembley) and Marjory (Mrs. G. John, Perenjori); aged 62 years. FUNERAL NOTICES. . . . MUSGROVE.— The Friends of Mr. M. D'O. Musgrove, of 11 Chester-road, Claremont, and Managing Director of Musgrove's, Ltd., Perth, are respectfully informed that the remains of his late dearly beloved wife, Marjory Jane, will be privately interred in the Church of England portion of the Karrakatta Cemetery at 11.20 o'clock THIS (Saturday) MORNING. DONALD J. CHIPPER & SON, Funeral Directors, 1023-1027 Hay-street, Perth. Tel. B3232 and B3772; and at Mt. Lawley.[227]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

RADIO SERVICE. NEW "B" CLASS STATION. First Programme Tomorrow. The new country "B" class broadcasting station, 6WB Katanning, which has been erected for W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., will be officially opened tomorrow night. The station, which has a power of 2,000 watts, the greatest power allowed for "B" class stations in the Commonwealth, will broadcast on a wavelength of 1,070 kilocycles (280.4 metres). The initial programme from 6WB will commence at 6 o'clock tomorrow night and will continue until midnight. The official opening ceremony will be performed at 7.45 by the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. H. B. Jackson), and the chairman of the Katanning Road Board (Mr. A. Prosser). The ceremony will last about half an hour. The primary use of 6WB will be as a regional station of 6IX, and it will broadcast a large amount of this station's programmes and all outstanding features. At times, however, 6WB will be broadcasting its own programmes. The transmission times for the new station will be as follows:— SUNDAYS. 11 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. 6 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. WEEKDAYS. 6.30 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 12 noon to 2 p.m. 6 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. SATURDAYS. 6.30 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. 12 noon to 2 p.m. 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. 6 p.m. to 10.30 p.m. Discussing the programme policy of the station yesterday, the manager of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. Bryn Samuel) said that the programmes would mostly be derived from 6IX, but some would come independently from the Perth studio of 6WB, and to a lesser extent from 6ML. A studio had been erected at the station at Katanning, but this would only be used in the case of a landline breakdown or other emergency. On Sundays, continued Mr. Samuel, 6WB would come on the air at 11 a.m. and would broadcast an independent programme from its Perth studio until it closed at 1.30 p.m. From 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. it would take a relay of "The Broadcaster" session from 6IX. There would then be a break of an hour, and in the evening both stations would come on the air together. Although the whole of the programme from 6IX might not go to 6WB — this would depend on the sponsors' requirements — such items as the church service and "The West Australian" news bulletin would form simultaneous broadcasts. Every day during the week, he proceeded, 6WB would have an independent programme from its Perth studio from 6.30 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. It would also have an independent session from noon to 2 p.m., and both these sessions would include items of special interest to country listeners, such as weather and market re-ports. In the evenings, except for special or sponsored programmes, 6WB would relay from 6IX from 6 o'clock to 6.30. It would then have an independent session until 7.15, followed by another relay from 6IX until 7.50 and a further independent session from then until 8.30. After that the programme would depend upon what was offering. However, it would relay all the news bulletins from 6IX in addition to other regular features. The programmes on Saturdays would be arranged in the same fashion as those for week days, with an extra two hours in the afternoon, when it would relay "The Western Mail" programme from 6IX. "In erecting the new station," added Mr. Samuel, "we were actuated by the desire to create a stronger radio link between the city and the country, and it is our hope that 6WB will fill the bill. An isolated independent station did not appear to us to be the most effective and efficient way of serving the country listeners, and it was therefore decided that 6WB should be used primarily as a regionial station of 6IX. By splitting the programmes it will be possible for us to maintain the city listener's interest and at the same time give the country listener all the information he requires for the marketing of his products. In districts it should be possible for receivers to give perfectly satisfactory results, and I hope that 6WB will play a big part in increasing rapidly the number of licences held in the country."[228]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION. Construction Details. Station 6WB is situated on the main Wagin-Katanning-road, and the two 130 foot wooden masts standing back from the road form a good landmark for the station. The station buildings consist of a residence, the transmitter building, and the power house. In the power house there is a 40-horse power oil engine which provides the power for turning the 26 kilowatt alternator. This machine supplies alternating current at 415 volts, with provision for electric lighting at 240 volts. From this alternator, mains run to the switchboard where the circuits are split up and diverted to the various sub-sections, comprising magnetic switches, fuses and manual switches for controlling the distribution of the power. The transmitter is housed in a large room measuring 28 feet by 20 feet, and is built in one large unit measuring 18 feet long by 17 feet wide by 6 feet high, and contains all the apparatus necessary to put a broadcast programme on the air, from the crystal oscillator to the water-cooled tubes and the associate rectifying system. The current used in the generation of the carrier wave is necessarily direct current if a hum-free transmission is desired, and to achieve this four rectifiers are in use at 6WB. The crystal oscillator is a small receiving valve and it generates the high frequency current which alternates, or changes it potential, 1,070,000 times a second. This current, although very small at first, is amplified by a succession of valves and made larger and larger until it is finally delivered from the water-cooled valve as 2,000 watts of radio frequency power and passed along the feeder lines to the aerial system. At a selected position in the amplifying procedure, the audio-frequency currents which have been generated by the microphones and pickups and amplified by speech amplifiers and power amplifiers, are superimposed on the radio frequency power, which is then said to be modulated. The audio currents, which are generated at the Perth studios are sent to Katanning on a pair of telephone wires made available by the Postmaster-General's Department. As considerable power is absorbed by loss in the wires, it must be further strengthened on its arrival at Katanning. The telephone wires end in a studio which has been built to provide facilities for putting a programme over in the event of a fault developing in the programme line from Perth. The studio contains a microphone and magnetic pickup and an electric turntable motor, with sufficient records to keep a programme going for many hours. Two engineers will be stationed at Katanning. The engineer in charge will live at the station in the residence erected by the company, and the second engineer will live at Katanning.[229]

Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove

BEREAVEMENT NOTICES. . . . MRS. FRANCES E. TEMPLE, desires to acknowledge with GRATITUDE the kindly messages of sympathy extended to her on the death of her sister, Mrs. M. D'O. Musgrove.[230]

1936 10[edit]

1936 - 6WB Katanning Commences

W.A. BROADCASTERS' NEW RELAY STATION AT KATANNING. After months of feverish preparation and endless trying-out of new equipment, W.A. Broadcasters' new relay station, 6WB Katanning, came on the air for the first time, officially, last Saturday night. During the previous week 6WB, while testing, was heard by many in the district, and this heightened the already intense interest shown in the construction of an essentially country listeners' station. The station will be used primarily as a relay station for 6IX and the whole of Saturday night's programme, which lasted from 6 o'clock until midnight, was broadcast by both stations. The official opening ceremony was performed by the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. H. B. Jackson), and he was supported by the chairman of the Katanning Road Board (Mr. A. Prosser) and Mr. A. F. Watts, M.L.A. The new station broadcasts on a wavelength of 1,070 kilocycles (280.3 metres) and has a power of 2,000 watts. In addressing listeners, Mr. Jackson said that the position of 6WB had been chosen and its power had been installed for the purpose mainly of benefiting the country listeners in Western Australia who, owing to geographical and other disabilities, were not always able to obtain the best results from metropolitan stations. The new station would be used primarily as a relay station for 6IX. It would not, however, be slavishly confined to the programmes of that station, but would include, as far as possible, matters of special interest to country residents, and would give its own programmes on desirable occasions. Country Radio Reception. "It gives me a great deal of pleasure to be able to support Mr. Jackson in declaring this station open," said Mr. Prosser. "As chairman of the Katanning Road Board, in whose territory 6WB has been established, I feel it a great honour to be able to speak on behalf of Katanning and the surrounding districts. W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., deserves a lot of praise for the enterprising manner in which it has endeavoured to overcome the disadvantages that are suffered by listeners east of the Darling Ranges. It has erected one of the finest B class stations in the Commonwealth within the Katanning district. Up to the present time radio reception from metropolitan stations has been very poor, but now, with the erection of 6WB, radio reception is going to improve, not only in our district, but in all parts of the State east of the Darling Ranges." ???? 415 volts, with provision for electric lighting at 240 volts. From this alternator, mains run to the switchboard, where the circuits are split up and diverted to the various sub-sections, comprising magnetic switches, fuses and manual switches for controlling the distribution of the power. The transmitter is housed in a large room measuring 28 feet by 20 feet, and (Start Photo Caption) North mast seen from half-way up south mast. (End Photo Caption) is built in one large unit measuring 18 feet long by 17 feet wide by 6 feet high, and contains all the apparatus necessary to put a broadcast programme on the air, from the crystal oscillator to the water-cooled tubes and the associate rectifying system. The current used in the generation of the carrier (Start Photo Caption) Katanning studio and line amplifier. The rectifier portion of the transmitter can be seen through the glass panel.(End Photo Caption) [231]

1936 11[edit]
1936 12[edit]

1937[edit]

1937 01[edit]
1937 02[edit]

1937 - Newspaper Control; 1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences

NIGGER IN WOODPILE. MIXED MOTIVES BEHIND WIRELESS LICENCE-FEE CAMPAIGN. Sir Keith Murdoch as Champion With a Shining Axe. FOR some weeks past, the chain-gang press of Sir Keith Murdoch and the Melbourne "Herald" has been waging a fierce campaign in favor of a reduction of 3/6 in the wireless listener's licence-fee. This crusade, directed by anybody else, might seem a commendable effort to protect the listener's interests. Melbourne "Herald" crusades, however, are, by this time, taken with some suspicion. When the Melbourne "Herald" protects any interests, they are generally found to be the interests of the Melbourne "Herald." Facts revealed in this article show that Sir Keith Murdoch, thanks to his web of wireless-station and newspaper interests, is trying to wield more power than a Prime Minister. His campaign against the Broadcasting Commission is not one of such simple philanthropy as might appear. "SMITH'S WEEKLY" is not concerned here with any case for or against a reduction in listeners' licence-fees. Its concern, at present, is with the manner in which one partisan side of that dispute is being argued. The position resolves itself briefly into the question whether one man, or one monopoly, should be allowed to dominate the internal affairs of Australia. The man is Sir Keith Murdoch, pocket-Northcliffe of the Melbourne "Herald," and the monopoly is the "Herald's" ability to shout its propaganda through the Commonwealth, while, at the same time, spokesmen of the other side are denied a voice. Since "Smith's Weekly" is one of the few Australian newspapers that own no liaison with any broadcasting station, it is able to give some plain facts about the A.B.C.'s position, which other journals, particularly those in the Murdoch chain-gang, have hitherto suppressed. Genuine zeal in the protection of listeners' interests is natural, legitimate, and pardonable. But listeners may be excused if they regard with some suspicion the peculiarly intense agitation in favor of reduced licence-fees, and against the A.B.C. generally, which has been spread across the pages of the Murdoch Press. The Champion. As a champion of the licence-paying listener, Sir Keith Murdoch, in short, comes not with a shining sword to brandish, but with a shining axe to grind. This apparently noble-hearted and philanthropic crusade on the listeners' behalf has to be examined in the light of the fact that Murdoch and the Melbourne "Herald" control no fewer than seven daily papers in Australia, and (according to Sir Archdale Parkhill), 8 B class broadcasting stations. To find any parallel to this monopoly of propaganda-engines, one has to turn to William Randolph Hearst, of the United States, or the Press-barons of England. Through his seven daily newspapers and his eight broadcasting stations, Murdoch exercises more bullying influence, and more indirect persuasion, over the minds of the Australian nation than the Cabinet itself. Ministers, indeed, before this, have been at the beck and call of the heavy-jowled Melbourne journalist, with his tremendous bludgeons of publicity and propaganda. For the past few weeks, every Murdoch paper and microphone has been pumping forth a flood of argument and demand in favor of a reduction of 3/6 or more in the annual wireless listener's licence-fee. From any other source, the campaign might have been taken at its face-value, as an honest effort to assist the listener. But with Murdoch-worked campaigns, the public has got into the habit of asking Why? His Motives There are two exceedingly strong motives of self-interest which do much to rob this latest campaign of its guile-less altruism. Consider, for a start, the extraordinary network or B class wireless stations which have been built up round the Melbourne "Herald," with Daddy Murdoch nestling in the centre of the web. You need go no further than Federal Hansard, of December, 1936, to see how the Minister for Defence (Sir Archdale Parkhill) tabulated the Melbourne "Herald's" broadcasting station affiliations and interests:—

MELBOURNE "HERALD" AND ASSOCIATED NEWSPAPER INTERESTS IN BROADCASTING STATIONS

  • STATION; LICENSEE; INTEREST.
  • 3DB, Melbourne; 3DB Broadcasting Station Pty. Ltd.; Nominal capital, £20,000 — The "Herald" or its nominee holds all issued shares (£5300).
  • 4BK, Brisbane; Brisbane Broadcasting Pty. Ltd.; Nominal capital, £5000 (£1 shares) Queensland Newspapers Ltd. ("Courier-Mail") or its nominees hold 1802 of 2103 issued shares. Directors: N. White, Managing Director, Queensland Newspapers Ltd., R. T. Foster, Editor, and E. H. Macartney, solicitor. Actual "Herald" interest in Queensland Newspapers Ltd. not known.
  • 4AK, Oakey; Brisbane Broadcasting Pty. Ltd.; Control - As above.
  • 4GY, Gympie; Brisbane Broadcasting Pty. Ltd.; Note : Licence approved for Gympie but not granted. Control - As above.
  • 5AD, Adelaide; Advertisers Newspapers Ltd.; "Herald" has 113,200 preference and 130,000 ordinary shares in "Advertiser" Newspapers Ltd. L. Dumas is Managing Director.
  • 5MU, Murray Bridge; Murray Bridge Broadcasting Co. Ltd.; Nominal capital — £5000 (£1 shares). All issued shares (400) are held by nominees of "Advertiser" Newspapers, Ltd.
  • 5PI, Port Pirie; Midlands Broadcasting Co. Ltd. Nominal capital — £2000 (£1 shares). All issued shares (820) held by "Advertiser" Newspapers, Ltd., or nominees.
  • 6ML, Perth; West Australian Broadcasters Ltd.; Capital. £12,000, in £1 shares, of which 5999 - held by West Australian Newspapers Ltd.
  • 6KA, Katannlng; West Australian Broadcasters Ltd.; Capital, £12,000 in £1 shares, of which 5999 held by West Australian Newspapers Ltd. — Licence not yet issued.
  • 6MD, Merredin; West Australian Broadcasters Ltd.; Capital, £12,000 in £1 shares, of which 5999 held by West Australian Newspapers Ltd. — Licence not yet issued.
  • 6IX, Perth; West Australian Newspapers Ltd.; Although licence is held by West Australian Newspapers, it is understood the station is owned by West Australian Broadcasters Ltd.

Since the publication of this list in Hansard, the Murdoch interests have also constructed a relay-station at Lubeck (Vic.), which is reported as being the most powerful B Station in the Commonwealth. It operates by regulation on a power of 2000 watts, although the plant is capable of 5000 watts, and has a direct landline connection with the central Murdoch Station, 3DB, situated in the Melbourne "Herald" Office. The Minister for Defence, Sir Archdale Parkhill who represents the Postmaster-General in the House of Representatives, has informed "Smith's Weekly" that, since he quoted these figures to Federal Parliament, he has received a letter from W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., which states that the Melbourne "Herald" and "Associated Publications" have no connection with 6ML, 6LX [sic, 6IX], 6MD, and 6KA. Thus, assuming that Sir Archdale Parkhill's statements are correct, the Murdoch-controlled stations now number 8. It will be seen how widely and deeply the Melbourne "Herald" interests extend. And the nigger in this imposing woodpile is to be found in the fact that nearly all B-class stations today are finding it increasingly difficult to get in advertising. A few years ago, they had less competition to meet, and entertainment programmes were comparatively cheap — so much so that, during those golden days, many B-class proprietaries made small fortunes. Today, all that has changed. Entertainment needs to be increasingly outstanding to hold listeners' interest, and programme-costs, performing-fees and royalties have all gone up. In addition, the A-class stations have been offering vigorous competition. As an example of this, it is safe to say that, during Sir Harry Lauder's recent hour over 2FC, 3LO and the other national stations, hardly a listener in Australia heard a word of the advertisements that were being put into the air at the same time by the B-class stations. Every time, therefore, when an A-class station offers an attraction like this, B-class station advertisers complain, with some justification, that their sponsored advertising-programmes are being wasted. Sir Keith Murdoch, it is obvious, realises the menace which A-class station enterprise of this kind offers to his chain-gang of B-class stations. The remedy, in his view, is to curtail the amount of money at the A.B.C.'s disposal for such dangerous counter-attractions. By urging a reduction in the licence-fee, therefore, with a corresponding reduction in the Commission's revenue, the Murdoch propaganda-machines are not only outwardly befriending the listener, in a noble and philanthropic way, but they are also protecting their own web of B-class stations, in a manner not quite so altruistic. This motive becomes fairly obvious after a perusal of Sir Archdale Parkhill's little list of Murdoch wireless-interests. The second motive is not so transparent. but it is just as strong. The Melbourne "Herald" group, together with other newspaper-proprietaries, has been given a bad attack of the jitters by the Broadcasting Commission's hint that it may find it necessary to organise its own service of cable-news for listeners. Ever since this dreadful possibility was mentioned, the proprietors of the monopolistic press-cable services have been having nightmares. Negotiations, indeed, were in train for some considerable time between the A.B.C. and the newspaper-proprietaries, for the supply of cable-news. But no finality was reached, and the arrangement is still hanging fire. In any case, whatever the outcome of this bargaining, it is well known that the A.B.C. would be exceedingly distrustful of the sort of colored "cable-news" which is being fed to readers of Australian daily newspapers today. The Commission obviously would want its cable-news to be fair, accurate and unbiased — qualities signally lacking in the sort of "cable-news" to which Australian newspaper-monopolies restrict Australian readers at present. "Smith's Weekly" for a long time past has deplored the one-sided and subtly-colored news which comes to Australia through these channels, and has attempted to show Australians what they are missing by giving its own representatives' accounts of events such as the Spanish Civil War, Edward's abdication, and British and American politics, all of which have been grossly distorted by the one-eyed cable-messages of the regular services. Hence the A.B.C.'s hint that it might be necessary to establish an independent cable-service of its own. This prospect, though still a mere hypothesis, has thrown Australian proprietors in general, and Murdoch in particular, into a nervous dither. Once again, it will be seen that by urging a substantial cut in the licence-fee, under the guise of sympathy for the listener, the Murdoch propaganda-machines are protecting their own precious interests. A cut of 3/6 would mean a reduction of about £120,000 a year in the A.B.C.'s revenue, and this would put an effective stop to any audacious ideas about a separate cable-service. See now just how disinterested the Melbourne "Herald's" campaign for lower wireless-licences begins to look! The Moneybags. Much use has been made by the Murdoch papers of the claim that, of the present 21/- licence-fee, 9/- goes into the Government's consolidated revenue. The Melbourne "Herald" and its pups loudly complain that this 9/- is not used for wireless-purposes at all. But what the Murdoch chain-gang overlooks is the fact that the revenue into which the 9/- is paid has to cover the cost of constructing and maintaining landlines, and telephone and telegraph-services, used extensively in broadcast-relays even by B Class stations. In addition, this money also goes toward the expense of constructing new studios, buildings and plants for new country broadcasting-centres. Apart from this, the A.B.C.'s own present plant and equipment are urgently in need of modernisation and extension, according to comparisons made with broadcasting-stations in other countries. This would, of course, be practically impossible if the A.B.C.'s revenue is cut by £120,000 a year. But these considerations are beside the point, since "Smith's" does not intend to enter into the pros and cons of licence-fee reduction here. What does become glaringly apparent is the self-interest which lurks behind the Murdoch campaign, conducted ostensibly in the sacred cause of the listener, but waged with even keener zeal in the infinitely more sacred cause of the Murdoch money-bags! (Start Photo Caption) LITTLE CAESAR KEITH MURDOCH.— He wields more power than a Prime Minister (End Photo Caption).[232]

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PUBLIC NOTICES. IN THE SUPREME COURT OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. PROBATE JURISDICTION. IN THE MATTER of the Will of MARY GUNNER late of 8 Moorgate-street, Victoria Park, in the State of Western Australia. Married Woman, deceased. TAKE NOTICE that all Creditors and other persons having Claims or Demands against the Estate of the abovenamed deceased are hereby required to send particulars in writing of such claims and demands to Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, c/o Messrs. Unmack & Unmack, Solicitors, Withnell Chambers, Howard-street, Perth, the Executor of the Will of the said deceased, on or before the 9th day of May, 1938, after which date the Executor will proceed to distribute the assets of the said deceased among the persons entitled thereto, having regard only to the claims and demands of which he shall then have received notice. DATED this 30th day of March, 1938. UNMACK & UNMACK, Solicitors for the Executor, Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, Withnell Chambers, Howard-street, Perth.[233]

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA. PROBATE JURISDICTION. IN THE MATTER of the Will of MARY GUNNER, late of 8 Moorgate-street, Victoria Park, in the State of Western Australia. Married Woman, deceased. TAKE NOTICE that all Creditors and other persons having Claims or Demands against the Estate of the abovenamed deceased are hereby required to send particulars in writing of such claims and demands to Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, c/o Messrs. Unmack & Unmack, Solicitors, Withnell Chambers, Howard-street, Perth, the Executor of the Will of the said deceased, on or before the 9th day of May, 1938, after which date the Executor will proceed to distribute the assets of the said deceased among the persons entitled thereto, having regard only to the claims and demands of which he shall then have received notice. DATED this 30th day of March, 1938. UNMACK & UNMACK, Solicitors for the Executor, Mandeville D'Oyly Musgrove, Withnell Chambers, Howard-street, Perth.[234]

1938 05[edit]
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1939 - New Transmitter

BROADCAST PROGRAMMES. (Further details of programmes are to be found in "The Broadcaster.") . . . 6ML. 7 a.m.: Music. 9.0: Close. 10.30: For women, etc. 12.30: Close. 5.30: Children's session. 6.0: Music, sponsored sessions, etc. Opening of new transmitter. 9.0: Dance music. 10.30: Close.[235]

1939 - New Transmitter

NEW 6ML TRANSMITTER. Last Night's Official Opening. A novel ceremony took place last night when the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. H. B. Jack-son) officially declared open the new high fidelity transmitter which has been installed at station 6ML. The station will in future broadcast with the new transmitter, the old transmitter being reserved as an emergency unit. The old transmitter was in use when Mr. Jackson commenced speaking at the official opening last night. Following his opening remarks, a few bars of Lizst's Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 were played. This was followed by a short pause, during which the new transmitter was switched on, and the same record was played again. By this means listeners were enabled to make a comparison of the quality of the broadcast from the old and new transmitters. "Those of you who were interested in radio from its beginning," said Mr. Jackson, "will remember that 6ML was the pioneer of commercial broadcasting in this State. It broadcast its first concert on March 19, 1930 — scarcely ten years ago. Eight other commercial stations have been established since then, but we hope we still lead." After referring to the progress which had been made in all branches of radio, Mr. Jackson said that while the quality of the old transmitter was very good, that of the newly-installed one was better. Improvements had been made all along the line, but the special qualities of the new transmitter would be more apparent to the owners of modern receiving sets. Nevertheless he thought owners of old sets would be able easily to appreciate the difference. The new transmitter at 6ML is claimed to be capable of transmitting speech or music indistinguishable from the original, as the full range of musical tones is transmitted equally without discrimination. The tones are transmitted without introducing overtones or harmonics, and the low inherent noise level allows the transmission of a wide dynamic or volume range. Following the official opening last night, a special programme was presented by 6ML. The local artists who took part in the programme included Austin Ray and his Lyricals, Glen Matson's Harmony Hawaiians and Merv Rowston and his orchestra.[236]

1939 11[edit]
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1940[edit]

1940 01[edit]
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1940 03[edit]

1940 - 10th Anniversary

6ML Cocktail Party. IN celebration of the 10th anniversary of station 6ML — one of three stations controlled by W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. a cocktail party was held yesterday afternoon at the Palace Hotel. The guests were received by the manager of the company (Mr. B. Samuel). The chairman of directors (Mr. H. B. Jackson), who is in Sydney, sent a telegram regretting his absence. Other directors present were Messrs. H. J. Lambert (acting-chairman), M. D'O. Musgrove, F. C. Kingston, H. Greig and C. P. Smith. In the course of replies to the congratulations of guests, Mr. Samuel stated that 6ML was the first commercial station to be founded in this State, and was one of the first in the Commonwealth. At the time it was established there were only 5,000 listeners' licences in Western Australia; now there were over 85,000. A novel table decoration was a feature of the party. It took the form of model wireless towers, one at each end of the table. The towers were about six feet high. Suspended from wires stretched between them were two artistic streamers, one above the other. On the top streamer was the announcement, "10 Years Old," and on the other, the name of the station, "6ML." Invited guests included the following: The Acting-Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. J. G. Kilpatrick), the Senior Radio Inspector (Mr. G. A. Scott), the Assistant Radio Inspector (Mr. A. Grey), and Messrs. J. E. Macartney, C. C. Wren, R. Simonsen, R. W. Edwards, M. Zeffert, S. W. Davies, A. Colebrook, C. Wood, G. McDonald, E. Harvey, Grodeck, J. Coulter, A. A. Wheatly, R. Smith, A. Saggers, Moore, C. A. Gannaway, E. A. Toogood, R. Buckeridge, T. Smith, W. Smith, W. B. Garner, W. Watson, Birch, Norman, Bywaters, V. A. Taylor, Grey, R. Pearce, C. Evans, W. H. Williams, Nash, A. S. Dening, Moncur, D. Lord, Forsyth, L. Schutt, A. J. Williams, S. C. Cohen, K. T. Hamblett, N. C. S. Mount, A. Collett, N. Hutchinson, J. Mercer, K. McKinley, A. Kelly, C. Cohen, Wood, C. Stuart-Smith, J. Anstey, M. Levinson, Chapman, Fielding, M. J. Bateman, F. Beams, De Groot, Hewitt, E. Plaistowe, J. Squires, J. Bulloch and Kells.[237]

1940 04[edit]
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1940 06[edit]

1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences

NEW RADIO STATIONS. Two More for This State. The manager of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. B. Samuel) announced yesterday that his company had been granted a licence to operate a broadcasting station in the Merredin district. The power of the station would be 500 watts and it would operate on a wavelength of 273 metres. Tenders for a transmitter had been called for and tests would be conducted shortly to select the station site. The new station would be the country outlet for 6ML. Arrangements are being made by the Australian Labour Party to establish a commercial broadcasting station in Perth. Yesterday the secretary of the State executive of the party (Mr. P. J. Trainer) said that the matter had been under consideration for some time. The new station, for which a licence had just been obtained, would be controlled by the People's Printing and Publishing Co, which published the "Westralian Worker," the official organ of the party. Mr. Trainer said he was not in a position to say where the station would be located or to give the approximate date of its opening.[238]

1940 07[edit]

1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences

6MD Call Sign for Merredin Station. The station to be erected by W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., at Merredin has been allotted the call sign of 6MD. Already preliminary work in connection with the building of the station has been performed and it is possible that 6MD will be on the air before the end of the year. The station will have a power of 500 watts. It is easy to understand, why the letters "MD" have been chosen for the call sign. They suggest Merredin and can be clearly pronounced. The figure six denotes the State of Western Australia. When a radio call sign commences with the figure 1 it denotes New Zealand; 2 denotes N.S.W.; 3, Victoria; 4, Queensland; 5, South Australia; and 7, Tasmania.[239]

1940 08[edit]

MUSGROVES, LTD. Net Profit up £1,056. Musgrove's. Ltd., in their balance sheet for the year ended June 30 report an increase of £583 in gross profit (due to an improved turnover). At the same time, the company was able to lessen the expenses by £819. As a result, and after making provision for taxation, the net profit was better by £1,056 than for the previous year. The debit in the profit and loss account, which has existed for the past seven years, has been eliminated, and the account is now £187 in credit. The company's indebtedness to the bank has fallen by £5,632. Liabilities (bills payable, sundry creditors and bank) are down by £5,922, while the decrease in assets (stocks, debtors, bill receivable) is only £2,047. The seventeenth annual meeting will be held at Lyric House at 4 p.m. on August 26. Business will include the election of a director in place of Mr. H. B. Jackson, who retires in accordance with the articles of association, and the election of auditors. Messrs. Flack and Flack retire, but being eligible, offer themselves for re-election.[240]

1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences

6MD. FURTHER PROGRESS MADE. SITE PURCHASED. During this week further progress was made in connection with the proposed new broadcasting station to be erected at Merredin, when Messrs. Henry Greig (Director), F. C. Kingston (State manager), Bryn Samuel (manager) and Harry Simons (chief engineer) of W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., visited Merredin for the purpose of finalising the purchase of a site. In all the company had six sites under observation, and the one finally selected was 25 acres of the property of Mrs. A. H. Robartson, situated opposite the Merredin State Experimental Farm on the Great eastern Highway 4½ miles from Merredin. The representatives of the company expressed pleasure on being able to secure such a favourable site and it is now hoped the 6MD will be on the air by Christmas. The plant will consist of a 500 watt transmitter and 50,00 [sic] feet of copper will be buried to comprise the earth. The transmitter buildings will be lit up by a Diesel electric light plant, whilst residences will be built for the company's technicians. The programme will be relayed from Perth by land line and the associated stations will be 6ML, 6IX and 6WB (Katanning.) The new station will fill a long-felt want in the important Eastern and North-Eastern Wheatbelts, when at the present time only the programme from the big National Station are heard with any pleasure at all. Arrangements for a suitable official opening of the new 6MD will receive attention at a later date, and no doubt the extent of the celebrations will depend largely upon the progress of the world conflict now raging. Merredin has quite a live Musical Society, and might we suggest early that their co-operation be sought to enable a local programme to comprise portion of the opening celebrations in connection with the new station.[241]

1940 09[edit]
1940 10[edit]

Too Obtrusive. SIR,— Ever since 6WN came on the air it has been a curse to city listeners. Being so powerful we hear it behind every other station on the dial. No matter how modern your set you cannot listen to 6IX and 6ML without the National jazzing about in the background. Can nothing be done? Beethoven's "Appassionata" sounds pretty foul against a backcloth of "Deep Purple." Perth. BLAST 6WN![242]

1940 11[edit]
1940 12[edit]

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . Wireless Telegraphy Classes. Special classes for wireless-telegraphy reservists of the Royal Australian Air Force will commence at the R.A.A.F. No. 4 Recruiting Centre, Perth, tomorrow night. The classes have been arranged by Mr. H. T. Simmons, chairman of the Institute of Radio Engineers (W.A. Division) in conjunction with Sergeant L. Noble, trade testing officer at the recruiting centre. They are designed to give elementary instruction in the theory of radio and transmission and reception, and at present will take in about 30 reservists. The instructors will be Messrs. J. Austin, J. Tapper, N. Parker and G. Butterfield. The classes will be held at 7.30 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays.[243]

1941[edit]

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1941 - 6MD Merredin Commences

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . New Radio Station. A new broadcasting station in this State came on the air last Saturday night when 6MD, the Merredin regional station of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., was officially opened. The opening was performed by the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. H. B. Jackson, K.C.). Station 6MD, which will relay a number of important programmes presented by stations 6IX and 6ML, is powered by 500 watts and operates on a wave length of 273 metres (1,100 kilocycles). The manager of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd. (Mr. B. Samuel) said yesterday that favourable reports regarding the reception of broadcasts from 6MD had been received from many widely separated country centres. [244]

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1943 - WW2 Closure

RADIO STATIONS. Staff Shortage Causes Alarm. If the military call-up continued at the present rate the commercial broadcasting stations in Western Australia would be compelled either to reduce the hours of transmission drastically or to close down. This statement was made to the Assistant Minister for the Army (Senator Fraser) by a deputation from the Federation of Commercial Broad-casting Stations of WA which waited on him during the week. It was stated that the shortage of technicians and engineers had be-come alarming. It had been found impossible to replace the men who had been called up or who were enlisting with the air force. Under instructions from the Postmaster General only a man with an "A" class certificate was allowed to operate a wireless transmitter. One member of the deputation pointed out that some country stations were run on diesel engines, and if unskilled men operated these frequent blowing out of valves would result. The Minister said he realised the importance of keeping the broadcasting stations on the air, and would discuss their problem with the manpower and military authorities, and would also inquire into the position of commercial stations in the other States.[245]

1942 08[edit]
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1943[edit]

1943 01[edit]
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1943 - WW2 Closure

W.A. Radio Station to Close. PERTH, Wednesday.— Due to staff difficulties caused by the war, station 6ML, pioneer commercial broadcasting station in Western Australia, will close after completion of its programme on Sunday.[246]

1943 - WW2 Closure

Local and General. . . . Closed Down. Station 6ML has been closed down till the end of the war. This has been found necessary owing to the insuperable difficulties in running the Station, brought about by the depletion of staffs for manpower requirements.[247]

1943 06[edit]

1943 - WW2 Closure

Goebbels Beaten. The recent announcement that all radio sets in Holland must be handed in to the German authorities has not deterred those in charge of the Netherlands Government's sponsored broadcast, Radio Oranje, in London. The leader of the session is a man known only as the "Rotterdammer." Despite ruthless German repression the talks were listened to regularly by millions of patriotic Dutchmen. Radio Oranje has played an important part in maintaining morale, and even the latest order will not prevent its message from being distributed throughout Holland. In an exclusive story in "The Broadcaster" this week the "Rotterdammer" tells how Holland fights on. In the same issue are details of talks about Australia to be heard during June and July, and particulars of the next "Calling Australian Towns" programme, which will be heard next Saturday. Reminiscences of 6ML, a short story and the usual complete technical section are also included. "The Broadcaster" is on sale at all newsagents.[248]

1943 - WW2 Closure

NEWS IN BRIEF. . . . DIMINISHING RADIO. The closing down of Western Australia's first commercial broadcasting station — 6ML, Perth — is another indication of the inroads which war is making on our normal life. Whilst the effect of this closure will be felt mostly by those within an easy radius of Perth, there is bound to be regret that the oldest commercial station, and the second oldest broadcasting station in the West, should find it necessary to close its transmitter for the duration all over the State. It is one less programme to choose from — it is one less opportunity for people of talent to obtain their chance — but, like many worthier and less worthy institutions, it has been caught up in the maelstrom of war, and is now but a memory, and perhaps a hope for the future — a hope for those happier years which are to come. 6ML is but another casualty amongst those enterprises which have been built up to crash against the rocks of conflict. And the end is not yet.[249]

1943 - WW2 Closure

Post Offices To Close 5.30 pm. On and after next Monday if you want to do any postal business between 5.30 and 6 p.m. you must go to the G.P.O. From that day all other post offices will close at 5.30 p.m. during the week and 12.30 p.m. on the weekly half-holiday. Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs J. G. Kilpatrick said today that the change in hours was due to staff shortages. "The position is similar to that of the banks," he said. "Although their closing hour is now 2 o'clock, the staff does not go home then. That is when their work starts — getting their books in order, balancing cash. "Our post office staffs have been working till all hours of the night trying to cope with the work. The alteration is Commonwealth-wide." The G.P.O. telegraph office will be open as usual, and telephone services will continue wherever there is a telephone exchange. Money order business, allotment and pension payments will finish half an hour earlier than at present.[250]

1943 07[edit]

1943 - WW2 Closure

6ML. "After a career of more than 13 years, the Westralian radio station 6ML has closed "until the end of the war, or at least until the staff can be replaced," writes "Nork" in the "Bulletin." When it began business there were only 3,000 listeners within 50 miles of Perth, and only one national station. The chairman of W.A. Broadcasters, Ltd., announcing the closure, didn't say whether the staff had been lost through voluntary enlistment, or call-ups, but the incident is a sidelight on the weight, of Westralia's contribution to the war effort. No eastern radio station — and, heaven knows, there's plenty of them — has had to close down through shortage of staff.[251]

1943 08[edit]
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1944/46 Perth Restack

Change of Wave Lengths. Advice has been received that the Postmaster-General has decided upon the following alterations to the operating frequency of the undermentioned broadcasting stations: 6IX from 1240 kc/s to 1130 kc/s. 6PM from 1320 kc/s to 1240 kc/s. 6KY from 1430 kc/s to 1320 kc/s. This means that from the time the change-over is effected 6IX will use the channel previously used by 6ML, 6PM will use the channel now used by 6IX, and 6KY will use the channel now used by 6PM. The date on which the change will take place will be announced later.[252]

1944/46 Perth Restack

New Wave Lengths Soon. Changes are to be made soon in the wavelengths of three W.A. commercial stations. Station 6IX will go from 242 metres to 265; 6PM from 227 to 242 and 6KY from 210 to 227. Reason for the change is the closing down of Station 6ML which left a frequency available. Members of the Broadcasting Advisory Committee recently made observations in the north-west of this State which showed that areas some distance from Perth had been detrimentally affected by the closing of 6ML. Listeners in country districts will now receive a more satisfactory service as regards commercial stations. Any further suggestions from the public with a view to improving programmes will be welcomed by the committee and should be forwarded in writing to the hon. secretary, Broadcasting Advisory Committee (Miss McNab), Personnel Branch, G.P.O., Perth.[253]

1944/46 Perth Restack

New Wave-lengths. Further alteration has been made in the wavelengths of three W.A. commercial stations soon to operate. Station 6IX will retain its frequency of 242 metres; 6PM will go from 227 to 265 and 6KY from 210 to 227. Announcement was made recently that the frequency left by the closing down of station 6ML would be taken by 6IX and 6PM and 6KY would both go up in frequency (sic). Following representations by W.A. Broadcasters to retain their existing frequency on station 6IX, the Postmaster-General Senator Ashley has approved of their request and has allotted the other frequency to 6PM.[254]

1944/46 Perth Restack

NEWS AND NOTES. . . . New Wave-lengths. Speaking yesterday at the birthday reunion of Station 6IX, Mr J. G. Kilpatrick, Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs and chairman of the State Advisory Committee on Broadcasting, announced that changes in wavelengths of the commercial stations will be made shortly. He said that it had been arranged originally, on the representations of the advisory committee, that stations 6KY, 6PM and 6IX should move up the dial and that 6IX should take the wavelength relinquished by 6ML. The Postmaster-General however had subsequently approved representations from Station 6IX that that station retain its present wavelength. Consequently, the only changes would be that 6KY would take the former wavelength of 6PM and 6PM will move to the frequency vacated by 6ML.[255]

1943 12[edit]

1944[edit]

1944 01[edit]

1943 - D'Oyly Musgrove Retires

PERSONAL. . . . Mr M. D'O. Musgrove, who had held the position of managing director of Musgrove's, Ltd, since its foundation in 1923, retired yesterday from active participation in the business. He will retain his seat as chairman of the directorate. Mr Musgrove has been associated with the music trade in Perth for about 40 years. Yesterday afternoon at a gathering of the employees, a presentation was made to him. Mr F. C. Kingston, one of the four original members of the firm, will succeed to the position of managing director.[256]

1943 - D'Oyly Musgrove Retires

Perth Man's Colourful Career. With the recent retirement from active business of Mr. D'O. Musgrove, there ended a colourful business career that had close association with music and the theatre for more than 40 years. For many years a leader in Perth musical circles, he was director of the first "B" class commercial radio station to come on the air in this State. A keen sportsman he took part in the swimming carnival at the opening of the Claremont jetty in 1896 and has since that time been closely associated with the W.A. Amateur Swimming Association of which he was president for many years and is now a patron. LINGUIST His knowledge of languages — he spoke four — brought him into close contact with many famous artists who visited this State. Born in Cumberland 71 years ago, he received a considerable amount of his early education in Holland, France and Germany. He came to Australia in 1893 and settled in Victoria, where he taught music until the banks failed and most people were unable to afford musical tuition for their children. In 1896 he came to this State and worked on the railways until he went to the Boer War with the first West Australian mounted contingent. When he returned to Australia he rejoined the railways and took part in the construction of the Coolgardie Water Scheme. In 1902 he entered the firm of Nicholsons as a clerk and eventually rose to the position of manager. He founded, in conjunction with three other men, the firm of Musgroves Ltd. in 1923. Within seven years he was instrumental in bringing W.A.'s first "B" class commercial station, 6ML, on the air. Although he is now enjoying a well-earned rest at his home at Palm Beach Mr Musgrove has retained his seat as chairman of the directorate of Musgroves Ltd.[257]

1944/46 Perth Restack

Preventing Unemployment. Sir William Beveridge, recognised British authority on subjects coming within the category of social reconstruction after the war, recently answered in a broadcast a question which is being asked almost universally, "Can unemployment be prevented?" Sir William's broadcast is published in full in this week's issue of "The Broadcaster." In the news pages particulars are given of the new wave-length to which station 6PM will move on Sunday next. Sidelights of troop entertainment on the New Guinea front are given, as well as notes on coming radio programmes from all local broadcasting stations. "The Broadcaster" is on sale at all newsagents. [258]

1944 02[edit]
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Station 6KY. CHANGE OF WAVE LENGTH. From Saturday, July 8, radio 6KY will operate on a new wave length of 1320 kilocycles 227 metres. The change will take place at the commencement of the afternoon programme and will be heard on your radio receiver from that position thereafter. To hear 6KY on its new wave length the position on the dial of your receiver will be that which was vacated by 6PM when moving up to 6ML's old wave length. At 8 o'clock on Saturday evening an official announcement will be made, and the usual 8.15 feature "His Lordship's Memoirs" will be broadcast as usual. At 8.45 a special studio presentation will be broadcast.[259]

1944 07[edit]

1944 - D'Oyly Musgrove Passes

MR M. D'O MUSGROVE SUDDEN DEATH YESTERDAY. A Varied Career. The death occurred suddenly yesterday afternoon of Mr Mandeville D'Oyle Musgrove at his home at Palm Beach, Rockingham. With three others he founded the Perth firm of Musgrove's Ltd, 21 years ago, and only last December retired from the managing-directorship. Traveller, soldier, railwayman, the late Mr Musgrove had a varied career in the 71 years of his life. He was born in the south of England but spent much of his youth on the Continent, was educated mainly in Germany, and for a time lived with his parents in Norway. He came to Australia before this century began and enlisted in the Australian Mounted Infantry to serve in the Boer War. He joined the West Australian railways on his return and held various appointments in that service before he left to join Nicholson's Ltd. From the secretaryship of that company he became general manager, but in 1923 he and three others established the company which bears his name. Keenly interested in aquatic sports, Mr Musgrove was a strong supporter of swimming and his company donated the Musgrove Shield for the annual Swim Through Perth. His own pastimes were chiefly yachting and fishing and he was an accomplished pianist. The late Mr Musgrove's wife died about 10 years ago and for the last two or three years he had been living at Palm Beach. Yesterday, while he was attending to his motor car, he felt unwell and lay down to rest, dying shortly afterwards. He leaves two daughters, Mrs Ames, of 24 Holland-street, Wembley, and Mrs John, of Perenjori.[260]

1944 - D'Oyly Musgrove Passes

DEATHS. MUSGROVE.— On July 9, 1944, suddenly, at Palm Beach, Rockingham, Mandeville D'Oyly, husband of the late Marjory Jane Musgrove, loving father of Jean (Mrs R. N. Ames, of 24 Holland-street, Wembley Park) and Marjory (Mrs G. G. John, of Perenjori); grandfather of Verity and Alison Ames, Moira, Digby and Griffith John. MUSGROVE.— A tribute to the memory of M. D'O. Musgrove, who died, suddenly July 9, 1944; the sincere friend of Mr and Mrs F. C. Kingston. MUSGROVE.— A sincere tribute of respect to the memory of M. D'O. Musgrove. An esteemed friend of long years and happy associations. Mr and Mrs R. D. Scott. MUSGROVE.— A tribute to the memory of M. D'O. Musgrove. A much-respected friend of Mr and Mrs R. Peart.[261]

1944 - D'Oyly Musgrove Passes

DEATHS. MUSGROVE.— On July 9, 1944, suddenly, at Palm Beach, Rockingham, Mandeville D'Oyly, husband of the late Marjory Jane Musgrove, loving father of Jean (Mrs R. N. Ames, of 24 Holland-street, Wembley Park) and Marjory (Mrs G. G. John, of Perenjori); grandfather of Verity and Alison Ames, Moira, Digby and Griffith John. MUSGROVE.— A tribute of respect to an old friend, M. D'O. Musgrove. Inserted by Mr and Mrs J. Stevenson and Margaret (Wembley). MUSGROVE.— A tribute of respect to Mr M. D'O. Musgrove and the many happy associations of past years. Mr and Mrs C. C. Curtis (Mt Lawley). MUSGROVE.— A sincere tribute of respect to the memory of our chief, M. D'O. Musgrove, who passed away, suddenly, on July 9, 1944. Inserted by the staff of Musgrove's, Limited. MUSGROVE.— A tribute to the memory of M. D'O. Musgrove, a sincere friend of Mr and Mrs W. Hamilton, of Mt Lawley.[262]

1944 - D'Oyly Musgrove Passes

LATE MR MUSGROVE. Large Attendance at Funeral. The funeral of the late Mr Mandeville D'Oyley Musgrove, late managing director of Musgroves Ltd, Perth, took place yesterday morning at the Karrakatta Crematorium. In the presence of a large gathering of relatives and friends and prominent citizens of Perth, a service was conducted in the Crematorium Chapel by Padre Peirce. Present at this service were a number of prominent freemasons, including the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of WA (Dr J. S. Battye), the late Mr Musgrove having been a Past Deputy-Grand Master and president of the Board of Benevolence. He was a member of the J. D. Stevenson Lodge. The chief mourners were the late Mr Musgrove's two daughters and their husbands. Mr and Mrs G. G. Johns and Mr and Mrs R. N. Ames. The pall-bearers were: Dr J. S. Battye and Messrs J. A. Klein, S. A. Taylor, J. Mattinson, A. E. Jensen, H. B. Jackson, F. C. Kingston. R. D. Scott, H. J. Harler and R. W. Hawley.[263]

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1945[edit]

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PERSONAL. . . . Mr Robert Peart, who has held the position of secretary of Musgrove's Ltd for the past 19 years, retired last week. Before coming to Perth, Mr Peart was well known on the goldfields. His position has been filled by Mr Charles Codgbrook Curtis.[264]

1945 11[edit]
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1946[edit]

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Send A Voice "E.L.," writes: I wish to have a recording made, and would like to know if there is a studio in Perth, which will do this. If so, could you tell me where it is located and the price it is likely to be? STATIONS 6PR (Nicholson's, Barrack Street) and 6ML (Musgrove's, Murray Street) used to make occasional private recordings, for people who supplied their own blank discs, which used to cost about 3/6. War shortages made it impossible to fulfil such private orders, but you might make inquiries to either station now to see if this service will be resumed.[265]

1946 06[edit]

PETER WILSON'S Personalities. THE smooth voice of Fred Edwards which is heard regularly on the A.B.C. is the result of years of announcing and travel. After graduating as a B.A. at Oxford he toured Europe for four years and went on to America, China and Malaya learning the hotel business in preparation for assisting in the running of his father's chain of hotels. Soon after this he started with the B.B.C. as a specialty announcer conducting interviews, outside broadcasts and sporting commentaries. Then he was given what he describes as the most interesting job of his life. He was appointed by the Ministry of Labour as liaison officer with the hotel industry. In this period he wrote three text books on the hotel trade including "Cocktails," considered the standard work on the subject. In 1935 he came to Western Australia to get married and his first job was to design and open the cocktail bar in the newly-constructed Adelphi Hotel. Leaving the State he became manager of several Eastern States hotels and returned to this State from Hobart in 1938 to become chief announcer at station 6ML. He enlisted in the army at the outbreak of war and became a warrant officer in a special branch of Intelligence. When the war ended he transferred to army broadcasting and was in charge of station 9AO in Borneo. After discharge he took up his present position as general announcer.[266]

1946 07[edit]

STREET SCENE. UP THE MAST to pull it down go two workmen on the roof of W.A. Broadcasters. The mast used to transmit for 6ML until the station closed down for all time on May 30, 1943.[267]

1946 08[edit]
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1947[edit]

1947 01[edit]
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STAGE AND RADIO IDENTITY. Mr. Ned Taylor Dead. Mr. Ned Taylor, who made a name for himself on the stage years before he became a personality in radio life in this State died yesterday. As a lad he was associated with the Young Australia League in its early touring days. His earliest stage experience was with the West Australian Society of Concert Artists and one of his first successes was as "Dummy" in "Miss Hook of Holland," produced by the late Mr. Ted Jacoby. Later he toured the United States with a vaudeville show; and on his return to Australia he linked up with the Nellie Bramley company. Attracted by radio work, in 1932 he joined the staff of 6ML and as "The Early Bird" initiated that station's breakfast session — the first of its kind in the State. He resigned in 1942 owing to ill-health. Mr. Taylor's last stage appearance in Perth was in 1940 as Peter Doody in "The Arcadians." Charity benefited substantially from his efforts as an entertainer. He left a widow and one son.[268]

1947 04[edit]

PERSONAL. . . . Mr. F. C. Kingston, managing-director of Musgroves Ltd., will leave Fremantle in the liner Orion on Monday on a business trip to England and the United States. He will be accompanied by Mrs. Kingston.[269]

WA Businessmen In Orion For England. Several Perth business men with their wives will travel to England in the Orion, which will leave Fremantle on Monday. Several of them plan to continue their business trips to the United States or Canada, returning to Australia from there. . . . Managing director F. C. Kingston of Musgrove's Ltd. will visit many manufacturers in the United Kingdom and Europe, and will return by way of the United States where he will also be looking for new developments. Mrs. Kingston will accompany him. They expect to be away about nine months.[270]

1947 05[edit]
1947 06[edit]
1947 07[edit]

W.A. NEWSPAPERS LTD. RECORD OF 20 YEARS. Report to Shareholders. Accompanied by a letter from the chairman of directors (Mr. H. B. Jackson, K.C.) shareholders in West Australian Newspapers Ltd. have received this week a statement concerning the activities of the company from which the following extracts have been taken: In this, the year of the "coming of age" of West Australian Newspapers Limited, it is appropriate that your directors should give a comprehensive account of their stewardship. Twenty-one years ago "The West Australian," then the property of the estate of the late Sir Winthrop Hackett, was purchased by a public company named "West Australian Newspapers Limited." It had a paid up capital of £477,000 made up of £100,000 8 per cent preference shares and 377,000 ordinary £1 shares. In addition there was a debenture to the University for £150,000 bearing interest at 6½ per cent, so that the total working capital of the company was £627,000. The assets purchased included the building now known as West Australian Chambers, a block of land on which the old proprietary proposed to build more adequate premises, and on which Newspaper House has since been erected, and certain plant for the production of the papers. The building was totally inadequate and unsuited for the production of modern newspapers and much of the plant out of date. The actual value of the buildings, land and plant taken over was about £300,000 less than the purchase price, and this had to be regarded as the amount paid for goodwill. At the end of 21 years the company has built up reserves practically equivalent to the goodwill. Out of these reserves, and without further calls on the shareholders, the company now stands possessed of a newspaper building efficiently planned and with the most modern equipment that can be obtained. It has a substantial interest in the Australian Newsprint Mills, now producing newsprint in Tasmania. It owns half the capital of W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., one of the most successful radio companies in Western Australia. It has the most modern newsprint store in Australia. The company still owns West Australian Chambers. The value of this land has increased tremendously, an increase the extent of which cannot be gauged until the market for property is again free. Generally, the company is now solidly established, and able to stand four-square against any threat short of national disaster. Your directors have always realised that it is their first duty to preserve the assets of the shareholders in the company, and on the score of the physical assets as set out above they are satisfied that this has not been neglected. In the case of a newspaper the most precious asset is the integrity and standing in the community of the publications issued. Your directors feel that today "The West Australian" and its associates stand high in public esteem. Dividends. There has been no difficulty in paying the 8 per cent dividend on the preference shares. In the 20 years to date the average dividend, with bonuses, paid on the ordinary capital of the company has been 9.3 per cent. In this connection it must be borne in mind that in 1936 when, to redeem the debenture to the University, ordinary shareholders were given the opportunity of purchasing two ordinary shares at par for each five ordinary shares held, the Stock Exchange quotation for the "rights" to these shares was £1/6/. Quite a number of shareholders availed themselves of the opportunity to sell these "rights" and thus received a tax-free dividend of 52 per cent on their shareholding. Those who did not sell were able to acquire shares valued at £2/6/ for £1 for forty per cent of their holding, and this value has been maintained, because ordinary shares are now quoted at round about 48/. It must be remembered that in the twenty years covered by this dividend the company has had to meet the tremendous depression in 1930 and 1931, one of W.A.'s worst droughts 1932-34, and the effect of six years of total war. The fact that the average return to ordinary shareholders has been 9.3 per cent over the whole period should be a matter of satisfaction to the shareholders. Wartime Taxation. In common with every taxpayer in Australia, the company has felt the effect of wartime taxes. For the six years before the war and ended June 30, 1939, the company's gross profit was £575,415. Of this amount taxes absorbed £101,109, equivalent to 19.6 per cent. For the six war years ended June 30, 1946, the total profit of the company was £594,533. Taxes on this amounted to £267,710, equivalent to 45 per cent, In the last six years, out of every £100 of profit earned only £55 was left in the hands of the company. Control of Prices. No increase in sales prices or advertising rates can be made without the approval of the Commissioner of Prices. Such approval will only be given after the strictest scrutiny of the figures presented, and on definite proof that on our capital the new prices will not yield more gross profit per cent than was the case in 1939. The Commissioner of Prices will not permit prices being increased to offset any portion of the increased taxation paid by the company, and thus give shareholders the same net return as before the war. A company is only permitted to earn the same ratio of gross profit as before the war. The extra taxation is regarded by the Federal authorities as the contribution which the company and the shareholders must make towards the service of the war debt and the Government Social Legislation. There is no appeal against any decision of the Commissioner of Prices. Dividend Policy. As stated by the chairman, the directors have sought to stabilise the ordinary dividend at 8 per cent. The reason is that so many of our shareholders rely on the dividends, and an assured income from their investments is not only advisable but necessary. It has never been suggested, nor was it ever intended, that the dividend of 8 per cent would be a maximum. If, as is shown by the experience over the last fifteen years of the company, it is possible to pay more than 8 per cent to ordinary shareholders in any one year this is done by means of a bonus, as was done in 1928 and 1929. Shareholders may rest assured that while the directors will endeavour to pay a minimum of 8 per cent, such extra dividends by way of bonuses will be given as circumstances permit from year to year. Circulation. The publications issued by the company have grown steadily in public favour. In 1926 the circulation of "The West Australian" was 64,300. It is now 101,577 and increasing steadily. In 1929 the circulation of "The Western Mail" was 13,200. It is now 32,940. In April, 1934, "The Broadcaster," a weekly radio journal, was started. It now has a circulation of 46,027. It is a paradox of newspaper finance that the immediate effect of an increase in circulation is a decrease in profits, particularly so with newsprint at anything like the present price. Newspapers are almost invariably sold at less than the cost of production, this loss of course being met by advertising. Increased circulation is sought, and is valuable, because it increases the rates which can be claimed for advertising, but necessarily there is a lag before the increased advertising rates overtake the increased production losses. Newsprint. Twenty-seven per cent of our annual expenditure is in the purchase of newsprint. The newsprint position at the moment is particularly difficult and obscure. The war has effectively blocked our obtaining supplies from Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries and we must rely entirely, with the exception of newsprint from Tasmania, on newsprint from Canada. The Canadian suppliers are, to a large extent, overshadowed by their biggest users, the United States of America. It is a tribute to their loyalty to this part of the Empire that during the war we have been able to get the supplies we have. In 1929 the price of Canadian newsprint was £18 per ton — in 1946 £41 per ton. As from July 1 this year there is every indication that the price will be nearer £45 per ton. When it is considered that our annual consumption of newsprint is between five and six thousand tons an immediate increase of £4 per ton has the most disturbing effect on newspaper economy. In this regard it must not be overlooked that approximately one-quarter of our supplies can be obtained from Tasmania. It is intended to develop the Tasmanian mills by the addition of extra equipment, but that must necessarily be some years ahead, and in any event there is no prospect of meeting the whole of the Australian requirements in newsprint. Newspaper House. The company now conducts its operations in a building specially designed for its peculiar needs. As already indicated, the late Sir Winthrop Hackett had already purchased the site known as Shenton House for the purpose of new offices, and this land was one of the assets acquired by the company. After most careful planning, including a visit abroad by the company's architect, Sir Talbot Hobbs, building operations on the new site were started in 1931 and opened for the company's business in 1933. At the same time the opportunity was taken to acquire new plant to meet the company's expanding requirements. It can safely be said that in Newspaper House the company has a building and equipment specially designed for its needs and one of the most up-to-date plants in the Commonwealth. The portion of the land fronting St. George's-terrace was used for the erection of offices for letting purposes and on these a satisfactory return is being received. By setting its premises back from the Terrace frontage and erecting the front office buildings for letting purposes the directors achieved the purpose they had in mind — a St. George's-terrace entrance for its own business and the full rental value of the buildings on the frontage itself. In passing it may be mentioned that the stand-by electrical sets installed in this building have enabled our publications to be produced irrespective of the frequent breakdowns in the electrical supplies in Perth, and on quite a number of occasions we have been able to meet the publishing needs of other papers in these circumstances. Staff. Naturally since the company took over in 1926 the staff employed has increased considerably. Modem developments in newspaper technique, including the provision of pictures, the successful inauguration of "The Broadcaster," the provision of the first edition of "The West Australian" which is now delivered in places like Pemberton and Margaret River, before breakfast, the implementation of the 5-day week and four weeks' annual leave for the mechanical and reporting staffs have all meant a substantial increase in the number of staff employed in the operations of the company. The basic wage on which all the wages paid are calculated has increased from £4/7/ in 1929 to £5/1/1 in 1946. It is now £5/7/10. For every pound of revenue earned our wage bill has increased by only 15 per cent, notwithstanding that the basic wage, which which is the dominant factor in all our wages, has increased by 16 per cent in the same period. During the war years 50 per cent of our staff enlisted in the war services and your directors are happy to state that all the service men and women who returned have been successfully reabsorbed in the industry. It is interesting to note that in the 21 years since the company started operations only 11 issues of "The West Australian" were affected or lost through strikes. It is a tribute to the loyalty of the staffs that during the whole of the war years operations were carried on under an industrial award made in 1936. There were no industrial troubles whatever during that most worrying period. War Emergency Plant. When the threat of bombardment from the air was imminent it was necessary for your directors to make some arrangement for the production of our publications in the event of our premises being bombed. A building was purchased in Maylands to house an emergency plant away from the city. To this building was transferred enough plant to permit of the production of an 8-page paper at an hour's notice. Fortunately, it was not necessary. The building has since been sold at practically what it cost. The only cost to the company of this most necessary safeguard has been that of transferring and installing the necessary plant and its later return to this office — and most of this expenditure was allowed as an income tax deduction as air-raid precautions. W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. In 1933 your directors joined with Musgroves Ltd. as equal partners in the flotation of W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. which took over the broadcasting station then operated by Musgroves Ltd. and known as 6ML and the licence given to your company for a new station to be known as 6IX. The capital of the company was £12,000 but this was later increased to £18,000 by the capitalisation of profits. In the war period it was found advisable to abandon the licence for station 6ML in favour of a licence in the country. Experience has shown that the concentration of the efforts of the staff of the company in one city station and two country stations has been justified by the results. W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. is possibly one of the most successful broadcasting stations in Western Australia and after the initial years the financial return to this Company has always been satisfactory. Australian Newsprint Mills. For many years the "Melbourne Herald" and the "Sydney Morning Herald" had been working together in investigating the possibility of producing newsprint from Australian hardwoods. Quite a substantial amount of money had been spent by these concerns in early experiments until it was proved that the production of newsprint from those timbers was possible. The question of forming a company to take over the production of this newsprint was brought before the newspaper proprietors of Australia and as a result a company known as Australian Newsprint Mills Pty. Ltd. was formed in 1938 to erect and operate a newsprint mill at Boyer in Tasmania. The capital contributed by this company to this venture was £43,840. The mill has been in satisfactory production since before the war. As a shareholder, and only as a shareholder, we were entitled to our proportion of the newsprint produced and it is due to these supplies that "The West Australian" was able to carry on adequately during the war years. Had it not been for the stocks we held at the beginning of the war and the supplies we received during the war from Tasmania our company would have been in most serious difficulties. Steps are now being taken to provide the finance for Australian Newsprint Mills Pty. Ltd for a practical duplication of the present plant. In passing it may be of interest to note that every major newspaper in Australia is now under contract to take its proportion of paper produced in Tasmania for the next 10 years. Newspaper Store. The question of the storage of newsprint has always been one which has given your directors food for thought. Newsprint must be carefully handled and stored if it is not to be damaged and its very bulk makes it a commodity that requires special treatment. After careful investigation your directors authorised the construction of a special store at Fremantle to carry 5,000 tons of newsprint. Land, building and equipment cost £18,596. Fortunately the store was completed in time to take care of a large shipment of newsprint received from Canada just after the outbreak of war. It is designed specially for the handling and care of newsprint at minimum cost. Newsprint can be landed from ship slings into lorries and taken direct to the store thus saving certain wharf and harbour charges. Savings in handling and storage as compared with previous costs have already more than repaid the whole cost of the building itself. Travelling. The advent of the war, the establishment of price control, the formation and operations of the newsprint pool, which controlled during the war and still controls all newsprint supplies to Australia and industrial matters regarding the journalists whose work is governed by a Federal award, have necessitated frequent visits by the executive officers of the company to Melbourne and Sydney. In 1943, in the closing years of the war, the Managing Editor was invited to visit Great Britain as one of four guests of the British Government to inspect and interpret to Australian readers the development and extent of the British war effort and to discuss matters with high British officials. This invitation was accepted with considerable benefit to the company. To Sum Up. When West Australian Newspapers Ltd. was formed the circulation of "The West Australian" was 64,300; it is now 101,577. "The Western Mail" circulation was 13,200; it is now 32,940. In 1934 'The Broadcaster" was established and in its first year its circulation was 9,150; it is now 46,027. These results could not have been achieved by a parsimonious and shortsighted policy. That the direct financial gains from these increased circulations have been largely discounted by the almost trebling of the cost of newsprint could not have been foreseen, but it may reasonably be hoped that the present exorbitant price will not be permanent. Methods of newspaper production are constantly improving, and it is essential to keep abreast of the latest developments. Your directors have not hesitated to sanction the necessary expenditure to ensure this. No newspaper enterprise in Australia of equal importance is more economically conducted, and it is for our readers to judge whether our publications will not bear comparison with the best. Your directors are not unmindful of the fact that a responsible newspaper has a duty to the community it serves as well as to its shareholders. In the long run these two interests are identical, for if a newspaper loses the confidence of its clientele in the quality of its service, the result must inevitably be reflected in its financial standing and open the field to competition. Your directors claim that the course they have consistently followed has resulted in building up a property so soundly based as to be in a position to meet successfully any possible competition.[271]

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PERSONAL. . . . Mr. R. D. Scott, a director of Musgrove's Ltd., accompanied by Mrs. Scott, will leave tonight by plane on a visit to Melbourne, Sydney and Hobart. [272]

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Record Profits For WA Companies While Chamber of Manufacturers' President J. F. Ledger moans about "the excessive use of controls and the unsympathetic attitude of the Government generally towards efforts to return to some semblance of prewar freedom of individual rights," companies are making record profits out of rising prices. Profits 1947 1948 Increases; Nicholson's Ltd. £14506 £17318 Up £2812; Musgroves Ltd. ? £13728 More than double; WA Woollen Mills £9489 £19885 More than double; Hadfields (WA) £6166 £7581 Up £1415; Hilton Hosiery £19145 £25272 33% increase; Sutex ? £39235 More than double; Hume Pipe ? £77079 Nearly double. "Liberal" Party secretary Paton is a director of Nicholson's Ltd.[273]

1948 10[edit]
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ANNIVERSARY OF MUSIC HOUSE. Musgrove's Ltd. Celebrates. Musgrove's Ltd. was launched in November, 1923, with a capital of £25,000, the founders being Messrs. Mandeville D'Oyley Musgrove, Arthur Thomas Gray, Robert Douglas Scott and Frederick Charles Kingston, all of whom, with Mr. H. B. Jackson (representing the shareholders) made up the first board of directors. The capital was later increased to £100,000, of which £75,000 has been called up. To celebrate the 25th birthday of the company a luncheon was held at the Palace Hotel, the two surviving founders Messrs. Scott and Kingston being present, with Mr. Jackson presiding. In the course of reminiscent speeches it was mentioned that the late Mr. Musgrove had proved himself such a master demonstrator of the pianola when it was first introduced that he could cut out the mechanical controls and continue playing by hand without his audience being aware of the change. Mr. Bryn Samuel (manager of 6IX) agreed and said that he often sang while Mr. Musgrove operated the pianola and even he could not detect whether the music was mechanical or manual.[274]

BIG CITY SALE. About £90,000 Paid For Lyric House. Lyric House, in central Murray-street, occupied under lease by Musgrove's Ltd. and W.A. Broadcasters, has been sold to an undisclosed buyer at a price within the vicinity of £90,000 by Mr. P. C. Kerr, estate agent and valuer, of St. George's-terrace. Mrs. T. J. O'Connor and others were the vendors. The current occupiers of the premises' will continue their tenancy. The sale was made on a "free" basis, as price control regulations do not now apply to business premises. The site has a frontage of 49ft. 8in. to Murray-street and a depth of 185ft. There is a 9ft. 6in. right-of-way on the eastern side, with the right to build over it. The premises consist of a substantial brick building with basement, ground floor, mezzanine floor and first and second floors. The building faces Forrest-place and the Commonwealth Bank.[275]

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Investments Reviewed. . . . PERTH'S 2 large music houses, Musgroves and Nicholsons, had an excellent year, the former paying a 10 p.c. dividend (requiring £7000) out of the net profit of £20,284 derived from a record year's trading. Nicholsons made net profit of £25,548, of which £16,200 will be paid to shareholders in dividend and bonus totalling 15 p.c., while general reserves are raised by a further £9000 to £42,322.[276]

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PERSONAL. Mr. R. D. Scott, director of Musgrove's Ltd., returned in the liner Dominion Monarch on Tuesday after a trip to England and the Continent.[277]

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Mr. H. B. Jackson Dies At 75. Mr. Horace Benson Jackson, Q.C,. who had been in ill-health for some time, died about midnight last night in a private hospital in Subiaco. The late Mr. Jackson was an outstanding figure in the legal and business worlds of this State for over 40 years. He was responsible for the establishment of many new enterprises in Western Australia. He was a director and chairman of many leading local companies. For more than 25 years, he was chairman of directors of West Australian Newspapers Ltd., having been actively associated with the formation of the company at the time it acquired the Hackett interests. He retired at the end of June, 1952, through ill-health. New Colliery. Towards the end of his career he was largely responsible for the opening-up of a new coal-mine at Collie and the formation of Western Collieries Ltd. The launching of this new eniterprise at a time when it was difficult to obtain both finance and new plant imposed a serious strain upon Mr. Jackson. Before ill-health restricted his activities, he had the satisfaction of seeing the mine in production. The wide field of his interests is shown by the companies with which he was connected. He had been chairman of H. L. Brisbane and Wunderlich Ltd., W.A. Broadcasters, Mungedar Pastoral Co., Beam Transport, Musgroves Ltd. and Swan River Shipping. For many years he was chairman of the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society and the Atlas Assurance Co., and a director of the Midland Railway Co. and numerous other companies in this State. Law Degree. Mr. Jackson was born on July 23, 1877, at St. Peters, South Australia, and was educated at a State school. He obtained his law degree as the result of part time study at night school. In 1896 he joined in the gold rush to Coolgardie and he never lost his affection for the goldfields. In this State he worked as a law clerk and contributed articles and stories to the local Press. In July, 1912, he was admitted to the Bar, commencing an outstanding career in the industrial field. He became a King's Counsel in 1930, the same year in which he represented this State at the Empire Press Conference in London. His private interests were no less varied than his public ones. He took a keen interest in and was a generous supporter of the arts, a man of wide literary knowledge, a great book collector. He was also prominent in Freemasonry and a Past Master of the United Press Lodge. Accident. As the result of an accident he was debarred in later years from taking an active part in sport, but was a keen supporter of golf (Start Photo Caption) The late Mr. H. B. JACKSON. (End Photo Caption) and cricket. For some years he was vice-president of the West Australian Cricket Association. He was interested in the turf and was a member of the West Australian Turf Club. His wife predeceased him some years ago. He leaves two married daughters, Mrs. John Poynton, of Adelaide, and Mrs. W. C. Fawcett, of Claremont. Of his two brothers who survive him, Mr. L. S. Jackson was a former Federal Commissioner of Taxation, and Mr. Stewart Jackson was for many years advertising manager of The West Australian. His nephew, Mr. Justice Jackson, is President of the State Arbitration Court.[278]

1952 09[edit]
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CROWD LOOKS UP TO SEE FIREMEN BREAK A WINDOW. Within minutes of firemen arriving to fight the blaze in Musgrove's Ltd. yesterday, a crowd of city workers gathered among the network of hoses, intent on missing none of the excitement. Some are shown watching firemen (indicated by arrows) breaking a window in the building to take a hose inside. Inset: Miss Meta Pickering, who escaped after having been trapped in a lift during the fire.[279]

DIVIDENDS. . . . Musgroves Ltd., yearly 2/ plus bonus 1/ (total 15 p.c., unchanged), payable Jan. 15, 1953.[280]

Boy Sent For Trial. On a charge of having wilfully and unlawfully set fire to Musgroves Ltd., Perth, on October 6, a 14-year-old boy was yesterday committed for trial at the Supreme Court by the Perth Children's Court Magistrate (Mr. E. B. Arney, S.M.). The boy was arrested the day after the fire by Det. Sgt. A. L. Webb and Det. P. M. White.[281]

1952 11[edit]

6BY

New Radio Station At Bridgetown. On an elevation of approximately 950ft. above sea level, the highest commercial station mast in Western Australia is in the course of erection now. The new station is to operate from a centrally-situated point in the South-West, a few miles south from Bridgetown. It will be 6BY, and is being erected by W.A. Broad-casters Pty. Ltd. Realising the difficulties associated with radio reception in many parts of the South-West, considerable care was taken with the selection of the site. Expert engineers of both W.A. Broadcasters Pty. Ltd. and Amalgamated Wireless covered hundreds of miles with field testing instruments before deciding upon the site. Known as a sectionalised half-wave mast (acting as an aerial), its 456ft. height should assist in getting out over the heavily timbered and undulating terrains so prominent throughout the South-West. 6BY's 2,000-watt transmitter, also now in the course of installation, is the most modern design produced by Amalgamated Wireless of Australia. The buildings completed include the transmitter room and the senior technician's residence. Provision has been made for the accommodation of three technicians and their families and it is hoped that early in the new year 6BY will be broadcasting. The wave length of the new station will be 333 metres (900 kc. frequency) and a landline will connect its own studio and control room with the parent station, 6IX, Perth. W.A. Broadcasters have been operating the well-known setup of 6IX Perth, 6WB Katanning, and 6MD Merredin, for some years. Residents throughout the South-West are looking forward to the opening of 6BY.[282]

1952 12[edit]

JUDGE'S MOVING APPEAL TO BOY HE WAS COMPELLED TO GAOL. In one of the most human and moving addresses ever heard in the Perth Criminal Court, Mr. Justice Walker this week appealed to a 14-year-old to grow into a decent young man for the sake of his mother. The boy was Brian Edward Prosser, of Fairlight-st, Mosman Park, who was sentenced to 2 years' imprisonment for setting fire to the Perth shop of Musgrove's Ltd. on Oct. 6, causing damage estimated at £23,000. Mr. Justice Walker dispensed with the stern legal approach normally found in the Criminal Court and spoke to the boy kindly and with sympathy. However, he emphasised the seriousness of the crime and told the boy it was one for which he could be kept in prison for the rest of his life. Calling him by his Christian name, His Honor reminded Prosser of his boundless and devoted love and affection for his mother which had been evident all through his life, and told him of her struggles to bring him up a good and fine lad. Mr. Justice Walker had in mind the boy's home life and environment which had been the basis of the jury's strong recommendation to mercy. At his trial evidence had shown that for 5 years his parents had been living apart. It was claimed that the husband had not supported his wife and his 2 children and was addicted to drinking methylated spirits. Was Unstable. His Honor said that during the boy's early life, however, every effort had been made to help him but he had been unstable and insensible to discipline. He had run away from school a number of times and later had absconded from an institution so that he could be near his mother. "All the trouble you have been has caused her a lot of anxiety, worry and grief, and you're to blame," Mr. Justice Walker told the boy. "You have a great affection for your mother. It is always to her that you go when you are in trouble." Since Prosser's latest offence his mother has suffered a breakdown in health and has been receiving medical attention. During the whole of Mr. Justice Walker's talk to the boy, which lasted some 20 minutes, Prosser remained completely motionless with his eyes fixed steadily on His Honor's face. He listened to every word with the utmost attention and appeared to appreciate and understand all that was said. He showed no emotion until he was asked to stand down and then he sobbed quietly at the back of the court while plans were made as to what should be done with him. Mr. Justice Walker said Prosser's case presented a problem difficult for him, and in fact for any judge of the Court, to deal with and to solve. He deplored the fact that there was no place or institution in WA to deal with cases of this kind. "I cannot let you go free," he said, "the offence is too serious for that. I have to try and impress upon you that you have got to behave yourself. There is one way I may be able to appeal to you." He reminded the boy that because he was dismissed from his employment at Musgrove's he told police that he planned and considered what he could do to get his revenge. "This showed," said His Honor, "that you had enough intelligence to do a little bit of thinking about what to do and what not to do. "Before doing anything, think of your mother. Don't do anything that may make her ill. Behave yourself, don't run away and do as you're told and arrangements might be made for your mother to visit you. "If you behave, it will mean relief from anxiety and grief for your mother." Sentencing Prosser to 2 years' imprisonment Mr. Justice Walker said it would be cumulative on 2 years' detention ordered by the Children's Court. If the boy behaves himself during the 2 years at an institution the 2-year gaol sentence may be cancelled by the Governor-in-Council. When the case concluded Det.-Sgt. A. Wedd who was in charge of the case, sat with the boy in the back of the Court and repeated to him much of what the judge had said. He said Prosser appreciated and understood all that had been told him. And so the 14-y-o lad faces what will be the most difficult years of his life and what could possibly be the turning point for his whole future. If he accepts the advice given him by Mr. Justice Walker and is able to carry it out, Prosser could grow up into a worthy man.[283]

1953[edit]

1953 01[edit]

6BY

AT CONTROLS. (Start Photo Caption) Watching the chief engineer of W.A. Broadcasters Pty. Ltd. (Mr. H. T. Simmons) at the control panel of station 6BY at Yornup, a few miles south of Bridgetown, company officials end an inspection of the State's latest broadcasting station. They are, from left, the chairman of directors (Sir Ross McDonald), the manager (Mr. Bryn Samuel) and a director (Mr. F. C. Kingston). (End Photo Caption) STATE NOW HAS 20 RADIO STATIONS. The State's 20th broadcasting station — 6BY, Bridgetown — was officially opened on Saturday night at the Bridgetown Town Hall by the chairman of directors of W.A. Broadcasters Pty. Ltd. (Sir Ross McDonald). Preliminary reports over a wide area indicate that the station is sending out a strong signal in a district which has been the despair of engineers. Operating on a wavelength of 333 metres with a frequency of 900 kc., 6BY is located on the radio dial between 6NA and 6PR. Local artists combined with a band and artists from Perth to provide the first programme. In his opening broadcast Sir Ross McDonald said that the first station in the company's network, which now consisted of 6IX, 6WB, 6MD and 6BY, was 6ML. When this station came on the air in 1930 there were only 4,000 listeners in this State. This number had since expanded to 143,000. Station 6IX had absorbed 6ML. When W.A. Broadcasters applied for 6WB at Katanning and 6MD at Merredin the company had been offered a power of 50 watts by day and 25 by night. Now the network's country regionals were operating with 2,000 watts and it was hoped that 6IX would be stepped up to this power shortly. Entertainment. Most of the programmes broadcast by 6IX would be relayed by 6BY. These would include three shows conducted by Mr. Jack Davey, "The Quiz Kids" and radio plays — some with Hollywood actors and actresses. Some people thought that commercial stations received part of the licence fee paid by listeners. Commercial stations did not receive any Government aid or subsidy and they paid in full for all aid received from Government departments. The station was welcomed by the Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. C. G. Friend) and the vice-chairman of the Bridgetown Road Board (Mr. S. V. Wheatley). Telegrams of congratulations were received from the Postmaster-General (Mr. Anthony) and the chairman of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board (Mr. R. G. Osborne).[284]

6BY

SIR ROSS McDONALD DECLARES 6BY OPEN. A packed town hall last Saturday night in Bridgetown saw the chairman of W.A. Broadcasters Pty. Ltd. (Sir Ross McDonald) move to the microphone and officially declare open the new radio station, 6BY Bridgetown. After hearing well-known State and South-West figures speak in praise of the company's speed in establishing the new station, the audience settled down to watch and hear the first programme to come over the new station. Highlights of the evening for Bridgetown people were a quiz, and performances by talented local artists. A speech of praise for the district's progress was made by the vice-chairman of Bridgetown Road Board (Mr. S. V. Wheatley) on his board's behalf. He recalled that the late Sir James Mitchell — "that dear old gentleman" — had always talked about the need to populate the South-West. Now, after the extension of the power lines, and with the prospect of the industry that it would bring, came this radio station. With this and the prospect of bigger and better waters supplies people would be encouraged to come to the country districts, he said. He continued with an outline of Bridgetown's assets for sport; an 18-hole golf course, a new sports ground, and bowling greens "equal to anything in the State." By way of illustration of the rapid development of the district Mr. Wheatley told a story of how his grandfather, who had lived near Manjimup, on one trip back from Bunbury many years ago (when that was the nearest town) had to swim the Blackwod River. To save his clothes from getting wet he removed them and tied them to his horse. In the crossing the horse got into difficulties, was swept away and drowned, and the clothes were lost. The rider had to walk to the nearest homestead for further vestments — the nearest home was at Wilgarrup in those days. Mr. Wheatley concluded his address by wishing success to W.A. Broadcasters in their new venture. The evening's second speaker was the Deputy Director of Posts and Telegraphs (Mr. C. G. Friend), who commented favourably on the promptness with which the company had set about building the station once the permit to operate was issued. Mr. Friend said that in the past six years the number of sets licensed in Australia had jumped from 1,530,000 to 2,000,000. 20 Stations In W.A. Of 150 radio stations in the Commonwealth, he said, W.A. possessed 20. The new station, 6BY, he said he felt would eliminate a lot of interference, but he issued a warning to listeners that they should guard against undue interference and report it in the manner prescribed by the department, then if interference was traced to unsuppressed appliances suppressors could be supplied and fitted by the department. A tribute to the enterprise of the manager of the broadcasting company was paid by Sir Ross McDonald in his opening address. Stations like 6BY did not make themselves, said Sir Ross, and Mr. Samuel had been entrusted with the task of setting it up. The technical efficiency of the new station, and the area of operation had come up to the highest expectations, he went on. In an outline of the progress made by W.A. Broadcasters Pty. Ltd., Sir Ross said that it was in 1930 that the first broadcasting station in the State (6ML) was set up by the firm of Musgroves. In those days there were only 4000 listeners licences in W:A. against about 145,000 today, he said. Then in 1933 the company was formed, took over 6ML and set up station 6IX. In 1936 another station was established at Katanning — 6WB — and in 1941 a further link was forged in the chain and 6MD was opened at Merredin. Sir Ross was keen to deny the rumour that private broadcasting companies took a cut out of radio receiver licences. They did not, he said, and if a company obtained technical help from the Government it paid for the service. No station received any subsidy, he added. With a final word of acknowledgement to the local men who had helped the company with advice Sir Ross officially declared 6BY, Bridgetown, open for broadcasting, dedicated to the service of the district and the State. Local Artists Heard. The programme which followed the speech making was interspersed with performances by local artists. First to perform was a well-known local violinist, Mr. Tom Speer, who played "The Swan." Then followed an accordionist (Mr. N. Goddard), a "hillbilly" (Miss Vera Machin), who accompanied herself on the guitar and sang "There's a Cabin in the Hills of Old Wyoming." Mrs. I. Tomelty and Mrs. S. Chevis gave piano solos, and vocal numbers were provided by Mrs. J. Hamilton and Miss Maureen Felstead who was described by compere Monty Menhennet as "quite a find." After the broadcast the hall was cleared of seats and there was music for dancing until midnight.[285]

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LOCAL COMPANIES HAVE MADE PROGRESS WITH THE STATE. . . . Musgroves Ltd. was established in 1923 with a small staff of eight. In 1924, the company moved into its present premises in Murray-street. In March, 1930, the company established and opened 6ML, the first commercial broadcasting station in Western Australia. Profits between 1945 and 1952, after tax, have grown from £4,588 to £31,240.[286]

Radio Services Provide A Wide Cover In This State. Although most young people cannot imagine what life was without radio, it is well to remember that official broadcasting in Western Australia will not celebrate its 30th anniversary until next year. Present plans for new stations and the resulting effect of the trade could easily mean that the occasion will find the radio industry experiencing a record turnover. The story of broadcasting over the past 30 years has been one of amazing progress, so much so that today 19 out of every 20 homes have a radio set. Sets When the chief breadwinner's pay envelope is above average there might be a mantel as well as a console set in the house. The smaller receiver is taken from room to room by the industrious housewife as she carries out the daily chores with a light heart because she is simultaneously listening to her favourite serial. Broadcasting officially began in W.A. when 6WF was opened on June 4, 1924. The station was owned and operated from its premises in Wellington-street, city, by Westralian Farmers Ltd. Licence Fee Then the licence fee was £4/14/ a year (against today's fee of £2). Sets in those days were fixed to receive on one or two wavelengths and the listener's annual fee was adjusted accordingly. In this State there was only one station and set owners had to pay annually what the owners asked — £4/4/ — plus 10/ to the Postmaster-General's Department, which was the supervising authority. The sealed set was soon found to be impractical and was abolished. Meanwhile broadcasting programmes were steadily growing in popularity. In 1926 it was proudly announced that there were 4,000 licensed W.A. listeners — and somewhat reluctantly admitted that there were many more who could merely be classed as listeners. Westralian Farmers Ltd. relinquished control of 6WF in 1929 and, after a caretaker period in the hands of the Australian Broadcasting Company, the station was passed over to the Australian Broadcasting Commission on its inauguration three years later. State broadcasting gained considerable stimulus by the opening of the first commercial station, as we know them today — 6ML. The call sign was taken from the initial letters of the owners, Musgrove's Ltd. Audience. While controlled by this firm and later under the management of W.A. Broadcasters Ltd., 6ML gained an extremely active audi'-ence and its Cheerio Club members turned up in hundreds to hikes, zoo picnics and other social functions. Station 6ML volunteered its broadcasting licence to the P.M.G. Department when most of the staff left to join the armed forces during World War II. However, in its brief history it had done much to increase the number of receiver licences. On June 30, 1936, there were 50,000 licensed listeners here and the 100,000 goal was reached in March, 1946. At the end of June this year there were 145,141 licensed listeners. This represented 23.62 licences to each 100 of population. This State is only second to South Australia (27.64) where the population is much more closely grouped. A big variety of radio programmes is thrust into the W.A. ether by a battery of A.B.C. and commercial radio stations. They are: ABC: VLW, VLX (short-wave), 6WF, 6WN, 6WA, 6GF, 6GN. Commercial: W.A. Broadcasters Ltd. (6IX-WB-MD-BY), Whitford network (6PM-AM-KG-GE), Nicholson's Ltd. (6PR-TZ-CI), Australian Workers' Union (6KY-NA). Future Plans Future plans include two small national stations at Northam and Albany and when the Federal Government can afford a big sum of money for the purpose it will step up the power of 6WA, Wagin, and 6WF, Wanneroo, to 50kw. each. This increase in power should ensure that both stations cover the southern half of the State. Authorities are most reluctant to estimate the cost of this project beyond saying vaguely "many thousands of pounds." Broadcasting and radio industry executives are now hopeful that the easing of international tension may advance broadcasting plans for W.A. In theory the cost of erecting and operating ABC stations comes from listeners' annual licence fees but in practice the Government is called upon to dip deep into its coffers each year. Commercial stations receive none of the licence fee, drawing upon advertising entirely for their revenue. In fact these stations pay the Government £25 annually for the privilege of broadcasting in any year that they do not make a profit. If a profit is made the stations are obliged to pay the Government 0.5 per cent of their gross turnover. Government plans for expansion and schemes by commercial organisations, which might resuit in additional stations at Albany, Kwinana and in the wheat belt, have given the radio trade (which was facing a cautious market) an optimistic outlook. Since World War II between 5,000 and 10,000 sets have been sold annually in this State.[287]

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1954[edit]

1954 01[edit]

MUSGROVES TO ISSUE NEW SHARES. Musgroves Ltd. proposes to increase its paid-up ordinary capital from £70,000 to £100, 000 by the issue of 30,000 ordinary shares of £1 each. The new shares will be issued at a premium of 4/ and will first be offered to shareholders registered in the company's books on January 19, 1954, in the proportion of as nearly as may be three new shares for every seven shares held on the date mentioned. The shares applied for will be payable as follows: 9/ a share (including 4/ premium) on acceptance; 5/ a share call payable on April 30, 1954; 5/ a share call payable May 31, 1954, and 5/ a share call payable June 30, 1954. The new shares will rank for one-half of the rate of dividend and any bonus declared for the year ending June 30, 1954. The closing date for applications will be February 26, 1954. Application forms will be mailed to shareholders later this month.[288]

New Share Offer By Musgrove's Musgrove's Ltd. proposes to increase its paid up capital from £70,000 to £100,000 by the issue of 30,000 ordinary shares of £1 each. New shares will be issued at a premium of 4/ and will in the first instance be offered to shareholders registered in the Company's books on January 19 in the proportion of as nearly as may be to 3 shares in the new issue for every 7 shares held. Shares applied for will be payable: 9/ per share (including 4/ premium) on acceptance; 5/ per share call April 30; 5/, May 31; 5/ June 30. They will rank for one half of the rate of dividend and of any bonus declared for the year ending June 30. Closing date for applications will be Feb. 26. Application forms will be mailed to Shareholders later in the month.[289]

1954 02[edit]

Musgrove's New Share Issue. Applications for the new issue by Musgrove's Ltd, of 30,000 £1 ordinary shares at a premium of 4/ a share will close on Friday, February 26. The new shares are payable 9/ a share on acceptance (including 4/ premium) and in three calls of 5/ each on April 30, May 31 and June 30 this year. The new issue will lift paid capital to £100,000.[290]

1954 03[edit]

Musgrove's Issue Well Supported. The new issue of 30,000 £1 ordinary shares at a premium of 4/ made by Musgrove's Ltd. has been well over-subscribed. The issue closed last Friday. Paid capital will be lifted to £100,000 by the new issue when the three calls on the new shares are completed by June 30 this year.[291]

1954 04[edit]

City Firm Buys Locksley Hall. Locksley Hall, Stirling-street, has been sold for about £20,000 by Mrs. C. Anderson, to Musgroves Ltd. Showrooms will be on the street alignment and the existing building converted for the wholesale merchandising of electrical appliances and radio equipment. Originally Scotch College, the building will also be remembered by thousands of servicemen who enjoyed the hospitality of a services club conducted there by Toc H during World War II. The property was sold through the agency of James Burnham, Perth.[292]

1954 05[edit]
1954 06[edit]
1954 07[edit]
1954 08[edit]
1954 09[edit]
1954 10[edit]

RETAIL SALES ROCKET TO NEW PEAK. Retail trade in the metropolitan area in the past 12 months, in common with the rest of Australia, has rocketed to new peaks. The increase reflects the rise in the State's population, a high level of employment and continued consumer demand. Increasing use of hire-purchase and time payment has also contributed to boost the total expenditure on retail sales and keep up turnovers on practically all lines of goods. Company balance sheets connected with distribution all show record sales and report promising prospects for the new financial year. In the past year, the tempo in the retail trade has increased. A greater volume of goods has been available and despite removal of price controls, prices have remained reason-ably steady. Competition Increasing competition has been responsible for this factor as well as a genuine attempt to keep down prices despite increases in most overheads. This increasing competition has been stimulated not only by the greater variety of goods available but also by the appearance of important retail interests from the Eastern States. Early in the year, it was announced that David Jones' of Sydney had acquired a major interest in the old-established firm of Bon Marche Ltd. With the adoption of the name of David Jones' of Perth in September, the store was transformed into one of the most modern in the southern hemisphere, setting off a chain reaction in retail store designing and decoration. At the same time as these developments have been taking place, Boans Ltd., one of the oldest and biggest stores in this city to remain privately owned, offered its ordinary shares to the public and thus became a public company in the fullest sense. No doubt this move was inspired by the need for additional capital to meet expansion particularly the need to provide for a through drive from Murray to Wellington-street for delivery services and the receipt of goods. The congestion that the absence of such a through way has caused in recent years has been a serious problem to the company. Other retail traders in Perth also found it necessary to secure additional finance for capital expansion. Foy and Gibson (W.A.) Ltd. and Harris Scarfe and Sandovers Ltd. both made public issues earlier in the year and were followed later by McLean Bros. and Rigg Ltd., W. Drabble Ltd. and Carlyle and Co. All were well supported. At the same time as these larger organisations were expanding their capital, Nicholsons and Musgroves also sought extra funds for additional trading facilities.[293]

1954 11[edit]
1954 12[edit]

1955[edit]

1956[edit]

1957[edit]

1958[edit]

1959[edit]

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  98. "6ML ON THE AIR". The Daily News (Western Australia) XLIX, (17,121): p. 1 (HOME FINAL EDITION). 19 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83497714. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  99. "Wireless News.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,656): p. 10. 19 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068339. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  100. "NEW BROADCAST STATION.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,657): p. 14. 20 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068384. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  101. "NEW BROADCAST STATION.". Western Mail (Western Australia) XLV, (2,301): p. 55. 20 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38510794. Retrieved 21 March 2019. 
  102. "6ML PERTH, 297 METRES.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,657): p. 16. 20 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068359. Retrieved 21 March 2019. 
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  104. "NEWS AND NOTES.". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,658): p. 18. 21 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068751. Retrieved 21 March 2019. 
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  108. "Advertising". The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,661): p. 8. 25 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31069613. Retrieved 21 March 2019. 
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