History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Stations/2KY Sydney/Notes

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1910s[edit]

1910[edit]

1911[edit]

1912[edit]

1913[edit]

1914[edit]

1915[edit]

1916[edit]

1917[edit]

1918[edit]

1919[edit]

1920s[edit]

1920[edit]

1921[edit]

1921 Q1[edit]

THE NEED FOR A LABOR INFORMATION BUREAU. A LESSON FROM THE WAR. During the war, after several years of ineffective and sanguinary fighting, it was at last borne upon the intelligence of the Allied Governments that in spite of their great numerical superiority in men and armaments, no progress was being made, and that there was indeed great danger of the war being lost. The disadvantage suffered by the Allied armies, which completely nullified their vast superiority in men and guns, was LACK OF UNITY. To achieve that unity, the Allied Governments formulated and carried out a scheme of CO-ORDINATION, unifying the command of the French, British, and Belgian forces under Marshal Foch. The results speak for themselves. The Australian Labor Movement is in the same position as were the Allied Governments before they coordinated their forces. It is faced by an enemy smaller in numbers, but solidly united. The Movement itself is disunited. It has half a dozen General Staffs in the field, each operating independently, and not a single one of which possesses an INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT. Is it to be wondered at therefore if Labor is getting badly beaten? Capitalism learned its lesson five years ago during the war. It applying that lesson in the fight against Labor. Labor must also learn the lesson quickly, or go under. Unity of command and coordination of forces are now necessities of existence, for Labor the world over HAS ENTERED UPON A PERIOD OF ACTION. The forces, of Labor cannot efficiently be coordinated without the establishment of a Central Intelligence Department — a Labor Information Bureau. There is hardly a single capitalist State that does not possess its own Information Bureau. Nor are there any advanced Labor Movements outside the Commonwealth without their Labor Information Departments, for such bureaux exist in Britain, U.S.A., France, Sweden, Germany, Italy, Austria, and, of course, in Russia. MAIN FUNCTIONS. The main functions of such a bureau in connection with the Australian Labor Movement would be:— 1. To collect and file press-cuttings from the daily newspapers, the Labor papers, and employers' journals. 2. To collect and index all journals and reports published by Trade Unions, Labor Councils, etc. 3. To read and summarise many Government periodicals (including Hansard), Bills, Acts, Orders, and Reports, and prepare questions to be asked in Parliament. 4. To study foreign papers, particularly where the Labor Movement is undergoing radical or revolutionary change. To file and index the foreign Labor press and reports of Labor abroad. 5. To arrange for exchanges of information with Labor organisations all over the world. A Labor Information Bureau would keep in touch with important books and pamphlets and with the work of other societies, in order that the Australian Labor Movement should not waste time in doing what has been done already. A CENTRAL LABOR NEWS SERVICE. One of the main endeavors of the Bureau should be the co-ordination of the activities of the Labor press through the establishment of a Central News Service which every Labor journal in the Commonwealth could draw upon for outside Labor news, in place of having to rely upon such scraps as it can cull from the capitalist press. It is not difficult to imagine the advantages that would accrue from a coordinated Labor press. The Movement in each State would be kept au courant with all happenings and developments in the remaining States, as well as with those cyclonic changes that are vitally affecting the Labor Movement throughout the world. OVERSEAS NEWS. As the field of industrial and capitalist enterprise extends more and more beyond national frontiers, and as home political questions become more and more dependent upon the whole foreign political situation, it becomes increasingly necessary that there should be a full, accurate service of International Information. Organisations in the Commonwealth want to know about movements and developments abroad affecting their position, and organisations abroad want to be put in touch with kindred movements in this country. International news has been too much in the hands of capitalist press agencies, which distort Labor news. If organised Labor is to act with full knowledge of the whole field of the Labor Movement, IT MUST HAVE ITS OWN SERVICE OF INFORMATION for keeping abreast of the international position. TO KEEP OFFICIALS INFORMED. Then, again, TRADES UNION OFFICIALS require a variety of information. If they are proposing to amalgamate two societies, or to form a new one, they re-quire to know the exact state of the law in order that their new society may be legally formed, and may possess all the powers the law allows it. If they are initiating a general wages movement, they want to know what advances have been secured in other trades AND WHAT PROFITS THE EMPLOYERS HAVE BEEN MAKING. If a strike is contemplated, they require to know the exact financial and industrial position of the employers affected in order that the strike may take place at a time favorable to the workers, and not to the employers. Australian workers have recently had one or two illuminating lessons in this regard. TRADES COUNCILS, LABOR PARTIES, AND BRANCHES have their own special problems. They want a whole mine of information to fight effective local and municipal elections, for which a Labor Information Bureau would be invaluable. CONTROL OF INDUSTRY. As the Labor Movement grows in strength and importance, as the demand for the control of industry becomes more and more a part of the everyday life of the country, so Labor's need for accurate information and research upon every conceivable subject becomes more and more urgent. The business of running an industry — still more of running a country — is not one that can be done without complete and accurate information. The time is past when workers have only to consider what immediate improvements in their condition could be secured. Today Labor is taking administration and government into its own hands. And if it is to do this effectively, it must have readily available the fullest possible information for its officials, for its local movements and branches, and for its individual members. That can only be attained by the establishment of a central clearing-house for general information — a Labor Information Bureau. E. R. VOIGT.[1]

GERMANY. Congress of Revolutionary Unions. The Free Workers' Union (Freie Arbeiter Union), while condemning the Amsterdam Trade Union International, hesitated to join the Trade Union International of Moscow, under the hypothetical fear of placing Trades Unionism under the guidance of a political party. For this reason the Union convened in Berlin during the middle of December an International Conference of Unions "of all the anarchist Unions of the world" and all the revolutionary Labor organisations. At this conference were represented organisations from America (I.W.W.), Argentine (Transport, Agriculture, Santa Fe Federation), France (C.S.R.), Britain (Shop Stewards), Holland, Czecho-Slovakia, and Sweden; those of Spain, Italy, and Denmark were unable to send delegates. A delegate of the Russian Central Union took part in the conference in a consultative capacity. After declarations and resolutions by the French and German delegations, it was decided unanimously to participate in the next congress of the Moscow International, to be held in May, 1921. Another Labor Information Bureau. A feature of the conference was the recognition by the various delegates of the vital need of the formation of a Labor Information Bureau for the purpose of coordinating the activities of the various newspapers of the movement for collecting and docketing the mass of news that passes through the press, and for setting up a centre of information for propaganda purposes. Before the Congress rose an International Labor Information Bureau was constituted, and the secretariat of the Bureau confided to B. Lansink, Nassaukade 101, Amsterdam.[2]

1921 Q2[edit]

LABOR RESEARCH AND INFORMATION BUREAU. ESTABLISHED AT SYDNEY. For many years the Labor Movement in Australia has felt the pressing need of a central clearing department for Labor information. Those, particularly who have been faced with the necessity for taking responsible action, often without adequate information, will be interested to learn that a Labor Research and Information Bureau has been established under the auspices of the N.S.W. Labor Council, with headquarters at the Trades Hall, Sydney, for the purpose of collecting and supplying all manner of data and information that may be of service to the Labor Movement. This development will bring the Australian Labor Movement into line with the Labor Movements in Britain, America, France, Germany, and elsewhere, where determined efforts are being made to free Labor from its thraldom of dependence for information upon anti-Labor sources; for it is a curious anomaly that not only does Labor depend upon anti-Labor press agencies for general information, but even Labor information, especially from overseas, is mainly obtained through these hostile channels. CO-ORDINATING FACTOR IN THE LABOR MOVEMENT. The Australian Labor Research and Information Bureau will arrange for regular exchanges of information with the various organisations, both within the State and Interstate. The importance of the Bureau, therefore, as a co-ordinating factor in the Labor Movement can hardly be overstated. In assisting the Unions to avoid hopeless strikes, or to conduct successful strikes, in this activity alone the Labor Research and Information Bureau should save the Australian Labor Movement many thousands of pounds yearly above its cost. The time is past when workers have only to consider what immediate improvements in their conditions can be secured. Today Labor is taking administration and government into its own hands, and if it is to do this effectively it must have readily available the fullest possible information for its officials, for its local movements and branches, and for its individual members. That is now provided for in the establishment of a central clearing house for general and specific information, the Labor Research and Information Bureau.[3]

1921 Q3[edit]

SHOP TALKS. At the All Australian National Congress of Trades Unions, held in Melbourne, June 20-25, 1921, a motion was carried for "the setting up of Labor Research and Information Bureaux and of Labor Educational Institutions." No. 1. THE LABOR BUREAU. Jim: "Say, Bill, what's this Labor B'r'u they're all talking about at the Trades Hall?" Bill: "Kind of general clearing house for Labor information, I take it, Jim." Jim: "But what's the good of it? Aren't there bags of information in every Union Secretary's office?" Bill: "Sure thing, there are, Jim; but what's the good of information in bags? You might as well search for a needle in a haystack, as for the particular information you want, unless it's properly classified and indexed." Jim: "Well, don't the Secretaries classify and index? If they don't, I'll raise hell at the next —" Bill: "Steady on, Jim. Some do. Most don't. And if they had the time to classify properly they don't possess any publicity department to make use of their information." Jim: "What, no publicity department! What about our 'Monthly Toiler'?" Bill: "Oh, that's all right so far as it goes. But it don't go far. How am I to get that information? I don't belong to your Union." Jim: "Why should you want information from our Union?" Bill: "Because we've information that might be valuable to you. Your Sec.'s up now in the Arbitration Court, and you blokes would stand a much better chance of winning that award if you had the benefit of our Union's experience." Jim: "My oath, Bill, you're right." Bill: "And while I've got me top gear in, Jim, let me tell you that if every Union pooled its experience and information the Australian Labor Movement would develop a punch that would put its enemies to sleep in record time." Jim: "Seems to me, Bill, that what we want very badly, then, is some sort of B'r'u where Union information can be pooled and swapped." Bill: "Right on the solar plexus! And that swapping office has already been started in Sydney. Tell your Sec. to get busy and join the Labor Research and Information Bureau."[4]

FAREWELL DINNER TO SIMONOFF. Before he sailed, Peter Simonoff called together a few of his old friends, and on Monday evening there met at a dinner about twenty, to sum up things and say farewell. Invitations were accepted by C. W. Baker, Norman Jeffrey, Arthur Rae, Norman Freebery, Mr. and Mrs. J. Mailal, of Fiji, J. B. King and a friend, S. Gorsky, Mrs. Houghten, Miss Smith, J. S. Garden, Wm. Wolstenholm, H. Ross, Tom Glynn and Mrs. Glynn, Adela Walsh, E. R. Voigt, E. Callard, H. L. Denford, and a few other friends of Simonoff. The evening was an enjoyable one, and Comrade Simonoff will leave Australia knowing that he has left many good friends behind, most of them wishing they could go to Russia with him.[5]

1921 Q4[edit]

WORKERS' PARLIAMENT. DECISION OF UNIONISTS. Trades Hall Conference. Officials connected with the conference of trade unionists, which is now sitting at the Trades Hall for the purpose of discussing the future policy of industrialists, are pleased with the decisions so far reached. Conference yesterday carried the following motion:— That this conference declares in favor of and recommends to the trade union movement of New South Wales the formation of an organised workers' group to control the political representatives of the working class. The motion, it was stated this morning by Mr. Voigt, secretary to the conference, and also secretary to the Labor Information Bureau, was almost unanimous, only two voting against its adoption. He added that there was unanimity amongst the delegates in regard to the general representation of the workers, which, conference declared, called for alteration. The impression prevailed, however, that the interstate conference of unionists and representatives from the Australian Labor Party to be held in Brisbane this month would turn down the proposals. CHAIN OF LABOR PAPERS This morning conference decided to support the establishment of a chain of Labor newspapers throughout Australia. It was also agreed that the general management and policy of each State Labor daily paper should be vested in a board of management, the same to be elected by an annual referendum of members of the unions who are shareholders in each State. The motion was carried by 52 to 15.[6]

INTERSTATE CONFERENCE AT BRISBANE. MACHINERY FOR THE NEW OBJECTIVE. A SUPREME ECONOMIC COUNCIL. The Interstate Labor Conference resumed its sittings at the Trades Hall, Brisbane, on Thursday morning, October 3 last. . . . . . THE NEW PLATFORM. Conference discussed the report of the committee, presented by Mr. Theodore, which was as follows: OBJECTIVE. The socialisation of industry, production, distribution, and exchange. METHODS. Socialisation of industry by (a) The constitutional utilisation of industrial and Parliamentary machinery; (b) The organisation of workers, along the line of industry; (c) Nationalisation of banking and all principal industries; (d) The municipaIisation of such services as can be operated in limited areas; (e) Government of nationalised industries by boards, upon which the workers in the industries and the community shall have representation; (f) The establishment of an elective Supreme Economic Council by all nationalised industries; (g) The setting up of Labor research and Labor information bureaux and of Labor educational institutions, in which the workers shall be trained in the management of the nationalised industries. FIGHTING PLATFORM. The cultivation of an Australian sentiment, the maintenance of a White Australia and the development in Australia of an enlightened and self-reliant community. An amendment, proposed by Mr. Blackburn, was defeated, and the report was adopted without alteration.[7]

THE RESULT OF THE EMPLOYERS' CONFERENCE. The final result of the Employers' Conference is just what we anticipated; we had no doubts what the final outcome would be. It amused us when we read of organisers of Unions, etc., writing to the Capitalist Press, believing that the employers would solve the question of unemployment. The reply of Mr. McMahon and others should now clearly demonstrate to those people that the employers cannot solve the problem of unemployment. Before our visit to Mr. Dooley we informed the employers' delegates that all the things they had mentioned — viz., the starting of the City Railway, Sewerage, Water Conservation, Silo, etc. — had been brought before the Government previously by the Labor Council, and they had informed us that they were willing to start all those works, but they had no cash. The employers then put the case up to Mr. Dooley. Afterwards the Labor Council's representatives gave their side of the case, wherein they stated — 1st. Unemployment was an international question. 2nd. It could not be solved under Capitalism. 3rd. We will not oppose any scheme that will give work to the unemployed under the present system, no matter where the money comes from, but we shall not cease to point out to the workers that these are only palliatives, and will not prevent the intensification of the unemployed evil. We were pleased at Dooley's reply. He just said what we informed the employers would say. He asked them for the cash, and he was right; he was their servant, they were his boss, and he could not carry on without the wherewithal. We are pleased to record the great services Mr. Voigt, of the Labor Information and Research Department, rendered the Conference. The information supplied by him was of great value, with the result that the Labor Council's delegates were able to put it all over the employers. The Council representatives dealt with the question from the International working class viewpoint, and were able to show to the employers that the present system was tottering, and was liable to turn over any minute. The Conference furnished us with material for future use.[8]

1922[edit]

1922 Q1[edit]

Long Distances. SPEAKING AND RUNNING. Labor Has Olympic Champion. Mr. E. R. Voigt rises. He is one of the Labor delegates at the Economic Conference. He speaks till the chairman's watch ticks the time-limit. "A long-distance speaker," someone says. "I'll bet he could go on till to-morrow morning." Maybe he could. But what most people don't know about the wiry little Mr. Voigt is that besides being a long-distance speaker he is a long-distance runner. If the Conference developed homicidal tendencies Mr. Voigt could be safe in his home at Dee Why before the first assassination. For he has four track championships to his credit. He won the five miles world's championship at the Olympic Games in 1908 for Great Britain; the four miles British championship in 1908-9; the one mile British championship in 1910; and the one mile championship of Victoria in 1912. So he can run. Back Again. He has been off the track lately, but as soon as he can move his home from Dee Why to the city side of the harbor he will start training again. Mr. Voigt is a Manchester man, 39 years old. He is a master engineer, and has owned workshops in England and in Melbourne, but now he has definitely switched all his energy on to the Labor movement. At present he is organising the Labor Research Information Bureau of the Sydney Trades Hall Council. Sensational Jump to Prominence. Before he came to Australia in 1911, Mr. Voigt travelled round a bit and followed sport in most countries of the world. In fact, it was due to his efforts that at least two countries — Sweden and Finland — jumped to athletic prominence. In the 1908 Olympic Games Sweden and Finland also ran. They would have done better in a hopscotch competition. But in 1909 Mr. Voigt introduced scientific method of training to them and coached them so successfully that at the next Olympic meeting in 1912 they beat Great Britain and America in many of the athletics, and thus sensationally won a place in the sporting world. "Talking of the Olympic Games reminds me that I must get down to training again," Mr. Voigt told the "Evening News"reporter to-day. "Where I'm living at Dee Why there's no suitable ground, but as soon as I can get across the harbor I'll be on the track again." (Photo) MR. VOIGT.[9]

STRAIGHT AUSTRALIAN. MR. VOIGT AND THE "SUNDAY TIMES." RECENTLY W. A. Holman contributed an article to the Sydney "Sunday Times" on the wages question, and used up a great deal of space to help the employer' conspiracy for the reduction of wages. Mr. Holman alleged, amongst other things, that the present principle of the basic wage is wrong in its conception, and unjust in its incidence, and more than inferred that if the existent prescribed wage is sufficient for a man, his wife, and three children, then the single workers are being overpaid. It was a woefully illogical article, but its arguments were typical of those advanced by the Employers' Federation; and, of course, Mr. Holman, the one-time Laborite and eloquent special pleader for the Bottom Dog, was the obliging chap to come forward and attack the class which gave him his first and greatest chance to pose in the limelight on the political stage. When the article mentioned appeared Mr. E. R. Voigt, director and secretary of the Sydney Labor Research and Information Bureau — and one of the men who made the employers' representatives at the recent Round Table Conference look ridiculous — replied, and in a much shorter article than the one published under Mr. Holman's name. It was a concise statement of the working-class position, also the capitalistic position, and contained logic, facts, and figures, showing beyond all doubt that Mr. Holman's inky harangue was unsupported by anything more substantial or convincing than mere meretricious assertion. Mr. Voigt showed, for instance, that Australia's exports for the six months ended December last exceeded imports to the extent of £13,557,394, and that the total deposits in the cheque-paying banks during the June quarter of last year amounted to £282,556,351, as against £149,827,568 in the year before the war — 1913. In other words, the deposits in the private banks — representing, in the main, the monetary wealth of the employers — increased by nearly 100 per cent. It was a quiet, well-considered fact-and-figure-backed statement of the case for the wage earners. But how did it fare at the hands of the "Sunday Times"? Scraps of it, torn from their context; were quoted, and running commentary on, and criticism of, each portion interlarded with the matter. As a matter of fact, there was more "Sunday Times" comment and criticism than there were scraps of Mr. Voigt's article. It would have been bad enough, from the viewpoint of ordinary newspaper decency, if the comment and criticism, not to mention the cutting down, had been done editorially. But in a communication in reply to a protest from Mr. Voigt, Editor-in-Chief McCay, after pleading pressure of space, etc., confessed that Mr. Voigt's article had been PASSED ON TO MR. HOLMAN, and that the so-called summary and running comment and criticism were the work of that gentleman. Thus the position was that Mr. Holman made his assertions (presumably without any editorial interference) in an article, and when Mr. Voigt replied, his reply was ruthlessly mutilated and lengthily interpreted by none other than Mr. Holman himself. Could anything more grotesquely unfair be conceived? Yet the "Sunday Times" professes to be a fair-minded newspaper, and even succeeds in deluding some workers into a sort of belief that it really is. If those misguided workers need any disillusionment — and very evidently they do — surely the facts cited above should be more than sufficient.[10]

1922 Q2[edit]

BLOODLESS AND PEACEFUL. Maligned "Revolution." A DEFINITION BY ITS ADVOCATES. That bloody revolution postulated in the Domain of Sundays is not the means of working-class emancipation. In other words, it is not what it's "cracked up to be." The revolution of proletarian design is an eminently respectable, bloodless affair, lacking any element of combustibility. Almost we might describe it as anaemic. And it is devoid of most ultra-democratic vices. Such as strikes, short weeks and go-slowism. It is working all the time, this revolution, like any honest capitalist or wage slave. Why, then, does it survive? What's its function and necessity? Those very natural questions, Messrs. W. A. Holman and D. Hall, asked Messrs. E. R. Voigt and C. W. Baker last night in the Union Hall of the University. The occasion was a debate in which Messrs. Voigt and Baker argued: The workers can secure emancipation only by revolutionary action and not by constitutional reform. Both affirmed the bloodless revolution, working all the time, as indicated, but their opponents were not content with that. They gave them blood, from the Slavic wars to the French revolution, and on to the Russian shindy. Messrs. Voigt and Baker seemed a trifle amazed and greatly disapointed at that, for they came apparently to debate respectable revolutions. Indeed, Mr. Voigt led off with the affirmation: "By revolution we mean the transferance of political and economic power from one class to another." There was no mention of red flags, bombs or wire-whiskered Russians. But where the proponents of emancipation ???? and the astute Mr. Holman was quick to seize on it — was that neither remembered to substitute something for what they had displaced. They razed Capitalism to its foundations and cut off the lights and the water supply, then left it — the world that is — in a parched state of ????. Mr. Voigt gave a thoughtful address on the class struggle and the economic interpretation of history from the age of tribal communism on to the lately closed era of Dooley-M'Girr. And he closed Capitalism vehemently, picturesquely and enthusiastically. He traced the source of caste and presented its 20th century climax. All this was extremely interesting, as Mr. Holman conceded. But, again, how was revolution going to alter things? What system was to be substituted? Corns and Capitalism. "Corns," said Mr. Holman, "I can show you how, by affirming anything you can get people to believe it. My friends say capitalism is wrong. I say corns are wrong. I say further, that my soothing syrup will cure them. Don't forget my syrup kills corns Napoleon would have won the Battle of Waterloo only for corns. He wouldn't use my syrup." "And so on," proceeded Mr. Holman. "I can get you to believe that corns are wrong, but you do not get any guarantee that my syrup will cure them. You accept the statement by my insistence." "Capital Wrecking Itself." Mr. Voigt made a big point of the fact, as he said, that capitalism was economically wrecking itself by producing surpluses; in other words, by over-production. The workers who were sellers of their labor in the making of those goods were called on to buy them. They had not the money to do so, he argued. Mr. Hall did not venture into the realm of academical discussion, leaving that to his more eloquent colleague; but there was a rare piquancy about his remarks, for all that. "I'm against revolution," he said, "because it means imposing the will of the minority on the majority. Otherwise where's the necessity for revolution? Once a revolution succeeds the only thing for the wise worker to do is to think the same as the boss of the show." Mr. Baker was better equipped with phrases than arguments — his idea'ology was submersed in his phraseology, if it may be put that way. He would not accept the fundamental principle of Democracy, that one man one vote gives political equality. "There can never be any equality between the exploiter and the exploited," he declared; and turned to Germany to prove his case, he also quoted Russia. Mr. Holman exercised the fear that some reformers were inclined to mix up the affairs of other countries with those of their own. Revolution, for example, might have saved Russia. Would it serve Australia? That was the question. Mr. Baker's admission that only a percentage of the workers could be educated to the advantages of the doctrine of revolution, provided Mr. Holman with ample scope for dialectical play. "We are going to have government by a new aristocracy; a condescending minority," he said. "It is not a prospect that appeals to me with any delirium of ecstasy. Suppose the unenlightened majority don't wish to be emancipated by the enlightened minority?" Perhaps the soundest argument, and the finest piece of philosophy was expressed by Mr. Hall. "Get a majority," he said, "and you can get anything." There was no doubt about the large audience understanding that; for it put all the destructive argument of the evening into a constructive sentence. Neither Mr. Holman nor Mr. Hall thought to accuse their opponents of stealing Sir George Fuller's thunder — of advocating evolution.[11]

DEBATE ON REVOLUTION. NO GOOD FOR THE WORKERS. Revolution or constitutional reform? Such was the issue of a keen debate at the Sydney University last night, under the auspices of the Sydney University Union. Messrs. E. R. Voigt and C.W. Baker, of the Sydney Labor Council, defined revolution, and said it was inevitable. Messrs. W. A. Holman, K.C., and D. R. Hall argued that revolution was no good for the working man or anybody else, and that all permanent reform must come from constitutional action. The parliamentary standard was deplored by the chairman (Mr. N. Cowper), who blamed educated men of character for not having done their duty. Every University man should, he said, resolve to remove the reproach. This year's debates held by the union would be conducted on the parliamentary system.[12]

LABOR RESEARCH AND INFORMATION BUREAU. Plan for Organised and Co-ordinated Effort. A. C. Willis, as Secretary of the Council of Action, has issued to the unionists of Australasia the following draft of a plan for the formation of Labor Information bureaux: The 1921 All-Australian Congress of Trade Unions instructed the Council of Action to prepare a scheme, for the organisation of Labor Information Bureaux on a Commonwealth basis. Herewith I submit draft outline as a basis for discussion at the next Congress of Trade Unions to be held in June. DRAFT OUTLINE. 1. That the existing Labor Research and Information Bureau, Trades Hall, Sydney, shall constitute the Commonwealth Labor Information Bureau. 2. That there shall be constituted a State Labor Information Bureau in each State. 3. That each State Bureau shall have a board of management, to be elected by general annual meeting of affiliated Union delegates. 4. That a board of management for the Commonwealth Bureau shall be appointed by the General Council (or Council of Action). 5. That each State Bureau and the Commonwealth Bureau shall employ a full-time State and General Commonwealth Secretary respectively. 6. That each State Secretary shall act under the supervision of the Commonwealth General Secretary. 7. That each State Labor Council shall through the medium of its board of management organise to secure direct affiliation to the Bureau from those Unions outside the Council on the basis of ½d. per capita per quarter, and shall arrange to secure a pro rata increase of sustentation fees to Council from affiliated Unions, sufficient to provide for the running of the State Bureau and the necessary quota for the upkeep of the Commonwealth Bureau. 8. That one-third of the income of each State Bureau be remitted as received to the board of management of the Commonweatlh Bureau for the upkeep of the latter. 9. That in order to constitute the Labor Information Bureau as integral working parts of the Union movement, the Commonwealth General and each State Secretary shall be ex-officio members respectively of the General Council (or Council of Action) and the State Labor Council Executive, having deliberate but no voting rights. ACTIVITIES. That the Commonwealth Bureau shall conduct the following activities: (a) The distribution to each State Bureau for issue to affiliated sections a monthly synopsis of all important Labor data and information passing into the Commonwealth Bureau from the State Bureaux and from overseas Bureaux, correspondents and press. (b) The issue to each State Bureau for publication of a list of financial reports of companies operations. (c) The issue for publication in the Labor Press of the Commonwealth of a weekly International Labor News Service. (d) The publication of a monthly review, covering the activities of the Labor Movement throughout the Commonwealth, as well as labor, social, and capitalist developments abroad. That each State Bureau shall prepare and forward each week, to the Commonwealth Bureau a report of the activities of the Unions in its respective State, and shall compile monthly card tables of Union, etc., data, as directed by the Commonwealth General Secretary. Knowledge is power. If the Labor Movement is to advance it must have the necessary knowledge to enable it to advance scientifically. Unionists, wake up before it is too late, and let us place the Australian Labor Movement upon a sound industrial basis at the All-Australian Congress in June next. A. C. WILLIS, Secretary, Council of Action.[13]

1922 Q3[edit]
1922 Q4[edit]

COAL CRISIS. Union Officials Take Pessimistic View. CAREFUL HOUSEHOLDERS. Union officials were pessimistic yesterday regarding the chances of a settlement of the coal dispute. Shipping interests are alarmed, and one oversea vessel has been recalled. There is a big demand for lamps, kerosene and candles. No decision was reached at the conference between the coalminers and the southern colliery proprietors. On behalf of the union Mr. A. C. Willis said: "The matter is not settled, but the employees will take such steps as they think necessary to get the matter dealt with before the Coal Tribunal. The official notice of strike will be given at our discretion." The trouble has now extended to the north. At Cessnock 2000 miners debated the situation for over three hours. It was decided to recommend that members resume work under normal conditions, with the exception of West Wallsend colliery, for a period of one week, pending the existing dispute at West Wallsend colliery being settled. Failing settlement the miners will revert to the system of level filling of skips. "The miners must give an undertaking that the resolution calling a one-day strike will be rescinded," said Mr. Weyland (secretary to the Southern Coal Proprietors' Association). "And if that undertaking is not given there will be no work on Tuesday." On receipt at Capetown of the disturbing industrial news from New South Wales the P. and O. branch liner Benalla was recalled to Capetown to load sufficient coal to take her to Australia and back to South Africa. A brisk business was compassed yesterday in substitute illuminants. Grocers all over the metropolitan area were beseiged with orders for kerosene and candles. The Council of Action has carried the following motions:— That this council is definitely opposed to any increase of hours, and there-by decides to organise trade union resistance throughout the Common-wealth. That all unions be called upon to give effect to the policy of the council by such methods as shall be determined upon in connection with the governing bodies of the unions concerned in the dispute under review. That provided the iron trade unions are prepared to fight on the extension of working hours, this council endorses their action on the distinct understanding that they are prepared to leave the dispute in the hands of this council in accordance with the second resolution. The Iron Trades Union shall not take any action themselves that is likely to extend the dispute in any way without the approval of this council. That this council appoints a deputation to wait upon the A.L.P. executive in each State, and upon the A.L.P. Federal executive for the purpose of arranging a conference between the A.L.P., the Labor Councils, and other working class parties, with the view to arranging for the affiliation of such bodies with the A.L.P. in accordance with the decisions of the All-Australia Trade Union Conference. Mr. Voigt, on behalf of the press committee appointed by the Council of Action, denies the report that the Amalgamated Engineering Union had decided to refrain from giving the Council of Action absolute control of its affairs in the present crisis. Baddeley and Conference. NEWCASTLE, Saturday. Mr. J. M. Baddeley, M.L.A., stated that as yesterday's conference between owners and miners' representatives only referred to the southern district, he was not present as a representative of the northern district. "We were surprised indeed," he said, to learn that, although it was entirely a southern matter, Messrs. McDonald (representing the northern owners) and Bragg (secretary of the Western Owners' Association) attended. Mr. A. C. Willis, on behalf of the southern miners, strongly resented the intrusion of the owners' representatives. "The conference was abortive," concluded the miners representative, "as the representatives of the owners were adamant. Constitutional methods are to be used by seeking a compulsory conference." Trouble has again occurred at Seaham No. 2 Colliery, with the result that that mine has been laid idle. It appears that some of the wheelers have been served with summonses to attend court, and they have applied a darg of four skips to the miners. On Thursday the men had to come home early on account of the darg, there not being any more skips to fill. Lighting Grievance. WOLLONGONG, Saturday. "It is evidently the desire of Mr. Weyland to make the public believe that the present agitation by the miners of this district is something new," said the president of the southern miners to-day. "Mr. Weyland knows that the question of better light for underground workers was brought under the notice of the coalowners and the Government two years ago. It is over nine months since the owners were notified that at the expiration of six months, if some improved light was not introduced in the mines on the coast, the matter would receive further consideration by the men concerned. "Mr. Weyland refers to guarantees. Might we ask Mr. Weyland, on behalf of our members who are suffering from nystagmus, to give us a guarantee that upon the production of a certificate from the certifying surgeon, compensation will be made without having to invoke the aid of the law? "A lamp was approved by the miners in this district months ago, and electric safety lamps have been installed in at least one colliery in the northern district." "The introduction of the lamps," says an old miner, "was the outcome of the Mount Kembla explosion, and continued working in the defective light given off by the present oil lamps is beginning to tell on the sight of some of the older men, who in several cases have developed nystagmus." The Minister for Mines (Mr. Fitzpatrlck) announced yesterday that he had arranged a conference between representatives of the owners and the men on the lighting question. It will be held in Sydney next Friday.[14]

LABOR'S NEW OBJECTIVE. Mr. R. S. Ross concludes the very illuminating article commenced last week. NOW, Labor's Objective has never before been so explicit in one particular at least — namely, the Socialisation of Industry. If the socialisation of production, distribution and exchange has heretofore been stood for, that part of the process known as the ownership and control of industry has not been stated, even if applied. In the new phrase industry is specific — and FIRST. Our thought is thus directed to a clear and definite idea and thing. Nothing left to the ambiguities, and equivocations of argufiers, nor the idea and thing lost in the maze of terminological, windy and other high-browing or kite-flying. Simply stated — purposely so to get a particular mental concept and a practical grip — industry as the thing to tackle is set prominently before us, as though to suggest that, tackling it, all else will be added unto us. Industry, industry, industry! . . . . The socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange. METHODS. Socialisation of industry by — (a) The constitutional utilisation of industrial and Parliamentary machinery; (b) The organisation of workers along the lines of industry; (c) The nationalisation of banking and all principal industries; (d) The municipalisation of such services, as can best be operated in limited areas; (e) The government of nationalised industries by boards, upon which the workers in the industries and the community shall have representation; (f) The establishment of an elective Supreme Economic Council by all nationalised industries; (g) The setting up of Labor research and Labor information bureaus and of Labor educational institutions, in which the workers shall be trained in the management of the nationalised industries.[15]

WHERE LABOR STANDS. Fighting Speech by Senator Gardiner. Speaking at Redfern last Thursday night, Senator Gardiner referred to misrepresentations by "Nationalists" regarding Labor's objective. It was part of the hare-brained ravings of the disordered minds of those who published columns branding Labor as part and parcel of the Russian terror, and tried to link Labor with Bolshevism. In spite of all the misrepresentation and abuse they had a record to refer to in the State and Federal Legislatures which completely answered those criticisms. The methods laid down for the socialisation of industry were by the constitutional utilisation of industrial and Parliamentary machinery; the organisation of workers along the lines of industry; nationalisation of banking and all principal industries; municipalisation of such services as could best be operated in limited areas; government of nationalised industries by boards upon which the workers in the industries and the community have representation; establishment of an elective supreme economic council by all nationalised industries; the setting up of labor research and labor information bureaux and of labor educational institutions in which the workers shall be trained in the management of the nationalised industries. SAME AS 1905 OBJECTIVE. "Is there one word there," asked the Senator, "that looks like red revolution or red propaganda? The words are almost the same as those I wrote myself 18 years ago, when Mr. Holman and Mr. Watson, and many other leading spirits gathered together to draft an objective. We were dubbed dangerous Socialists then, and Mr. George Reid travelled throughout Australia to kill the socialistic tiger, but Labor came back with a majority in both Houses." "The objective of the Labor Party today is the same as the objective framed in 1905, to which Mr. J. C. Watson, Mr. A. Fisher, and Mr. W. M. Hughes were parties. The only difference is a difference of wording. In essence, the objective of 1905 remains unchanged. "We stand for Australia and peace," he declared, "and the 'Nationalists' stand for Empire and war. Let Australia look after its own business, and let every other nation do the same. Then we will have peace, and if war comes the nations of the Empire will be in a stronger position to meet the trouble. Mr. Hughes recently offered not only to send men, but an army as big as that of the Turks. We don't want all this flamboyant talk and buccaneering, but real work for the proper and full development of Australia." LABOR WILL MAINTAIN WHITE AUSTRALIA POLICY. Continuing, Senator Gardiner explained the fighting platform for the development of an Australian sentiment and the maintenance of a White Australia, complete Australian self-government as a British community, no Imperial Federation, an unlimited legislative powers for the Commonwealth Parliament. He stressed the point that the Brisbane conference made the following declaration, proposing collective ownership: (a) For the purpose of preventing exploitation; (b) that wherever private ownership is a means of exploitation it be opposed by the party; and (c) that the Party does not seek to abolish private ownership, even of any of the instruments of production; where such instrument is utilised by its owner in a socially-useful manner and without exploitation.[16]

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1923 01[edit]

WELFARE SCHEMES — FOR WHOM? J. A. MURDOCH, of Sydney, who these times seems to be a sort of official press agent for Capitalism, attacks E. R. Voigt, of the Labor Research and Information Bureau, for having stated that so-called industrial welfare schemes would not work except when run by big concerns holding virtual monopolies. Murdoch, in dealing with specific instances, declares that Ford's, Lever's, and Kanegafuci's schemes for a distribution of a share of the profits have been successful, and he further opines to the effect that if such schemes were more general the economic problem would be solved. Murdoch also states that he has tried the scheme in his own business with satisfactory results. But those who have the slightest grounding in economics will smile at Murdoch's sophistry, or simple faith — whichever of the twain it may be. It may be true that, say, Henry Ford's employees, and Lever's employees, and, to an extent, Murdoch's employees, are in receipt of decent wages, plus a small share of the profits, and for these reasons are considerably satisfied with themselves. But, after all, what is the position? Ford is a millionaire — one of the richest men in America. Lever (Lord Leverhulme) is one of the world's wealthiest men. And Murdoch himself is popularly supposed to be amongst the wealthiest men in Sydney. So it will be seen that even if their employees be a few shillings a week, or a month, better off, THESE BIG BUSINESS MEN — THESE APOSTLES OF PROFIT-SHARING — HAVE GROWN INORDINATELY RICH. Where did these vast fortunes of the proprietors, and the little extra wages of the employees, come from? The question is easily answered. THEY CAME OUT OF THE POCKETS OF THE REST OF THE COMMUNITY. These profit-sharing concerns have benefited at the expense of the non-profit-sharing public, and, so far as the wage-earners are concerned, if the system were made general the workers could benefit only by mutually robbing each other. And such sort of benefit would be the equivalent of that of the community which tried to live by taking in each other's washing. Co-operation, even in a capitalistic world, may have something to recommend it, but profit-sharing — which postulates a Boss hogging the profit trough, and allowing his employees to lick up the splashings — ought to, and must, be anathema to those who genuinely desire to solve the social problem instead of merely trifling with it. Incidentally — and perhaps more than incidentally — it is worth remembering that under the new Industrial Arbitration Amendment Act, when employees accept a share of their bosses' profits THEY AUTOMATICALLY BECOME PROPRIETORS, and then, if their employers apply to the Court, THEY MAY HAVE THE EXISTENT WAGES' AWARD RESCINDED OR CANCELLED. It would be interesting to know if this clause in the Act is responsible for the sudden symptoms of generosity on the part of Murdoch and certain other employers. R.J.C.[17]

Australian Labor's New Objective. The Socialisation of Industry. In June 1920, the All Australian Congress of Trade Unions, held in Melbourne, decided to adopt as the objective of the Trade Union Movement the Socialisation of Industry. Since the Federal Election Campaign started, many enquiries have been made by Labor Unions, and A.L.P Leagues, to the Labor Research and Information Bureau, for information concerning the meaning of the Socialisation of Industry and its bearing on existing industrial relations. Mr. E. R. Voight, Director of the Bureau, in answer, has contributed the following article: Capitalism not Eternal. There is a hazy idea in the minds of those who have given no particular thought to social problems that the present system of production termed capitalist production, we have always had with us, and that the institution of production for private gain will continue throughout all eternity. They forget that production for profit covers comparatively a very small period of economic history, and that the modern capitalist system is a mushroom growth, according to all the laws of biology must pass away as quickly and completely as it has arisen. Before the minds of the people can be made receptive for any new system of society, they must be made to realise that the present system of society, like all others, not only is in a state of constant change, but like all other organisms in society is subject to the operation of birth and death. Spencer, long ago, taught the world that all social institutions are fluid and not fixed. Karl Marx said in the preface to the first edition of "Capital": "The present society is no solid crystal, but an organisation capable of change, and constantly changing." Yet there are many people to-day who base all their actions and plans upon the assumption that the existing system of production for profit is a divine law which always has existed and will continue to the end of all eternity. The present structure of society (and this is now pretty generally conceded) is the creation of the ruling class. And the ruling class is the employing class — those who own and control the means whereby the people live. The merchant or employing class broke up the old feudal system and built upon its ruins, the capitalist order of society, the kingdom of free competition, of personal liberty, of equality of all commodity owners before the law, and of all the rest of the blessings of capitalism. CAPITALISM FREES THE SERF. On the other hand, the new product of the capitalist factory system was a "free" laborer, bound neither to his master nor the soil. He was "free" from the individual compulsion to work. He was "free" to be idle; "free" from ownership of the means of life; "free" often from employment because of competition or the whim of his masters; and at all times "free" to starve. The "freedom" of the wage-workers under Capitalism is however strongly qualified. His freedom to work is conditioned by his master's willingness or ability to accept the offer of his services. His freedom from individual compulsion to work is balanced by the economic necessity of working or dying of starvation, and his freedom to be idle has a similar drastic qualification. So long as the present economic system is able to provide work and an endurable standard of living for the masses, so long will capitalism continue. But it must be evident that should the system become disorganised to a point where millions of men and women, willing and able to work, cannot be found regular employment or sustenance, then that system will require either to be modified or superseded. A few people may be induced to accept intermittent starvation. Millions of people will not starve for long, with the granaries and storehouses filled to repletion and the factories for producing in abundance the means of life, idle before their eyes. No power on earth will then be able to keep the workers separated from the vital essential of their existence; the means of production, distribution, and exchange. Unemployment has today reached a stage, unparalleled in the world's history. In U.S.A., there are, according to official figures, 5,735,000 unemployed in the towns alone. The British Government on an admittedly conservative estimate, confesses to 1,750,000 unemployed. There is no civilised community (except Russia) where unemployment has not become chronic. SOCIAL PRODUCTS. Under capitalism, production changed itself from a series of individual into a series of social acts. The products were likewise changed from individual to social products. The yarn, the cloth, the metal articles that now come out of the factory, were the joint product of many workers, through whose hands they had to pass successively before they were ready. No one could say of them "I made that. This is my product." When the working class of the various capitalist countries came slowly to the realisation that all wealth was the social product of the workers, it was inevitable that sooner or later the demand should arise that the product of their labor should be socially owned and controlled, and socially distributed. Socialism is the objective of modern working class organisations throughout the world. That does not signify that every member of the organised workers understands and is a conscious advocate of the principle of socialisation. What this statement however does imply is that:— 1. Working-class theorists and economists are agreed that socialisation is the inevitable outcome of the present industrial and social order. 2. So far as there exists among the rank and file of the working-class any common opinion upon the economic and social problem, such opinion whatever its racial, religious or geographical location converges unerringly upon a single point — the Socialisation of Industry. 3.The declared objective of the organised working class in practically every civilised country is the Socialisation of Industry. RISE OF SOCIALIST THEORY. Socialism or Communism means that the machinery of production, distribution and exchange shall become the property of the community, and shall be managed by the community for the benefit of the community. In short, this means that the people shall own and control its means of life, — an eminently reasonable and sensible proposal, but one of far-reaching and revolutionary import. Under the present Capitalist system, the determining factor in production and distribution, is the exploitation by the few of the labor power and resources of the community for purposes of individual gain. That production and distribution, i.e., the means whereby the community lives, should be governed by and depend upon a dis-orderly scramble of the few for profit appears at first sight to be a most illogical procedure, and indeed it is, for individual gain bears no direct relation to production at all. Production to-day is therefore only incidental to the profit-taking of the few. (Note: It is the working-class which produces all value, including profits), and if those profits can be obtained without producing an ear of corn, so much the better. The "sumun bonum" of all good business, is not to exchange full service for like measure, but to get something for nothing. Every penny of the colossal profits of the bourgeoisie is unearned and taken from the surplus value produced by the workers. Under capitalism, a more or less efficient stage of social production in the individual factory has been reached. Each department dovetails its operations in with those of the other sections of the factory; the office staffs act in harmony with the works staffs, each individual workshop unit produces in a social manner in conformity with the operations of the other units. The whole factory is a fairly, efficient social organisation. WHERE CAPITALISM FAILS. But in general production, anarchy reigns. Each firm is ready to beggar or ruin its neighbor in the scramble for pro-fits. The seeds of the community are never inquired into, never ascertained, and never met. Production in the individual factory is generally well organised and systematised. The needs of the workers in production, individually and collectively, are ascertained and met along scientific or well order-ed lines. In general production under capitalism, the reverse is the case. There is no organisation or plan. Nor is there any general social harmony. Should any concerns amalgamate, they do so in order to prosecute more intensely and effectively the anti-social plundering of their own workers, their competitors and the consuming public. The antagonism between social production in the individual factory and anti-social anarchy in general production is not lessening with the times. Having no adequate understanding of the economics of its own system, and having no plan or organisation whatever for dealing with production and distribution as a whole, the classical political apologists (they can hardly be called economists) of capitalism seek to account for the dis-parities that exist in human society that they term "the law of supply and demand." The "law of supply and demand" is the scapegoat of capitalist economy for its historical and organic inability to organise and control general production and distribution. It will be noticed that capitalist schemes designed in times of stress to stabilise their system — such reform schemes as those of Henry George and Major Douglas — however much they may borrow from Socialist theory, are one and all obsessed by that great fetish, the "law of supply and demand." THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND. The so-called law of supply and demand, is supposed to regulate the affairs of capitalist society. Curiously enough, this free and gratis regulation dovetails nicely in with the fundamental principle underlying all modern business — i.e., something for nothing. The law is accordingly very attractive to capitalism and its bourgeois thinkers, for on the surface, it saves much money, thought and organisation. It is hardly to be wondered therefore that bourgeois reformers of the Capitalist system base their plans on the stable operation of this "law." Yet it should be clear to every student who has devoted any serious consideration at all to the subject that the so-called law of supply and demand is a very unstable principle indeed and one which is exceedingly unjust in its incidence. Supply and demand are governed by the particular circumstances surrounding them at any given moment. And as these relations are constantly changing, supply and demand often operate in a most erratic and — for a "law" — hardly respectable manner. Speculation is a well-known feature of modern business. Supply and demand accommodates itself obligingly to the speculator. It is "modified" almost beyond re-cognition by trade agreements, federations, trusts, cartels, and monopolies. Upon sufficient inducement, the law of supply and demand will stand on its head or walk backwards. Even under the most favorable operation of the law, it works with extreme in-justice, for if any commodities happen to be scarce, under the working of supply and demand, the price increases. Then, while the wealthy can amply satisfy their needs, the poor (i.e. the bulk of the working class) have to go without, whereas in equity the available supplies should be rationed out, so that each gets a fair share. Supply and demand operate like a night-mare upon the working-class and will be superseded under communism where the nation will be the sole producer and the sole wholesale purchaser. CAPITALISM'S ROLE ENDED. Primitive Communism lasted over 100,000 years. Modern Capitalism has been in operation some 150 years, and is now showing those acute symptoms which indicate old age and decay. Yet during its mushroom growth, capitalism has confuted Malthus and solved the problem of production, thus accomplishing its historical destiny. Capitalism's apologists are however endeavouring to infuse new life into the veins of the moribund by restricted applications of Socialist theory. The bastard Socialist operations of the various belligerent Governments in the recent European war, will be readily re-called. The land reformers, tariff reformers and credit reformers, these reformers — like the misogynist and the temperance advocate — are obsessed with a single idea. To the misogynist — Woman, to the temperance advocate — drink, to the land reform-er — land monopoly, and to the credit re-former, credit monopoly is the root of all evil. Each reckons he has discovered a panacea. Each clearly recognises that the other fellow's cure-all is merely an incomplete remedy and covers only one of the ills which afflict the system. Each is blind to the one-sidedness of his own theory. Socialism is the only theory which deals comprehensively with the problems in all its aspects. Socialism alone replaces the vague unstable and unjust law of supply and demand of the business men by the direct and scientific methods of the technician. It ascertains the needs of the community, producing and distributing accordingly. To-day the present order of production, distribution and exchange is rocking on its foundations, and the organised workers of Australia, and of the whole civilised world, are faced with the necessity of taking upon their shoulders the salvation of society. LABOR'S HISTORICAL TASK. In Europe, ten millions of men and women are workless; a hundred millions lack the barest necessities of existence. Starvation is by instinct revolutionary, and revolution knocks at the door. What is the reply of the master class? It is to restrict and sabotage still further the production of those prime necessities without which the Workers must starve or revolt. Capitalism can do no other. It is forced on to self-destruction. Time after time the greatest political, financial and industrial magnates of the world have met and virtually confessed their impotence to stabilise the tottering edifice. In every civilised country, the old order is passing. Demands for wages are turning into demands for "Control of Industry," In Russia, Italy, Britain, Germany, France, Austria and Belgium, the Great Working Class Movement is proceeding inexorably to the fulfilment of its historical destiny. The apparatus of Labor Organisation in the Commonwealth, is designated only to deal with conditions of employment under the existing order. If the great change is to take place with a minimum of disorder and misery, the Labor Movement must take cognisance of those cyclonic changes that are taking place in the old world and prepare itself, by the creation of new machinery, for the great task that lies before it; the Socialisation of Industry.[18]

WHY I PUBLISH "SMITH'S WEEKLY." Class-Conscious Comedy. WERE it not for wags like Mr. E. R. Voigt life would indeed be dull. IN giving him space in which to score off its pet pose, the Sydney "Daily Mail," the most deliciously comic of Australian dailies, brightened one day last week. The "Daily Mail," let it be remarked, is a joy to all who can appreciate unconscious humour. Its painstaking efforts to be "radical" make it so. Mr. Voigt quite obviously sensed its somewhat laborious intent. And with admirable gravity he argued in "The Mail" that welfare schemes in industry had a fell purpose. They meant a return to feudalism! To get away with a joke like that puts Mr. Voigt in a class by himself among comedians. HIS happiest stroke was in selecting "The Mail" to run his witty spoof. The mock earnestness of his argument could, of course, only catch a paper zealously striving to achieve a reputation in radicalism. BY pioneering this form of fun, Mr. Voigt has given Sydney a new pastime. "The Daily Mail" columns now offer a virgin field to practical jokers. It is a pity Wilkes or Titus Oates, or Guy Fawkes couldn't come back to life to exploit the possibilities of the sport. All their old gags could be worked over again in the columns of the "Daily Mail." However, Mr. Voigt is doing very well. Next week, no doubt,, he will attack the social work of the Salvation Army, and prove that it is a return to the system the monastries had of housing the indigent in the time of Henry VIII. Australia might be stirred by riots such as occurred at the time of the Pilgrimage of Grace. If Mr. Voigt could only work in the name of Cromwell, the "Daily Mail" would probably confuse the figure of Henry VIII's. reign with the Protector, and get wildly excited about him. AGAIN, given a working knowledge of history, he could work up a good "Daily Mail" scare on socialism. Mr. Voigt could demonstrate that the advocacy of socialism was an attempt to put the clock back to the Middle-Ages. In actual fact, the socialistic idea then prevailed in practice. For feudal customs and guilds regulated-the status of each man, and controlled every detail of his life. The church ordered his worship and belief. There were sumptuary laws which didn't permit of his habit being as costly as his purse could buy or his taste dictate. If there did come a revolt against these restrictions in favour of individual liberty, Mr. Voigt could use the fact as one of the "Daily Mail's" favourite "bombshells." It could be thrown into the A.L.P. camp with startling effect. And he could dramatically accuse socialists of an impulse to feudalism, and again horrify the ingenuous readers of the "Daily Mail." FOLLOWING this up, Mr. Voigt could next "expose" some ghastly cases of philanthropy. Examples could be given of men whose interests had been disturbingly served by their quixotry. After casting bread upon the waters it has returned to them an hundredfold. Somerset Maugham in one of his recent stories relates how doubts assail a man "who, with altruistic motives, builds model dwellings for the poor, and finds he has made a lucrative investment." Shocking instances of this might be used by Mr. Voigt to make "Daily Mail" scandals out of. The plight of a philanthropist so stung with shame would make the feudal welfare artist pale into insignificance. OTHER enemies of society crowd into one's mind as adaptable to the subtle humour of Mr. Voigt. In the columns of the "Daily Mail" he will surely have a fling at those who share profits with employees. These rapacious scoundrels are criminally bent upon making their workers contented. To this end they feloniously refuse to take the full reward of labour. The scheme has wrought appalling consequences. Industries have flourished as a result of the incentive given employees to acquire shares and make them yield dividends. Mr. Voigt should certainly warn "Daily Mail" readers against this insidious evil. In one of his inimitable spoofs he should caution workers against thrift. The habit of saving may lose them their sacred class-consciousness. Would they but spend all they earn they could remain righteously — even riotously — poor. Thus would be hastened the rule of the proletariat. ISN'T it all pitiful twaddle, this "radicalism", of the "Daily Mail"? By what crazy gauge does the paper measure the intelligence of the Australian worker? THE average Australian, fortunately, has fairly decided ideas about saving and bettering his and his family's lot. Savings Bank and Life Assurance figures put that beyond doubt. ALSO, the workers knew the bad employer and the good employer, and they prefer to work for the latter. Factory improvements in the way of hygiene and healthful recreation, call it "welfare work" or what you will, are welcomed by any man or woman shrewd enough to value physical fitness, and who isn't? Profit sharing and co-operative schemes may not suit the agitator who battens on discontent. But it would be a blessed state if every agitator found himself at a loss for something to agitate about. UNHAPPILY, there will always be enough mean employers to keep the agitator busy. If, however, he contented himself with them and used the good employers to illustrate what he would have all, the agitator would be more worthy of his hire. What's more, he would be a power in the land, instead of the joke he mostly is. ANY time the agitator has a few hours to spare he would be better occupied making an inspection of hovels rented to workers by slum landlords than in talking balderdash about welfare schemes being a return to feudalism. It should be part of every union official's duty to see how workers are housed. FEUDALISM could show nothing half as evil in housing as the class-conscious Sydney toiler is forced to submit to to-day. And the union official who is really on his job would be busy awaking the public conscience to the ill-conditioned oppression rent-racked workers suffer. JOYNTON SMITH.[19]

1923 02[edit]

MR. HOLMAN IS ANNOYED. A COUPLE of weeks ago. W. A. Holman and Thomas Courtney were engaged in the columns of the "Daily Telegraph" in a controversy in connection with France's present dictatorial attitude towards Germany. Courtney made Holman, who was defending France, look very foolish indeed, whereupon Holman complained that his statement of the case had been mutilated. The reply was that only errors in grammar and composition were corrected (the "D.T." having a journalistic and literary reputation to think of.) Holman's complaint of having his manuscript interfered with brings to mind what happened when E. R. Voigt, director and secretary of the Trades Hall Labor Research and Information Bureau, got into newspaper holts with the ex-Labor Premier. The newspaper which staged the controversy was the "Sunday Times." Holman wrote and had printed in its columns a long and bitter tirade against Voigt. Voigt replied — in an article which, if it had been printed in full, would have taken up about the same space as Holman's inky outburst. But what happened? This: The article was cut down to a mere scrap — the most telling passages being slashed right out. Voigt wrote a protesting letter to the editor-in-chief, Adam McCay, and that gentleman, in the course of his reply, stated that the article was passed on to Holman, and that he (the latter) had fairly summarised its contents! And now W. A. Holman, who, being one of the principals in a controversy in which his own outpourings were given lengthy space, had the bad taste to mutilate his opponent's reply, is actually found to peevishly complain when a few words of his own in another paper are altered — and altered not in an antagonistic, but in a friendly spirit! No wonder Courtney made Holman look foolish![20]

1923 03[edit]
1923 04[edit]

A.L.P. UNITY CONFERENCE. The Editor. Sir,— It is gratifying to learn that H.E.B. is breaking the circle of capitalist papers which are venomously attacking the Executive of the A.L.P. It is however to be regretted that this action was not taken on the question of executive control of Parliamentary members, for the Executive is the only machinery which exists whereby the organised workers, whose organisations are affiliated to the A.L.P., can exercise anything in the nature of effective control over their parliamentary members. But the point in H.E.B.'s article to which most advanced workers will take objection is that which discriminates against the Communist Party, and which, I venture to state, is (1) opposed to the democratic principles of working-class organisation, and (2) is opposed to the movement courageously launched by the A.L.P. Executive to achieve a united working-class front against the employers and their parliamentary executive — the "Nationalist" party. Now, whatever may be the reasons of H.E.B. in declaring against the affiliation of the Communist Party with the A.L.P., this declaration nevertheless remains contrary to the expressed will of the Trade Union Movement of Australia, for it contravenes the principal resolution adopted by the last All-Australian Congress of Trade Unions, which "calls upon the A.L.P. to make provision, along the lines of the British and N.Z. Labor Parties, for the incorporation of all schools of genuine Labor thought and activity, with the freedom of propaganda and organisation, while at the same time requiring a LOYAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE DECISIONS OF REPRESENTATIVE CONFERENCES." This was more than a resolution; it was a compact between the militants and the moderates. The subcommittee appointed by Congress which drew up that resolution comprised three members of the party which H.E.B. now proposes to keep outside the A.L.P., and three others. The A.L.P. now declares its intention of honoring that compact, for it is becoming increasingly evident that there can be no effective working-class unity in Australia which does not include the militant elements. It is to be regretted therefore that it is precisely at this moment, when a definite and courageous movement towards unity is being made by the A.L.P. Executive — a move which is in harmony with the expressed will of the Australian Trade Union Movement — that H.E.B. proposes in effect to outlaw the Communist Party. Let us examine the reasons of H.E.B. for the prescription of the Communist Party. He states: "It is a monstrous claim that we should open our ranks to those who declare they will join the A.L.P. with the express purpose of destroying it, or at any rate of diverting it into courses that will fundamentally transform it." This is an amazing statement, and I venture to hope that H.E.B. will recognise and freely admit its unsoundness. Must the A.L:P. not take part in Parliament because finally Parliament as we know it will be either "destroyed" or "fundamentally transformed" to meet the needs of the changing. times? May not an O.B. Unionist take part in any craft organisation because he hopes craft Unionism eventually will cease to exist or be transformed? May the Australian Trade Union Movement not enter the framework of the competitive social order which it hopes to transform and finally destroy? No progress would be possible were advanced elements kept rigidly out of those organisms, which they finally transform and replace. It is a fundamental law of nature that every social order, every organisation, every individual, and every atom contains within itself the seeds of its own transformation and destruction. The point need not be labored. Let H.E.B. admit his error frankly, and fall into line loyally with the decision of the All-Australian Congress and the action now being taken by the A.L.P. Executive towards its realisation. E. R. VOIGT, Director and Secretary, Labor Research and Information Bureau. [Mr. Voigt must think H.E.B. a very simple person. We are all aware that the capitalist system carries within itself the elements of its own destruction, and the seeds of the better social system that is to succeed it. But how does knowledge of that fact oblige H.E.B., or any other Laborite, to facilitate the funeral of the A.L.P.? In H.E.B.'s opinion the A.L.P. re-presents the forces which will burst the framework of Capitalism and create the New Order. He has therefore not the slightest intention of assisting the Communists to destroy it, or fundamentally change it, which is the same thing, with the object of substituting for it their own movement, which he is convinced would, in this country at least, defeat the natural progress of events, and lead to the establishment of an oligarchic despotism the like of which the world has not yet seen, but which many wise men have feared and foretold.][21]

1923 05[edit]

THE UNITED FRONT. The Editor. Dear Sir,— H.E.B.'s continued attack upon the "affiliation" policy laid down as a basis for Parliamentary unity by the 1922 All-Australian Trade Union Congress and endorsed by the All-N.S.W. Trade Union Congress on April 28, 1921, is causing uneasiness to many Trade Unionists who are sincerely desirous of presenting a united front to the attacks of the employers against the standard of life of the workers. H.E.B. commences with a eulogy of the idea of the United Front, and optimistically states, "There's no difficulty in the way, once the wish is formed." There are of course immense difficulties in the way of unity, as the Australian Workers' Union found out when considering the merging of its organisation into the One Big Union. In The Worker (June 30, 1921) H.E.B. wrote: "To talk of unity is the easiest thing in the world. The hardest thing in the world is to accomplish it." Precisely. The unity of lip-service gets us nowhere. It is organic unity that counts. Moreover the fight is on. Labor is being beaten all along the line. We cannot afford to wait for some ideal organisation. We have to deal with all the different sections and schools of thought as they exist and will continue to exist under capitalist society. The All-Australian Trade Union Congress found the question of unity a great deal more difficult and complex than does H.E.B. The Parliamentary unity of Labor was the knottiest problem of Congress, which spent practically three out of the five and a half days in its discussion. The result of the deliberations of one of the most representative congresses ever held in the Commonwealth was the proposal embodied in the "affiliation" resolution adopted by the N.S.W. Trade Union Congress. H.E.B.'s attack on this resolution indicates not only that he has little confidence in the judgment of his fellow-unionists, but also that he does not desire either the Australian Labor Party or the Unions to accept the scheme of Greater Unity decided upon by the All-Australian Trade Union Congress. This is an amazing position for a man to take up to-day, who, after the 1921 All-Australian Trade Union Congress wrote: 'It remains for the rank and file of the Unions and the Leagues to endorse the resolutions reached, and accept the schemes of Greater Unity to be submitted to them." How can H.E.B. reconcile that recommendation of loyalty to the great Congress he has so eulogised with his antagonism of to-day? H.E.B.'s scheme for unity, i.e., for all other schools of thought to dissolve their organisations (for that is what is implied), and all to join up individually with the A.L.P., is so visionary and impracticable that I will not attempt any reply unless H.E.B. wishes it. But let me state this in conclusion: When H.E.B. writes that— "The door of the Australian Labor Party stands wide open, they (the Communists) can enter without knocking," he is wrong. The rules of the A.L.P. lay it down clearly that the drastic price of admission to this exclusive body for any other school of Labor thought is the prompt dissolution of its organisation. Unity under these draconian conditions is possible. Are we to dream and do nothing except praise our own school of thought and excommunicate every other genuine Labor school? The All-Australian Trade Union Congress spoke clearly and decisively. It gave no lip-service, but outlined a practical basis for unity. It is the duty of every loyal Trade Unionist to do what he or she can to give effect to this decision, so that the actual operation of the proposals can demonstrate their effectiveness or otherwise in the pressing need of Labor unity. E. R. VOIGT, Labor Research and Information Bureau. [Mr. Voigt entirely overlooks or ignores the central contention of the article he criticises, and his letter is for that reason only another example of the ease with which the most alert amongst us may miss the bus. You cannot have a United Front except on the basis of an undivided allegiance and a uniform propaganda in essentials. The claim of the Communist Party to come into the A.L.P., and still retain its own organisation, and carry on its own propaganda, which in some vital respects is irreconcilably opposed to that of the A.L.P., is therefore incompatible with unity, and would be more than likely to lead to internal clashes and ultimate disintegration. It is in the interests of the United Front that H.E.B. opposes this claim, which he holds to be both impracticable and perilous. As for the All-Australia Congress, to accept its scheme of organisation does not involve acquiescence in every resolution that it carried. The Victorian A.L.P. Conference has already rejected the particular resolution referred to. H.E.B. has no doubt that every A.L.P. Conference in the Commonwealth will do the same.— Ed.][22]

THE UNITED FRONT. The Editor. Dear Sir,— H.E.B. can do justice neither to himself nor to the subject by attempting to meet my arguments in a short footnote. It is not surprising therefore that H.E.B. makes no attempt to meet the bulk or the case presented to him. While ignoring the beam in his own eye, H.E.B. discovers a mote in mine. I overlook the "central contention" of his argument, he states. That central contention is: You cannot have a United Front except on the basis of an undivided allegiance, and a uniform propaganda in essentials. I had not overlooked this statement; but it was so vague, so lacking in precision, that I regarded it merely as a rhetorical embellishment. I now learn that it is a "central contention." Well, let us analyse it. "Undivided allegiance" — absolute and unqualified — is of course ridiculous. H.E.B. divides up his allegiance very considerably, and I have no doubt the A.L.P. by no means retains the bulk. Possibly H.E.B. means undivided "political" allegiance. If so, then the A.L.P. is not the bell, book, and candle of political action, and there is ample room for other schools of Labor thought. What matters is undivided "parliamentary" allegiance, and that would be given by the Communist or any working-class party under the terms of the "affiliation" proposal submitted by the Melbourne and Sydney Trade Union Congresses. H.E.B. has no right to assume that working-class parties in general, or the Communist Party in particular, will not honor such an undertaking if given. As to the other alleged prerequisite: "Uniform propaganda in essentials." This phrase is as vague and illogical as its predecessor. If any affiliating organisation, whether it be Labor Council, Socialist Labor Party, Communist Party, or Co-operative Society, subscribes to the objective, platform, and policy of the A.L.P., and agrees loyally to abide by the decisions of representative conferences, what more in Unity's name does H.E.B. want? Evidently H.E.B. wants the various schools of thought and the medley of organisations which comprise the Australian Labor Movement to accomplish a sudden metamorphosis into an all-inclusive undivided ideal body, where 700,000 minds have but a single thought and 700,000 stout hearts beat as one. If there were any truth in H.E.B.'s "undivided allegiance" obsession, the British Labor Party, the New Zealand Labor Party, the A.L.P., and every Trade Union centre or conference are pure undiluted futility, for their composing elements include differing schools of thought and propaganda, very divided "allegiances," and in some cases actually differing objectives. Meanwhile let me knock on the head once and for all H.E.B.'s tarradiddle about the door of the A.L.P. standing wide open for individual Communists, Socialists, etc. Rule 52, A.L.P., states: "No Labor candidate or member of the A.L.P. shall sign the pledge or undertaking of any other group, organisation, or party." As an example of comprehensiveness this is a gem of the first water. Not only individual members of the Socialist or Communist Parties could be ruled out under it, but also any member of a Trade Union, Freemason or Hibernian Society, religious body, or football club who might have the temerity to give an "undertaking," even if only to pay his subscription. The employers and their parliamentary executives are beating down the workers all along the line and in every country. We have got to get together, with all our faults and failings, and form some sort of a United Front. If H.E.B. can suggest nothing (and he has not suggested any practical alternative) let him stand aside and help those who can. E. R. VOIGT. May 11, 1923. (Mr. Voigt complains of the shortness of the reply to his previous letter. The briefest footnote is quite sufficient in which to deal with an argument that refutes itself. The reference to football clubs and other non-political bodies is too infantile to call for comment. As for Trade Unions, they may at any time affiliate with the A.L.P., because they have no official doctrines conflicting with those of the A.L.P. The Communists have. The difference is a fatal one. Moreover the Communists themselves exemplify the soundness of H.E.B.'s contention. No organisation holding principles in direct opposition to theirs can join up with their Party and retain the right of propaganda and separate entity. H.E.B. has no need to prove his case against their claim for admission to the A.L.P. They prove it for him. When Mr. Voigt has converted the Communists to his views on political tolerance it will be time enough to try his hand on other people in their behalf.— Ed.)[23]

1923 06[edit]

MAIN ISSUES IN DOUBT. Labor's Parliament. SURPRISING CROSS VOTING. Opening Day Business. (By Our Labor Representative.) The annual conference of the New South Wales branch of the A.L.P. opened at the Trades Hall on Saturday, and, although much of the time was spent in the taking of counts and divisions upon motions and amendments, it is impossible to forecast the poll upon the red-hot issue of executive domination of Parliamentarians and other big questions. The manner in which the voting fluctuated is evidence that there is a strong army of independents present, scattering their support according to their personal views. These are sufficiently strong to hold the balance of power. For the time being it is an open conference, and it is clear that many delegates will not commit themselves to any policy, until they have heard the evidence in the case of the Executive v. Dooley, et al. The biggest vote polled during the day was that which placed Mr. J. Howie, the well-known Trades and Labor Council militant, at the head of the poll for election to the agenda committee. Subsequently, when Mr. Howie presented a minority report from that committee, on behalf of himself and Mr. Graves, the motion for adoption was crushingly defeated. This reversal would have been impossible with clear-cut factions established. Another obstacle in the way of calculators is that 20 or 30 more delegates may be present to-day, or to-night. There were about 274 there on Saturday evening, as against 251 in the afternoon. Many alternate delegates, and members of the public — admitted by resolution — occupied places at the rear of the hall, outside the railing. The room was uncomfortably crowded, and seating accommodation was unequal to the demands. On the motion of Mr. Cecil Last, the press was admitted for the first time since the breakaway conference, of 1919. Such industrialists as Mr. Willis, Mr. Jock Garden, and Mr. Howie also returned from four years absence. Conference Officers It was resolved that the Federally-appointed credentials committee (Messrs. Arch. Stewart, G. Rowlands, and J. Tyrrell) should act throughout the conference. Senator J. Grant was elected minute secretary, defeating Mr. Cecil Last. There were 12 nominees for the agenda committee of five. The voting was: J. Howie (Coopers), 177; A. Blakeley, M.P. (A.W.U.), 160; E. C. Magrath (Printers), 149; J. Graves (Stovemakers), 148; J. O'Brien (Painters), 132. The foregoing were elected. Mr. Blakeley's was the first vote taken, and Mr. Howie's the seventh in order. The seven defeated candidates were: J. F. O'Reilly (Hairdressers), 131; W. Ely (Parramatta and Minority A.L.P. Executive), 121; J. F. HIggins, M.L.C. (Majority Executive); 115; G. Sutherland (Majority Executive), 102; J. Kelly (Majority Executive), 96; B. Cross (Letter Carriers), 16; J. Connolly (Trolly and Draymen), 9. Of the five elected, Messrs. Howie and Graves represented the industrialists; Messrs. Magrath and O'Brien were regarded as having industrialist sympathies, while Mr. Blakeley is understood to favor the politicals. However, at a later stage, the last three brought in a majority report, while Messrs. Howie and Graves presented one in opposition. Correspondence Mr. D. R. Voigt forwarded the minutes of the Industrial Congress, held on April 28, relative to Labor's objective.— Proposals to be included in general business. Paddington branch wrote, requesting that the case of Ald. Jones, who had been expelled for opposing the amalgamation of Paddington with Sydney, be reconsidered in the alderman's favor. On the motion of Mr. R. R. Stapleton (Paddington), the request was referred to the agenda committee. Politicals' Close Shave. Mr. Arch. Stewart (Federal secretary of the A.L.P., and chairman of the credentials committee) made the following communication by letter:— 'I am directed to inform you that the special committee appointed under the terms of the agreement between the Federal and State executives holds that to prevent the admission of members of. Parliament who are not delegates to conference is a distinct breach of the understanding arrived at between the two bodies, as contained in clause 1 of the agreement. It decides, therefore, that in accordance with the customs previously established, members of Parliaments are to be admitted, but they must be accommodated in a portion of the hall set apart from the delegates. It is recommended that they shall not be permitted to take part in the debates before conference unless they are directly affected individually or personally. Mr. Denford (Ironworkers) moved: "That the recommendations of the credentials committee be adopted. Mr. Howie supported. He opposed the creation of a privileged class for parliamentarians. Mr. George Rowlands (Farriers and executive) observed that he had moved the resolution at the executive meeting for the exclusion of the parliamentarians. His reason was that people from the country coming to previous conferences had failed to get a hearing themselves or to have their business brought forward, owing to the time expended in listening to parliamentarians without credentials. Mr. Bell (Albury), as a country member, said that in this conference he hoped politicians would be permit-ted to take part, owing to the special circumstances that all knew to exist, but that henceforward they should be excluded. After further debate, the resolution was defeated on a show of hands by 129 votes to 127. A division was called for, and again the resolution was defeated, the count being: Ayes, 121; noes, 130. This means that parliamentarians are permitted to sit among the delegates and speak as they wish, but without voting power, unless they are delegates. First Open Clash. The first clash between the "Reds" and the old school occurred when the agenda committee reported back to conference. Mr. E. C. Magrath, as chairman, presented the majority report from the committee. This was that:— 1. The standing orders should be established, and arrangements made for the election of officers for the coming year. 2. Election of returning officer. 3. Appointment of scrutineers. 4. President's address. 5. The report of the Federal officers (Messrs. R. Sumner, president; F. Hannan, vice-president; and Arch. Stewart, secretary). "We think," said Mr. Magrath, "that these officers should make an early statement as to the reasons which caused them to intervene in the Federal dispute, and explain why they are attending this conference now." Mr. Howie asked conference to adopt the minority report. He complained that he and Mr. Graves had found themselves over-ridden by a brutal majority in the other three. The minority agreed with the majority until they had come to the matter of the Federal officers' report. They wished, said Mr. Howie, that the report of the Federal executive upon intervention and the Dooley matter be taken together. and that all portions of the State executive's report be dealt with then, too. Mr. Harris (Tramways Union) seconded the adoption of the minority report. In the form of a question, Mr. Howie charged the majority section of the committee with having determined that the report of the central executive would be the last of all the Dooley matters to be placed before conference. The majority report was carried, up-on division, by overwhelming odds, so that a count was quite needless. Undoubtedly Mr. Howie had tried to make this an issue, but the support was so ridiculously poor as to show that it was not a faction poll. Not half of the avowed 120 anti-politicals supported it. Parliamentarians Present The leader of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party. Mr. Matt. Charlton, early in the evening session entered, and took a seat on the platform, amidst rounds of applause. Mr. Power welcomed the leader, congratulating him upon his restoration to health. Mr. Charlton said that the Labor movement had been going through a difficult period, owing to the war, but the tide had turned. He asked the members of the movement to stand shoulder to shoulder, and to spend their energy not in fighting one another, but upon their opponents. (Cheers.) Were that done, he had no doubt but that what had occurred in Queensland would be repeated in the Federal arena at the next elections, and Labor would come into its own. (Cheers.) Senator Gardiner (the Federal deputy-leader) was present throughout the proceedings on Saturday and the acting-leader of the State Parliamentary.. Party (Mr. W. F. Dunn) paid a quiet visit in the afternoon. An unusual number of politicians were present, some of them attending as delegates. Yesterday afternoon the delegates were the guests of the State executive, at a harbor picnic. To-day's Business When conference re-assembles at 10 a.m. to-day, the first business will be in connection with arrangements for the election of the next executive. Both the "Reds" and the parliamentary faction desire this to be on a much broader franchise than in the past. The "Reds" desire a big representation to be elected by industrial groups, while the parliamentaries wish the movement throughout the State to have representation either upon electoral or other territorial bases. Between the two, there may be a decision that will make a reconstruction of the executive inevitable, either at next conference, or by the election of a provisional executive now, with instructions to complete a general ballot within a specified time.[24]

ABOLISH SELECTION. TRADES HALL ADVICE. The abolition of selection ballots is advocated in a manifesto issued by the Labor and Research Bureau at the Trades Hall, controlled by Mr. E. R. Voigt. "Trades unions are not likely to be satisfied with the discovery and destruction of two faked ballot boxes, and the fall of the executive which never used them," says the manifesto. "The only way to eliminate faked ballots for all time," it says, "is to abolish selection and permit all eligible candidates to go to the poll." This would eliminate the disgruntled unsuccessful candidates for selection, and would ensure an aggregate poll from the various schools of thought and from all the personal followers of the Labor candidates. "More important even than this, the all-in elections will eliminate completely the possibility of corruption and machine politics in the endorsement of parliamentary candidates."[25]

MR. DOOLEY RE-ADMITTED. OLD LABOR EXECUTIVE SWEPT OUT OF OFFICE. FURTHER ACCUSATIONS OF CROOK BALLOTS. Last Wednesday night the N.S.W. Annual Conference resumed the debate on the question of Mr. Dooley's expulsion and the appointment of Mr. Suttor to the Upper House. After preliminary business had been disposed of, Mr. J. O'Brien (Painters' Union) said that Mr. Dooley had been expelled for exercising the sacred right of free speech. Delegates would remember the things said by Mr. McGirr against Mr. Dooley at the last Conference. A Committee which investigated the charges made found they were not true either in substance or fact. If ever a man deserved censure it was McGirr, yet the Executive took no action. It appointed him leader of the Parliamentary Party. The Executive had allowed personal animosity to outweigh all consideration for Mr. Dooley, and it was due to the Conference to see that injustice in the Movement should not triumph, and that every person should receive the consideration that he or she was entitled to. He trusted that the time would never come when it would allow any section or faction to allocate powers to itself, and use them in a desperate manner. And they would not allow any faction to do just as it liked and risk the integrity and honor of the Labor Movement, just as the majority Executive had done. The Executive should set a high standard of morality and efficiency. He was satisfied that the members of the Executive had not done their duty, and had succeeded in tearing the Movement asunder. It was now the duty of the Conference to bring the factions together in one whole. There was a great necessity for closer organisation, and he, as an industrialist, would say that it was absolutely necessary that the industrial side should join forces with the political Movement. . . . . IMMIGRATION AND LAND SETTLE-MENT. When Conference resumed on Saturday afternoon (June 9) Mr. M. A. Davidson, M.L.A., secured the suspension of the standing orders and moved a motion to appoint a committee for the purpose of supplying Mr. Wignall, Labor representative of the British Overseas Settlement scheme, with information in relation to defects in the "Nationalist" land policy and particulars regarding land available and the nature thereof. Mr. Davidson de-tailed the nature of the information he considered should be supplied so that Mr. Wignall could inform the British Labor Party what the true position was. Mr. Bell (Albury), in seconding the motion, said that the immigration scheme engineered by the "Nationalist" Government was a fraud, as far as the workers were concerned, and could only benefit large landowners. Because of resumptions to be made, an enhanced value was being given to land. The immigrants being put on the land were bankrupt the day they started, and must fail and go to swell the labor market. The motion was carried. Messrs. Loughlin, Dunn, Davidson, Bell, Baddeley, Holloway, Bodkin, Trefle, Garden, and Voigt were appointed members of the committee.[26]

A.L.P. CONFERENCE. . . . SHIPPING BUREAU DECLARED BLACK. SHIPPING BUREAU. Mr. Mills (Wharf Labourers) seconded the motion, and moved that the following addendum be made to the motion:— "That the Oversea Shipping Bureau is herewith declared black, and that it is a distinct menace to the trades-union movement, and that any working man at the Oversea Shipping Bureau not being a member of the Waterside Workers' Federation be declared ineligible and outside the Labour movement." Mr. Mills complained that the Labour Government when in power had not carried out its duties by doing its utmost to uproot the bureau. They had had a lot to contend with so-called returned soldiers, but he was prepared to say that every "dinkum" soldier on returning from the front rejoined his old union. Mr. Hadfield said he was in accord with Mr. Mills's proposal, but he thought the two matters should be considered separately by the conference. (Hear, hear.) It was decided to consider Mr. Hadfield's motion and Mr. Mills's motion separately. Mr. Knight (Northern Miners) spoke in support of Mr. Hadfield's motion. Mr. J. J. Hudson (Northern miners) said the miners' fight was the fight of every trades unionist, and the miners wished to appeal to them for support. It was moved, "That the question be now put." This was carried. Mr. Hadfield's motion was then put to the meeting and carried. Mr. Mills's motion was then debated. Mr. Seale (Waterside Workers) supported the motion, and said that the "scab" bureau, as organised by the Oversea Shipowners' Association, was a menace to the unionists' interests, and should be abolished. It had been said that the Labour politicians had failed in their duty. The old executive had not been so eager to expel those politicians who had failed in their duty as they had been to expel Mr. Dooley. If the politicians had failed to take definite action, so had the industrialists. If the owners went further and forced all the miners into the fight the waterside workers would remain loyal to the miners, and stand behind them. (Hear, hear.) Mr. J. Howie (Coopers' Union) said that he endorsed the views expressed in the motion, but he thought it might be better If they could go further, and make some more definite proposals. They must devise some means of bringing all the workers on the waterfront into their movement. Mr. Howie, continuing, said that the seamen, waterside workers, and the miners should endeavour to bring together the two sections on the waterfront. He alleged that it was to a certain extent due to the officials of certain unions that the trouble on the water front had not been brought to finality. Mr. D. Murray, M.L A., said that his father had for 35 years worked on the waterfront, and today was victimised and not permitted to follow his calling. The Labour Bureau was established by the Nationalist Government during the 1917 strike. A delegate from the Coal-lumpers' Union stated that some time ago the Trades Hall had put forward a scheme to his union to the effect that the union should admit "the scabs" on the waterfront. He said that the union could not for one moment think of such a proposal. Mr. J. S. Garden (secretary to the Labour Council) said that some time ago he had addressed the returned soldiers engaged on the water front employed through the Shipping Bureau. Those men had agreed to come into the Waterside Workers' Federation, but the then secretary (Mr. J. Woods) refused to admit them to his organisation. Mr. Seale said that Mr. Voigt was deputed by the Labour Council to go down to the Shipping Bureau. Mr. Voigt subsequently reported back: "It is no use going to those fellows, as they are absolutely hopeless." The bulk of the returned soldiers, said the speaker, were members of the Waterside Workers' Federation. Mr. Mills, in reply, said that the Labour Council was not acting in the best interests of organised Labour. The council, which should be at the head of the industrial movement, was only being used for the purpose of propagating something that was foreign to Australia. He further alleged that the council devoted most of its attention to "Red Russia." Mr. Howie, he added, during his speech said that he was supporting the motion, and at the same time he spoke in opposition to it. The Labour Council and Mr. Howie, it would appear, were trying to place the onus on the Waterside Workers' Union in regard to the Shipping Bureau employees. The Labour Council had "simply sat on the job and did nothing." The motion, on being put, was declared carried.[27][28]

LAND SETTLEMENT. LABOUR'S ATTITUDE. The special committee appointed for the purpose by the A.L.P. Conference has drawn up a lengthy report regarding immigration and land settlement for presentation to Mr. Wignall, the Labour member of the House of Commons and the British Labour representative on the delegation touring Australia to inquire into the dominions' land settlement scheme. The report is signed by Messrs. G. C. Bodkin, secretary, railway industry branch, A.W.U.; W. F. Dunn, ex-Minister for Agriculture, and deputy leader Parliamentary Labour party; J. S. Garden, secretary of the Labour Council; P. Laughlin, ex-Minister for Lands; C. B. Trefle, agricultural expert; M. Davidson, M.L.A., chairman of the committee; and E. R. Voigt director of the Labour Research and Information Bureau. The report states, inter alia:— The preliminary development work essential to providing the 6000 blocks in New South Wales under the scheme will take some years to complete, comprising, as it does, extensive railway construction, roadmaking, water conservation, surveys, etc., practically none of which has been commenced. Since there are estimated to be 25,000 to 30,000 unemployed in Now South Wales, it is difficult to credit the New South Wales capitalist Government with serious concern for the settlement, a number of years ahead, of 6000 workers from Britain. The committee believes that this land settlement scheme is a camouflage behind which the Governments concerned intend to work for the artificial stimulation of general immigration. The committee contend that while the New South Wales Government is willing to spend millions to settle a few inexperienced British workers on Australian land, thousands of experienced Australian land workers are making unsuccessful applications for the few blocks that become available, and the following figures are quoted as "an example of land hunger amongst Australians, which the New South Wales Government has apparently not noticed in its enthusiasm for immigration." The applications are stated to have been made in 1921: No. of Blocks, No. of Applicants. Coonamble 1, 247; Parkes 1, 497; Murwillumbah 3, 398; Lismore 1, 326; Wagga 1, 593; Corowa 1, 377. The report further states: "There is already a surplus of labour in the rural industries, and the New South Wales Government, which now contemplates inducing further supplies of labour from Britain, has deprived the local rural workers of what benefit they had secured under the Board of Trade minimum wage determination. With the exception of those working under the Federal arbitration award, the rural workers are now defenceless, and the keen competition for rural work has left them the worst-paid workers in the State, and only for specified seasonal operations, such as harvesting, are wages paid that in any degree approach wages paid under Industrial awards, These better-paid periods only last for a few weeks, and those engaged then set out once again on their search for temporary jobs to take them along week by week. In the considered opinion of the committee, the outcome of the land settlement scheme in question will be the probable failure of the settlers, the inevitable drift of unemployed towards the city, and the flooding of an already overstocked labour market."[29]

1923 07[edit]

CONTROL OF INDUSTRY. Problems Discussed. A meeting to discuss problems relating to the control of industry was held under the auspices of the Workers' Educational Association in the Assembly-room at the Education Department's building yesterday afternoon and last night. During the afternoon session Mr. D. Stewart, general secretary of the W.E.A., read a paper on "A Building Guild, for Australia," in which he advocated the benefits of the guild system as against the co-operative society system. At night Mr. Voigt, director of the Labor Research Bureau, submitted arguments for the replacing of the arbitration system by a scheme of industrial councils. The Attorney-General (Mr. Bavin), who was unable to be present, but who had perused Mr. Voigt's paper, forwarded a critical reply, which was read by Professor Peden.[30]

INDUSTRY. SYSTEM OF CONTROL. "IDEAS OF THEORISTS." Referring to the paper read by Mr. E. R. Voigt, director of the Labour Research Bureau, on the control of industry, Mr. L. Napier Thomson, vice-president of the Metal Trades' Association, said it was time that employers and business men generally took note of the fact that there was an increasing tendency for academic theorists to lay down various systems of industrial control, quite regardless of the fact that their training was lacking in any intimate knowledge of the subject. The whole tendency of the various academic schemes put forward was to run industry on socialised lines, something similar to the lines on which Government departments and Government enterprises were controlled at present. Every business man realised that this tendency struck at the root of all progress in industry. The control of industry, as Mr. Bavin had said, could never be taken out of the hands of the people who put their hard-earned capital into it without that industry failing. If unions wished to control industry they must own it, and if they spent the money they were now wasting on strikes and propaganda they could own it. At the same time, if employers did not wake up, men like the director of the Labour Research Bureau would have an opportunity of landing industry in chaos and confusion.[31]

HOW THE W.E.A. WINS. Fighting From Within. Would it not be possible for all Trade Union debaters to forego for a time their hair-splitting arguments in favor of various industrial and political utopias and concentrate upon the winning of the working class to the practical militant ideals of to-day? This question arises out of witnessing a debate between two Trade Union representatives at the W.E.A. rooms last Saturday night. That the W.E.A. can induce members of the Trade Unions to come on to their platform and make it the battlefield of a fight which belongs within the Labor movement shows that the W.E.A. has a grasp of the tactics necessary to social success. Last Saturday night Mr. Voigt, of the Labor Research Bureau, and Mr. McGrath of the printing trades, held each other up to ridicule on every possible occasion. It was unfortunate that the capitalist minister, Mr. Bavin was not present, he would have enjoyed the proceedings and would have added to the general merriment of the W.E.A.-ers. To conduct our fight along such lines is not only bad tactics, but is the essence of stupidity. The process must be reversed. Let the W.E.A. send its men to the Trades Hall, and there compare their bourgeois political and industrial theories with the working class position as it is. A United Front does not mean that we should go out of our way to prove to our opponents that there is no United Front.[32]

PARS ABOUT PEOPLE. Voigt and Vegetables. Emil Voigt, who has been in charge of the N.S.W. Labor Council Research and Information Bureau, and who "put it over" Billy Hughes at the Round Table Conference last year, leaves for America to-morrow, where, if he likes the country, he will make his home. Voigt, besides being a successful inventor, was one of the world's best long-distance pedestrians — a fact rendered very obvious by his remarkable collection of cups, medals, and other trophies. As far back as 1908 he won the five-miles championship at the Olympic Games in London. Incidentally, he bars meat, and achieved all his triumphs on a vegetable diet.[33]

LABOR WORLD. UNION NEWS. TRADES HALL. INDUSTRIALIST'S DEPARTURE. Mr. E. R. Voigt, Research officer to the Labor Council, left by the Maunganui for America yesterday. He was farewelled by a party of prominent industrialists, including Mr. J. Howie, who, during Mr. Voigt's absence, is filling the latter's office. Mr. J. S. Garden was unable to be present, he being a member of two deputations to Ministers.[34]

1923 08[edit]
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TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND CANCER. Writing from San Francisco, Mr. E. R. Voigt, Director and Secretary of the Labour Research and Information Bureau, at Sydney, states that he was fortunate in securing an interview with Dr. Albert Abrams, who gave him every opportunity to investigate his revolutionary discoveries in the treatment of disease. Mr. Voigt states: "In his clinic, I saw many oases of cancer, tuberculosis, and other hitherto incurable diseases, treated, and heard doctors and physicians pronounce improvements and actual cures. As a layman, I could not substantiate these medical diagnoses, but I could not fail to be impressed. Dr. Abrams has a particular interest in the condition of health of the workers, and I was given many demonstrations not usually accorded to the clinic. Once, after having been engaged with a well-known physician and a nurse for a whole afternoon in an experiment to produce anasthesla (unconsciousness) through one of Abrams's vibratory machines, I asked the physician if he really believed Abrams could cure cancer and tuberculosis. He replied that be had been forced to believe it, because no less than seven of his patients had been cured of consumption or cancer."[35]

1923 11[edit]
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1924[edit]

1924 01[edit]
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1924 Q2[edit]
1924 Q3[edit]

MR. ESMA HIGGINS. The Labor Research Department is again setting to work. Mr. Esma Higgins (a nephew of Mr. Justice Higgins), who has just arrived here from the London Labor Research Bureau, has now joined the staff of the Sydney bureau. In London, he had considerable experience, preparing matter for Labor members and other speakers, on all subjects of interest to the Working Class Movement. With the installing of Mr. Higgins and the approaching return from America of Mr. E. R. Voigt (director of the bureau), activities will assume new life, and the bureau will become one of the main factors in the industrial history of the country. Though a new phase of the movement, the services of the bureau are now being much sought after.[36]

1924 Q4[edit]

WIRELESS FOR WORKERS. Why should all persons who buy or make a "listening-in" set have to pay a license fee of 35/ to Farmer's or Broadcasters, of which 30/ goes to these advertising stunt firms? In Britain the license fee is only 10/, and the service is infinitely superior. Any ingenious schoolboy can make a good receiving set in a matchbox at a cost of 2/. Yet he breaks the law if he does not promptly hand over 35/ to Farmer's or Broadcasters. Messrs. Anthony Hordern, David Jones, New System Telephones, Marcus Clark, Mark Foy, Harrington, and Lassetter's Limited objected to the outrageous monopoly created, and were treated by Mr. Bruce as if they were children. These "Associated Seven" advocated one independent non-profit making Company as the controllers of broadcasting, but the Post Office is surely a sufficient lesson. The "one independent non-profit-making Company" should be the Government of the continent. That Government should make listening-in either free or so cheap that every worker, in country or city, could receive from radio all that radio can contribute to the enjoyment, instruction, and education of mankind. No greater wrong was ever committed against a community than the commercialisation of broadcasting, and the monopoly created by the egregious Mr. Bruce and his colleagues. This journal, therefore, demands wireless for workers, and suggests the immediate cancellation of the present scandalous arrangements. Did not the whole of the Sydney Press, with the exception of "The Labor Daily," suppress the recent Report from Mr. George A. Taylor, President of the Association for Developing Wireless in Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, written from Geneva, because that luminous Report denounced the stupidity of Mr. Bruce about the "Beam System," and advocated the scrapping of the Amalgamated Wireless Company, or, in the alternative, the appointment at once of an independent Commission to investigate the value of the patents, and alleged "goodwill," of the Amalgamated Wireless Company, for which Australia has paid £500,001? Of that arrangement the "Argus" wrote that it was "a dangerous debasement of political procedure," and the "Age" that it was "haste and its results," with Mr. Hughes as the "hastener" then, just as Mr. Bruce has been the hastener today. THE BEAM IN HIS EYE. Britain is erecting a Beam Station costing £58,024 entirely at the risk of Signor Marconi and his profit-greedy company, but Australia is erecting a Beam Station costing £125,000 entirely at the risk of the Australian taxpayers. The public would like the little difference explained, and also a clear elucidation of the mystery of the Poldhu Talk last June, for Mr. Fisk, of Vaucluse, Sydney, is reported in the London Press to have declared that it was "along a beam," and Signor Marconi, then of Poldhu, Cornwall, says it was not. It would really seem that Mr. Bruce has a beam in his eye, and that quite a number of others have the beam on the brain.[37]

THE RIGHT TO RADIO. To arouse workers to the importance of radio would be a great service to the working-class. Radio means much more than wages, which, in truth, are only a mirage. There are already 3,000,000 "listeners-in" in Great Britain, and for a maximum fee of 10/ a year they can "pick up" the whole of Britain, Paris, Berlin, and all other Continental capitals, and America, but here nobody can "pick up" anything, from a service of the poorest character, unless he pays 35/ a year in advance to Farmer's Limited or Broadcasters. Those favored firms did not broadcast the leading article in this journal on Monday, on "Wireless for Workers," yet it would be tor the public good to broadcast the truth. But next day they broadcasted "Rule Britannia," "The Story of Nelson," "Ye Mariners of England," "Admirals All," an address by his Excellency, "the Democratic de Chair," and a speech by the interesting Mr. Albert Bruntnell, M.L.A. The advocates and defenders of child conscription, who punish little boys for not attending drill, now propose to prosecute them if they are sufficiently ingenious to make a receiving set at a cost of two shillings. Of course, it will be replied that all can avoid trouble by contributing 35/ to the tills of Farmer's or Broadcasters, of which 30/, remains there. But why should they be called upon to do anything of the kind? Radio does not belong to two favored firms, but to man. Not even the benediction of Mr. Bruce can make radio theirs, yet the law dares to declare that they are to levy a tribute of 30/ a year on the use of the ether. There is much mummery about the supposed mystery and cost of radio, yet radio is simple and cheap, Farmer's broadcast on 5000 watts, but many big stations in the United States broadcast on 500 watts, which is equal to ten house electric lights, and New Zealand has been reached from Sydney on one-tenth of an amp. Already the Bruce Government has commercialised radio, and the stunt advertising firms, granted such unwarranted concessions, are utilising radio as a means of capitalist propaganda. THE LABOR COUNCIL. The Labor Council is a live body, and it should become alive to the rapid development of radio and its immeasurable importance to workers. Radio means more than "listening-in." The control of radio means the control of public opinion. The Press will not pass, but radio will mould opinion more. The Labor Council of this State could initiate a policy, by means of a well-considered Report, which would result, eventually, in workers' control of radio. Now and at all times they have a right to radio, and should assert it.[38]

THE WORKERS ARE WIRELESS-WISE. Radio is Big Publicity Weapon — At Present a Capitalist Monopoly. LABOR COUNCIL INTERESTED. Sydney Labor Council is to consider establishing a workers' radio service in this State. At last night's meeting of the council a letter from Mr. E. R. Voigt, secretary of the Sydney Sydney Labor Research Bureau, was read out. Mr. Voigt is in Los Angeles at present, but will return to Australia at an early date. The letter reads: "Is the Labor Council alive to the rapid development and the importance to the workers of radio? "In Britain radio has grown to great power. There are approximately 3,000,000 listeners-in in Britain, and probably 5,000,000 in U.S.A. "Each political speech is broadcasted, and relayed to millions of listeners-in, long before the newspapers can print the news. "At first the newspapers in Britain and in U.S.A. fought radio, and re-fused to print the programmes. Today they have accepted the inevitable, and in Los Angeles, for instance, the newspapers are the most powerful broadcasters. "Each evening we get the following day's news, musical entertainments, capitalist economics, language instruction, lectures from the Bible Associations, and the Ku Klux Klan. RADIO IS INEXPENSIVE "There is a lot of bunkum about radio. The authorities like the workers to believe that it is mysterious, complicated and expensive. It is simple and inexpensive. Farmer's at Sydney broadcast on 5000 watts. Many of the big stations in U.S.A. use only 500 watts (equal to 10 electric house lamps only). A Sydney amateur reached Melbourne recently with only one amp, and later sent a message to New Zealand with less than a tenth of one amp. "Can you see the possibilities? The unions and the A.L.P. should have broadcasting stations in every district, and a big general broadcasting station in every State. "The expense would be ridiculously small, especially when compared with running a newspaper. "Each trade union member should buy a receiver with his membership; cost would be about 5/ to 10/. They could be made cheaper by the unions themselves. "Meetings could be called by radio, and strikes and strike news, too. Capitalist lies could be nailed daily to the workers sitting comfortably in their own homes. WORKERS SHOULD ACT "Lectures could be given on Marxian economics, Russia, trades union organisation, the O.B.U., industrial health, or international events at practically no cost at all. "The boss wants to keep the workers divided. The Press is his big weapon. Radio threatens the Press. "We must get some control of radio. Already the Australian Government plays into the hands of the capitalists by demanding a bond of £1000 for each broadcasting station. "I have been building a few radio receivers myself, and selling them. Recently I built one of the simplest and cheapest valve sets made. We got 1000 miles, including San Francisco and Seattle without difficulty. "Our kiddies won't go to bed without radio, and receive capitalism's imprint each night in the Children's Hour." Council decided to refer the matter to the executive to inquire into the possibilities of a scheme.[39]

PUBLIC PROTEST OVER WIRELESS. Meeting at Bondi Junction Vigorously Supports "The Labor Daily's" Attitude — Monopoly Condemned RADIO FOR WORKERS "The Labor Daily's" leaders of Monday and Thursday on "Wireless for Workers," and "The Right to Radio," formed the subject of a public meeting at Bondi Junction last evening. Mr. Walter Humphries, the principal speaker, blamed the Federal Government for placing broadcasting in the hands of two great monopolies in Sydney to the detriment of the people of Australia. The local Federal member — Mr. Marks, for he stood firmly behind the Government, which had voted half a million of the people's money as half of the share capital for goodwill, and then charged the citizens 35/ for the right to listen-in." Out of this amount the Government only received 5/, while the big firms who broadcasted mainly for the purpose of advertising themselves took the balance. No Use to People "Of course Mr. Mark would naturally feel elated over the fact that he could sit in ease at home and hear how the share market was going." he said, "but the unfortunate who had the license fee dragged out of him did not receive any benefit from such transmission." The people had, during the week, been startled to read of the whole business in the two able leaders of "The Labor Daily." He felt he was voicing the opinion of the people of Wentworth when he hoped the newspaper would not let the matter drop. (Applause.) "If you people take the paper it can deal very fully with other matters as well as wireless, and the underground work in connection with the wireless business will receive its just reward in such a worthy champion of the people."[40]

LABOR'S HISTORIC CONFERENCE BEGINS IN MELBOURNE TO-DAY. FORMULATING NATIONAL AND DOMESTIC POLICIES. BIG SCHEME OF CHILD ENDOWMENT — SUPREME AUTHORITY ISSUE — FINANCE BY LEVY ON WEALTH — GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF WIRELESS — DEFENCE PROBLEMS. MIGRATION QUESTION. THE TENTH Interstate Political Labor Conference will assemble in Melbourne this morning and will beyond doubt be an historic gathering. . . . Broadcasting and Aviation. The South Australian branch of the A.L.P., proposes the adoption of three interesting new planks, under the heading of National Work, namely:— Government control of wireless broad-casting. Development of commercial aviation. ??/ship service between Australia and Europe. The unification of the railway guages, co-operative farm pools, etc., Commonwealth Produce Marketing ???me, the restoration of the Plimsoll Mark on ships, development of the Commonwealth Line, and development of the Northern Territory, are amongst the matters which South Australia also desires discussed. [41]

POPULARISE THE WIRELESS. I have been greatly interested in the case you have made out against the present system of excessive fees for the right to listen-in. It appears to me that a great mistake has been made in not taking radio material sellers and makers of outfits instead of the present arrangements. We who have the interest of the worker at heart would like to see "The Labor Daily" set up a wireless station for broadcasting news and general service. Our blind folk should be allowed to listen-in as they sit at their work, our sick should be allowed to hear singing and musical items without fear of being punished for so doing, and the men, women and children of the lonely bush should be allowed the priceless boon of wireless. This would be possible with receiving stations at various towns. We feel sure there are hundreds of good Australians who would gladly offer their services free to sing to the blind and sick. Places of amusement can only hold their complement, so that they will lose nothing by people listening-in who are living too far away to attend. Also the man at Woop Woop is entitled to hear a description of a race as it is being run, or a boxing contest as the argument proceeds. The question arises, can people be prosecuted for listening-in to other stations than the two subsidised, or must these two places be paid for the right to listen-in to others? C.R.M.[42]

OPINIONS OF READERS. TO CORRESPONDENTS. To ensure publication in "The Labor Daily," letters must be accompanied by names of the writers (not necessarily for publication), and their correct addresses. THE NATIONALISATION OF WIRELESS. Should Farmer's, or for that matter any company, be allowed to monopolise the ether for the purpose of hurling programmes at an over-charged audience? Most assuredly no. The granting of a monopoly to Farmer's by our Government is a betrayal of the public cause. Surely our fine country is not so far behind the other countries of the world that we cannot draw up a suitable scheme of broadcasting and support that wonderful convenience, which, in a properly controlled country, ranks second only to the Press in importance! We should not let this stand as a blot on our country, to be pointed to by every truly progressive country. In America, the most advanced country in the world, the public would not stand for an instant any encroachment on its liberty to use the ether. The Secretary for Commerce only last month emphatically declared: "I am absolutely opposed to imposing a charge on radio listeners by law." "Look at this picture and on that." In America the Comptroller of Wireless is opposed to charging the radiocast listener. In Australia (surely not an immeasurable distance behind the States) the comptrollers charge the public the monstrous sum of 35/ — without a flick of their eyelashes. No! I err not in saying "the Comptrollers of Wireless," for Mr. J. Malone is as nothing compared to Farmer and Co., when it comes to a matter dealing with the making of regulations. Did not that firm refuse to join in the conference when something opposed to their interests was proposed? And so they virtually dictated to the authorities, since because they were not present the conference was not representative of wireless in Australia which it had to be before any laws could be passed. The real way to deal with the question is for the Government to take up complete control and not charge a fee, but divert some of the revenue of the country to pay for it, as is done in America. It is quite evident that no half-hearted dealing with the matter can avail anything. There should not be even a small charge, as in England. As an example of the efficiency of this system, we have only to look at U.S.A. There the performers are the best in the world, and yet the concerns which keep the matter on the air do so at their own cost, and are amply repaid by the publicity and advertising facilities which radiocasting gives them.— "NO BROADCAST FEE." [43]

ARE WE SACRIFICING RADIO IN AUSTRALIA? A Correspondent Wants the Duty off Radio Apparatus — Also Purely Governmental Control of Wireless. "Finis" writes:— Is radio in Australia to be sacrificed to the interests of Amalgamated Wireless, Farmers', and their respective agents in the present Government? For surely we cannot deny that this great public utility is being sacrificed to these firms. Why is there the exorbitant duty of 40 per cent. on all radio apparatus imported into Australia from overseas, when manufactories are incapable of producing comparable articles here? This fact is best shown by reason of the fact that the radio public is prepared to pay the 40 per cent. higher prices rather than put up with the inferior apparatus locally produced. Is it not madness to impose this duty to protect an industry which gives no valid reason for its existence by producing marketable apparatus? Farmers' has arranged with the Government to obtain a monopoly of broadcasting, and also of 70 per cent. of the 35/ paid for a license. The license itself is a big joke, for who, looking at other countries like U.S.A., where radio is a tried and proven public convenience, and where no registration fee is charged, is prepared to pay this ruinous price to listen to two stations, whereas our cousins across the pond have hundreds of stations at their disposal and no fee to pay? Surely it is time that a movement was set on foot, firstly, to remove or at least reduce to a reasonable figure the duty on radio apparatus, and secondly, to remove the broadcast listeners' fee, and, last, but by far the most important, to agitate for the[44]

SPREADING LABOR VIEWS BY MEANS OF WIRELESS. WOLLONGONG, Sunday.— The articles recently appearing in "The Labor Daily" have impressed trades unionists and Labor supporters generally with the importance of wireless, and the opportunities it provides for the broadcasting of Labor propaganda. The principal drawback to the universal ownership of a set to the great number of men who are on the basic wage, is the extortionate license fee demanded. It is held the fee could be quite easily reduced to 5/- per annum, and still allow the broadcasting companies a handsome profit. Two of the large unions in this district, the A.W.U. and the Enqinedrivers and Firemen — have carried resolutions protesting against the prosecutions for non-payment of the fee, which they consider extortionate, especially to workers and juniors, who mostly have only crystal sets. The Port Kembla section of the A.W.U., realising the possibilities of wireless, at its last meeting carried a further resolution urging the calling of a conference of the A.W.U., the Trades and Labor Council, unions and Labor supporters generally, to discuss the establishing of wireless broadcasting stations in each State capital for the issuing of Labor propaganda and news.[45]

WIRELESS CONTROL. SO THAT wireless may be run in the interests of the people, Mr. Davies asked the Premier last night if he would consider the taking over of the whole of the wireless stations, thus following the lead of the Labor Government in Queensland. The Premier is so out of touch of things that he did not even know of Queensland's action. However, he thought the proposal a good one, and promised to go into the matter with his colleagues.[46]

A "CORNER" IN AIR FOR TWO YEARS! BRUCE THROTTLES WIRELESS WITH GREAT MONOPOLY. BROADCASTERS, BROADCAST THIS! "SIGNALS STRONG" — the message that listeners-in should love to hear — daily gathers an actually uglier significance in Australia as daily the press of wireless enthusiasts grows, their difficulties increase, their chagrin intensifies, and the profits of the wireless monopolists accumulate. OUR KIND NATIONALISED Post Office submissively collects the great rake-off arranged by the Bruce-Page Government for a few gentlemen who have banded together and cornered the air over 3,000,000 square miles of land and three-mile-limit water. IN RETURN FOR THIS tribute to monopoly, listeners-in get poor programmes and advertising matter. In this respect the buyer directly pays the seller to advertise — so directly that he wonders now how the put-over was arranged! HERE FOLLOWS the complete story of the Federal Government's imposition on the people. A PEOPLE IN TRIBUTE. When the Federal Government, on July 17, 1924, published regulations under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, 05-19, it achieved certain typical ends, as follow:— 1.— It placed a big and ever-increasing percentage of the people of Australia under tribute to eight firms by compelling the owner of every receiving set to register and pay 35/ (or 30/ and 25/ in the more distant zones). Other classes of wireless user are compelled to pay varying sums. 2.— It turned the Post Office into an account-collecting agency for the Wireless Trust, to whom it pays all but 5/ per license of the entire sums collected. 3.— It ensured that broadcasting would remain in the hands of "right-thinking" people, who held capitalistic views. Conversely it prevented any attempt being made to educate and uplift the workers by utilisation of this vast field for propaganda. 4.— It established a corner in air. REMARKABLE REGULATIONS. For public enlightenment the more remarkable of these regulations certainly should be quoted. Part III. of the regulations under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, vide Statutory Rules, 1924, No. 101, states, inter alia:— Reg. 45.— There shall be two classes of broadcasting stations, namely:— (a) Class A Stations, the licensees of which will, in accordance with the provisions of this division, receive pro-portions of the available revenue. (b) Class B Stations, the licensees of which shall not receive any portion of the available revenue. Reg. 46.— Subject to the provisions of this part, the maximum number of licensees to operate Class A Stations in each State respectively shall be:— (a) In New South Wales and Victoria, two; and (b) In all other States, one. Rule 60 provides that Class A and specially approved Class B Stations may broadcast advertisements. Rule 62 provides that a licensee shall be entitled to receive the following proportion of revenue obtained in the State in which the stations are situated, viz.:— (a) The existing licensee of the high-power station in New South Wales (Farmer and Co. Ltd.) or Victoria — seventy per cent. of the available revenue; (b) The other licensee in New South Wales (Broadcasters Ltd.). or Victoria — thirty per cent. of the available revenue; and (c) The licensee in any of the other States — the whole of the avail-able revenue. In order thoroughly to entrench the monopolists the following remarkable regulation is inserted: AUDACITY'S LIMIT. Reg 69 (a) Subject to the continuance of a broadcasting service to the satisfaction of the Postmaster-General, these Regulations, so far as they relate to the number of Class A Station licensees, and the amount of available revenue apportioned to the broadcasting licensee, shall not be altered within a period of two years from the date of their commencement. Reg 72 provides:— The license fee in respect of the first class A Station to be operated by a licensee shall be £15 per annum, and for any subsequent station operated by that licensee in the same State shall be £5 per annum. This year listeners have the small satisfaction of knowing that 5/ out of the 35/ they pay for their licenses went to swell Government revenue. Next year the fee will be reduced by 5/, and the whole of the balance of 30/ (it will be 25/ and 20/ in distant zones) will go to the monopolists. The fee of 35/ charged to owners of receiving sets is probably a world's record for high charges. In England the maximum charge is 10/ and in the United States it is nil. Moreover the programmes supplied in these two countries are incompar-ably superior to those kindly donated in Australia, and are generally free of advertising matter for which we pay. WORKERS SUFFER. This direct attack by the predatory interests, kindly conducted by the Federal Government, naturally falls heaviest on the workers, of whom, per-haps the eager boys and apprentices feel it most. Although almost anybody can con-struct a crystal set for a few shillings, after buying headphones, the license fees are absolutely prohibitive to many. Thus the workers are denied even the relaxation and measure of enjoyment provided by the existing (mostly poor) programmes. People must pay Farmer and Coy. Ltd. and Broadcasters Ltd. for the right to receive ether vibrations, which they are not allowed to obtain from other sources. It is the nearest step to selling the air we breathe that has so far been achieved by monopolists. LISTEN HERE, BRUCE! Since it is the order of the day an-other vast field for exercise of patron-age and profits to his friends is suggested to Mr. Bruce. That is, the ??? might be granted to Lord Inchcape (or his deputy, Sir Owen Cox) with exclusive right to levy toll on all users of boats — big or little. Sir George Fuller, too, might profit by the example and grant an exclusive franchise to some group of capitalists to exploit the Sydney water supply. Such tactics would only be in accordance with those displayed by the promoters of the Great Wireless Grab. PENALTIES. But the worker who seeks diversion in jazz music and singsong in market reports and bedtime stories, must pay his tax. Here is the warning:— Reg. 82 reads: The user of receiving equipment shall be in possession of a current license. And Reg. 91 provides for the penalty:— "Any person who acts in contravention of any provision of these regulations or fails to comply with any condition of a license shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. "Penalty: Twenty pounds." SNUBBED, Other firms have tried without success, to secure the rights held by Farmer's and Broadcasters. The so-called Associated Seven made big efforts a few months ago to get Mr. Bruce's consent for them to receive broadcasting licenses, and were treated in very cavalier fashion, terminating in blunt refusal. The Associated Seven comprise Anthony Hordern and Sons, David Jones Ltd., New System Telephones, Marcus Clark and Co., Mark Foy's, Harringtons, and Lassetter's. For two years the monopolists are safe. Even a Labor Government will find it hard to overcome Regulation 69 (a) providing for no alteration of regulations affecting monopolists. LABOR'S CHANCE. But, in due course, an unfettered Labor Government, will have a wonderful opportunity to help the workers. By arranging for Governmental control of wireless, and the arrangement of high-class musical and educational programmes (special lectures, special news service, etc.), much enlightenment and healthy amusement for the workers may be provided. Moreover, fees can be reduced to a minimum. Communication with workers in foreign lands will be possible, and the lot of the workers in the isolated country districts will become more bearable. Truly, much hope for the workers is to be found in the sky.[47]

1925[edit]

1925 01[edit]

WIRELESS MONOPOLY WELL ENTRENCHED. SOMETHING ROTTEN SOMEWHERE. BUT FIRMS WON'T TALK. A BROADCASTED SILENCE. (No. 2.) FEAR OF PROFITS to be lost, and hope — for future favors — seems to tie the tongues of the Sydney wireless dealers. A PROFOUND (Broadcasted ?) silence in the "trade" is broken only by whispers ending, "but that must not be published." Or perhaps the trader faintly murmurs the words of the old song, "If you talk in your sleep, please don't mention my name!" THIS VERY CURIOUS position makes the broadcasting monopoly a greater menace than ever to the workers. WHEN MEN TALK in whispers, evil stalks abroad. Probing . . . . . . profit from broadcasting is the strong-est of all. TENTACLES OF TRADE The tentacles of trade are now embedded and intertwined in every strand of the fabric of commerce. Heavy in the minds of the directors of many big companies a fierce desire to tell they know about the other fellow is silenced by fear of reactions on their trade. One gentleman, who stands high in the commercial life of the city, holds the opinion that there is some secret agreement between the Federal Government, Amalgamated Wireless, and Farmer and Co. Ltd., whereby the last-named firm secured its extraordinary privileges to exploit the people of this State. On the other hand another equally well-known city man expressed the view that there was no secret agreement, but that the Government felt "in honor bound" to agree to Farmer's special privileges as this firm had been early in the field. TO SELL MORE SETS Where one man stated that the firms who supported the co-operative idea did so because they wanted to improve broadcasting for its own sake, by devoting profits to that end, and thus give all traders a "fair go", another quite frankly made the statement that the object of the "co-operators" was certainly a better service, but this was designed to make wireless more popular AND THUS ALL DEALERS COULD SELL MORE SETS. Whether it was altruism alone, or altruism that would serve self-interest, the public may judge for themselves. DOES IT PAY? There is a strong expression of opinion in certain quarters that Farmer and Co., Ltd., and Broadcasters, Ltd., are on a splendid wicket. Again, some traders take the view that the service is so uneven in quality that people everywhere are becoming disgusted and that the monopolists may ultimately own a white elephant. Still another view in the trade is that the service is as good as could be expected thus . . . . Sometimes only was a little information given for publication, and then usually with the injunction, "But you must not mention our name." In wireless circles there is evidently a broadcasted silence. Meanwhile, as the "Labor Daily" has pointed out, the monopoly is entrenched for two years by Reg. 69 (a), but it is possible that this period may be extended to five years, as broadcasting licenses are issued for that period. LASSETTER'S VIEW One of the few firms that was prepared to frankly discuss the matter is F. Lassetter and Co. Ltd. Mr. Frederic Lassetter, who was actively connected with the "Associated Seven," in the course of an interview with a "Labor Daily" representative yesterday spoke quite freely. "The monopoly," said Mr. Lassetter, "is contrary to public policy altogether. The idea held by the associated seven was to promote a co-operative concern, which would seek no more than a bare five per cent. profit. All other profits in excess of that amount would be devoted toward the improvement of the service and lessening listening-in fees, etc. "All dealers would be expected to take up shares proportionately to stocks held, and the public also were to be invited to subscribe. "However, the Government's agreement with Farmer and Co. Ltd. prevents the co-operative idea taking effect."[48]

FEDERAL LABOR PLATFORM. (The following is the Federal Labor Platform, which was decided on at the last Interstate Conference: OBJECTIVE. The Socialisation of Industry, Production, Distribution and Exchange. METHODS. Socialisation of Industry by: (a) The constitutional utilisation of Industrial and Parliamentary machinery. (b) The organisation of worker's along the lines of industry. (c) Nationalisation of banking and principal industries. (d) The municipalisation of such services as can best be operated in limited areas. (e) Government of nationalised industries by boards, upon which the workers in the industries and the community shall have representation. (f) The establishment of an Elective Supreme Economic Council by all nationalised industries. (g) The setting up of Labor Research and Labor Information Bureaux, and of Labor educational institutions, in which the workers shall be trained in the management of the nationalised industries.[49]

WELL WARNED. A WIRELESS WORD. MR. LANG INDICATES COMING EVENTS. WHEN Labor gets control of the Government there will be a vast improvement in the services given by the wireless broadcasting station. "I think," said Mr. Lang, Leader of the State Parliamentary Labor Party yesterday, "the time has arrived for me to warn the public concerning the uses to which the authorised wireless broadcasting services are being put to in relation to controversial politics. OVER THE BORDER. Occasionally information is broadcasted from the Conservative newspaper offices which to my mind crosses the border line of news and enters the arena of political propaganda. "The other night some claims of Sir Arthur Cocks regarding alleged economies in his department. and some references to the waterside trouble, sounded distinctly one-sided. I have not listened to any reference to the men's side of the question, nor has any comment been made on the Government's action in enormously increasing the salaries of the Railway Commissioners and some favored under secretaries. NEVER A LINE. "As far as I am aware," continued Mr. Lang, "There has never been a line of Labor news broadcasted by these privileged distributing agencies and the time may soon arrive to deal drastically with their operation if they intend to allow their channels of publicity to be used for party purposes. "I will say no more at present, but can assure the broadcasting companies that the Labor Party is not going to tolerate the air being used for Nationalist propaganda unless equal opportunities are afforded to the Party to which I belong. "If the broadcasting stations are prepared to send out political and departmental information culled from Conservative newspapers, I think they should also be prepared to broadcast views from Labor.[50]

1925 02[edit]

RADIO FOR LABOR. ITS AMAZING POSSIBILITIES POWERFUL METHOD OF PUBLICITY. BROADCASTING FROM TRADES HALL. By E. R. VOIGHT (Labor Research and Information Bureau). "IN 1897 MARCONI was asked: "How far do you think a radio despatch could be sent?" "Twenty miles," was his reply. TO-DAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS are passing between Australia and America, and wireless telephone conversations are conducted between London, New York, Paris, and Honolulu. BUT LITTLE MORE than a year ago. there was not a single radio store in Sydney. Today radio is a thriving trade supporting scores of well-stocked shops and factories. One Sydney factory alone employs over 800 workmen. At first the fact that radio communication could not be carried out with privacy was regarded as a very serious limitation to the development of wireless telephony. Today it is clearly recognised that what was once regarded as a serious disability is now a great advantage. Radio has progressed with giant strides. General news, stock quotations, cricket scores, weather reports must ???? political pronouncements ???? broadcast into the air to be picked up by scores of thousands, nay millions of listeners-in. Radio is rapidly developing into the most powerful engine of publicity ever discovered. In the United States political candidates no longer travel around the country ???? miles addressing a few hundreds each day and working themselves into a state of physical bankruptcy. President Coolidge his rivals for ???? ???? RADIO AND PRESS In Great Britain and Europe and in America, the Press was at first inclined to look with some disfavor on the rapid rise of radio publicity. Foreign cables, local news, stock quotations, weather reports etc., were broadcast by wireless long before they could be published by the news-papers. It was to radio that cricket and football fans turned for quick and progressive news of the games. In U.S.A. all the important baseball and football games have long been broadcast every few minutes during the progress of the matches to scores of thousands of followers of sport at home, and in the streets. In American cities, the traffic is often blocked by thousands of fans congregated round the newspaper offices, following with rival cheering, the progress of the games by radio. The Press was, however, quick to recognise the irresistible power of radio, and in every country is now co-operating with its development. In the United States, the Press controls a large number of the most powerful stations, from which music, lectures, and news are broadcast at intervals throughout the day. In Los Angeles, for example, every daily newspaper has its own broadcast station. It should also be mentioned in U.S.A., no license whatever is charged by the Government to users of receiving sets. The broadcast stations have, therefore, no income from license fees. They are run as voluntary institutions, the artists give their services free, and are only too willing to take advantage of the publicity offered by radio broadcasting. RADIO AND LABOR It is futile to imagine that such a powerful method of publicity as radio can long be kept out of politics. The advantages offered by wireless for the dissemination of political news and views are irresistible. Nor is it possible to maintain "impartial" broadcasting stations. The protest of Mr. Lang a few days ago in the Press, against the use of the broadcasting stations by the Nationalists and also against the ???? ???? against the waterside workers in the present dispute, brings this point into clear relief. In Parliament and in the Press the Labor movement in Australia and throughout the world, has found after most bitter experiences, that impartiality is a myth. In Parliament, Labor has been favoured to establish its own independent Radio station. In the Press, the same expectations were encountered, and in ???? to secure expression for the hopes and opinions of the worker the Labor movement of Australia has at own newspapers. Can anyone doubt that the same op-???? wireless? In U.S.A. a number of stations have already established their own broadcast stations. There is little doubt that in the next few years, wireless communication between the various widespread sections of the Labor movement will be a regular and indispensible feature. UNIONS TO ACT What are the principal advantages to the organised workers of Australia offered by radio? Here are a few. 1. The cost of the erection of broadcasting stations in the six capital cities of Australia is a comparatively inexpensive matter, well within reach of the workers 2. The use of wireless at election times by Labor would represent an immense saving in time, energy, and health, and would considerably nullify the advantages to the Nationalists of the Capitalist Press. 3. Trade union meetings could be called by radio, and the members kept in closer touch with the operations of their organisations. 4. Regular daily communication could be established between the Labor organisations in the different States of the Commonwealth, thereby establishing that regular contact which is the basis of unified action. The Trades Unions are already beginning to realise the immense advantages which radio offers to the Labor movement. The matter has already been discussed by the Sydney Trades and Labor Council in full session, and at its next meeting a concrete scheme will be put forward for the erection of a broadcast and receiving station at the Trades Hall. If the scheme is adopted, there is but little doubt that the erection of broadcast and receiving stations by the Trades Unions in Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, and Hobart, will quickly follow. The great weakness of the Labor movement always has been, and still is, the extended nature of its organisation, and the difficulty in maintaining communication between its widespread sections. Radio, with its amazing possibilities of quick and cheap communicntion, offers already a practical solution of the problem, and the Labor movement must leave no stone unturned to secure its share, unhampered by outside interference, of the wireless wonder that has arisen from the turmoil of Labor activity.[51]

UNION NEWS AND A.L.P. NOTES. Personal Items. Mr Emil Voigt who is director of the Labor Research Bureau at the Sydney Trades Hall, has returned after an absence of 18 months in America. While away he closely studied the development of the Labor movement in other lands. Mr. Voigt proposes to permanently settle in Australia.[52]

WIRELESS FOR WORKERS. LABOR BROADCASTING STATIONS. QUICK AND EASY SOLUTIONS OF MANY PROBLEMS. ANOTHER FIGHT TO BE WON. . . . . . (vast majority of text of long article illegible)[53]

1925 03[edit]

SOMETHING TO FIGHT FOR. RADIO FOR LABOR'S RANK AND FILE. ITS INDUSTRIAL USES. BROADCASTING FROM LABOR CENTRE. THERE is no other field which offers so much scope for the rapid and widespread development of wireless communication as does the Trades Union Movement. ON THE OTHER HAND, there is no invention that gives forth such promise for the development and consolidation of the Trades Union as does radio. A FEW YEARS AGO no one dreamed of the possibilities of broadcasting. To-day the manufacture of radio equipment is classed amongst the fourteen principal industries of the United States, and is progressing at a rate far in excess of that of any other industry. MANY PEOPLE still regard radio as a toy, and this view is fostered by the authorities for their own peculiar purposes. In most countries where radio is established, the capitalist Government combines with the big vested interests which control the radio patents, and between the two the radio-using public is most systematically and thoroughly fleeced. Such Governments as the British and Australian Federal Governments are torn between the desire to facilitate the sale of as many wireless sets as possible for the profit of their monopolistic bedfellow, and at the same time to maintain control of this new powerful engine of publicity. The installation and operating of wireless broadcasting and reception is so inexpensive, the advantages in trade union organisation are so striking, and its political uses so apparent and illimitable, that no capitalist Government can be blamed for taking steps to prevent the serious adoptlon of wireless communication by Labor. We do not expect the leopard to change his spots or the tiger to eat grass. We expect the acts of any capitalist Government to be anti-Labor acts. The wireless regulations framed by the Nationalist Federal Government are anti-Labor, and the Government-cum-combine control of "commercial" broadcasting they have established is an anti-Labor measure. The organised workers will demand that their Parliamentary representatives refuse to be guiled by the fiction of "impartial" broadcasting stations, and claim the free and unhampered use of their own stations. A glance at a few of the many advantages which radio offers to working-class organisation will readily explain the anxiety of the capitalist Governments for a monopoly of broadcasting. State Labor Plan A radio broadcasting scheme for Labor would first include the erection of a broadcasting and receiving station at a recognised centre of Labor activity. The necessary complement of the broadcasting station would be the provision of a simple receiving set, manufactured by the workers in their own shops, and provided by the unions free, or at nominal cost to their members. All those unions which thus equipped themselves with wireless would be in a unique position to develop and to consolidate their organisation. One of the reasons why union secretaries and organisers cannot preserve closer contact with their members is owing to the considerable expense and time involved by communicating through the post with each individual member. The cost of broadcasting a call to members of a wireless-equipped union is practically nil. The call can be made to ten thousand members with no more trouble, time, and expense than it takes to send a telephone call through to one person. The possibilities here are immense. Meetings can be called by wireless that in the ordinary case would be prohibitive. The efficiency of any union depends largely upon the co-operation of its individual members. Wireless for the first time offers a medium well within reach of the funds of the union, whereby every member can be kept in the closest touch with the operations and the plans of their organisation. Wireless Publicity. It is the desire or the aim of every union to have some organ of publicity through which it can reach its own members, and, where it is ambitious enough, through which it can send forth its news, views, and propaganda to the trade union movement in general, and to the general public. Very few unions can afford the luxury of a monthly, weekly, or daily organ. Wireless broadcasting at once solves this difficulty. The smallest union can command as big an audience as the most powerful union, or the largest capitalist daily newspaper. Arbitration and Strikes. The establishment of a broadcasting and receiving station in Sydney would naturally lead to the installation of smaller stations throughout the State, and a similar chain of stations in the other States of the Commonwealth. The advantages of being able to establish oral communication be-tween distant sections of a union or between the various State trade union centres will at once be apparent. In the conduct of Arbitration Court cases, and in the prosecution of strikes, wireless communication will set up entirely new standards and procedure. The consistent abuse and misrepresentation issued by all sections of the capitalist Press during a strike are well known. They prejudice the case of the strikers, and constitute one of the employers' most powerful weapons. Radio offers a means well within reach of the workers for countering this propaganda as it appears; and radio will reach an audience that in the ordinary course would never read a Labor paper. Again, radio provides a striking union with the ready means of preserving contact not only with its various sections, but also with the other unions and organisations upon whose support it so often must depend. Education by Wireless. The average worker has a capitalist mentality. Were it otherwise, there would be no capitalist system. While capitalism controls the schools, the pulpit, and, above all, the Press, this mentality will persist. It is the great stumbling block to the workers in their class struggle, and will continue until the overthrow of the capitalist system itself. It should, however, be the object of the leaders of the workers to dissipate as far as possible this capitalist ideology. In the matter of publicity and the dissemination of working-class education, the workers have been under an overwhelmingly heavy handicap, owing to the complicated machinery and heavy expenses involved. Wireless broadcasting offers a new, extensive, and inexpensive means of disseminating working-class news and views among the masses. We can broadcast our news and views daily to scores of thousands inside and outside the Labor Movement. We can broadcast the mass of facts and figures concerning the work, wages, and conditions of the workers in this and other countries, which is now lying useless in our Research Bureaux and in every union secretary's office. Our lectures on economics, history, etc., from the working-class stand-point, in place of an audience of a score or so, could be broadcast to many thousands, who could never be reached by any other method than wireless. But it must not be forgotten that wireless broadcasting offers too many advantages to the organised working-class ever to drop into their hands without a struggle.[54]

RADIO FOR LABOR. HOW IT CAN HELP AT ELECTIONS. CUTTING DOWN EXPENSES. FICTION OF IMPARTIALITY. IT IS, OF COURSE, contended that the existing broadcastinging stations are impartial organs of publicity, and that, in any case, they are not used for political purposes. That statement need not be taken too seriously. The leader of the State Parliamentary Labor Party has already drawn attention in the Press to statements broadcasted over the air, statements which have all the appearances of Nationalist and anti-Labor propaganda. If this is happening at the very inception of wireless, at a time when the friction of "impartial" broadcasting stations is being stressed, it will not require much imagination to forecast fairly accurately the part such stations will play when there is a big industrial or political issue at stake. The workers have no fault to find with this situation, provided always that the issue is clear and unmistakable. There is no half-way house in the daily struggle of the workers towards their objective — the control of industry. Those who are not for us are against us. We desire that to be clearly understood by all. Non-Labor is anti-Labor. Non-Labor broadcasting stations may propagate on the air what news, views, or educational programmes they may wish, Labor claims the right to do likewise. POWER OF PUBLICITY. The most powerful force in government today is publicity. In the vital matter of publicity the balance of power has always been, and still is, overwhelmingly in favor of the opponents of the workers and against Labor. Should there be an industrial dispute between the employers and the workers, the case for the employers is given full publicity, with the best arguments that can be brought forward to support it, while the case for the workers is distorted, ridiculed or suppressed. Again, in the case of the elections, the mask of impartiality is dropped by the anti-Labor Press, and the great weakness of the workers in publicity compared with their opponents, is brought into clear relief. If we glance down the course of modern history, there is one fact which stands out clearly for all to see. It is this: That no Government, whether Capitalist, Labor, Socialist or Communist, can long maintain itself in power unless it has the goodwill of, of controls, the great organs of publicity. Wireless Publicity With the advent of wireless, a new world-force has arisen, which threat-ens to upset completely the balance of power now held by the opponents of the workers. No one who regards the amazing strides made by wireless communication in this and other countries during the past eighteen months can fail to recognise the fact that in a year or two radio will constitute one of the most powerful engines of publicity that exists. Perhaps the most interesting and hopeful factor in wireless communication is that this new method of publicity is so simple and so inexpensive that it is well within the reach of the resources of the organised workers. The Australian Labor movement can establish a chain of broadcasting and receiving stations in every important industrial centre and in every State of the Commonwealth, and the advantages of wireless broadcasting at election times are many and striking. For the average Parliamentary candidate the election campaign is a gruelling, nerve-wracking affair. It means addressing many scores of more or less sparsely-attended meetings, and often travelling hundreds of miles. In the engaging of suitable halls, travelling, and other expenses, it is altogether an expensive affair. The recent Presidential elections in the United States show the modern trend. In place of travelling many thousands of miles and addressing many scores of meetings, President Coolidge, his supporters and his opponents strolled comfortably over to the microphone and broadcasted their messages and propaganda to the mightiest audience known in history. In the same manner President Coolidge's presidential speech was broadcast to every State in the Union and relayed to millions of listeners-in. His message was picked up thousands of miles away by many thousands of listeners-in using the simplest and most inexpensive crystal sets, costing but a few dollars each. What is done in the United States and in Europe can be done here and now in Australia and there is no section of the community that can use radio to more advantage than can the Labor movement. After a day of hard or monotonous toil, the average worker is too dog-tired to take the journey to some cheerless meeting hall to hear a parliamentary candidate. But sitting comfortably at home with the crystal set provided by his union, he will readily tune in to anything that is on the air. Through the radio, propaganda, lectures, and instructions can be broadcast to many thousands who in the ordinary course would not be reached. Government Sabotage. Of course, it is only natural that an anti-Labor Federal Government, acting openly in collaboration with big vested interests, should leave no stone unturned to prevent, the Labor movement in Australia from taking advantage of wireless communications. Government restrictions on the use of radio are more repressive in Australia than in any other civilised country, and that is because the Australian Labor movement is relatively more powerful, more homogeneous, and better organised than in most other countries. Wireless communication in the hands of such a movement will constitute a turning point in the history of working-class organisation, and by providing quick and easy daily contact between the distant sections of the trade union movement, radio will stimulate powerfully the process of unification, which is the basis of success in action.— E. R. VOIGT.[55]

WIRELESS AND THE WORKERS. LABOR would do well to pay more attention than it seems inclined to pay to the matter of wireless and its uses. That wireless could be made of immense propaganda value is plain. What Labor has to guard against is the probability of its enemies getting such advantages as would enable them to poison, with ease and impunity, the minds of the people. What possession of the Press by the enemies of the people has done is well-known to every well-informed Laborite. Capitalism rules everywhere; and it does so by means of the Press. Labor has been once in office in Britain, but it would never have achieved even this had it not been for the existence in London of Labor's daily newspaper, the "Daily Herald." In the eighteenth century and the early half of the nineteenth, the pulpit was more powerful than the Press; now the latter is more powerful than the former. A serious rival has, however, sprung into existence, which may prove, in the long run, to be more powerful than even the Press. It is wireless. Let Labor beware of the uses that may be made of wireless by its enemies. Let it not be "caught napping." The great interest that was taken by the public in the broadcasting of the speeches in Parliament on the Ne Temere Bill should be an indication of the uses to which this new device of science could be successfully put — and probably will be put — by Labor's enemies. Labor should, as has again been suggested by one of our contributors, DETERMINE UPON THE ERECTION OF A CENTRAL WIRELESS STATION, from which might be broadcast the truth as to the nature of Labor's aims and the activities of its leaders. Without even leaving their homes, the electors could hear, on their little crystal sets, the whole of that truth. They could be warned of conspiracies against them; urged, for reasons given, to attend important meetings; and be made acquainted with the refutation of malicious and damaging slanders or libels.[56]

1925 04[edit]

WIRELESS! WILLIS URGES ACTION. LABOR MUST GET IN FIRST NO TIME TO BE LOST. COMMENTING, yesterday, upon the leader in our columns, entitled "Wireless and the Workers," Mr. A. C. Willis, general secretary of the Miners' Federation, said that it was time for Labor to take action, itself, for the utilisation of wireless. Usually, Labor lagged behind its enemies in making use of means of propaganda, but it must now get in first. Labor should have a central wireless station in Sydney, added Mr. Willis; and there should be a local receiving station in connection with each lodge of the Miners' Federation, or other local industrial or Labor body. From the central station information could be broadcast daily to the lodges. The members of the organisation as a whole could, thereby, be kept poised as to matters of importance to the Federation and the Movement. The cost would not be heavy, added Mr. Willis, as the price of a two-valve set with a loud speaker would be anything from £10 to £40, for the most efficient device. LESSON FROM AMERICA. If the receiving set could be fixed in a committee room, somewhere or other, a member of the committee, or some other member, could arrange to be in attendance in order to note down messages. Wireless is extensively used in the United States in connection with Labor matters, said Mr. Willis, and should be as extensively used here. There are tremendous possibilities in connection with wireless, and Labor must avail itself of those possibilities. An important point to be noted in connection with wireless is that what is transmitted may be received in the quietude of one's own home, where the things that distract the attention at a public meeting are not present. As the listener gives all his attention to the message being conveyed, the information is, undoubtedly, more effective. LABOR MUST GET IN. During the Ne Temere debate in the Legislative Assembly, wireless enabled the listeners-in to hear from Mr. Lang, the Leader of the Labor Party, a remarkably good speech. It may be possible for listeners-in to sit in a Labor hall in every centre and there hear information of value and advantage. Eventually, indeed, H. G. Wells' prophecy of news and propaganda being freely poured out to the people from great speaking machines may be realised. Of course, this could be utilised by capitalism to mislead the people; and therefore Labor MUST GET IN FIRST, concluded Mr. Willis. We shall be pleased to receive suggestions at this office in connection with the matter thus referred to.[57]

RACIAL RIOTS IN THE NORTH. LAST WEEK'S RUMORS WERE TRUE. HOW NAVY SUPPRESSED THE NEWS. RADIO SILENCED AND GUNBOATS READY. EXACTLY A WEEK AGO the Defence authorities in Melbourne pulled off a remarkable coup in concealing the news of a riot that occurred at Innisfail, Queensland. IT IS NOW LEARNED a disturbance had occurred at a town inland from Townsville, which was judged to have been sufficiently serious to warrant the Navy Office ordering the sloops Marguerite and Geranium to be prepared to go North at a minute's notice. FOR the first time since the War, wireless operators at sea and all round the Australian coast, heard the ominous H.M. in Morse, which puts the stopper on all transmitting, indicating that something is wrong and the Navy wants the air clear for the transmission and reception of messages. For hours Pennant Hills and all the other sending stations were silenced while messages were being flashed to and from Garden Island and the Navy Office, Melbourne. Then the Margeurite, which was north of Sydney at Hawkesbury was spoken. Her commander got an urgent instruction, and immediately ordered the ships to be prepared for a long cruise. Next day the men on the Marguerite were alongside the Geranium, lying off Garden Island. Geranium Gets Steam Up Curious to know what all the fuss had been about, they found that the Geranium, although she has just re-turned from a six-months' survey cruise, and is in an unseaworthy state, had been ordered from Melbourne to get all steam up during the night and proceed, "in company with another warship," due north. The disturbance was handled by local police, but it was a near thing all the same. That the whole of Northern Australia is a volcano which may burst into an eruption of racial feud at any moment now is known to all the papers in the Commonwealth. All For the North. North Queensland during the past six months has been fairly inundated with the sweepings of middle Europe. Week after week, boatload after boat-load comes into Sydney — and goes away again. "Where are all your passengers bound for?" asked a curious bystander of one of the sailors of an Italian line of steamers recently. "They're going to Brisbane," was the reply. A deliberate lie — as the figures in the possession of the Port authorities in both Sydney and Brisbane can prove. The destination of the hordes of new arrivals is much further north than Brisbane. It is at Townsville that most of them are unloaded. There they are consigned in batches, like so many cattle, to unload at towns where they are gradually distributed among the canefields. Whites Incensed. Naturally the brazen importation of this cheapest of cheap labor has incensed the whites in the North, who can look forward to a not very distant future in which their living standards will have to be reduced to conform to those of the majority. Official communications from responsible men in the North to the Federal Government are being suppressed. They confirm the reports that have reached the "Labor Daily" from Independent sources that the outbreak of fierce quarrels between groups of Italians threatens to participate a grave crisis. At first it would be confined to the foreign element. As the whites interfered, in an endeavor to put a stop to the trouble, personal feeling would be dropped between the foreigners and a united frontal attack made upon the detested Australians, whose country they have been tipped into. What May Happen. Various disturbances on a small scale have paved the way for an out-break of such magnitude that the news of it will instantly arouse furious racial riots. If the facts are not as stated, and the position is not so serious as presented, perhaps the Prime Minister might say why the Defence Department has issued certain instructions to be followed in the event of trouble breaking out?[58]

WORKERS WIRELESS. BY WORKERS' EFFORT. Wireless for workers! Yes, and as soon as possible. How shall we contrive to get it? In view of the election drain, one is loth to suggest a collection, writes Mr. B. R. Childs, of Mosman. But why not? For, after all, the workers will be "emancipated" only by their personal efforts and sacrifice. So what about "Doing it now?" One shilling from every worker each pay-day until the necessary amount is in hand. Any seconder? Yes! All in favor, say "Aye." The "Ayes" have it! Let us remember that it is people that "hear the inaudible that see the invisible, and think the unthinkable, that do the impossible. Also, forget not that, "Labor omnia vincit" — Labor conquers all things. I am confident that this appeal will not be broadcast in vain.[59]

BRANCH MEETINGS. . . . MOSMAN The Mosman branch held their fortnightly meeting on April 1. In the unavoidable absence of the president (Dr. H. V. Evatt), the chair was occupied by Mr. J. E. Byrne, V.-P. Reports were received from the organising committee and E.C. delegates. Mr. Dessaix was elected minute secretary. It was decided that a letter of thanks be forwarded to Mr. Frank Anstey, Visitors from St. Leonards branch were cordially welcomed by the chair man. The branch meets again in Anzac Memorial Hall on Wednesday, 15th inst. The chairman announced that one of the selected Labor candidates, Mr. Enge, had signified his intention of withdrawing from the contest. Mr. J. E. Byrne, senior vice-president, was unanimously elected for recommendation to the executive to fill the vacancy. On the motion of the secretary (Mr. Childs), seconded by Mr. Humphries, the following resolutions for conference agenda were carried unanimously, viz.:— "(1) That the question of the establishment of a workers' wireless plant be given immediate consideration. "(2) That Esperanto be made a compulsory subject in Australian schools. (3) That the question of improving workers' education and organisation — more particularly in rural parts — be given immediate consideration. This to include establishment of local workers' libraries." [60]

WIRELESS AND THE WORKER. ITS VALUE TO LABOR. AMERICAN LESSONS. (By E. R. VOIGT.) IN times to come we shall wonder how it is that a country like ours, which prides itself in being in the forefront of capitalist democracies, has allowed a public utility of such amazing potentialities as wireless to fall under the blight of a cotere of profit-seeking monopolies. We shall then fully appreciate the resentment that is now stirring among the workers of Australia against a Government servile to big vested interests at home and abroad. We shall understand their indignation at being subjected to a license fee seven times higher than that of any other nation. And we shall justify the anger of the organised workers at the Bruce Government for its gross betrayal of a great public trust in conniving at the bleeding of the Australian listening-in public through copyright fees and patent royalties that have elsewhere been declared at law to be invalid. AUSTRALIAN AMATEURS. There recently arrived in Sydney, on the Ventura, a well-known American wireless expert — Mr. J. P. Quam, President of the Quam Radio Corporation, of Chicago. Through the courtesy of the technical manager of a firm of wireless distributors, I placed before Mr. Quam the wireless situation as we see it in Australia to-day, and invited his comment. The comments of Mr. Quam were given frankly, and what he said is of vital interest to working-class listeners-in in Australia. "The Australian wireless amateurs," said Mr. Quam, "have a reputation throughout the United States second to none other in the world." I pointed out that the Nationalist Federal Government had at first wanted to abolish amateur transmitting stations, but was forced to abandon its intentions. Mr. Quam's comment on this piece of would-be government folly agreed with Josh Billings — that when God makes a fool He means it. "The fact that wireless has developed with such giant strides," pursued Mr. Quam, "is largely due to the tireless activities and experiments of the amateurs. It is the boundless faith and enthusiasm of the 'Hams' that has helped to put radio on the map. It would be criminal folly for any Government even to contemplate jettisoning the amateur stations." WORTHLESS PATENTS. But we have other troubles, I said; there are the monopolies grafted on to us by our beneficent Federal Government. First there is the Patent monopoly . . . "Young man," said Mr. Quam, "everywhere I go I bump this patent slug. Everybody suffering under this burden seems to think it a dispensation of God Almighty, to be accepted, not questioned. "They resent it, they grumble, they kick, but they know nothing. What they know about the actual claims of the patents for the use of which they pay out big sums annually could be written in very few words. "Take, for instance, the valve patents. Are you aware that these patents expired at midnight on February 17 last? I suggest that you co-operate with your Wireless Association, and at once test the validity of the valve patents in Australia." WORTH SEEING TO. That's worth seeing into, I said. But what concerns us also very closely are the Armstrong patents. Most of our valve sets are of the Armstrong regenerative type. "The so-called Armstrong patents for the regenerative or feed-back circuit," replied Mr. Quam, "are not worth the paper they are written on. "I am amazed at the ignorance I find everywhere concerning the Armstrong 'patents.' Armstrong never was the originator of the feed-back circuit. This has now been established at law in the U.S.A., and the collection of colossal sums from the radio public for royalties on worthless patents is one big bluff. "In view of the cancellation of the so-called Armstrong patents in the United States, if the wireless public of Australia is willing to continue paying out big sums on royalties for patents that are worthless, then the Australian people do not exactly live up to their reputation." HELPLESS PREY. I reminded Mr. Quam that the Australian public and any other public is the helpless prey of the vested interests so long as it remains unorganised. But a large section of the Australian people is organised in the Australian Trade Union Movement, and a small but concentrated section is organised in the Wireless Association. For some time the Wireless Association has been trying to buck the Federal Government and its monopolist bedfellows. Just now the powerful Australian Labor Movement, which already controls five out of the six State Governments, and which is determined to control the sixth as well as the Federal Government, is starting to take an interest in this monkeying with the workers' wireless. I informed him that we intend to make Free Wireless an issue in the next Federal Elections. We intend to wipe out that iniquitous license fee. We are determined to abolish completely the unwarranted fees of the Copyright Combine. . . . Mr. Quam here stated that if ever there was an empty bluff worked off on an innocent public, it was these copyright claims. "We don't need to have a strong Labor Movement to help abolish copyright fees in the U.S.A.," he said. "We never allowed them to be instituted." I told him that this parasitic Combine bleeds us to the tune of two shillings and tenpence on each annual license fee, and that, according to Mr. George A. Taylor, President of the Wireless Association, the Combine raked in £6000 the first year. They must be raking in a good deal more now. You can imagine the extent of their takings if allowed to continue until wireless becomes general. This Combine has contributed neither time, energy, nor money for the development of wireless. It grabs those fat copyright "fees," and gives nothing in return. LABOR'S WIRELESS PLAN. But what do you think of the wireless plan of the N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council — do you think it is practicable to operate an interstate chain of wireless broadcasting stations on 500 watts? I asked. "You should do all you plan with 500 watts," replied Mr. Quam. "Practically all our stations in the U.S.A. operate on 500 watts. KFI, Los Angeles, which is 500 watts, can be heard comfortably clear across the American Continent. "With a properly designed station of this power, you should be able to broadcast without difficulty to crystal sets with a radius of 20 miles, and very considerably over that under favorable conditions. "If you provide your State branches and your organisers in the field with portable valve sets, you could readily maintain daily telephonic contact through your broadcasting station to any distant point in the State of New South Wales." "With super-sensitive receivers in Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne, Brisbane, and New Zealand, substantially regular contact could be carried out with these centres also. Your scheme is practicable. It is exceedingly interesting, and should give great impetus to the development of wireless communication."[61]

RADIO FOR LABOR. CAPITALISM HAS SECURED CONTROL. HOW A STRIKE WAS BROKEN. COMPREHENSIVE LOCAL SCHEME. (By E. R. Voight) THE PRESENT IS THE ERA of the machines. During the past century the machine technology has changed the face of the globe beyond recognition. IN THE DOMAIN of the machine, no development has been so rapid or spectacular as that of wireless communication. THIS development has taken place under the guiding hand of capitalism. It is but natural therefore that such development should favor those who exploit for their own profit the labor of the masses. Legally, commercially, and technically, capitalism has secured control of wireless communication to the exclusion of Labor. The completeness and the drastic nature of that control lead us to wonder just what the Labor movement was doing to allow this move to be made unopposed by its enemies. In Australia we have a set of wireless regulations so stringent in their nature, so restrictive against the free use and development of wireless, and playing so obviously into the hands of profit-making monopolies as to constitute a standing menace to the working-class. There is little excuse for the apathy of the Australian Labor movement in this matter. Eighteen months ago, before there was a single radio store in Sydney, the dramatic defeat of the printers in New York signalled its lesson to the workers of the world. NEW YORK PRESS STRIKE. When the New York pressmen walked out not a single capitalist newspaper appeared on the streets of New York the next day. The most powerful weapon in the armory of the capitalist class — the Press — was struck from its hands. Only one newspaper appeared, the Labor organ, the "Call." SINISTER DEVELOPMENT. The striking Pressmen thus could maintain their own communications and morale unimpaired; they could preserve sympathetic contact with the surrounding working-class organisations on whose moral and material support they must finally depend, and they could place their case fairly and squarely before the public at large. There appeared to be all the signs of a working-class victory, when a new and sinister development occurred. The employers, in collaboration with the International Printers' officers, who had opposed the strike, took charge of the wireless broadcasting station. Through the microphone they accomplished what they could not do through the Press. They issued harrowing tales of the sufferings of the striking pressmen's wives and families, they reported that the strike was broken and the men returning to work; they endeavored to create divisions in the strikers' ranks; they sought to discredit the men's leaders by stigmatising them Reds, I.W.W., anarchists, agitators, and Bolsheviks; they said the strike was financed by Russian gold. This stream of misrepresentation and abuse, broadcast forth to the four winds of heaven, told heavily. In eleven days the strike was broken. NEWSPAPERS CONTROL. The striking part which wireless broadcasting played in the defeat of the New York pressmen was not lost on the newspaper bosses of America. Quietly and deliberately the big newspaper combines and companies set out to secure control of broadcasting throughout the United States. Today practically every big daily newspaper has its own broadcasting station. Since there is no license fee to pay on receiving sets in U.S.A., none of these broadcasting stations enjoys any Government subsidy. The cost of the same falls upon the shoulders of the newspaper companies concerned. There is no direct advertising by the newspapers concerned. Ostensibly the broadcasting stations appear to exist for the sole purpose of providing the public with free jazz music, news, and lectures. In reality, they constitute the news-papers' insurance against strikes. They are held in reserve for strike-breaking weapons. With the advent of wireless a newspaper strike does not hold any of the terror for the newspaper bosses which it formerly had. If the newspapers cease to function, then the wireless broadcasting stations will be mobilised against the strikers. Recollect that it only requires two men to operate a broadcasting station, or only one man in an emergency. It is as easy to broadcast to 1,000,000 people as it is to telephone to one person, and the cost is next to nothing. LIGHTNING NEWS. The speed of broadcasting is phenomenal. It takes but a fraction of a second to receive a broadcast wireless message clear across the Australian continent, or from one side of the world to another. The listening-in circle is doubling, trebling, and quadrupling its numbers every year. It is already a mighty audience. The newspaper bosses know all this. So do our capitalist political bosses. During recent political and industrial crises in Europe and America, wireless broadcasting has been used against the working-class. It will be used more and more openly and effectively as the capitalists consolidate their power and control. Can you imagine what will happen in the next big industrial crisis? Capitalist propaganda and publicity will be broadcast against the workers, not only in the immediate vicinity of the strike but also throughout the State, across the continent and abroad. It will be relayed and rebroadcast to the ends of the earth. The latest expedition to the north or south pole will pick up capitalist propaganda regarding the daily struggles of the workers. And this mass of capitalist propaganda will produce its deadening effect upon the minds and activities of the workers, for large masses of the workers are still inert and subject to its influence. If they were not, we should not have the phenomenon of masses or workers voting for anti-Labor candidates, whose sole aim is to secure profits of their own class by smashing down wages, lengthening hours, and riveting the chains of wage-servitude ever more securely upon the limbs and lives of the workers. WORKERS TO ACT. Capitalism is learning fast the advantages of control over wireless broadcasting. It has already seized and is busy moulding radio to its own anti-Labor uses. Working-class organisations, are moving much more slowly. But they are moving at last. Here and there, in different countries, trade unions are installing or about to install broadcasting stations for their own use. In Australia, and in New South Wales particularly, the question of wireless communication bulks large in the deliberations of the Trade Union movement. The first move has been made by the Trades and Labor Council of New South Wales. A comprehensive scheme has been planned, tenders for the erection of a high-power station on the Trades Hall have been called for, and there is little doubt that the time is not far distant when the Australian Labor movement will create industrial history in the establishment of an interlocking chain of Labor broadcasting stations throughout the Commonwealth. When this is accomplished, Labor will have taken a great stride forward in its struggle against the capitalist class, for it will have counteracted largely the immense advantage now held by its enemies in propaganda and publicity. It will do more. With the installation of instantaneous wireless communication. It will for the first time in its history have made possible the establishment of a complete network of communications within its own ranks. The Labor movement is an industrial army organising its forces in the class struggle against the employers entrenched in the capitalist system. LABOR'S ARMY. The maintenance of communications between its several parts is a vital factor in any army. It is no less vital in the ranks of Labor's organisations. Today there are rifts, schisms, and divisions in the ranks of the workers which render successful action against the employers' industrial and political forces exceedingly difficult or impossible. The most promising method of breaking down these schisms and divisions and attaining a measure of effective working-class solidarity against capitalism is to establish a regular daily communication between the different sections of the movement. Wireless broadcasting places this opportunity readily and easily within the power of the workers' organisations. It is a fact worthy of notice that in spite of the division and factions now operating in the Labor movement of New South Wales the vital question of the erection of Labor broadcasting stations is now recognised to be of paramount importance in the defence of working-class interests by all sections of the movement, industrial and political alike. Let us work together for its speedy consummation.[62]

RADIO FOR LABOR. Sir,— With many other working men, I have read your articles on "Radio for Labor," from the pen of Mr. E. R. Voigt, with the greatest interest. The establishment of a chain of Labor broadcasting stations is of the highest and most vital importance to the Labor Movement of Australia, and our Parliamentary parties have been remiss in allowing the Bruce Government and the monopolists to get such a stranglehold upon this powerful new weapon of publicity and education. Mr. Voigt is to be congratulated for his able articles and fighting attitude which reminds us of the splendid publicity he obtained for Labor in the "Daily Mail" period. We are glad to see Mr. Voigt has "come back fighting" for Labor and a better cause than "Wireless for the Workers" could not have been chosen.— Yours, etc., "T.J.G." Manly.[63]

RADIO FOR LABOR. Sir,— For the information of myself and other working men and women, who have followed your articles, "Radio for Labor," with great interest, may I ask Mr. Voigt, through you, to outline the scheme of wireless broadcasting which, we understand, is now being undertaken by the Sydney Trades and Labor Council. I understand a wireless committee has already been established with Mr. Voigt as chairman. How far has the scheme advanced, and how soon is it likely to be before we have the first Labor Broadcasting Station in Australia? What a splendid accomplishment if the Broadcasting Station could be erected in time for the State elections.— Yours, etc., F. O. TATLOR. Randwick. (Mr. Voigt will, from time to time, deal with all developments in this connection in the "Labor Daily."— Editor.).[64]

1925 05[edit]

LABOR POLICY TO-NIGHT. LANG AT AUBURN TOWN HALL. WIRELESS FOR OVERFLOW MEETING. SOUND CONSTRUCTIVE PROGRAMME. LABOR'S campaign will be opened at the Auburn Town Hall by Mr. Lang, leader of the Parliamentary Labor Party, tonight, when he will announce the Labor programme for the coming elections. The speech will disclose a courageous policy of construction, and will be in striking contrast to the vague and indefinite statements which the Premier and Mr. Bruxner used to build up their policy speeches. There will be a wireless installation at the meeting. It is expected the crowd, which will be anxious to hear the speech, will be much larger than the hall can accommodate. Arrangements have been made for the erection of a broadcasting centre at a shop on the opposite side of the street, round which an overflow meeting can gather and listen to the speech just as if they were in the hall. MR. LANG'S speech will be a message of hope to the thousands who have been able to see nothing but despair since they read the Nationalist policy speech. It will be shown that Labor is the only party which has a thorough grip of the needs of all sections of the community, and that it is the only party which is prepared to give the fullest Government assistance to those classes of the community which need it. The most needed thing in politics just now is a Government which has the courage to deal firmly with the many serious problems which the Fuller Government has been deferring, or tinkering with during the past three years. Mr. Lang's speech will show that the Labor Party has the courage, the determination, and the ability to deal with these matters, as they affect both the country and the city. Party Unity. It is anticipated that the platform will be crowded. Practically every member of the Parliamentary Labor Party who is not campaigning in the country has indicated his intention of supporting the Leader on the stage. In addition, Federal and Interstate members will be present, as well as all the leading members of the organisation of the A.L.P. The campaign will be opened under the most auspicious circumstances. There is complete unity in the party, the greatest of confidence in the Parliamentary leader, and a wonderful feeling of goodwill towards Labor in the country. These factors, coupled with a very sound policy of construction, must turn the scales in favor of Labor at the election. An Innovation. A new departure will be made by the wireless company to-night. Instead of it being necessary to get another team of speakers to address the overflow, which is sure to gather outside the hall, the company has decided to install a broadcast station in a shop opposite the hall. This system has never been tried In Australia before, as it has not previously been necessary to arrange for an overflow meeting in connection with a political campaign. The tide is turned towards Labor. It is confidently expected that the enthusiasm and appreciation which will be shown for Mr. Lang and his policy tonight by his supporters and colleagues will be reflected throughout the State, culminating in a great Labor victory at the polls on May 30.[65]

RADIO FOR LABOR. ENTERTAINMENT FOR THE WORKING MAN. FREE WIRELESS IN U.S.A. WHY NOT IN AUSTRALIA? THERE is no country in the world where more progress has been registered in the field of wireless communication than in the United States of America. ABOUT a year ago, there were over 600 high-power broadcasting stations operating throughout the United States. FROM these stations are broadcasted excellent concerts, lectures, news, market reports, political speeches, and propaganda of all kinds. MOST of the important newspapers, have their own high-power broadcasting stations, from which they send out on the air the latest cable news and local items. Many of the broadcasting stations are connected with some theatre, or with one or other of the principal orchestras. In this way operatic and orchestral music are broadcast to the listening-in public. In America wireless communication is revolutionising the average man's manner of spending his leisure time. The working man, with his five dollar crystal set, has a choice of entertainment which, a few years ago, was outside the means even of the wealthiest persons. MAKING LIFE EASY. Sitting comfortably at home with his pipe and his glass of milk, he can make the rounds of the city's principal entertainments with no more physical exertion than required to adjust his set. If it is inconvenient to go to the ball game, he can obtain progressive information every few minutes. At election-time all the "big guns" in the political world broadcast their speeches to millions of listeners throughout the continent. Even the churches, which often oppose new ideas, or consider their use "irreverent," are quickly recognising the immense value of wireless broadcasting. Many churches are finding a use for their tall spires, and the gear of the broadcasting aerial is becoming a common sight among the churches. One big church in Los Angeles, which runs many scores of mission tents throughout Southern California, broadcasts its sermons, which are picked up in each of the numerous mission tents, and given out to the congregation through a loud speaker. WIRELESS TELEPHONE SERVICE. Between the island of Catalina and the mainland, the Telephone Company has established a wireless telephone service, which functions daily. By this means, residents on holidays in Catalina can hold a wireless telephone conversation with their friends and relatives in Long Beach and Los Angeles. Whether there is a slump in progress or not, the development of wireless in U.S.A. proceeds space, doubling or trebling, its sales every year. The ether is a veritable babel of sound-waves, each confined to its own path, so as not to interfere with the others. Not many months ago, the wireless authorities were wondering how it would be possible to grant any more permits for broadcasting stations without causing widespread interference between one station and another. But the domain of the broadcasting stations has been enlarged almost to infinity, by the discovery of a vast range of frequencies above 2000 kilocycles (below 150 metres). Short-wave transmission has solved the problem. There is practically no limit to the number of broadcasting stations that can operate without undue interference one with another. FREE WIRELESS IN U.S.A. Now the point that should be emphasised is that all this phenomenal development in wireless broadcasting and receiving has been attained without the aid of, or without the incubus of Government licensing fees to listeners-in. In America you can purchase or build your receiving set, fix up your aerial, and tune in to all that's on the air, without going to the trouble and expense of securing Government permits and paying heavy license fees. It might be objected that it must be impossible to secure good artists for wireless concerts without paying for their services. It must be said in reply that most of the concerts the writer has listened-in to in America have been quite up to the musical standard of those broadcast in Sydney, and undoubtedly more varied and more interesting. Many of the artists are paid for their services; many give their services free, and are only too glad to do so for the advantage of the immense publicity thereby attained. If a license fee was not necessary in U.S.A., it is not necessary in Australia. If good concerts can be provided without license fees in San Francisco, Kansas City and New York, equally good concerts can be so provided in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne without the arbitrary imposition of any 35/ annual slug on wireless users. FLEECING THE PUBLIC. Why is it that the Commonwealth Government, hand-in-glove with the Marconi Combine, has saddled wireless users in Australia with this unwarranted license fee? It certainly is not in order to stimulate the development of wireless communication. U.S.A. has proved conclusively that no license fee whatever is necessary or desirable for that purpose. It certainly is not in order to ensure adequate wages being paid to wireless artists, for the Commonwealth Government has clearly indicated that it will leave no stone unturned to smash down the wages of the workers whenever opportunity presents itself. And, moreover, the Commonwealth Government pours its annual stream of gold into the pockets of the capitalist monopolies it has deliberately created, and allows it to rest there. Its only concern with wages is in reducing them. The reason why the Commonwealth Nationalist Government has forcibly imposed upon the helpless listeners-in of Australia an exorbitant license fee, far in excess of anything else in the wireless world to-day, is clear and unmistakable. It is in order to facilitate the flow of money into the pockets of its monopolistic bedfellow, the Marconi Combine. And how does an exorbitant license fee accomplish that purpose? It accomplishes that purpose by acting as a drag on the sale of simple crystal sets, on which the Marconi Company has little or no royalties. In favor of the complicated valve sets, on which the Marconi Company holds the bulk of the patent rights and royalties. Think of it. A man who owns a 5/ crystal set must pay 35/ license fees each year. The owner of a £100 super-heterodyne set pays no more. The result is to discourage the sale of crystal sets, and encourage the sale of the more expensive valve sets. The public pays, and by a curious coincidence, the Marconi Company benefits. BREEDING LAWLESSNESS. It would amaze the radio-using public if they know the extent to which they are bled for using the Marconi patents. The royalties charged on a 90? valve set amount to no less than 25/. But the exorbitant 35/- license fee brings its own nemesis. It makes hitherto law-abiding people break the law. In Britain, where the license fee is only 10/, it is stated that there are over a million users of unlicensed sets. In Australia the proportion must be still greater. The number of wireless licenses issued in New South Wales is approximately 32,000. One Sydney firm alone claims to have sold over 35,000 sets! The inference is clear. The bulk of the listening-in public refuses to be bled. They treat the law with the contempt they consider it deserves. Wireless communication is as much a public trust as the post office. Farmer's Broadcasting Service cheerfully admits a profit of £85,164 for the past twelve months. That is a scandal. The wireless policy of the Australian Labor Party must be to ensure that this public trust is co-ducted in the public interest, and without profit. The wireless license, if any, must only be such that will ensure adequate wages to the artists who entertain us. E. R. VOIGHT.[66]

RADIO FOR LABOR. Trades Hall Station. SENDING AND RECEIVING. It is the plan of the Labor Council of New South Wales to erect on the Trades Hall a 2500-3000 watt radio broadcasting station, together with a receiving set capable of receiving telephone communication from the furthermost station of the Commonwealth, and on special occasions from Europe and America. The cost of this broadcasting and receiving station will be approximately £1500 installed. The upkeep will be approximately £700 to £1000 a year. Radio will be used for "regular communication between union centres and their branches; communication between union offices and organisers in the field; regular daily communication between union organisations in the different States; communication between unions and their members; Parliamentary election propaganda; working-class education; strikes and arbitration matters." A special committee has been appointed to address affiliated and other unions and solicit their support for the scheme. B CLASS STATION WANTED Application was made to the postal authorities a week ago on behalf of the Labor Council of N.S.W., for permission to erect and conduct a B class transmitting station. The application is now being considered by the Director of Postal Services (Mr. Brown). There are two A class stations in Sydney — 2FC and 2BL. They receive different proportions of the revenue received from fees paid by listeners-in, after a deduction has been made by the Postal Department. B class stations receive no revenue, except what they may obtain as the result of broadcasting advertisements. Should the application be granted, the wave length of the new station will be fixed by the Postal Department.[67]

BEHIND THE A.L.P. TRADES COUNCIL. BIG DEMONSTRATION. The Sydney Trades and Labor Council last night reconsidered the request from the A.L.P. that it co-operate in connection with the mass Labor Demonstration in the Domain on Sunday, May 24. This matter came before the council at its last meeting, but after lengthy discussion, the delegates decided not to do anything in the matter. Last night, however, the council resolved to call upon all trades unions and workers to fall in behind the Labor Party in its attempt to put the Fuller Government out of office. LABOR'S WIRELESS. A report in connection with the proposed wireless broadcasting station, to be used in the interests of Labor, was made by Mr. Voigt, who told the council that everything was now in readiness to proceed with its erection so soon as the license was received from the Postmaster-General. The proposed station, when erected, will be the most powerful in the Commonwealth, and will be capable of being used for either voice or code broadcasting. It will have all the latest improvements. The council unanimously decided to adopt Mr. Voigt's report. This means that as soon as the license is received from Melbourne the erection of the station will be proceeded with. ASSISTING PERTH STRIKERS. In response to a communication from the Hotel, Club and Restaurant Employees' Union in Western Australia, the members of which are at present on strike because of the refusal of the employers to grant the preference clause in their award, the council decided to issue an appeal to all unions for funds to aid the strikers.[68]

LABOR WIRELESS SCHEME. SPECIAL STATION MAY BE ESTABLISHED. SYDNEY.— The Sydney Labor Council on Thursday night decided to proceed at once with a comprehensive scheme of broadcasting in connection with trade union propaganda. Broadcasting and receiving stations are to be installed at the Trades Hall at a cost of about £1500. The upkeep, which is estimated at from £700 to £1000 a year, will be provided by individual trades unions. It is suggested that radio should be used for the following purposes:— 1. Regular communication between union centres and their branches; 2. communication between union offices and organisers in the field; 3. regular daily communication between union organisations in the different States; 4. communication between unions and their members; 5. Parliamentary election propaganda; 6. working class education; 7. strikes; 8. arbitration matters. This scheme has been received with a good deal of enthusiasm by members of the Labor Council, and the only possible obstacle in the way is stated to be the chance of the Federal Government refusing a licence. A licence has already been applied for. A deputation of Federal members will wait on the Postmaster-General to impress upon him the right of the Labor movement to have its own broadcasting station.[69]

LABOUR'S APPLICATION. Broadcasting Licence Wanted. An application for a B class broadcasting station has been received by the Postal department from the Labour Council of New South Wales. In making this intimation yesterday the secretary to the department (Mr. H. P. Brown) pointed out that the application was on the usual lines, and that the idea entertained in some quarters that the station could be used for regular communication between union centres and their branches and for the issuing of instructions to officers of the organisations or the members of unions was erroneous. To employ wireless broadcasting for such a purpose would not only be against the regulations but would be a direct offence against the Telegraph Act which vested the Postmaster-General with the sole right of regulating and charging for communication between individuals. So far as B class stations are concerned, the only revenue derived by them is that which they collect from advertisers. Even that is limited, for the Postal department will only allow a certain proportion of advertisements to be interspersed between the entertaining and instructional items. The transmission of propaganda is not permitted though exceptions may be made such as last week when the Sydney station broadcast short speeches by the leaders of the three political parties in New South Wales.[70]

BROADCASTING. LABOR COUNCIL APPLICATION. WHAT IS NEWS. MELBOURNE, Sunday. The application from the Trades and Labor Council of Now South Wales for a B Class broadcasting license is being considered by the Postal Secretary, Mr. H. Brown. The council, when making the application, stated that it was prepared to expend about £1500 a year on its upkeep. A perusal of the regulations makes it appear that the station will be of little, or no, use as a means of communication between the various unions or for propaganda broadcasting. In the first place, the Postmaster-General claims the right to control all charges of communication between individuals under the Telegraph Act. Secondly, the wireless regulations will not a allow the broadcasting of propaganda. The Postal Secretary has pointed out that permission given to party leaders in New South Wales recently to transmit their speeches was an exception. Wireless could, of course, be employed for broadcasting arbitration cases or industrial items, which would be news.[71]

SHALL MOSCOW RULE? Last night's magnificent rally at the Town Hall is a sufficient reply to the question "Shall Moscow rule?" If the local branch of the Labour Communist party, ostensibly led by Mr. Lang, is returned to power at the coming elections, this State will be governed by agents of Moscow. There can be no doubt on that point. Moscow rules the Trades Hall, and the Trades Hall rules Mr. Lang; and the A.L.P., just as recently in Queensland ruled Mr. Theodore. Mr. Theodore would not accept the Red objective; Mr. Lang will not even mention it. But it controls them both; and if we have not seen here in Sydney the same illustration of Cabinet Government from the Trades Hall, it is because Mr. Lang has not been Premier since the Red objective was adopted. The extraordinary way in which this foreign influence, through the Trades Hall, has acquired control over Labour politicians is exemplified in Brisbane and our own City Council. Mr. Lang denies his master; but Mr. Garden, like his own master, the illustrious Zinovieff (alias Apfelbaum), will not be denied. Mr. Lang affirms that he has nothing to do with the Communists; meanwhile, Mr. Garden, their local leader, rides like an Old Man of the Sea on Mr. Lang's back. He cannot be dislodged, for he and his colleagues control important trade unions. Mr. Lang will get the Communists' first preference votes, and if any foreigner is returned to Parliament it will be by reciprocal aid of the first preference votes of Mr. Lang's followers. It is treachery these fanatics are preparing, and the Labour party as a whole is their helpless instrument. The treachery can be scotched by the will of the electors, if they have the will. Meanwhile, we are concerned to point out the hypocrisy of the means adopted to pervert that will. It is the same in many other countries. The means which succeeded with the poor ignorant Russian peasants are, by order of the murder-gang which calls itself a Government in Moscow, to be applied to all the world. We have seen its results in Hungary, Italy, Korea, China, and, during the last few weeks, in the Balkans. We have seen it in Ireland. Zinovieff (alias Apfelbaum, anglice Appletree) tried it last year in England. Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the British Labour party, has confessed that he begins to descry the nigger in the woodpile. The Secretary for Home Affairs in the present British Government announced, in our cable messages of yesterday, that the Government is tired of the influx of men to our mother country who come to arouse class hatred and destroy the Constitution. Another message today reports a story from Berlin in the Labour-Communist newspaper of London that the British Government proposes an Allied Note demanding repudiation by Moscow of the Communist International and its campaign of violence. The aforesaid newspaper declares that such a Note would be an affront to the Soviet. It may be; but what else is the Soviet's attitude towards Britain? We can well believe that the British Government would take any steps to get rid of the spurious Soviet "Embassy" in London, which is a refuge, under diplomatic privilege, for a stream of Communist agents of violence. The Soviet has already declared war on the British Empire, and does not disguise the fact. Only the appeal to the electors last year in Britain saved the country from ugly trouble. The same fight is on here. For the present New South Wales is the field. But it is no passing skirmish, and it will be renewed next year all over the Commonwealth in the Federal elections. Meanwhile a challenge is to the Australian people in the most important of the State electorates. The hypocrisy of political Labour is expressed in its public attitude, both towards the Communists, and towards the electors, before whom it pretends freedom from Communist dictation. What hope is there for that small capitalist, the farmer, from this combination which is out "to smash capital?" The whole Trades Hall policy is one of bluff and sham. It expresses itself in the complaint of the Melbourne Trades Hall to the Federal Government about the immigration of aliens to this country, when the extremists themselves are either aliens or in the service of Moscow. If Mr. Garden, Mr. Howie, Mr. Johansen, Mr. Walsh and their colleagues are not in the direct pay of Moscow, then they must do Moscow's behest for sheer love of the service and hope of future reward. We observe with pleasure that the naive application of the Sydney Trades Hall for a wireless broadcasting license is not likely to succeed; it would, of course, serve the Trades Hall's purposes admirably to have its own communication with Moscow, and to be able to disseminate Moscow's propaganda in this country. The genuine Labour adherents — and we can assure Mr. Lang that he is vastly distressing many of them — are left reflecting bitterly on the wreck of their principles and their once-decent Australian political objective; wrecked by the same foreign hand which rules the party executive. The condition of the Commonwealth Line of steamers is a foretaste of the general desolation which is assured from the Communists' wider activities. The "leader" of the party, which still calls itself a Labour party and Australian, is justly blamed for his helplessness, although he is now powerless to exert himself while remaining "leader." His opportunity to cut through his bonds faded away some time ago. Today he must be merely the temporary instrument of a temporary pretence. He cannot carry out any beneficial Government, even if his promises disclosed the prospect of such. His masters are sworn to a campaign of anti-British violence — anti-British in every sense of the phrase.[72]

LABOR'S WIRELESS. WILL OBEY THE LAW AND CONFORM TO RULE. The statement by the Postmaster-General regarding the application from the Sydney Labor Council for a B class broadcasting license, in which he remarked that the wireless regulations will not allow of the broadcasting of propaganda, was criticised by Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of the Labor Council Wireless Committee, yesterday. "It is intended to operate the broadcasting station projected by the N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council in conformity with the law and the wireless regulations," said Mr. Voigt. "Our formal application for license clearly indicates this. "The wireless regulations are, however, rapidly changing to meet the phenomenal development of radio, and in planning the council broadcasting station we confidently expect a continuance of these changes which will widen the restricted limits within which wireless is at present permitted to operate. BUSYBODIES. "It would appear that some confusion has been caused in the mind of the Postmaster-General by irresponible parties who have mixed up our present demands with our ultimate aims."[73]

RADIO FOR LABOR. "ALTHOUGH Australia may be younger in wireless development than the United States, the conduct of our wireless services is better," said Mr. A. Watt, in proposing the toast of the Wireless Institute of Australia at the annual dinner of that Institute. We are getting used to this kind of Nationalistic claptrap. When the bosses boost "Australia First," you can bet your bottom dollar there's a nigger in the woodpile somewhere. We are going to find that nigger before we finish, for he is after Labor's chickens. The fact of the matter is that the conduct of our wireless services in Australia could not very well be much worse, from the point of view of Labor and the listeners-in. In the first place, the development of wireless amongst the workers is clogged with a mass of regulations and red tape which, on the face of it, simply must restrict, and hamper its progress. And that is a fact. The development of wireless and the conduct of its services in U.S.A. are greatly in advance of those in Australia. With twenty times the population of Australia, U.S.A. has no less than sixty times the number of high-class broadcasting stations. Wireless has developed therefore three times as far in the States. Moreover, in U.S.A. wireless is as free as the air we breathe. There are no license fees to pay, and no permits to secure when you instal a wireless set. There is no Patent Combine to bleed you for worthless patents, nor any Copyright Combine to hold you up for 2/10 per year, as in Australia. Broadcasting is on a much higher and efficient plane, in U.S.A. American stations can be heard in Australia, but not Australian stations in America. American exporters have been amazed at the failure of their best receiving sets in Australia. On investigation they state that this is due to the low efficiency of Australian broadcasting stations. Why, then, do these local boosters kid us about Australian wireless services being better than those of U.S.A.? It is because wireless in U.S.A. is free and efficient, and because the Labor Movement in Australia is beginning to make odious comparisons and demand to know why the workers should be bled by extortionate license fees, patent fees, and copyright fees, in the interests of two big combines, when its wireless services are no better, or worse, than in other countries where no such burdens are imposed. That is the nigger in the woodpile.[74]

Wireless. LABOR’S APPLICATION. BROADCASTING LICENCE WANTED. An application for a B class broadcasting station has been received by the Postal department from the Labor Council of New South Wales. In making this intimation last week the secretary to the department (Mr. H. P. Brown), pointed out that the application was on the usual lines, and that the idea was entertained in some quarters that the station could be used for regular communication between union centres and their branches, and for the issuing of instructions to officers of the organisations or the members of unions was erroneous. To employ wireless broadcasting for such a purpose would not only be against the regulations, but would be a direct offence against the Telegraph Act, which vested the Postmaster-General with the sole right of regulating and charging for communication between individuals. So far as B class stations are concerned, the only revenue derived by them is that which they collect from advertisers. Even that is limited, for the Postal department will only allow a certain proportion of advertisements to be interspersed between the entertaining and instructional items. The transmission of propaganda is not permitted, though exceptions may be made such as recently, when the Sydney station broadcast short speeches by the leaders of the three political parties in New South Wales.[75]

1925 06[edit]

WIRELESS MONOPOLY. Sir,— The refusal of the Postmaster-General's Department to grant a license for a broadcasting station to the New South Wales Labor Council on the grounds of its possible use for propaganda purposes is about the limit in autocracy. If the organised Labor movement stands for this it will stand for anything. The danger to the workers of leaving this powerful instrument of publicity entirely in the hands of their enemies is so vital that, in my opinion, the question transcends in importance anything that trade unionism has hitherto faced in this country. Meetings of protest should be organised in every industrial centre in Australia. The assertion of the Post Office authorities that the Posts and Telegraphs Act stands in the way may be taken at its face value. The importance of wireless to the working-class movement of the future is so far-reaching that in no case was it ever more vital than "the law" should conform to their demands than in the present instance.— Yours, etc., TOM GLYNN, Surry Hills.[76]

GREAT FORWARD MARCH. LABOR AND ITS OWN WIRELESS '2ic' STATION. MOST UP-TO-DATE. POWERFUL INFLUENCE IN WORKERS' EDUCATION. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman and Organiser of the Wireless Committee, Trades and Labor Council.) APPLICATION of the New South Wales Trades and Labor Council for permission to erect in Sydney a high-power broadcasting Station has been approved by the Postmaster-General, and work is now proceeding on the erection of the first Labor Broadcasting Station, not only in Australia, but in the world. IT IS NO EXAGGERATION to state that the eyes of the world will follow with interest the development and use of the Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station, which constitutes a new departure in broadcasting, and which, if successful, will give great impetus to wireless development, both in the Commonwealth of Australia and in other countries. THE SYDNEY STATION will be the last word in broadcasting design, and will contain novel features not comprised in any other broadcasting station. It will have an input capacity ofapproximately 4000 watts, with provision to increase to double that power if necessary, which will make the station one of the most powerful in tho Southern Hemisphere. CONTACT WITH BRITAIN, AMERICA. EUROPE. The Postmaster-General has allocated a wave-length of 280 metres, with the call sign, "2IC." This short wave-length will place the Sydney Station in the van of wireless development, the whole trend of which is, and must, continue to be towards shorter wave-lengths. Speech and music broadcast by this powerful station will be received throughout the Commonwealth and in New Zealand without difficulty. The station will be fitted with an automatic break-in system for the transmission of Morse Code, with which it will be possible to maintain contact with Britain, America and Europe. The possibilities and effects of this can hardly be over-estimated. The First Chain. It is confidently expected that 2IC will be the first of a chain of inter-locking Labor Broadcasting Stations connecting every State Labor organisation in the Commonwealth. When these are completed, it will be possible to relay news and programmes from any Labor broadcasting station to the furthermost centres of the Commonwealth where it can be picked up by thousands of the simplest and most inexpensive receiving sets. The plans include the provision of microphones situated in different parts of the Trades Hall, from which speeches, debates and decisions of general interest may be broadcast to many thousands of listeners-in. Parliament's Activities. Since there is apparently nothing in the Wireless Regulations which prohibits the use of broadcasting stations for political purposes, and particularly since it is understood that the Postmaster-General has granted a license for the erection of a station by the N.S.W. Nationalist Association, it will be seen that 2IC may constitute an important development not only in political campaigning, but also in broadcasting to the masses the daily activities of Parliament. No one who has had any intimate connection with the Labor Movement can doubt that the Labor Broadcasting Station will be used largely for educational purposes. The Labor Movement in this and other countries is profoundly dissatisfied with the existing education system. In Australia, as in Europe, and America, Labor Colleges have been established by the workers to provide that measure of working-class education which is essential to the progress of working-class organisation, and which can never be attained in any orthodox capitalist institution. Advantages Apparent. The immense advantage of wireless in education will at once be apparent. In place of addressing a few scores of listeners, the new Labor Broadcasting Station will make it possible for our lecturers to reach many thousands of listeners-in. Orthodox education has never gripped the worker, because it is divorced from the realities of life; it only serves to dope his mental activities. The masses are not interested in the exact date when William the Conqueror landed in England, or Tennyson's poems, or algebra, or parsing and analysing, or even the French for, "It is the pen of my wife's aunt." What more concerns them is bread and butter education; education that deals with their relation to the means whereby they, their wives and children, live. Education, too, which equips them in their struggle for the means of life and for their ultimate historical destiny. Reaching the Workers This is the kind of education which when once absorbed by the masses is rarely forgotten. Unfortunately, working-class educators have never had the means to get this knowledge to the workers. A chain of Labor broadcasting stations, extending throughout the Commonwealth, of which 2IC is the first, will open up the way. There is another section of Labor activity that will benefit greatly from the establishment of the Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station: that section is the Labor Press. Experience in America and Europe has proved conclusively that wireless does not compete to the disadvantage of the Press. Wireless has increased the power of the Press. So long as the Labor Press maintains its true position in the class struggle, its position will be immensely strengthened by the advent of the Labor broadcasting stations in Australia. It is precisely because large masses of the workers do not understand their class position that they support the capitalist anti-Labor Press. Thousands Will Benefit The Labor Press circulates only among the class-conscious minority of the workers, the majority support the capitalist Press. The great difficulty is for the Labor Press to reach the readers of the "Herald," the "Telegraph," etc. The Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station will be able to reach out daily to tens of thousands who do not sup-port the Labor Press. It will broadcast to them Labor news, views and education, and in so doing it will greatly strengthen every branch of working-class activity. There are a number of somewhat amazing restrictions on the free use of wireless broadcasting comprised in the Wireless Regulations of the Federal Government and also in the Telegraph Act. One of these regulations prohibits the use of wireless in competition with the posts, telephones or telegraphs. This regulation would prevent the unions from communicating with their branches or organisers by wireless. These and other anomalous regulations framed to restrict wireless in conformity with an Act like the Telegraphs Act, that was drafted before the advent of wireless broadcasting, are an anachronism. They are rapidly giving way before the forward march of wireless. It must be the duty of the Federal Labor Party to make the campaign for free wireless for the workers a plank in their platform for the coming Federal elections. A Wireless Store In connection with the Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station arrangements are being made for the launching of a Co-operative Wireless Store for the supply of wireless receiving sets and all manner of wireless parts to members of affiliated trades unions at cost price. It is calculated that the new Co-operative Wireless Store will give great impetus to the development and use of wireless in Australia. Further details in connection with the Co-operative Wireless Store will be made public at a later date. Meanwhile, all Trade Unions and other Labor organisations are invited to write to the Wireless Committee of the Trades and Labor Council, Trades Hall, Sydney, to secure particulars of the affiliation fees, and to take their part in the establishment of Labor's First Broadcasting Station. Members of the Wireless Committee will be pleased to address any union meeting, and provide full details concerning the station and its operation. All communications should be addressed to The Wireless Committee, N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council, Trades Hall, Goulburn Street, Sydney.[77]

BROADCASTING. New Station. TRADES HALL PLANS. Details were made available yesterday by the wireless committee of the Trades and Labour Council respecting the high-power "B" class broadcasting station, which the Postal Department has approved. "A wave length of 280 metres has been allocated to the new station, which will be erected at the Trades Hall, with the call-sign '2IC,' reads a statement issued by Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman and organiser of the committee. "The new Labour broadcasting station will be the first of its kind in the world, and is the first of a series of interlocking Labour broadcasting stations, which it is hoped will be established in every State trades union centre in the Commonwealth. "2IC will have an input capacity of approximately 4000 watts, with provision made to extend to double that power if necessary. This will make the new Labour station one of the most powerful and modern broadcasting stations in the Southern Hemisphere. "Labour news, lectures, debates, politics, and music will be broadcasted, and readily picked up in the farthermost ends of Australia and New Zealand. "A break-in system, using the Morse key automatically, will be fitted, so that communication may readily be established with Europe, America, and elsewhere. "Provision will be made in the new Labour broadcasting station for the addition of a special short-wave transmitter below 60 metres. "Work is now proceeding on the station, which is expected to be in operation within eight weeks."[78]

IN TOUCH WITH THE WORLD. N.S.W. LABOR'S WIRELESS. STATION LONDON, NEW YORK, PARIS AND TOKIO. LINKING UP ALL THE WORKERS. "2IC SYDNEY". An outline of the High-Power Broadcasting Station now in course of construction for the New South Wales Trades and Labor Council, which will be one of the most modern and powerful Broadcasting Stations in the Southern Hemisphere and which will constitute a new departure in Labor Organisation, not only in Australia, but throughout the world. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman and Organiser of the Wireless Committee, Trades and Labor Council.) IN considering the general layout and details of the Broadcasting station planned by the Trades and Labor Council, advantage has been taken, not only of Australian experience in broadcasting, which is somewhat limited, but also of broadcasting developments in other countries where wireless has attained a higher development. It was first planned that the broadcasting station should have a capacity of 500 watts. This is the average capacity of the high-power broadcasting stations in the United States. These stations come in clearly and strongly from coast to coast in U.S.A., that is, over a distance of some 3000 miles. A similar 500 watt broadcasting station would, under favorable conditions, reach from Brisbane, to Perth, or from Melbourne to Port Darwin, so it was calculated, which would amply cover the requirement of Labor's first broadcasting station. It was discovered, however, that American and Australian experience on this point did not agree in the least. In the first place Australian broadcasting stations are rated on input, while American stations are rated on actual output. This means that a broadcasting station rated at 1000 watts in Australia would be rated at something less than 500 watts in America. Importance of Statics. This is important. The listeners-in of Australia have a right to know it. For the Australian method of rating broadcasting stations on the amount of power that is received into the apparatus, and not upon the amount that is actually sent out through the aerial may create a false impression in the minds of the listeners-in. It may make the wireless public imagine they are getting much more for their thirty-five shillings license fee than is actually the case. As a matter of fact, there is in the opinion of the writer and also in the opinion of wireless experts, only one high-power and efficient broadcasting station in the Commonwealth; that is, Farmer's Sydney Station, 2FC. There is another factor in Australian broadcasting which necessitated a further increase in the power originally contemplated. That factor is statics. Statics is the bete noire of wireless everywhere. Statics is troublesome, particularly in the summer months. We have plenty of summer weather in Australia, and by a curious coincidence we have certain belts with particularly healthy and lively bunches of statics. 4000 Watts Safely. For these and other reasons it was decided to step up very considerably the power originally contemplated. In place of an input of 600 watts, the Labor Broadcasting Station will be constructed to carry 4000 watt safely. The power output of the aerial can be placed with confidence at 1500 watts, but provision will be made for its increase to double this quantity if desired. The wave-length upon which the station will operate will be approximately 280 metres. This is a matter of considerable satisfaction, for it will facilitate the operation of the station at the highest efficiency. One of the bugbears of the listener-in in Australia is that his set must be complicated by the necessity of tuning in to broadcasting stations of widely-differing wave-lengths. Broadcasters (2BL), for instance, is on 350 metres, while Farmers (2FC) is 1100 metres. Sets which are constructed to bring in Broadcasters may be quite unsuited for Farmer's. Where the set is designed to take in both wave-lengths, complications are introduced into both design and handling. In the Van of Progress American and European broadcasting stations operate almost exclusively on the shorter wave-lengths in the neighborhood of 300 to 500 metres. In designing the Labor Broadcasting Station to operate on a short wave-length such as 280 metres, we are right in the van of modern wireless development and practice. With this powerful equipment, the Labor movement in New South Wales will be able to broadcast to the farthermost ends of the Commonwealth and New Zealand. It does not need much imagination to picture the new lines of development that will be opened up by this immense power of publicity, a power in which Labor has in the past been woefully lacking. But in addition to being able to broadcast speech throughout the Commonwealth, the Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station will be fitted with a break-in system to broadcast in the Morse Code automatically through the use of the Morse Key. Morse will carry much further on the air than speech. With the aid of Morse, it will be possible with the new station to broadcast to London, New York, Paris, Moscow or Tokio. News Sent Everywhere. We shall be able to provide London regularly with the Statistician's latest unemployment figures in New South Wales, which at present are 14 per cent. as compared with 10 per cent. in Britain, and which will give the great mass of unassisted emigrants, which greatly outnumbers those brought in under any Government scheme, a fair and square idea of the industrial conditions obtaining in this State or throughout the Commonwealth. The new Labor Broadcasting Station will bring the workers of America, Britain and Europe closer to their fellow-workers in Australia, Russia will no longer be a sealed book to us, with the capitalist Press holding the key and telling us with shrieks and groans, especially at election times, what is in it. There is a common bond between the workers of all countries. All workers, outside Russia, are divorced from the means of life; the tools and factories, and are in consequence ruthlessly exploited by the inhuman, pro-fit-mongering capitalist system. Although that common bond exists, there has up to the present been no adequate means of giving expression to the aims and ideals of the workers, or of giving publicity to the conditions under which they live. Workers' Own Creation. Wireless comes like a gift from the gods. But it is not a gift, nor does it come from the gods. Wireless is the workers' own creation, which has arisen from the restless seal of Labor activity. With wireless, we can broadcast our news and views not only, to the workers of Sydney, nor even to the workers of New South Wales, but to the workers throughout the Commonwealth of Australia. Nor will the ether waves which carry Labor's message stop at the confines of Australia. They will spread their message of hope, brotherhood and working-class activity over the entire surface of the earth. Every trade union in New South Wales, irrespective of its sectional views and tendencies, is invited to affiliate with the Wireless Board of the New South Wales Trades and Labor Councll, and take its share in the management and use of 2IC, Sydney, the first Labor Broadcasting Station in the world.[79]

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. The Sydney Trades Hall is installing a B Class broadcasting station to work on 280 metres. A short wave transmitter using a wave length of 60 metres will also be operated. Both stations will be in action in about eight weeks. This is the first case of commercial interests being alloted wave lengths that come within the amateur wave band. The amateur fraternity will soon have to keep rigorously within their wave band, otherwise we can see them forfeiting the short wave lengths altogether.[80]

1925 07[edit]

CALL FOR UNITED ACTION. LABOR'S WIRELESS POLICY. A LEAD WANTED. (BY E. R. VOIGT.) IN the midst of a series of rapid and important wireless developments, both within the Trade Union centres and within the State Labor Governments — developments that in the near future are destined vitally to affect the welfare and organisation of the working-class — the Labor Movement of Australia stands uncertainly with no wireless policy to guide it, or to co-ordinate its activities. In Queensland, the State Labor Government is proceeding with the construction of a 5000-watt broadcasting station, which will monopolise "A" class broadcasting throughout Queensland. In conjunction with this broadcasting station, it is understood that the Queensland Labor Government contemplates the establishment of wireless reception facilities in various departments of governmental activity. So far as can be gathered, the plans of the Queensland Government are not very comprehensive. Its broadcasting station will in the main be devoted to the provision of public entertainment, much the same as Farmer's and Broadcasters, in Sydney. Publicity Engine. But although its plans may at the present time be somewhat vague, and not very far-reaching, there is no doubt whatever that with the phenomenally rapid development of wireless broadcasting and reception, the Queensland State Radio Service will in a very short time be extended to all departments of Governmental activity, and will cover every important section of the State. When this happens, the Government will have at its disposal a great engine of publicity. Each Cabinet Minister will have comfortably installed at his elbow a means of lightning communication and publicity. We may feel no qualms while this immense power is in the hands of a Labor Government, but when at the turn of an election this power falls into the hands of the enemies of the workers the gravity of the situation can hardly be overestimated. In Hands of Trust. The Queensland Labor Government is to be commended for its action. It is noted, however, with some misgiving, that, unlike the Sydney Labor Broadcasting Station, the construction of the Queensland Government Station is in the hands of the Wireless Trust, with all the conditions and restrictions which the Trust attaches thereto. In New South Wales, wireless development within the Labor Movement is taking place along lines better calculated to stabilise the power of wireless publicity and communication in the hands of the workers. N.S.W.'s Second Line. The first step has been taken by the Trade Unions, and already a high-power broadcasting station is under course of construction that will provide a centre of industrial and political activity within the State, and will be a most valuable second line of defence should the Parliamentary see-saw again place Nationalism in office. Although neither the framework nor the details of a wireless plan of the N.S.W. Labor Government are known (a striking commentary of the unpreparedness of the Movement in regard to wireless development) it is safe to assume that these plans will be much more comprehensive and much more far-reaching than those of the Queensland Government. In the first place, the high-power broadcasting station projected by the N.S.W. Labor Government will not be an "A" class station, and consequently, unlike the Queensland station, it will not be forced to provide music, jazz and other entertainments for the people. The N.S.W. station will be devoted to serious business, and it is expected that its development and ramifications will extend far beyond those of the orthodox "entertaining" broadcasting stations. Chain of Sub-Stations. The establishment in New South Wales of a high-power Labor Broadcasting Station, as well as an equally powerful State Government Broad-casting Station, each of which must inevitably be linked up in the near future with a chain of sub-stations, spreading throughout the State, will undoubtedly give great impetus to the already rapidly-developing use of wireless receivers among the masses. Wireless distributing and manufacturing concerns already know this, and are preparing for it. It is up to the Labor Movement of N.S.W. to know it, and to prepare for it also. No Common Plan And in face of all these developments, destined in the very near future to become the crux of working-class industrial and political activity; in the face also of the mass of restrictions with which the opponents of Labor seek to obstruct the development of wireless in the service of working-class organisation, the Labor Movement of Australia has no wireless policy to guide it. Our Trade Union centres can establish their wireless stations without conforming to any common plan. The stations, when erected, may be efficient or inefficient. We may fall into the hands of the Trust, or out of it. The price we pay may be reasonable or unreasonable. Our wireless service may or may not technically correspond with those developing in other State Trade Union centres. We are bereft of any common plan to guide us. As a preliminary step, there should be a conference between representatives of the State A.L.P., the Parliamentary Caucus, the Trade Unions, and the sponsors of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station for the purpose of outlining a provisional policy of Labor wireless development.[81]

RADIO CONTROL. Sir,— Re a statement by Mr. E. R. Voigt, "that the construction of the Queensland Government station is in the hands of the Wireless Trust, etc." Mr. Voigt and the public should know that the construction of the Queensland station is in the hands of Amalgamated Wireless (Aust.), Ltd. This company is controlled by the Federal Government, who hold the controlling number of shares, and, further, their directors are a majority upon the board of directors. The Queensland Government, in common with the proposed Labor broadcasting station, will be under exactly the same restrictions, i.e., they will pay royalty upon all patents used in the course of construction or operation, as is done in any other business, but in all probability there will be a little saving in this direction, as the Government-controlled Australian company will, wherever possible, put in equipment designed by Australian engineers. Any information required by the great Labor Movement with regard to wireless will be supplied gratuitously by the Radio Telegraphists' Institute of Australasia from professional wireless men of proved standing and ability in the Industry, and the Labor Movement will be wise to gets its information from this source,— Yours, etc., S. TOOMBS, General Secretary Radio Telegraphists' Institute, 79 Pitt Street.[82]

RADIO CONTROL, Sir,— It is amazing to see an ex-Labor man — and one who is secretary of a trade union, as is your correspondent, Mr. B. Toombs — writing on "Radio Control," and coming out brazenly in support of a profit-making trust started by the anti-Labor Federal Government. It is no less amazing for one who is general secretary of the Radio Telegraphists' Institute — and who has had neither the energy nor the vision to initiate or support any steps to secure the advantages and control of radio for the great Labor movement — to criticise Mr. Voigt, who has done, and is doing, more than any man in Australia to establish Labor's place on the air. Mr. Toombs stands for control by the Trust, and the Nationalist Federal Government; Mr. Voigt stands for Labor control. While Mr. Toombs talks Mr. Voigt acts. Labor does not require to be informed by Mr. Toombs that capitalism has its experts whose services can be bought on the open market by the highest bidder at any time. But Labor needs its own Labor radio experts just as urgently as it needs its own Labor Party, its own Labor unions and its own "Labor Daily." In Mr. Voigt, Labor has an engineer, an organiser and a practical wireless constructor. The fact that he is supervising the building of the new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station is proof that Labor can manage its own business.— Yours. etc., GEO. F. MANUEL, Hon. Sec. (pro tem), Labor Radio Institute of Australasia.[83]

RADIO FOR LABOR. INSTITUTE FORMED. A preliminary meeting was held on Thursday night for the purpose of establishing a Labor Radio Institute. The object of the movement is to form an association of individuals within the Labor movement interested in the development of radio broadcasting and reception. In view of the rapid growth of interest in radio on all sides, and the great activity now being displayed by the New South Wales Labor Government and the trade unions concerning radio broadcasting on a scale hitherto unknown, it is considered highly opportune that for all those Labor supporters who realise the great importance of radio in the daily lives and struggles of the workers, there should be provided a common meeting ground where the problems and possibilities of radio can be considered and developed. One of the principal objectives of the new organisation is to form a nucleus of a powerful centre for the protection from exploitation on the part of trusts and combines for private gain and anti-social purposes of perhaps the most unprecedented discovery of modern times. The meeting was a success. Those present unanimously decided to form a Labor Radio Institute. Office-bearers, pro tem, were appointed, pending the first general meeting, shortly to be held. Meanwhile, those interested in this project and desiring further information may communicate with Geo. F. Manuel.[84]

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-In Lyrics — Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. . . . 2L.C., The B class station of the Sydney Trades Hall, is now nearing completion, and it is anticipated that it will be in operation within seven weeks. A wave length of 280 metres has been allotted, and an input power of 4 kilowatts will be used.[85]

NEW SECRETARY. Mr. E. R. Voigt was yesterday appointed secretary to Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., Vice-President of the Legislative Council. Mr. Voigt has been identified with research work in connection with the Labor Council, and was latterly in charge of research publicity. He was also in charge of the Labor Council's scheme for the installation of a wireless station at the Trades Hall but, according to a statement made by Mr. Willis, who is making inquiries concerning a proposed State wireless scheme, his appointment does not indicate that the Government contemplates taking over the Trades Hall undertaking.[86]

"NOTHING AMAZING." VOIGHT'S POSITION. Commenting yesterday upon the appointment of Mr. E. R. Voigt as private secretary to the Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr. A. C. Willis), an afternoon paper made the statement that it had given rise to "amazement in industrial and official" circles," because Mr. Voight had been identified with the Trades Council, "now entirety controlled by Communists." "I have appointed Mr. Voigt as my private secretary because I know of no man in the industrial movement who is more capable than he is of giving me the assistance I require, and of helping me to give effect to the platform and policy of the Labor Party, upon which we were returned to power," said Mr. Willis, yesterday. "It is, I understand, the prerogative of a Minister to appoint his own private secretary," added Mr. Willis. "I intend to, take full advantage of that, and in this regard will not be dictated to by anybody."[87]

1925 08[edit]

THE RADIO AMATEURS. Sir,— The two letters of Mr. S. Toombs are just a back-handed slap at the radio amateurs of Australia. An immense amount of the tremendous development of radio is due to the tireless experimenting of the amateur stations, but, unfortunately, it is the wireless trusts and combines that are reaping the benefit. The record of the amateur in Australia has been a particularly brilliant one. It was the Australian amateur that first applied radio to moving trains in 1910; that first utilised radio for the explosion of guns and for other defence purposes; that first transmitted wireless drawings; that first transmitted radio photographs in natural colors; and that made the first-across-the-world experiments with short waves and low power. The amateurs do not, and never did, compete with the professional telegraphists. The amateurs experiment and invent, and in so doing provide more jobs for the telegraphists. In inviting the Wireless Institute to criticise the plans and construction of the new Labor broadcasting station, Mr. Voigt has taken a shrewd step, which will ensure the new station being one of the most efficient of its kind in the world, and a credit to the Labor Movement.— Yours, etc., J. GODFREY, Canterbury.[88]

PLAINLY HEARD. VOICE FROM LOS ANGELES. Messrs. E. G. Beard and C. Eagle, engineers of United Distributors, Ltd., accompanied by Mr. E. S. Voigt, private secretary to Mr. A. C. Willis, vice-president of the Executive Council, were successful in logging the American Station KFI, Los Angeles, last night. The "Udisco" Super-Six was used for reception, and operated a loud-speaker with only a temporary aerial 15ft. high. A wire fence was used for the earth, and KFI was held from 6 to 7 o'clock last night. Among other items, the "Kashmiri Song" came over with wonderful clarity and sweetness.[89]

LABOR'S WIRELESS. SUCCESSFUL TESTS. SOUTH SEAS MESSAGE. WHILE testing out the new model Udisco-Six receiver, to be used in the Sydney Labor Broadcasting station, on Friday last, Mr. E. Gordon Beard, chief radio engineer of United Distributors, and Mr. E. R. Voigt, logged a number of amateur stations in America. They also intercepted a call sent out from the U.S. South Seas expedition, situated 4500 miles off the coast of America, in Mid-Pacific. Operating under the call-sign KFUH, the expedition called up Southern U.S.A., and was answered by an amateur station, R. De Cola, 424 Allison Street, Niles, Ohio. An urgent private message was then sent out on the air to Mr. De Cola, who relayed the same on to Florida. EXPLORING THE SARAGOSSA. The U.S. SS expedition conducting scientific investigations into marine life in the Saragossa Sea, but expanse of weeds and deadly calms, which has in the past lured so many sailing ships to destruction. A remarkable feature of this call from mid-Pacific to U.S.A. is the fact that it constitutes a distinct departure from Australian practice. Under the severe and archaic regulations of the Australian Telegraph and Telephone Act such private radio communication is forbidden. Wireless users may be interested to learn that the instrument on which KFUH, was logged was a commercial receiver, not a specially-constructed experiment set.[90]

TESTS WITH FLEET. RADIO DEVELOPMENT. WIDE interest is centred in the experiments which will be conducted by Mr. C. D. Maclurcan to-night in conjunction with the American Fleet at sea. This marks a new and important development in the construction of a commercial radio frequency amplifier for short waves. The test will be made on the new standard model Udisco-Six receiver, designed by Mr. E. Gordon Board, of United Distributors, to cover the remarkable wave-band of 20 to 2000 metres. Mr. E. R. Voigt, on behalf of Labor, will take part in the tests. Labor has a vital interest in short waves, since that is the only direction in which broadcasting can be developed into by 2IC (the new Labor broadcasting station) for the incorporation later of a special short-wave transmitter. When in Sydney Lieutenant Schnell, chief radio officer of the American Fleet, and several members of the American Radio Relay League, attached to the fleet, expressed interest in the new development, and arrangements were made to conduct the test on short waves with the fleet at sea.[91]

Everyday and Everybody. . . . Mr. Voigt's Appointment. THE Federated Clerks' Union has expressed its appreciation of the action of Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., Vice-President of the Executive Council, in appointing Mr. E. R. Voigt as Private Secretary in his department. The union congratulated Mr. Willis in having secured in Mr. Voigt the services of one who, as a student, an engineer and an organiser, has proved his great value to the Labor Movement by initiating the world's first high-power Labor Broadcasting Station, now under construction under Mr. Voigt's supervision, and in founding and organising a number of departments of Labor activity of great value to the Movement.[92]

WIRELESS INQUIRIES. VOIGT IN BRISBANE. BRISBANE, Tuesday. Mr. E. R. Voigt, Private Secretary to Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., arrived in Brisbane by the mail train last evening to make inquiries regarding the Queensland Government's wireless broadcasting station.[93]

MR. VOIGT RETURNS. BRISBANE. Wednesday. Mr. E. R. Voigt, Private Secretary to Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., leaves by the mail train to-morrow for Sydney. While in Brisbane, Mr. Voigt has acquired much useful information and made a most favorable impression in industrial circles. Among other matters, he has been investigating Queensland's State wireless project.[94]

2KY Trades Hall Calling! NEW RADIO STATION. The new B class broadcasting station at the Trades Hall will be known as 2KY. It will operate on a wave length of 280 metres. Mr. J. S. Garden said to-dav that arrangements were approaching completion, and it was hoped to start transmitting early in September. He said it was the intention of the Labor Council to manufacture wireless sets wholesale and sell them at cheap rates. These would be made by electricians who are members of the union.[95]

ON SEPT. 1 CALL 2KY TRADES HALL RADIO. MR. J. S. GARDEN announced at the Labor Council last night that all arrangements for the Trades Hall Wireless Station were practically complete, and that it would be opened probably on September 1. With the exception of the Queensland Government station, it would, he said, be the finest of the kind in the Commonwealth. The station will operate on a wave-length of 280 metres, and will be known as 2KY. It is the intention of the Council to manufacture wireless sets wholesale, and sell them at cheap rates. "Buzzers" will be installed in the Labor Council room and elsewhere to enable any special debates to be broadcasted, and a pianola and a gramophone will be made available. Mr. Garden paid a warm tribute to the services of Mr. Voigt, who had made the service possible; to Mr Wiles, who was giving his workrooms free for six months; and to the "Labor Daily."[96]

LABOR'S WIRELESS. QUESTIONS FOR MR. VOIGT. (To the Editor.) Sir,— The announcement in your paper that the Labor Broadcasting Station will open fire on September 1 was a welcome one, and very many wireless sets will undoubtedly be tuned in to receive the first shots. It's time there was a counter-offensive to the nightly broadside of inspired anti-Labor propaganda, for which, ironically enough, its victims are compelled to pay a heavy tax. The number of first nighters would be considerably swelled if Mr. Voigt will, with your permission, state in the "Labor Daily" the required number of turns on the receiving coil, as the majority of workers are unlikely to have tuning condensers on their set. Another point: Much domestic friction may be avoided if "Dad" is enabled to listen to his politics without depriving Mum and the youngster of their accustomed music. Will Mr. Voigt tell us the best and simplest wrinkle he knows for employing a second aerial from the one pair of poles? Another length of wire and an extra crystal and coil would involve but a trifling additional cost, and save many an interruptive argument. There is also the advantage that one pair of 'phones connected with each aerial would receive the maximum strength of the respective signals, whereas when two or more pairs are attached to a set, the strength is proportionately diminished. This is obviously an important consideration to people who live at a distance from the broadcasting station. While there is so much buccaneering as at present in valves and their accessories, most workers will be obliged to make the best of crystal possibilities. In this respect, as well as in others, Mr. Voigt and his Wireless Publicity Department can render valuable service, as I have no doubt he will.— Yours, etc., "WELLWISHER." West Wollongong.[97]

IN OCTOBER. LABOR'S WIRELESS. Mr. E. R. Voigt stated yesterday that owing to the fact that some of the engineers working on the Labor Broadcasting Station have been called out of town, it is unlikely that the station will be erected in time to broadcast its programme on September 1. In any case, he explained, even after the Station is fully erected it will in all probability be necessary to reserve at least two weeks for experimental purposes before going on the air, in order that every part shall be working to the fullest possible advantage. It is unlikely that the station will be operating before October. Every effort is being made to expedite the work consistently with the production of a first-class broadcasting station that will do credit to the Labor movement.[98]

LABOR'S WIRELESS. MR. VOIGT EXPLAINS FOR WOLLONGONG READER. "ONE of the main objects of the wireless service which the trades unions in N.S.W. are undertaking is to bring wireless to the largest possible number of listeners-in," re-marked Mr. E. R. Voigt yesterday. "I can quite understand that many working men desire to get as much out of one simple crystal set as possible. Your correspondent, 'Well-wisher,' can utilise his existing masts and erect a second aerial separated from the first aerial by a six-foot spreader. From the second aerial a lead in can be made to a second crystal set. The only advantage in doing this would be to eliminate the cost of erecting another pair of masts. "On the other hand, it may be possible to secure enough volume on the existing aerial by raising the same another 20ft. or so.; but everything will depend upon local conditions. "Assuming that the length of the aerial now being used by your correspondent necessitates a hundred turn coil to bring in 2YK [sic], the new Labor broadcasting station, which will operate on a wave length of 280 metres, would require a coil of approximately 30 turns. "From a community standpoint, the most economical and satisfactory method of conveying music and information from the Sydney broadcasting stations to the inhabitants of Wollongong and district would be to erect a 500 watt broadcasting station in Wollongong, and make arrangements to relay the best of the programmes from Sydney, as well as any local additons that may be desirable. "Such a broadcasting station might possibly be erected at a cost of approximately £600 or less, according to local conditions. This would not only link up the population of Wollongong with that of the other parts of the State, but would provide a great centre of local development in wireless activity. With this station operating, your correspondent could probably run four or five pairs of 'phones from the same simple crystal set."[99]

RADIO NOTES. (By "Voltamp.") . . . . Early in September we are promised another B class broadcasting station, 2KY (Sydney) which will be operated at the Trades Hall, Sydney. Wonder if it will be opened to the strains of "The Red Flag."[100]

1925 09[edit]

THE MAN IN THE STREET. (To the Editor.) WHERE HELL IS. Sir — When Mr. Walsh told Bruce to "Go to Hell," he simply meant go to Work for £9 a month and see how you get on. What more hell could a man want? I reckon Bruce would last quite easy for about one hour in a ship's stoke-hold.— Yours, etc., "TOILER." Balmain. EDUCATIONAL RADIO. Sir,— As a radio enthusiast, I want to know from Mr. Voigt whether the Trades Hall broadcasting station, about which we hear so much, is going to give educational sessions for children as well as industrial propaganda. Perhaps while on the subject Mr. Voigt will say also — or Mr. Willis might make an official statement — whether the State broadcasting station will give educational matter through the air. I do not want to catch Mr. Voigt nap-ping, so I state now my reason for ask-ing, which is this: If Mr. Willis as the Minister in charge of the State broad-casting scheme does intend to give out educational matter by radio, why doesn't the Government formally adopt the educational sessions now being sent out by 2FC?— Yours, etc., "RADIO FAN." Crow's Nest.[101]

WILL EDUCATE. LABOR'S RADIO. MR. VOIGT EXPLAINS. "Your correspondent, 'Radio Fan,' desires to know whether the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station 2KY, proposes to give educational sessions for children," remarked Mr. E. R. Voigt yesterday. "It is self-evident that any comprehensive working-class movement must be vitally concerned with the education of the worker, and since radio broadcasting is the quickest, the most economical and the most effective means ever devised for the dissemination of information, its activities will of necessity largely be devoted to education. "The important matter of instituting educational sessions for children will receive the attention of the organisers of 2KY, but in the meantime they are concentrating upon a comprehensive programme for the education of those who, perhaps, need it most — the adults, the average mentality of whom, so we are informed by competent authorities, is arrested at the tender age of thirteen. "With regard to the proposed State Radio Service, any such service would naturally be placed at the disposal of every department of State activity, and the onus will be upon such departments to take advantage or otherwise of the service in question."[102]

THE MAN IN THE STREET. (To the Editor) THE YOUNG MIND. Sir.— Good luck to the Trades Hall broadcasting station and the lessons for children, which Mr. Voigt said are to be given through this medium. I was a little apprehensive lest the station be used only for economic and political propaganda. These are good but listeners-in would have to be enthusiasts already or they would soon tire, but the idea of instruction for the young people, provided it is of the right sort, will be the very thing to make the rising generation think along right lines in the future. As a matter of fact, the school sessions which are now being broadcast by Farmer's are very good for the young people because they tend to give them a wider outlook on life, and if Mr. Voigt can arrange for an extension in this direction he will be doing good work.— Yours, etc., "UNIONIST." Cabramatta.[103]

2KY SYDNEY. LABOR'S NEW BROADCASTING STATION. The new Labor wireless broadcasting station in course of erection at the Trades Hall, Sydney, will soon be in active operation. A recent report states that broadcasting will be commenced during the current month. It was anticipated that the opening would take place on Sept 1st but a slight delay has taken place. With the exception of the Queensland State Government station, it will be the finest in the Commonwealth. The station will operate on a wavelength of 280 metres, and will be known as 2KY. It is intended to manufacture wireless sets, and sell them at cheap rates. Mr. Voigt, of the Labor Statistical and Research Bureau, has rendered great service in pioneering and supervising all arrangements. Beyond all doubt, radio will play an important part in moulding public opinion of the future. Already in Victoria there are something like 20,000 listeners-in, and the number is growing daily. Those who listen-in must obviously be influenced by the propaganda of radio, and the question arises as to whether each State should not have its Labor radio service. Possibly the results achieved in New South Wales will stimulate activities in the other States; but, whatever the result, the obvious fact stares us in the face, that Labor is sorely in need of more engines of publicity for propaganda purposes, and the time is ripe when the Movement should make a forward move.[104]

LABOR'S RADIO. WHAT IT SHOULD TEACH. A "FAN" ANTICIPATES. "I am glad to learn from Mr. Voigt (writes "Radio Fan," in a letter to the Editor), that it is the intention of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, to give educational sessions for children. I hope that the course will include the elements of economies and that it will be generally designed for the purpose of widening the child's outlook." "These are the impressionable years and the Trades Hall station will have a great responsibility upon it. I hope that the station will give the children something more than the 3 R's; that it will explain to them something of the value of music as a refining influence on the human mind; that they will learn history not merely in its relation to kings and battles, but as a story of the gradual development of the human race from barbarism to civilisation; that they will be given talks on travel by experienced observers to whom travel has been an education, and that generally they will learn to appreciate all that is good and goes for the beautifying of life. "If the Trades Hall station does these things — and such I gather, is the programme of Mr. Voigt — it will amply justify itself. "I am already a regular listener, particularly to the educational sessions that are already being broadcast by 2FC, but I can assure Mr. Voigt that I will be glad to tune in to 2KY as soon as he gets going. "I hope all the workers will get receiving sets so as to be ready for the Trades Hall broadcasting station, which starts next month, and the Station station."[105]

1925 10[edit]

USE WIRELESS IN THE CAMPAIGN. TRADES HALL RADIO. At the meeting of the Parramatta Federal Electorate Council at Cabramatta on Sunday, attended by over 50 delegates, it was resolved — "To urgently request the Central Executive and the Parliamentary Party to take immediate steps to utilise the Trades Hall radio equipment for propaganda purposes at the ensuing Federal elections." Both the mover of the motion (Ald. J. H. Stone, Liverpool), and Mr. J. E. Dean (seconder) strongly stressed the fact that the Movement would, by the use of the wireless, be brought into touch with a section of the voters who would not be reached by the ordinary political methods. Alderman Stone stated that the enemies of Labor had already commenced to operate through the air. A lecturer, with a foreign name, speaking from station 2BL, on Saturday night on "Life and Religion in Russia," made a deliberate attack on the Australian Labor Party, associating it with the alleged disruptive elements of other countries. The counter to such tactics, said the speaker, was a vigorous ???? of the Movement's own wireless station.[106]

LABOR TACKLES SPACE. MAKING HlSTORY. CALL SIGN 2KY. From October 15 the voice of Labor will officially take to the air. On that date 2KY will start to send, and from that date it will verily be a case of "he that has ears to hear, let him hear." The installation of the Labor Council's station is well on the way to completion. It will have a power of 1500 watts and a wave length of 279, and will cost £1250 — a paltry sum compared with only the benefits it should bring to Labor during the forthcoming Federal election — and is tribute to the council's sense of values. The mast that will in the near future constitute a feature of Sydney's Trades Hall-scape is not yet erected, but it will rise 60ft feet above the top of that building, making the total height about 130 feet. THE CEREMONY. Mr. J. Beasley (president of the Trades and Labor Council), will preside at the opening ceremony on October 15, at which the Premier Mr. Lang) and the Federal Leader (Mr. Charlton) will speak. The speakers will also include the Leader of the Upper House (Mr. A. C. Willis, the leader of the Senate (Senator Gardiner), the presidents of the council, of the Eight-Hour Committee, and the A.L.P. (Mr. E. C. Magrath), and one representative of each group of the Labor Council. Room 66 of the Trades Hall will be occupied by members of Parliament and their wives. Room 27 by delegates to the Labor Council, and their wives, and the Social Hall to presidents and secretaries of unions and their wives. The occasion will be of historical significance in the advance of the Labor movement. It is fitting that Labor should take the lead in such an industrial and political departure.[107]

LABOR'S VOICE IN THE AIR. TO BE HEARD SOON. CALL SIGN, 2KY. THE magnificent high power broadcasting station under construction by United Distributors for the N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council is now nearing completion, and should be ready to go on the air in time to play a most important part in the Federal election campaign, Mr. E. R. Voigt. chairman and organiser of the Wireless Committee has invited the Labor Campaign Committee to make use of the station in broadcasting Labor's policy to the electors in the far-flung constituencies. "It may be asked," said Mr. Voigt in an interview with the "Labor Daily," "is it fair that Labor should have at its disposal during the elections such a powerful means of broadcasting its policy, while the opposition completely lacks such advantages? To the intelligent listener-in, this question is absurd. "Several times each day every one of the big "A" class broadcasting stations in Australia, with the sole exception of the Queensland State Stations, broadcasts to the four winds of heaven political propaganda against the Labor movement. "This propaganda takes the form of daily "news" from the anti-Labor Press. It is, of course, impossible effectively to censor all news during the elections which has a political bias, and no attempt is made to do so. But it tells heavily against Labor candidates all the same, for it reaches into many thousands of working class homes, whose occupants would not purchase an anti-Labor newspaper. "It is a striking fact that in N.S.W., Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia, Labor news is barred from all the big broadcasting stations. BRISBANE INCIDENT. "It is true that the "A" class broadcasting stations cannot, except in the form of news and except on special occasions, broadcast political speeches. "There is some show of justification for this. The Postmaster-General's Department might say in effect: "We pour into your coffers a stream of money drawn from the pockets of listeners-in. You must, therefore, provide a fair return in cultural entertainment." "The Federal Government evidently considers that political pronouncements can hardly come under this heading, though jazz and betting can. "This, of course, explains why the Premier of Queensland last week was prohibited from broadcasting a political speech. The fact that the Premier, Mr. Gillies, ignored the prohibition indicates that he has a higher opinion of State activities than has the Federal Government. NOT REVENUE PRODUCING. "The Trades Hall will have a "B" class broadcasting station. It will receive no revenue from the listeners-in, and will therefore, not be bound to provide "cultural entertainment." "It is therefore permissible for 2KY to cut out the betting tipster whenever it is so disposed, and allow the rulers and the prospective rulers of the country to address the people. "That is just what 2KY proposes to do during the coming elections. The Nationalists applied for a license for a broadcasting station immediately following the application of the Trades Hall, and their application was promptly granted. A CHALLENGE. "If the Nationalists have not a broadcasting station directly at their service to-day, that is their own fault. Labor would welcome meeting the Nationalists on the air, and it is to be hoped that their principal speaker can be induced to meet those of the great Labor movement in the interim on 2KY." Mr. Voigt added that Labor had so much faith in the reason of its own case that it is not afraid to meet its strongest opponents on terms of equality. The powerful station now being erected on the roof of the Trades Hall will help to even up the great disadvantage under which Labor has suffered in the past in regard to Press and publicity. There is little doubt that the Federal campaign directors will have the imagination and the determination to use to the fullest advantage during the elections the great power of publicity now afforded.[108]

TRADES HALL WIRELESS. (PHOTO OF TRANSMITTER) 2KY Broadcasting Station is now installed, and will be soon in full working order.[109]

THE POWER BEHIND 2KY. (PHOTO OF A GENERATOR) One of the big generators installed at the Trades Hall in connection with Labor's Wireless Broadcasting Station.[110]

RADIO WORKERS AND ELECTRICIANS' UNION PRESIDENT ISSUES CALL. Mr. Jack Beasley, president of the Trades and Labor Council issues an invitation to all employees in the radio industry to join the Electrical Trades Union, which is the properly accredited union to which radio workers should belong if they intend to pursue their calling as bona-fide trade unionists. "Australia is a trade union country," "where the low wages, bad conditions and victimisation inherent in the old method of individual bargaining have been replaced by collective bargaining between the big unions and those of the employers. "Not only does trades unionism raise the standard of living of the workers by establishing a series of standard wage rates throughout the industry, but it ensures each employer that he cannot be undercut so far as wages are concerned by any sweat shops in the trade. "Employers in the radio industry are therefore asked, in their own interests as well as in those of their workers, to place no obstacle in the way of the enrolment of the workers." In reply to queries Mr. Beasley wishes to assure all readers of the "Labor Daily" that every worker employed in the construction and installation of the new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, 2KY, is a bona-fide trade unionist. Mr. Beasley, who for four years in succession has been elected president of the N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council, is one of the most popular presidents the Council has ever had, and has taken a keen personal interest in the development of the new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station. He is standing for selection as a Labor candidate for West Sydney. If selected, he will be a powerful and popular addition to Labor's team. (PHOTO) Mr. J. Beasley.[111]

Illustrations. (Photo) Putting the finishing touches on 2KY, the new broadcasting station at the Sydney Trades Hall.[112]

GOING UP. (Photo) At work on one of the poles to support the aerial at the Trades Hall Wireless Station (2KY), which will be broadcasting very soon.[113]

ARE YOU READY FOR 2KY? (Photo) 2KY — the first Labor Broadcasting Station in the world — is nearly ready for you. So get your "sets" in working order, so that you may be able to listen in for the Sydney Trades and Labor Council programmes in the near future.[114]

STATION ESTABLISHED AT TRADES HALL. SYDNEY.— The Trades and Labor Council has established a radio station at the Trades Hall under the control of Mr. Beasley, president, and Mr. J. S. Garden, secretary of the Trades and Labor Council. Labor supporters in possession of loud speakers have been asked to send their names to the campaign committee. If that committee proposes to use wireless for electioneering purposes its action may be in defiance of the ruling of the Postmaster-General. The Commonwealth authorities agreed that broadcasting should be limited to speeches of Mr. Bruce, Mr. Page and Mr. Charlton, and it will be interesting to see what the P.M.G. has to say about the use of wireless by the Trades and Labor Council, presuming they adopt it.[115]

LABOR WIRELESS SCHEME. Trades Hall Broadcasting Station Ready This Week. The Labor wireless station at the Trades Hall, Sydney, will commence broadcasting tomorrow. The station, known as 2KY, will have a power of 1500 watts and a wave-length of 279. Mr. J. Beasley, President of the Labor Council of N.S.W., will preside, at the opening ceremony, and the N.S.W. State Premier (Mr. Lang), the Federal Labor leader (Mr. Charlton), and other prominent officials of the Labor Movement will deliver speeches. The station will be used for broadcasting Labor propaganda during the Federal election campaign.[116]

A BIG DAY OCTOBER 31. LABOR'S RADIO STATION MR. WILLIS TO OPEN. The Trades Hall Wireless Station — No. 2KY, Sydney — will be opened on October 31 by Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, in the Trades Hall. All unionists, members of leagues, and Labor supporters are invited to attend the opening ceremony. Admission will be by ticket, so early application is necessary, as only a limited number will be issued. "Our station," said the secretary, Mr. Gilbert J. Sinclair (Room 47, Trades Hall, Sydney), "being classed as a B station, will not receive any of the broadcasting license fees paid by the public to the Government, as do stations 2FC and 2BL. That being so, we will have to rely on the voluntary efforts of those who are sympathetic towards Labor, and are desirous of seeing the first Labor broadcasting station in the world a success. "We earnestly appeal to all who really desire to see our station flourish to forward at their earliest any suggestion they think will be in the interests of the station. Any sympathiser who can and will assist us by contributing to our musical programme, vocal or instrumental, will be more than appreciated by us. Forward your suggestions and offers of assistance at once.[117]

The Wireless Page. By "Triode" GETTING THE AERIAL UP. The aerial on the Sydney Trades Hall station being prepared. Sydney's New Broadcasting Station. A NEW Sydney broadcasting station, to be known as 2KY, is having the finishing touches put to it. It is to be operated by the Trades Hall, Goulburn-street, where studio and transmitting apparatus are established, and will be the first transmitting station with two wave lengths, operating on 280 metres and 35 metres. The power at commencement will be 1500 watts, but it will be provided with the means to use up to 5000. The station is the production of the United Distributers, Ltd., of Sydney, and is Australian-made with the exception of the tuning condensers and the valves, the cost, it is claimed, being approximately one third of any previously erected in Australia. The designer is Mr. E. G. Baird (sic), chief engineer of United Distributers, Ltd. The aerial, on a 65ft. mast, is 125 yards long. The hoops are 3ft 6in in diameter. 2KY is expected to be on the air this week.[118]

LABOR HEARS AMERICA. Radio listeners have been interested within the past four nights to hear the Labor Council's station, 2KY, operating from the Trades Hall. This station is a double-barrelled one, being capable of sending out a wave length of 280 metres, and another wave length of 30 metres simultaneously. Already two-way communication has been established with America, and anyone who has chosen to listen in has found the 280-metre wave length quite easy to pick up. It is expected that the station will be operating officially within a week.[119]

LABOR BROADCASTING. 2K.Y., the new Labor broadcasting station, will be on the air tonight and subsequent evenings between 6.30 and 7.30 for testing purposes. Only half power will be used. 2K.Y. headquarters, the Trades Hall, will welcome reports from outlying stations, and radio enthusiasts are invited to send them in at an early date. The station will be opened on October 31.[120]

BROADCASTING FROM TRADES HALL. Radio listeners have been able to hear, within the past four nights, the Labour Council's station 2KY, operating from the Trades Hall. 2KY is a double-barrelled station, being capable of sending out a wave length of 280 meters and another wave length of 30 metres simultaneously. Already two-way communication has been established with America. Enthusiasts claim that the 280 metres wave-length is quite easy to pick up. It is now expected that the station will be operating officially within a week.[121]

2KY TESTS Labor's broadcasting station, 2KY, will be opened officially on October 31. The station will be in action daily during the same period until the opening date. The successful preliminary testing which took place last night was very necessary to ensure that everything is in perfect order before the 31st, when thousands of expectant Laborites and others will tune in to the world's first Labor broadcasting station. The testing was carried out with only half the requisite number of valves. It is a strange fact that a short time ago there was an unlimited number of valves available, and adequate supplies were promised to those responsible for the construction of the station. As the sale of these valves is controlled by the one source, their sudden disappearance from the local market is understandable. However, the responsible authorities are sanguine that as many valves as may be required will be secured in New Zealand or elsewhere, in good time for the opening. In connection with the testing, the Trades Hall officials will welcome all the reports that may be sent in from adjacent and outlying stations. These reports will be a great aid to the success of the preliminary experiments.[122]

LABOR'S RADIO. FIRST HIGH POWER BROADCASTING VOIGT EXPLAINS. "2KY, the world's first high-power Labor Broadcasting Station, was on the air, testing, last night," said Mr. Voigt, chairman of the Wire-less Committee, "All those thousands of working class listeners-in, who have been waiting eagerly for the appearance of the Labor Broadcasting Station, are advised that 2KY will be on the air each evening from about 6.30 till 10 exclusive of Sunday, until the formal opening of the station on Saturday next. "The station will operate on a wave-length of 280 metres," he continued, "and as a general rule, it may be tuned in with the same coil as that used for 2BL, or one with a few less turns, according to the length of the aerial. NO REGULAR PROGRAMME. "As there will be no regular programme, Labor and other radio fans will be able when no music is being broadcast, to detect the station's carrier wave by a constant ticking as of a clock. After having detected the carrier wave, they can, if they desire, wait on until they get the announcement and testing music of the station. "At times the listening-in public will be informed that the testing will be on "A" conditions or on "B" conditions. Listeners-in are invited to write and give their opinions as to the merits of the two conditions in reception. They should address all communications to the Secretary, Wireless Committee, Trades Hall, Sydney. A WARNING. I desire to issue a friendly warning to the wireless public," said Mr. Voigt, "not to expect perfect modulation and tuning too quickly. The existing two Sydney "A" class stations took several months before they attained satisfactory modulation. There may be some weird noises at times on the 280 metre wavelength, but the results are regarded by our engineers as highly satisfactory. Although it is exceedingly optimistic, we nevertheless hope and expect to have everything in readiness for the opening of 2KY on the 31st inst. "We are particularly anxious to receive letters from any listeners-in stating whether other stations interfere with 2KY or whether 2KY interferes with them."[123]

TRADES HALL ON THE AIR. 2KY EXPERIMENTING. The Trades Hall broadcasting station was "on the air" last night. The Trades Hall station is experimenting. There are a number of unusual features of the system which they are using, and satisfactory results are not expected to come for a while. Mr. Voight, chairman of the Trades Hall wireless committee, said yesterday:— "The existing two Sydney 'A' class stations took several months before they attained satisfactory modulation. MAY BE WEIRD NOISES. "There may be some weird noises at times on the 280-metre wave length, but the results are regarded by our engineers as highly satisfactory, and although it is exceedingly optimistic, we nevertheless hope and expect to have everything in readiness for the opening of 2KY on October 31. We are particularly, anxious to receive letters from any listeners-in stating whether any other stations interfere with 2KY, or whether 2KY interferes with them." 2KY will be on the air each evening from about 6.30 till 10 o'clock, exclusive of Sunday, until the formal opening of the station. The station operates on a wave-length of 280 metres, and as a general rule may be tuned in with the same coil as that used for 2BL, or one with a few less turns, according to the length of the aerial. As there will be no regular programme, Labor and other radio enthusiasts will be able during those periods when there is no music being broadcast, to detect the carrier wave of the station by a constant tic-toc like the ticking of a clock. After having detected the carrier wave they can, if they desire, wait on until they get the announcement and testing music of the station. At times the listening-in public will be informed that the testing will be on "A" conditions or on "B" conditions.[124]

RADIO FOR LABOR. IN less than week the Labor Broadcasting Station, 2KY., will be on the air with solid Labor propaganda for the elections. Every Laborite should get his radio set in working order, or borrow one from his Nationalist neighbor — and keep in close touch with the campaign. Labor supporters can do good work, especially in isolated parts, by gathering in their friends of whatever political complexion, and inviting them to listen to the true facts of the issues now before the people.[125]

THE BIG MAST OF 2KY. (Photos) Keen interest is being taken in the new Labor Broadcasting Station at the Trades Hall which is "on the air" this week for experimental trials. Inset is Mr. E. R. Voigt, the energetic chairman of the wireless committee. Also one of the dynamos with its rheostat.[126]

TRADES HALL WIRELESS. BROADCASTING TESTS. 2KY, the Trades Hall wireless station, is practically completed, and during the past few evenings there have been broadcast testings between the hours of 6.30 p.m. and 10 p.m., exclusive of Sunday evening. Mr. Voigt, chairman of the Trades Hall wireless committee, stated last night that these testings will be continued until the station formally opens for regular broadcast transmission at the end of this week. The station will operate on a wave length of 280 metres, so that receiving sets now in use will bring in the new station with only a slight alteration in the condenser settings. Up to the present there are doubts whether this new station will interfere with the satisfactory reception of ordinary broadcast programmes, or whether the broadcast programmes will interfere with the reception of the new station. In order that this matter may be settled, Mr. Voigt asks that amateur receivers should let him know the result of their experiences in receiving the new station in order that tuning of the transmission may be effected to prevent interference with or by the new station.[127]

VOICE OF LABOR. The Trades Hall B class station, 2KY, is scheduled to commence transmitting officially on Saturday, but the station has been on the air for test purposes during the last few nights between 6.30 and 10 p.m., and these tests will be continued. The wave length is 280 metres. Application has been made for permission to use a wave length of 35 metres when the 280-metre transmissions are not in progress, in order to send messages to other parts of the world. The programme will consist primarily of educational matter and labor propaganda. As regards political broadcast, a distinction is drawn between A and B class stations. A class stations are limited by the Federal Government's decision that only the speeches of party leaders are to be broadcast, while B class station, which receive no revenue from listeners, are not bound by this restriction.[128]

2KY TESTING. EXTRAORDINARY PROGRESS VOIGT'S REPORT. THE new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station is creating an Australian record in the rapidity with which it is getting into its stride. While it has been customary to take several months for the tuning of a big station of this kind, 2KY has made phenomenal progress. With less than a week of testing and tuning, 2KY will be on the air within the next day or two with its final adjustments made. "Many reports have been received from different parts of the State regarding the reception of the new station," said Mr. Voigt, yesterday. "Several competent amateurs have been checking up on the technical details of reception, and compliments have been paid to the engineers of the station on the steadiness of the wave-length. EXPECT FLUCTUATIONS. "I must again warn the public," added Mr. Voigt, "that they must expect fluctuating conditions while the testing and tuning of the station is proceeding. Our engineers are continually altering the tuning of the station in order to test under varying conditions, and also in order to secure the best possible standards of adjustment. "Owing to the fact that the suppliers of valves have now unexpectedly shut off completely our supplies of valves, and we have been obliged to get valves from different parts of the Commonwealth, the station is only working upon half its license power, and only upon one-quarter of its available power. Yet with this small power 2KY compares favorably in strength and modulation with both the existing "A" Class Stations. "Our engineers have been greatly encouraged both with the quick success of the station and with the complimentary letters received. But we also want all the criticism we can get. "Please send all criticisms and reports re reception to the United Distributors' Engineers, c.o. Secretary, Wireless Committee, Trades Hall, Sydney." (Photo) Mr. Voigt.[129]

SYDNEY DAY BY DAY. (BY A SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.) SYDNEY, Tuesday.— . . . The Trades Hall radio station has been experimenting during the last few evenings in order to find its range. Considerable interest is taken in its work and there is speculation concerning what it is leading to. The announcer appears to be an alert and capable officer. He is surrounded by habitues of the Trades Hall, which is the principal meeting-ground of the "reds." Someone in his vicinity last night seemed anxious to broadcast a bit of propaganda but he was promptly shut off. It may have been only a joke, but such jokes, if persisted in, will bring trouble to the station. A correspondent in a newspaper this morning complains that the new station interferes with one of the stations broadcasting comprehensive programmes for public information and entertainment, and occasionally blots it out and substitutes catcalls and so forth. It is suggested that the ether is being crowded, and that when the State Government establishes its station there will be an amount of jostling that will cause considerable annoyance. Hitherto complaints have been against amateur broadcasters, who have created transmission tangles.[130]

LABOR RADIO STATION. To Open Next Saturday. The Sydney Trades Hall Radio Station — No. 2KY, Sydney — will be opened next Saturday, October 31, by Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council. All unionists, members of Leagues and Labor supporters are invited to attend the opening ceremony. Admission will be by ticket, and early application is necessary, as only a limited number will be issued. In connection with the conducting of the station, the following appeal has been issued by the Secretary, Mr. Gilbert J. Sinclair: "Our station, being classed as a B station, will not receive any of the broadcasting license fees paid by the public to the Government, as do stations 2FC and 2BL. That being so, we will have to rely on the voluntary efforts of those who are sympathetic towards Labor, and are desirous of seeing the first Labor broadcasting station in the world a success. "We earnestly appeal to all who really desire to see our station flourish to forward at their earliest any suggestion they think will be in the interests of the statlon. Any sympathiser who can and will assist us by contributing to our musical programme, vocal or instrumental, will be more than appreciated by us. Forward your suggestions and offers of assistance at once."[131]

2KY PROMISES EXCELLENT ALL-ROUND SERVICE. Mr. E. R. Voigt, private secretary to the Vice-President of the Executive Council, took a prominent part in bringing about the formation of the Labor Research Bureau, and became its first secretary. He subsequently toured England and America, and in the latter country conceived the idea of returning to Australia for the purpose of establishing the first Labor Broadcasting bureau in the world. His dreams are now a reality, as far as Sydney is concerned, but a similar station in every State is his objective. He is chairman of the Trades Hall Wireless Committee. (Photo) THE DYNAMOS THAT WILL SUPPLY THE POWER FOR 2KY. Mr. Gilbert J. Sinclair, who has been Secretary of the Boilermakers Union for several years past, has done invaluable service on the Wireless Committee. Every day he has been on the roof of the Trades Hall watching carefully every step in the erection of Labor's broadcasting station. Mr. Sinclair was an official of the union with the late Mr. J. S. McGowen, who later become the first Labor Premier of this State. The present Minister for Justice, Mr. McKell, was assistant-secretary to Mr. Sinclair at the time of his first election to Parliament in 1917, as the member for Redfern. Mr. Sinclair is secretary of the Trades Hall Wireless Committee.[132]

PREPARE FOR LABOR'S BROADCASTING STATION. MAKING WIRELESS HISTORY. HEAR 2KY NEXT MONDAY. ALL THE NEWS AND LABOR VIEWS. THE FIRST HIGH-POWER WIRELESS STATION erected to broadcast the voice of Labor will be formally opened at the Sydney Trades Hall on Saturday next. THE STATION WILL BE USED mainly for broadcasting industrial and political news concerning the Labor Movement, but general news and advertising matter will not be overlooked. NEWS OF INTEREST to all sections of the community will be supplied by arrangement with the "Labor Daily." So get your sets ready, tune them up, and connect with 2KY. No broadcasting station would be a success if it furnished its listeners-in with politics only. The wireless committee realise this, and have taken steps to supply information of a general character. The news service to be supplied by the "Labor Daily" will be a great improvement on the services provided to the capitalist wireless organisations by the capitalist Press. First-hand sporting information will be a particularly bright feature. Arrangements will be made whereby racing and other sporting results will be broadcast immediately after the termination of such events. Each evening the latest forecast from the Weather Bureau will be on the air, as will all other matters of interest. When 2KY gets on the move next week, the daily programme will be published in the "Labor Dally." The most important service, from the point of view of revenue, is the advertising section. For the first time in the history of wireless, manufacturers and merchants with progressive ideas will have an opportunity of placing their wares before the public by means of broadcasting. In the past, the principal method of advertising has been the written word, but now the advertiser will be able to make known his articles for sale through a new medium. There is little doubt that the progressive business men of our city will seize the opportunity offered. But. they must be advised. Time is limited, as the committee has no intention of curtailing the news items for the purpose of profiteering. However, a little advertising is necessary to help 2KY pay its way. In Labor's wireless station, no listener-in will be charged for his set. On Monday next, watch for the programme for 2KY, which will be published in the "Labor Daily," and then tune in. For what reason has 2KY been erected? This is certainly a reasonable question to ask. The opponents of Labor, under the present circumstances, would, no doubt. put it down to the fact that an election was coming. The Trades Hall Wireless Committee does not hesitate to say that 2KY will be placed at the disposal of the candidates to proclaim Labor's policy to the people of the far-flung areas of the State, but the main object is to provide the working people with clean amusement, education, and a knowledge of industrial and political matters, at as cheap a rate as possible. When Mr. Voigt, as Director of the Labor Research Bureau, undertook a journey to America to conduct investigations upon industrial matters, he was impressed with the influence and power exerted by the immense number of broadcasting stations existing in that country. These powers, to his mind, were directed against the organisations of the workers in general, and he made an attempt, which has proved successful, to provide the workers of this country with a powerful broadcasting station. From the start, Mr. Voigt claimed that the Australian workers could obtain a powerful engine of publicity and communication within their means. In America, he discovered that broadcasting was used against the workers during any strikes or industrial disputes. Prior to leaving the States, Mr. Voigt carefully studied the costs of construction, and came to the conclusion that the Labor Party here could erect a station well within reach of the workers' finances. In 1923 it was decided to erect the station. The Labor Council appointed a committee, and gave it instructions to proceed. Mr. Voigt was chosen as chairman and organiser, and later on, Mr. Gilbert Sinclair was appointed to the position of secretary. At the outset the committee had considerable difficulty in surmounting the obstacles intentionally placed in the way by the Bruce Government and the trusts and combines which that Government supports. However, the obstacles were finally cleared from the track and the world's first high power Labor broadcasting station has been successfully completed. First and foremost, the object is to place before the people of the Commonwealth, the news and views of Labor organisations, both industrial and political. Secondly, to supply a regular daily news service in conjunction with the "Labor Daily." Thirdly, for educational purposes. But the educational matter sent out will not be orthodox matter likely to paralyse the mind, but will be concerned with vital questions which affect the everyday life of the people. It is expected that 2KY will enter vigorously into the election campaign as candidates are being invited to put forward their views, and the policy of the party, to the immense listening-in public throughout the State. In this way, Labor candidates will be able to address a very large number who, in the ordinary course of events, would not attend a meeting or buy a Labor newspaper. This fact alone may prove a decisive factor in the elections. The station will be formally opened on Saturday by Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., Vice-President of the Executive Council. Ministers of the State Cabinet will be among the speakers, and the Lord Mayor will also attend. Over 1000 guests are expected, and the event will constitute a landmark in the history of the great Labor Movement. Responsibility for all unsigned matter on this page referring to the Federal election is accepted by Q. S. Spedding, the "Labor Daily," 4 Brisbane Street, Sydney. (Photos) THE 2KY INSTALLATION.[133]

2KY TESTS. VERY SUCCESSFUL. HEARD IN WILLIAMSTOWN. MANY letters appreciative of tests carried out by station 2KY on Saturday last have been received by the director, Mr. E. R. Voigt. "Although the tests were so successful the power used was only one-quarter of what the station could put out," said Mr. Voigt yesterday. "If it could put out all the power possible it would be the most powerful station in the Commonwealth." "We have been complimented from every source on the evenness of our wave-length. If any interference has taken place from other stations it is due either to the design of the receiving set or to other stations not confining their wave-length." Mr. Voigt supplies the following letter to himself, which is a "loud speaker" for the success of 2KY:— "23 Station Road, Williamstown North, Victoria. 24/10/25. "Dear Sir,— Listening in on Saturday night on a little set I put together recently, I heard you testing, also asking for reports on your transmission — 2KY. I was surprised that my set would receive from such a distance, seeing that it is only rigged up on four or five pieces of scrap ebonite — it is just a coil wound on a cardboard former 3½ x 3½ with 24 D.C.C. tapped at every six turns anode aerial and inductance, two valves, although I can get you on one. "I must say that your test was very interesting to my wife and me, and we received all the items perfectly — in fact, I could not wish for better reception. I never had a chance to take a note of the title of the items but I heard a number of gramophone records which came through perfectly. We also heard what appeared to be a cracked record, sounding like a clock ticking. You then said: "Sorry for that little slip." You closed down at 12.3 a.m. our time. I could not find you on the list of transmitters. I would like to know your power, wave length, and when you operate. "I am only three miles from 3LO — 5000 watts. I got you just before they closed down. "Hoping to hear from you, I am, yours respectfully, "(Sgd.) F. W. TITHERADGE."[134]

Radio News Column. (By "Lojic.") THE TRADES HALL STATION. I was very fortunate in picking up 2KY, the new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, last Saturday night. They commenced testing the night previous on a wave-length of 280 metres, and it was quite by accident that I tuned them in on their second night of operations. The sound of a clock ticking first attracted my attention, and after listening to this new phenomenon for a while I experienced quite a thrill when a man's voice broke in with, "Station 2KY testing; the next will be a gramophone selection from 'La Boheme.' " That makes the fourth new station I have logged in the past two months, and I am beginning to think my set is some good after all. I might mention that 2KY will not be officially opening until October 31st, as further experiments in transmission have to be made. Their power is to be 500 watts, which is able to be increased to 4000 watts, if needed.[135]

WIRELESS. 2KY ON THE AIR. (BY ALAN BURROWS.) TRADES HALL STATION. Embodying some rather unique features, the transmitter erected on the Trades Hall for the Labour Council is giving fairly good results throughout its trial transmissions, so far as strength and power are concerned. But so far the wave lengths which 2KY — the station's call-sign — has used appear to be anything but the scheduled 280 metres. At times, even with a fairly selective set, it has been difficult to tune out 2KY when listen-ing to 2BL, and the B class stations have sometimes been completely blanketed. On its other wave length of 30 metres 2KY has already done some commendable long-distance work. This station is the first broadcasting station — it holds a B class license — in Australia to incorporate two wavelengths in this manner. Mr. Voigt has asked for listeners' reports on the transmissions; and the consensus of opinion was summed up in a letter to the "Herald" earlier in the week — that at present considerable interference is being caused. However, probably 2KY will settle down after the official opening tomorrow. The construction of this station has been under the direction of two Sydney wireless men — Mr. E. G. Beard and Mr. L. N. Schultz, a well-known amateur transmitter.</ref>"WIRELESS.". The Sydney Morning Herald (New South Wales, Australia) (27,401): p. 8. 30 October 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16251593. Retrieved 18 October 2018. </ref>

LABOR'S WIRELESS. TO OPEN TOMORROW. At the meeting of the Trades and Labor Council last night. Mr. Garden announced that the official opening of 2KY wireless station would take place to-morrow. The installation had been a great achievement, especially when it was considered that Farmer's took six months, Broadcasters four months, and their own but a week to effect similar results. With but a quarter of the power they had surprising results and already had been advised from Adelaide, Melbourne, Tasmania, Wollongong, Newcastle, Toowoomba, Fiji, and other places, that messages could be plainly heard through the loud speaker. They were, he added, proud of their station, and every credit should be given to the designing engineer, Mr. Baird (sic). The system would be available to all trades unionists on terms and conditions that would be publicly announced.[136]

TRADES HALL WIRELESS STATION, No. 2KY, Sydney. Applicants for posi-tion of Manager are advised position is now filled. Gilbert J. Sinclair. [137]

POLITICS BY RADIO. LISTEN-IN TO 2KY. LABOR MEN: Listen-in to 2KY; hear the truth about Labor and the truth about Nationalism. Hear the message that will be going out by radio each night next week. Get your receiving sets ready. LABOR WOMEN: Tune-in to 2KY. Give your boy the price of a crystal set if you cannot afford a loud speaker. Let him build it himself. Listen; then get in your neighbors to hear. Concentrate on those who never attend political meetings. Tell them about the issues confronting the electors. Perhaps they have their own set; if not, let them hear on yours. Lonely electors in the great outback: Muster up your neighbors; gather them round the loud speaker. Do you know this? If you are listening-in you hear the speaker before a person who is sitting at the back of a big hall. Such is the speed of radio as compared with sound-waves.[138]

1925 11[edit]

BROADCASTING. FROM TRADES HALL. Opening by Mr. Willis. MR. GARDEN'S PLANS. "The main purpose of the station will be to educate and guide the workers towards the fulfilment of the common objective of the workers the world over — the Socialist Commonwealth." This announcement was made at the Trades Hall on Saturday by Mr. J. S. Garden, leader of the Communist party, and secretary of the Trades and Labour Council, at the official opening of 2KY — the new broadcasting station of the Labour Council. The Government was represented by Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., vice-president of the Legislative Council, who, in performing the opening ceremony, congratulated the promoters of the project. Those present included Mr. Tom Walsh and prominent members of both the Australian Labour party and the Communist party. Mr. Garden, who was given an enthusiastic reception, said that when "the Socialisation of the Commonwealth" had been brought about every man and woman would have the right to live and work, and to enjoy in common with the whole community the full product of their labour. "We shall have a Socialist Commonwealth," declared Mr. Garden, "where starvation, unemployment, and misery will disappear; where wars and rumours of war shall be no more; where the workers will work to produce goods for use, and not for profit." (Applause) Mr. Garden added that 2KY was an Australian product, built by Australian engineers. All sections of the community would be allowed to ventilate their views in a dignified manner. The station would greatly assist to dissipate the "erroneous ideas promulgated by the Press." Mr. Willis said that the development of wireless in Australia had been hampered by a Nationalist Federal Government, acting in concert with big vested monopolies. The Labour movement of New South Wales, by its far-sighted and vigorous action in establishing the station, had opened new possibilities in the use of radio broadcasting, which would be watched with interest by the Labour movement in every civilised country. The Government's plan for the establishment of a high-power central Government station, and the erection in provincial and country centres of a series of relay broadcasting stations was now in the final stages of completion. This plan, when completed, would not only facilitate the business of the State and the operation of its industries, but would do much to transform the whole social life of the community. Under the scheme Labour for the first time in its history would have an opportunity of putting its views and activities before the dwellers in country areas. Mr. J. Beasley, president of the Trades and Labour Council, said that for years past the working-class had been grossly misrepresented through the channels of the anti-Labour Press. They had also found that the same practice had been indulged in by the controllers of other wireless stations. He considered that any advances made either in science, art, or invention should never be permitted to become the properly of any privileged section. On the three floors of the Trades Hall loud speakers were installed.[139]

FIRST LABOR WIRELESS STATION OPENED. ALL AUSTRALIAN ACHIEVEMENT. THE BEGINNING OF A NEW ERA IN PROCESS. BROADCASTING THE TRUTH. "I HAVE MUCH PLEASURE in asking the Vice-President of the Executive Council, Mr. A. C. Willis, to set in motion 2KY, the first broadcasting wireless station controlled throughout the world by organised Labor." THIS WAS THE ANNOUNCEMENT made by Mr. J. Beasley, President of the Trades and Labor Council, on the occasion of the official opening ceremony of the Trades Hall Wireless Broadcasting Station at the Sydney Trades Hall on Saturday evening. THE ORGANISING STAFF had worked with the will that only whole-souled enthusiasts can apply, and so satisfied were they that all anxiety as to the installation being a complete success was allayed, and the results fully justified their confidence in the result. So great was the crowd which assembled that the accommodation in the large room set apart on three floors as well as in the corridors, where loud speakers were installed, was taxed to accommodate the listeners. When KY tuned up, and the first announcement was made, the great building resounded with cheers in recognition of the wonderful accomplishment effected. A slight burring sound somewhat smothered the first sounds emitted, but this was only momentary, and for the succeeding two hours the voices were clearly and distinctly heard, and the sentiments expressed found a responsive echo in the minds of the legions of listeners who were privileged to be associated with this unique wireless triumph. Everyone Smiles. Many hundreds passed through the transmitting theatre, and were surprised at the completeness of the delicate mechanism, and the absence of any confusion. The engineer, Mr. Baird (sic), was beaming with smiles from the initial tuning in, and his satisfaction was shared by Mr. E. R. Voigt, the organiser of 2KY; Mr. Gilbert Sinclair, secretary to the wireless committee, and all those associated with the most modern means of communication known to science. Right to Work. Mr. A. C. Willis gave the initial address, which was broadcasted, in which he stated:— It is with a particular pleasure that I have accepted this pleasant duty, for it associates two great factors each of which will react on the other, and together will have a profound effect upon the development of the human race. These two factors are Labor and Radio. "The great Labor movement is, and must continue to be the main avenue through which society is evolving towards the co-operative Commonwealth, where the whole resources of the nation will be devoted to the welfare of the whole community instead of to the individual profit of the few, and where every man and woman born into this world shall have the elementary right to work and to live. "In the accomplishment of its great task, Labor must of necessity take advantage of every important social development. Without question, the greatest, the most rapid, and the most potentially powerful development of this age of miracles is radio. Within two short years radio has made a deeper impression on the social life of Australia than any other invention, within such a short period in its history. Radio is fast annihilating distance. It is playing an important part in welding together the social life not only of the Commonwealth of Australia, but of the whole world. Every day and every night Australian amateurs are conversing with radio friends in America, Britain, Europe and elsewhere. Beneath this close contact racial barriers are bound sooner or later to disappear. It is difficult indeed to overestimate the great part radio is destined to play in breaking down those racial enmities fostered for their own purposes by the makers of wars, and in placing the peoples of the world upon a peaceful footing one with another. Final Stages. "In spite of the fact that radio in Australia is hampered and restricted in its development by a Nationalist Federal Government, acting, we believe, in concert with big vested monopolies, the Labor movement of New South Wales, by its far-sighted and vigorous action in establishing this splendid high-power broadcasting station in Sydney, has broadened the horizon for the listeners-in of this and other States of the Commonwealth, and has opened out new possibilities in the use of radio broadcasting, which will be watched with interest by the great Labor movements in every civilised country. "Since the Trades Unions of New South Wales have clearly indicated through the establishment of 2KY their keen interest and appreciation of the social and organisational advantages of radio, it is but natural that the Labor Government of the State should be thinking and working along similar lines. "It is already public knowledge that the Government of New South Wales has for some time had under consideration the establishment of a high-power Central Government Station in Sydney, and the erection in provincial and country centres throughout the State of a series of relay broadcasting stations. "This plan is now in its final stages, and the radio listening-in public may with confidence look forward in the near future to a chain of State broadcasting stations that will not only facilitate the business of the State, and the operation of its industries but that will do much to transform the whole social life of the community. "The State Broadcasting Service will have a particular effect upon the life of the community in the country areas. The advent of labor-saving machinery, and particularly the facilities for social life and entertainment afforded by the great cities, has resulted in an exodus from the land to the cities. All Australian. "This steady stream from country to town has become a problem which affects the well-being of both town and country and which is engaging the attention of the Governments of most highly industrialised countries. Unemployment has become such a settled factor in the life of all towns and industrialized centres that the migration from country to town only serves to intensify the unemployment situation." Mr. Willis also referred to the effect radio broadcasting would have on the primary industries, which no country could afford to neglect, and as a consequence a better understanding would arise between the workers on the land and in the cities. Expressing his appreciation of the technical ability and efficiency of those Australian engineers who had undertaken the construction, Mr. Willis said, "I do think there has ever been constructed in the Commonwealth a broadcasting station which is so largely all-Australian, and the people of Australia can justly take pride in this achievement." Congratulations he extended to Mr. Gilbert Sinclair, Mr. Beard, chief engineer of United Distributors, and Mr. E. R. Voigt, in whose brain the idea of a Labor broadcasting station first germinated. Mr. J. Beasley, president of the Trades and Labor Council, in his message, said Labor now has two great engines of propaganda in having established their own newspaper, and now having their own wireless station. These stages marked one of the most advanced steps taken by any Labor body right throughout the world. The Labor Council are most anxious to add to the social comforts of workers' home, he added. News Service Mr. E. R. Voigt, in his message, traced the origin of wireless discovery to the present installation. Dealing with this, he said: "I may say the Trades Union Movement of New South Wales is not content to regard radio in that very restricted light. We intend to use radio in the fullest possible way within the four corners of the law. And we intend to use all our power to secure a widening of the present drastic regulations, to free radio in Australia from its fetters, and to secure its many social advantages to the greatest possible number of the people. "2KY will make no effort to compete with the existing "A" class stations, in the provision of music and entertainment. The music and entertainment provided by the Labor station will only be incidental to its main programme. That main programme will concern itself with every vital question that may affect the community generally, or the organised workers in particular." "2KY will co-operate with the 'Labor Daily.' It will supply a daily news service that for the first time will place the workers' side of any great question before that unorganised section of the community which in the ordinary course must frame its view and opinions from the matter and comment that is served up to it daily by a powerful Press — a Press that is hostile to the workers on every important issue. 2KY will show the other side of the picture. "During the coming week and forward until election day, 2KY will send forth each evening a statement on matters of public interest from those of its leaders who are carrying on the fight in the Federal election campaign. "Not many days ago, the wireless authorities prohibited the Premier of Queensland from broadcasting a political pronouncement over the Queensland State Radio Station. So low down in the scale of human degradation is politics considered by some of those who are now asking for our votes that the pronouncement of the highest statesman was considered unfit to rank with the jazz, betting, and veiled advertising stunts which are broadcast day after day, without let or hindrance from all the 'A' class broad-casting stations in the Commonwealth. Debates in Air. "But 2KY is not an 'A' class station (which just means that it takes no part in the plunder abstracted annually from the unfortunate listeners-in) and is therefore not subject to just the same restrictions. We shall give news, make pronouncements, and arrange debates upon any matters which may affect the welfare of the body politic. No doubt this will be regarded as pure Bolshevism. "During the present election campaign, we shall invite the most prominent representatives of the Nationalist Party to meet us in debate on the air. In the past Labor always has been, and still is, at an overwhelming disadvantage in its lack of Press, compared with its opponents, for the expression of its views. A New Era. Mr. T. S. Gurr, General Manager, "Labor Daily," said their daily newspaper in conjunction with this installation of wireless was the beginning of a new era for the Labor movement. Thought, especially combined thought, was the greatest factor in the progress of humanity. What was desired earnestly was what would be achieved. Messrs. J. S. Garden (sec., Trades and Labor Council), Rudolph (Manager, United Radio Distributors), A. Teece (Acting Sec., Miners' Union), Hastie (Trades Hall Association), and representatives of all the industrial sections also delivered congratulatory and informative messages.[140]

WIRELESS SETS. The Trades Hall Wireless Committee have prepared a comprehensive scheme, whereby members of trades unions may purchase the "Trades Hall" sets at specially reduced rates. These sets, which are manufactured by United Distributors Co. Ltd., the firm responsible for the designing and erection of 2KY, will be on sale at special retail stores throughout the city and country districts. They are a fine example of Australian workmanship and materials and are specially suitable to local conditions. Tomorrow, full particulars of this scheme will be announced in the "Labor Daily."[141]

LABOR'S WIRELESS STATION. 2KY OFFICIALLY OPENED. Considerable interest was manifested in the official opening of 2KY, the world's first high-powered broadcasting station, controlled by organised Labor, by Mr. A. C. Willis, the Vice-President of the Executive Council, at the Trades Hall on Saturday night. On three floors of the building loud speakers had been installed, and a large crowd heard the speeches of the union leaders, interspersed by musical and vocal items. Mr. Willis, in opening the station, said he was pleased to accept the duty, as it associated two great factors, each of which would react on the other, and have a profound effect upon the development of the human race. They were Labor and radio. Every day and night, he said, Australian amateurs were conversing with radio friends in America, Britain, Europe, and elsewhere. Beneath this close contact racial barriers were bound sooner or later to disappear. It was difficult to over-estimate the great part radio was destined to play in breaking down those racial enmities, fostered for their own purposes by the makers of wars, and in placing the people of the world upon a peaceful footing with one another. The Government of New South Wales for some time had under consideration the establishment of a high-power station in Sydney and the establishment of a series of relay broadcasting centres in the country districts. This was now in its final stages, and Labor for the first time in its history would have an opportunity of putting its views and activities before the mass of dwellers in the country areas. Mr. J. Beasley, president of the Labor Council, supported Mr. Willis's remarks. Mr. W. Gibb, vice-president of the Labor Council, said that the best medium they could use in giving the working class the correct information of their movement was wireless. The people of this country would then understand the correct position of the workers instead of the biassed reports which today were being circulated by the capitalistic press. Mr. J. Garden, secretary of the Labor Council, in outlining the troubles the Labor movement has to face, said that the station would cater for the enter-tainment of the people, and would al-low all sections of the Labor movement to ventilate their views in a dignified manner. Mr. E. R. Voigt, secretary of the wireless scheme, outlined the use to which the station would be put. Messrs. G. J. Sinclair, A. Hastie (president of the Trades Hall and Eight-hour Committee.), T. Carey (assistant secretary of the Eight-hour and Trades Hall Committee), A. Teece (acting-secretary of the Miners' Federation), J. M'Donald (Transport Group, land), A. Austin (Transport Group, water), J. Griffin (Building Trades), W. Oliver (Iron Trades), P. Fallin (Clothing Trades), Mrs. Lynch (on behalf of the women workers), and several others also spoke.[142]

WHEN 2KY STARTED BUSINESS. (Photo) Portion of the big gathering present at the official opening of Labor's Broadcasting Station at the Trades Hall on Saturday night last.[143]

Labor's Wireless Station. OPENED IN SYDNEY. SYDNEY.— The Labor wireless station, the first high-powered broadcast station in the world, was officially opened by Mr. A. C. Willis, vice-president of the Executive Council, on Saturday night. Mr. Willis said that with close contact racial barriers would disappear, and enmities fostered for their own purposes by makers of wars would be broken down. Mr. J. Garden, secretary of the Trades and Labor Council, said the station would entertain people and allow all sections of the Labor movement to ventilate their views in a dignified manner.[144]

HEARING THE WORLD. AT 2KY. LABOR'S RECORD TESTS. ALL AUSTRALIAN. 2KY, Labor's broadcasting station, is unique, not only as the first Labor broadcasting station in the world, but also because of its up-to-dateness in every detail, and its unconventional design. Using no moving coils, the station employs the master drive system with a drive modulator. Although the maximum power of the station is 3000 watts, at present owing to shortage of valves, only 650 watts are being used. Yet 100 per cent. efficiency is attained. "Australian made," the slogan of all true Australians, has been kept well to the fore throughout the erection of the plant. Everywhere it is possible to install locally-manufactured mechanism it was done. Reports coming from all over Australia, commending the clarity of 2KY, show that the preference policy was justified. The speech amplifier, using four stages audio, and the most up-to-date of any station in Australia, is a credit to Australian workmen and manufacturers alike. An arrangement, on the amplifier, of a modulation chart with needle indicator, enables those in charge to judge modulation instead of by the old method of trusting to sound. TWO WAVE LENGTHS. 2KY is the only broadcasting station in Australia to have this innovation. The idea has only recently been brought out, and was adopted by two of the most important stations in America a few months ago. The signal transformers, chokes, microphones, generators, etc., are all of Australian manufacture, the latter machines being made by the Machinery Electrical Co., Ltd. In fact, the only imported mechanism used in the station is the quam condensors, meters, and valves. It is in transmitting that the greatest feature of the station lies. A 250 watts transmitter is included, and modulates as the high power station. At the same time, the station transmits on two separate wave lengths. The long wave is 279 metres, and the short wave between 20-100 metres. The short wave station has already estabiished communication with England and America. Of value for scientific and testing purposes are two Udisco receiving sets, installed in the station. Already, through the medium of one set, a "Udisco super six." Eiffel Tower (Paris), and many Japanese stations have been received for the first time in Australia. ALL OVER WORLD. Time signals broadcast for these stations have been heard distinctly by those operating this set, which is capable of tuning up to 25,000 metres. The other set receives on wave length from 10-100 metres. Thus the whole of the broadcasting stations throughout the world are capable of reception by 2KY, without any interference being felt by the broadcasting station itself. The station was designed and set up solely by United Distributors Co., Ltd., of 72 Clarence Street, under the direction of Mr. E. G. Beard, chief engineer for the company. (Photo) MR. E. G. BEARD. Chief Engineer, United Distributors.[145]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (Conducted by "Catwhisker") NEW PUBLICITY PARTY POLITICS BY WIRELESS INEVITABLE. Indications are that broadcasting will develop in Australia, as it has developed in America, on sectional lines. The time may not be far distant when all important political parties, churches, and other public movements will have their own broadcasting stations. WITH the commencement of 2KY, the Trades Hall broadcasting station, politics in Australia have become definitely linked with radio. Hitherto the transmission of political speeches has been confined to occasional addresses by party leaders from A class stations. Now we have a station which is avowedly devoting itself to party politics. It is not to be expected that the Nationalist Party will be content to leave the position as it stands. In self-defence, that party, sooner or later, must erect a B class station from which will be transmitted political propaganda according to its point of view. And if the Nationalist Party establishes such a station, why not the Country Party? So the point will eventually be reached at which three political parties at least will regularly transmit propaganda by wireless. Whether this will be a desirable state of affairs is a debatable question, but that it will come about seems inevitable. PROHIBITIONISTS, TOO And what of the churches? Church programmes are now a regular feature of broadcasting transmissions. Preachers reach audiences they never reached before. Will the churches be satisfied with the present position, or will they move in the direction of having separate stations, as is done in America? It may be that the various denominations will take the view that the money necessary for the construction and maintenance of broadcasting stations could be better employed in other branches of church work, but church stations nevertheless are a distinct, possibility. The prohibition movement, too, may consider that its interests could be better served by the establishment of a station devoted to addresses on the abolition of the sale of alcohol. And development of the kind would, of course, be countered by the liquor interests, which would broadcast — after 6 p.m. — anti-prohibition propaganda. And so on. The trend, then, is in the direction of sectional broadcasting. Broadcasting is the new publicity. No sect or section, possessed of sufficient means, can afford to ignore it. Ether waves of the future will carry the messages of political and public movements, of the churches, in short, of all those important groups which stand out sharply amid the confused jumble of human activity.[146]

2KY, LABOR'S FIRST BROADCAST STATION. UNITED DISTRIBUTORS Ltd. 72 CLARENCE ST., SYDNEY TRADES HALL, GOULBURN STREET, SYDNEY. Co-operation Between the Trades Hall and United Distributors Ltd. has made possible A Wireless Set for Every Unionist. Realising the truth of the old adage, "UNITED WE STAND - DIVIDED WE FALL," the workers have devoted themselves unselfishly to the cause of Trades Unionism. One of the results of devotion to this ideal is now in evidence at the Sydney Trades Hall where the world's first high power Broadcasting Station, controlled by organised Labor is now in operation. The vast resources of United Distributors Ltd., and their skilled staff of Australian Radio Experts, have been responsible for the installation of this fine Broadcasting Station. Another factor which has helped materially has been the co-operation of many of the largest Sydney retailers. Here is an opportunity which but a few years ago was scarcely imagined — a chance that Trades Unionists have earnestly longed for — the chance to know more of the movement to which they belong. 2KY is now broadcasting the knowledge that need — Calling through the ether for your interest and attention. Listen-in to the men who are guiding the destinies of the Trade Union Movement — learn as yon listen of the struggle for the emancipation of Labor, of the wrong that needs resistance, of the cause that lacks assistance, and the good that you can do by a fuller knowledge of the movement to which you are allied. Now during these stirring preelection days, listen to the speeches of those who speak on behalf of organised Labor. When the elections are over you can be educated, instructed, amused, and interested by listening-in to other Broadcasting Stations in Australia. Help, the big cause — buy your Radio Set and listen-in to 2KY. Special Concession in Prices to Unionists Only In order that Trades Unionists may reap the fullest benefit from this Broadcasting Station, arrangements have been made with United Distributors Ltd. to supply THE MOST RELIABLE RADIO SETS AT CO-OPERATIVE CONCESSION PRICES. This offer is only possible by reason of the great purchasing and manufacturing power of United Distributors Ltd. These concession prices are available to Unionists only, and in order to procure same every purchaser at the time of purchase, for this week only, must present badge, union card, and thereafter on the production of a Concession Order signed by the Secretary of his Union. For your own protection see that each product purchased bears the Union label — it is your safeguard and guarantee of reliability. Remember, the Trades Hall benefits by every purchase made of all Radio Sets bearing the Union label. Help the Trades Hall to help you. Obtainable from ANTHONY H0RDERN & SONS, LTD., F. LASSETTER & CO., LTD., DAVID JONES, LTD. THE UNITED TWO is a Two-valve Set, employing one regenerative detector, with one stage of Audio Amplification. THE UNITED THREE is a three valve set using one regenerative detector with two stages of Audio Amplification. In both these Sets a new circuit is used which is giving wonderful results. All coils are mounted inside the sets, thus obviating troublesome plug-in coils. A WAVE BAND ranging from 200 to 2000 metres is covered, and is controlled by one simple switch. A selector switch is fitted so that the selectivity of the sets can be varied in cases of interference. Stations working on wave lengths only a few metres apart are easily separated. Simplicity of control is a special feature, as only one tuning condenser is used, thus greatly simplifying this important operation. Only the best of materials which make for a perfect set are used. In the wiring of the set spaghetti-covered flexible wire is used. This ensures the set from freedom of breakdowns. Another feature found only in most expensive sets is the bakelite terminal board, fitted at the back of the set, which adds greatly to the convenience of the operator. Built into handsome fully-polished cabinets, with superior bakelite panels, these sets bear our unqualified guarantee. THE UNITED FOUR combines a stage of tuned radio frequency, with regeneration, and two stages of audio frequency amplification. The stage of tuned radio frequency gives greater distance getting with better tone. Two tuning controls are used. One tunes the aerial circuit, and the other the radio frequency. VALVE SETS Regular Price Concession Price Percentage Saved £ s d £ s d 2-Valve Set, without accessories . . . . 13 10 0 10 10 0 22 per cent. 2-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, 'Phones, and Aerial Equipment . . 18 15 0 14 15 0 20 per cent. 2-Valve Set, with same equipment, but Accumulator as "A" Battery 22 5 0 18 6 0 18 per cent. 3-Valve Set, without accessories 15 0 0 11 18 6 20 per cent. 3-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker, and Aerial Equipment . . . . 25 0 0 19 17 6 20 per cent. 3-Valve Set, with same equipment as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery . . . . 28 10 0 23 5 6 20 per cent. 4-Valve Set, with accessories . . . . 19 0 0 15 0 0 20 per cent. 4-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker, and Aerial Equipment . . . . 30 0 0 23 15 0 20 per cent. 4-Valve Set, with same accessories as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery . . . . 33 10 0 27 3 0 20 per cent. SPEAKERS, ETC. Atlas Loud Speaker . . . . . £3/15/ ECRO Loud Speaker . . . . . £1/15/ Pico Head 'Phones . . . . . 13/6 Aerial Equipment Assembly . . . 7/6 CRYSTAL SETS The Crystal Set gives the purest reception known to Radio. Every syllable of speech, every tone and overtone of music comes through pure and clear. Using no batteries or valves, the Crystal Set is economical. It receives efficiently everything within a range of 25 miles. Regular Price Concession Price Percentage Saved £ s d £ s d No. 410 Double Slider Frost Crystal Set 1 4 9 0 17 6 20 per cent. Metro Crystal Set, complete with Head 'Phones and Aerial Equip-ment . . . . . . 2 2 0 1 5 0 40 per cent. Fortevox Jnr. Crystal Set . . . . . 0 9 6 0 6 0 38 per cent. Astrophone Crystal Set de Luxe . . . . 2 4 3 1 5 0 43 per cent. Astrophone Crystal Set, Model B. . . 1 4 0 0 13 9 43 per cent. Wizard Crystal Set, Slider Type . . . . . 0 13 0 0 10 0 23 per cent.[147]

EVERYDAY AND EVERYBODY. . . . Norfolk Island Hears. The Labor Station 2KY has been heard at Norfolk Island.[148]

LABOUR WIRELESS STATION. PREMIER'S REPLY TO MR. BALL. COST OF THE SCHEME. SYDNEY, Tuesday. Several questions were asked in the Assembly regarding the new Labour Broadcasting Station 2KY. Was the Premier aware that Jock Garden had stated that the object of the station was to educate the people of New South Wales towards Communism was the question asked by Mr. Ball. The Premier said the question as to what uses the wireless was put was a matter for the Federal and State Government. He deprecated the hypocracy and cant of members in asking questions of this kind. Mr. Garden's name, politically, in New South Wales, was as mud, he said, and that was the reason he had gone to Melbourne in order to get a few votes for the Nationalists. The Premier told Mr. Arkins that the cost of originating the State wireless scheme in New South Wales would be between £10,000 and £14,000. He emphasised that the station would not be used for political purposes.[149]

LABOR'S BROADCASTING. REPLY TO MR. BRUCE. Mr. A. C. Willis yesterday replied to the Prime Minister's criticism of his remarks at the opening of the Trades Hall wireless station. "Mr. Bruce is in error," said Mr. Willis. "I have never claimed, nor have those who are conducting the new Labor broadcasting station, that 2KY desires any share in the heavy license fees imposed upon the unfortunate listening-in public. "I join issue, however, with Mr. Bruce when he infers that 2KY is not as much entitled to such a share as any of the monopolist stations. 2KY is not designed to be used solely for political purposes. And when it comes to politics, the existing monopolist stations do not restrict themselves to one statement by each of the three party leaders during the life of Parliament. "On the contrary, each 'A' class station, with the sole exception of the Queensland State station, broadcasts daily a regular stream of political propaganda in the guise of news, directed against the Labor Party and the trade unions. "The fact is that the political aspect of 2KY is not the reason why the Labor station is denied any revenue from the license fees. The real reason is because the Nationalist Government has permitted monopolies in a public service. If 2KY copied the jazz, betting, and entertainment, item for item, of the 'A' class stations, Mr. Bruce would still refuse to allocate any revenue from the wireless licenses. "The difference between 2KY and the 'A' class stations is that the former conducts its political propaganda frankly and openly, while the latter conduct theirs in the form of 'news.' "[150]

SENATOR GRANT TELLS. WHAT LABOR HAS DONE AND WHAT IT WILL DO. Thousands of electors throughout the State listened to the forceful speech in which Senator J. Grant, through the Trades Hall wireless station, 2KY, graphically traced the growth of the Australian Labor movement from the days of its birth in the maritime strike to the present time. Senator Grant epitomised the legislative achievements of the Labor Party — both as a Government and a Party holding the balance of power, and, on those achievements he appealed to electors to give Labor the opportunity to enact further beneficial legislation for the Commonwealth. The history of Labor in Australia as told by Senator Grant, who, as one connected with the movement from its inception, spoke with first-hand knowledge, was particularly interesting. Amongst the great achievements of which Labor is able to boast, as Senator Grant showed, was the Progressive land values tax, old age and invalid pensions, the transcontinental railway, effective home defence, the maternity allowances, the Commonwealth bank. Labor stood by all it had done. LABOR FOR DEFENCE. To say that Labor had now no defence policy was, Senator Grant asserted, wickedly false. Labor would abandon obsolete methods, follow the course of the experts in modern ideas, and make the defence of Australia adequate and complete. Senator Grant dealt trenchantly and in detail with the emasculation of the Commonwealth bank by purse-led Tory reactionaries, and undertook that when returned to power as a result of the elections, Labor would make the people's bank function as it was intended it should in the interests of the people. He denied that Labor was opposed to the judicious introduction of population from overseas and defence, and explained the Labor policy of sane immigration. Labor was entirely opposed to the deportation bludgeon law passed through the last Parliament by Bruce and Co., and could be relied upon to repeal it at the earliest possible moment.[151]

TRADES HALL RADIO. TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD. Sir,— For the past two weeks I, with doubtless thousands of other wireless listeners, have had my share of the ether ruthlessly disturbed by sundry objectionable noises from the transmitter at the Trades Hall, whereby the more appreciable musical programmes of 2BL broadcasting station have been, so to speak, pushed off the air, consequently, I have now perforce to confine myself to 2FC, whose wave length, fortunately, is beyond the reach of "Trades Hall Influence." I understand the Premier recently informed Parliament that the new station would not be used for political propaganda, yet the transmissions, so far, are scarcely anything else. A worker myself, and being well satisfied with present-day conditions, I have no desire to listen on my wireless receiver to any pernicious Communistic Instruction, but if we must have wireless political speeches in place of 2BL's fine musical and other items, then I suggest that until the date of the Federal elections we be permitted to have the Nationalist side of the picture through 2FC as an antidote. I am, etc., Nov. 4. BALMAINITE.[152]

AUSTRALIAN MANUFACTURES. HOW IT IS DONE. Sidelights on the Production of Radio Goods Australia to the Fore. THE ENDLESS DEVELOPMENTS in the matter of wireless accomplishments are as unceasing as the ebb and flow of the tides. MOST OF US HAVE a very fair theoretical idea of the action of the wireless waves through the ether, acknowledging that they emanate from a base source, and then distribute themselves as the eddies of water in a pond when a stone is thrown into the placid surface of the pool. BUT LIKE THE BOY who saw a pair of bellows for the first time, and cut them open to "see where the wind came from," the average man in the street is practically ignorant of the wonderful processes necessary to achieve the completion of an efficient piece of apparatus; or even if he makes his own set from purchased parts he is unaware, or does not trouble to investigate, how they were conceived and brought into being. With a view to initiating the read-er into the practical science of wireless, so far us the manufacture of apparatus goes, we would state, firstly, that while America, Great Britain, and Europe have splendidly equipped factories for the production of wireless apparatus, many are not aware of the fact that Australia has factories which, for a young country, produce a turnover far higher proportionately than the works of other countries. Australia can boast today many wireless apparatus factories, among the principal, if not the principal, being the enterprise known throughout the Commonwealth as United Distributors, Ltd., of Clarence Street, Sydney; which firm, by the way, has branches in all the principal cities in Australia. A visit to this firm's establishment, which is in the very heart of the metropolis of the Commonwealth, is an eye-opener even to the practised eye of one who has viewed works of all kinds, and reflects the greatest credit upon the enterprise of Australia in the development of wireless. From the Beginning. In regard to wireless apparatus production naturally many different phases of work have to be considered. As it would be impossible at the space at our disposal to deal with every phase in detail, we will briefly describe the leading characteristics of the work performed in the completion of a set. The engraving of the vulcanite plates is interesting; in the case of United Distributors the Bakelite panels are used. An ingenious machine has been devised for the performance of this work. Brass templates, or what our printing friends would call matrices, are placed in a frame giving the desired sentence or combination of words required. Upon this template is placed a movable arm which follows the outline of the letters or figures, and which is connected with another arm fitted with an engraving tool set upon the panel. Worked by an electric motor, the machine acts in accordance with the desire of the operator, so that within the space of one minute, or less, a phrase such as "Trades Hall approved radio product" appears upon the surface of the Bakelite panel with accuracy, sharpness, and precision. To the End. From this department the panels are taken to an assembling room where the coils, condensers, and other paraphernalia peculiar to the work in progress (and which have already been made in other departments) are placed together, constituting the first step towards completion. The result of this "first step" is most carefully tested and at Clarence Street not only are the half-completed sets placed in connection with local distributing stations in order that any defects, or quality in audition, may be discovered, but special oscillating apparatus has been installed whereby the embyronic set may be tested with stations at far distances. When the main part of the set has satisfied the experts that it is in good order it is placed into its cabinet and completed, but before being distributed upon the commercial market it is again put to another severe test, so that the finished article should leave the works as accurately and scientifically efficient as it is possible to provide. To satisfactorily cope with the pre-ent phenomenal demand for wireless sets United Distributors are in the position to offer completed three-valve sets at £20. or four-valve sets at £25, the prices including loud speaker, aerial wire, batteries, and valves. Transmission Difficulties. About a year ago, and previously, for that matter, much difficulty was experienced in the Blue Mountain district in obtaining satisfactory results in receptlon. It was alleged there that the iron and other ores indigenous to the neighborhood of the mountains precluded efficiency in this respect. When discussing this problem with the governing director of United Distributors, Mr. Rudolph, the "Labor Daily" man was informed that similar difficulties had been experienced in the U.S.A., particularly at Indianapolis and in Minnesota, the latter place being noted for its mineral deposits alleged to be in conflict with the reception of wireless messages. These difficulties have now been overcome, and in the opinion of Mr. Rudolph the main trouble was really only the inefficiency of either the receiving or distributing apparatus used. It was also found that leakages in local power stations had a detrimental effect upon wireless reception, and in the case at Brisbane a short while ago experts solved the problem by locating a defect in the local power station and electric light works which, when rectified, made good reception an established fact. Where Knowledge Tells. Of course, in wireless matters the greatest accuracy in the construction of all parts and their assembly must be observed. Similarly, where a specialist in one form of medical science is generally unsuited to practise in another sphere of doctoring, so it is that in wireless the value of expert theoretical knowledge must be combined with expert mechanical knowledge. If this is done, such co-ordination cannot fail to give highest and most satisfactory results. It is decidedly gratifying to know that Australia is well holding her own in the field of wireless activities and from time to time the "Labor Daily" will deal fully with other enterprises specialising in the development of this fascinating science. Responsibility for all unsigned matter on this page referring to the Federal elections is accepted by Q. S. Spending, the "Labor Daily," 4 Brisbane Street, Sydney. (Photo) A SECTION OF THE ASSEMBLING AND TESTING FLOOR AT THE UNITED DISTRIBUTERS LTD., WORKSHOPS, 72 CLARENCE STREET, CITY.[153]

TRADES HALL STATION. The Labor Council station, 2KY, erected on the Trades Hall, Sydney, is now on the air, and was "officially opened” on October 31. The construction of the transmitter is in the hands of Messrs. E. W. Beard, of United Distributors Ltd., and L. Schultz, a well-known amateur transmitter. The design of this station incorporates several unseen features which will render it remarkably efficient. It uses two wave lengths, 280 and 30 metres, and has already done some long distance work. This station, while testing recently, was heard in Shepparton, and came in very loud with splendid modulation.[154]

UNIONISTS! Listen-in to Your Own Broadcasting Station — 2KY. Valve Sets All United Valve Sets cover wave lengths from 200 to 2000 metres. The control is simple and very selective. In the Two and Three Valve Sets there is only one tuning condenser, making tuning easy. Every part of standard quality — Genuine Bakelite Panels — A special quality set in material, workmanship and beauty of finish. THE UNITED TWO employs one regenerative detector, with one stage of audio amplification. THE UNITED THREE uses a regenerative detector with two stages of audio amplification. THE UNITED FOUR uses one stage tuned radio frequency, regenerative detector and two stages audio frequency amplification. PRICES ARE AS FOLLOW:— £. s. d. 2-VALVE SET, without accessories .. .. .. 10 10 0 2-VALVE SET, with Valves, Dry Cell's, 'Phones and Aerial Equipment 14 18 0 2-VALVE SET with same equipment, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 18 0 0 3-VALVE SET without accessories .. .. .. 11 18 6 3-VALVE SET with Val-ves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 19 17 6 3-VALVE SET with same equipment as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 23 5 6 4-VALVE SET without accessories .. .. .. 15 0 0 4-VALVE SET with Valves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker, and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 23 15 0 4-VALVE SET, with same accessories as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 27 3 0 Echo Loud Speaker Price, £1/15/- "There's a Reason" Co-operation between the Trades Hall, the United Distributors Ltd., who built 2KY, and the Retail and Radio Dealers of N.S.W. has resulted in the greatest value opportunity ever offered in Radio in any country. Provide your home at once with your choice of Radio equipment from the following list. It is approved and marked by the Trades Hall, and every Radio article so marked adds to the Trades Hall Broadcasting Fund. Be sure your purchase bears this mark. It assures you guaranteed equipment and quality at lowest possible prices. TRADES HALL It assures you guaranteed equipment and quality at lowest possible prices. Genuine, practical co-operative prices — a saving, on the average, of 25 per cent. Unionists, show your cards or badges. Obtainable from: F. Lassetter and Co., Ltd. David Jones, Ltd. Mick Simmons, Ltd. (Haymarket Branch). Miss Wallace, Royal Arcade. Swains, Ltd., Pitt Street. Colville-Moore, 10 Rowe Street. R. H. Howell, 19 Barlow Street. Keogh Radio, 503 George Street. Holdsworth, Macpherson, George Street. Radio Wireless Mfg. Co., George Street. Radio and Elec., Martin Place. 3-VALVE SET Crystal Sets. If you live within a radius of 25 mile of the city you can listen-in quite well on one of the following Crystal Sets. The original cost is only nominal, cost of upkeep nil, and tone absolutely pure and clear, with no possibility of distortion. PRICES AS FOLLOWS:— £ s. d. No. 410 Double Slider Frost Crystal Set .. .. .. 0 17 6 Metre Crystal Set, complete with Head 'Phones and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 1 5 0 Fortevox Jnr. Crystal Set 0 6 0 Astrophone Crystal Set, de Luxe .. .. .. 1 5 0 Astrophone Crystal Set, Model B .. .. .. 0 13 9 Wizard Crystal Set, Slid-er Type .. .. .. 0 10 0 Pico Head 'Phones .. .. .. 0 13 6 Aerial Equipment Assembly .. .. .. 0 7 6 Atlas Loud Speaker Price £3/15/-[155]

THE MAN IN THE STREET. (To the Editor) GOLD FROM RUSSIA. Sir,— Now that the 2KY wireless is in full going order would you be kind enough to send a message to Russia on my behalf. I want to get in early before the rush. Ask them to send me out one ton of real "Russian gold." It is a lot of trouble prospecting and digging it out here in Australia. I don't want any Oriental lines, Swiss watches, German or Austrian dolls, German steel to build the North Shore Bridge, or Italian spaghetti. All I want is that ton of Russian gold. I will turn anything bar a Nationalist for £25,000, and sing the "Red Flag" every morning if that is all that is wanted. But I must have that ton of "Russian gold."— Yours, etc., J. SLOCOME, 153 Gloucester St., Sydney.[156]

LABOUR'S CHANCES. Mr. Charlton Will Review Them Tonight. Mr. Charlton, leader of the Federal Labour Party, will speak in the Paddington Town Hall to-night. He will review the political situation in the five States, and this will be broadcast from the New Trades Hall Wireless Station, 2K.Y. (Mr. Herbert Beaver is general manager of the new station).[157]

RADIO AND INVENTION. BRILLIANT SUCCESS OF 2KY. The new Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, despite the fact that it has been starved for valves (the latter suddenly disappearing from the market), and is only working on less than one-half its licensed power, and one-fifth of its available power, has set a new mark for broadcasting in Australia. A wireless user reports receiving 2KY at loud-speaker strength in Fiji. 2KY is received in Adelaide louder than any other station in Australia, according to a well-known radio manufacturer. What shall we not accomplish when we get on full power? Listeners-in can take it that 2KY is not interfering with any other station, It is keeping steadily to its wave-length in a way that no other station in Australia is. If there is interference, the trouble probably lies in your set, which is not selective enough.[158]

SILENTLY THEY WORK. SYDNEY'S FASCIST TERRORISTS. LABOR'S BROADCASTING STATION IS IN PERIL. "WE WILL STOP YOU" THREATENS LAWLESS GANG. ATTEMPTED BOYCOTT OF "LABOR DAILY" OUR REVELATION of the Fascisti terrorism, organised by the business associates of Mr. Bruce, has far from caused the conspirators to abate their work. WARNINGS ARE BEING BROADCAST by the Fascist organisation in Sydney, to many prominent members of the Labor Movement. As will be noticed in another column, Mr. G. Sinclair, secretary of the Boilermakers' Union and secretary of 2KY, Labor's broadcasting station, received a missive yesterday threatening a smashing party if he continued to organise the propaganda for 2KY. "In consequence of this warning we will take all legal precautions to protect our property," said Mr. Sinclair last evening. "Labor, however, will do nothing which will conflict with the law. We will refrain from meeting organised force with force. Our force will be expended at the ballot-box next Saturday, after which it may be Mr. Bruce's Italian and German friends who will be deported. "BIDE OUR TIME." "Labor is too inherently pacific and sensible to be bluffed easily. Even if 2KY is smashed before November 14 you won't find us running round with guns and batons. We will bide our time, and after the ballot deal with lawlessness under the statutes. "Nothing can stop the progress of Labor — not even the Fascisti. This is the complete text of the communication received by Mr. Sinclair: To the Wireless Committee, Trades Hall, We warn you that if you persist in broadcasting political propaganda, we will stop you. Remember Italy. For the Fasisti of Australia. EDITOR THREATENED. It is stamped similarly to the threatening note which was received by the Editor of the "Labor Daily" — a circle topped by a cabbage-like rose and within the circle the letter "F," and the word "Australia." It will be noticed that the word Fascisti is spelt Fasisti in this communication. Apparently the man who wields the pen is being worked over-time and is skimping a letter or two to make up leeway. Nearly every importing firm in York Street has taken up the establishment, and equipping, of a Fascist group. The significant feature of the whole business is the avidity with which firms with German and other cheap labor agencies have rallied round this opportunity to seize power. In this connection, the first firm to found a Fascist group in this city was the first firm to import German goods into Sydney after the war. Mr. Morris Davis, who is a nephew of Mr. Leslie Davis, a director of Hoffnung's, Ltd., and whose recent appointment as an "outside traveller" for the firm enables him to carry on his "black shirt" propaganda in other warehouses and shops, has been extremely successful in enlisting members. Yesterday, boasting of the organisation's strength, Mr. Davis promised a warm time for those whose politics he dislikes. GREATER SECRECY. "It's not going to end with the elections," said Mr. Davis, referring to his organisation. "We'll keep the 'Reds' in their place after the elections if others can't." Of course, every man who earns his living by hard work is a "Red" as far as Mr. Davis is concerned. Greater secrecy and care are being taken regarding the movements of the terrorists, since the exposure of their plans and objects by the "Labor Daily." Fascist moves against Labor, however, go on without abatement. The Retailers' Association, which is closely identified with Flinders Lane and York Street, and consequently the Fascisti, has been busy this last few weeks whipping up supporters in a crusade against Labor. Since our exposures, a circular letter, urging a boycott of the advertising columns of the "Labor Daily", has been despatched, by the association, to each of its members. Already one prominent retailer, controlling one of the largest businesses in Sydney and a prominent advertiser in this paper, has refused to be stampeded by the terrorists and in unmistakable terms, referred the conspirators to warmer regions. RELIGIOUS QUESTION. The organisation of local bands of terrorists has been undertaken with all thoroughness. Printed booklets on Fascist terrorism, as carried out in Italy and England, have been issued by Mr. Davis to each member of his band. One of these books has been examined by a "Labor Daily" reporter. Apparently the activities of the organisation are to be in great measure against the members of a certain religion, among other people. The first question on an application form embodied in the booklet is one requiring the applicant to state his religion. Then follows a series of questions relating to the applicant's political opinions, and his private life. The rest of the manual is given over to the instruction of the applicant in means of offence against Labor. The methods indicated border on the Communistic. Despite pressure from certain quarters, Hoffnung's Ltd. have taken no steps to deny either the authenticity of our reports nor the connection of their employees with the movement. The reverse is the case, for since the publication of the disclosures, the members of the group appear to be most favorably treated by the managers.[159]

NEEDN'T HAVE NOISE. Sir,— Sir,— "Balmainite" in the "Herald" of November 5 complains of weird noises from wireless station 2KY. I would point out to him that every radio magazine issued in Australia has been stressing the necessity on account of the advent of new institutions, of the alteration of various circuits of receiving sets to give greater selectivity. I have had to do so to my own set. I am as close to 2KY and 2BL as "Balmainite," but can cut out either station at will. As regards political broadcasts, I would remind "Balmainite" that Mr. Bruce has been using Government stations for political propaganda for the last three months, and other stations have consistently been transmitting thinly-veiled propaganda. Let us have both sides of the question and judge for ourselves.— Yours, etc., 4 Darley Street, Darlinghurst, G. J. FOX.[160]

EVERYDAY AND EVERYBODY. Triumph of 2KY. THE Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, 2KY, had a real test of its merit on Sunday night, when it undertook to broadcast Mr. Charlton's speech from Paddington Town Hall. Reports received yesterday from all over the State testify to the extreme efficiency with which the broadcasting was done, and claim it as a triumph for the Labor station.[161]

WIRELESS PROPAGANDA. Trades Hall Station and Others. Referring to criticisms of the Labor broadcasting station at the Trades Hall, Sydney, by Prime Minister Bruce, Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the N.S.W. Executive Council, stated last week that Mr. Bruce was in error in assuming that the Labor wireless station desired any share in the heavy license fees imposed upon the listening-in public. "I join issue, however, with Mr. Bruce," added Mr. Willis, "when he infers that 2KY is not as much entitled to such a share as any of the monopolist stations. 2KY is not designed to be used 'solely for political purposes.' And when it comes to politics, the existing monopolist stations do not restrict themselves to one statement by each of the three Party Leaders during the life of Parliament. On the contrary, each A class station, with the sole exception of the Queensland State station, broadcasts daily over the air a regular stream of political propaganda in the guise of news directed against the Labor Party and the Trade Unions. MONOPOLISING A PUBLIC SERVICE. "The fact is that the political aspect 2KY is not the reason why the Labor station is denied any revenue from the license fees. The real reason is because the 'National' Government has permitted monopolies in a public service. If 2KY copied the jazz, betting, and entertainment, item for item, of the A class stations, Mr. Bruce would still refuse to allocate any revenue from the wireless licenses. "The difference between 2KY and the A class stations is that the former conducts its political propaganda frankly and openly, while the latter conduct theirs in the form of 'news.' "[162]

2KY On the Air. A Labor Radio Station. When the Sydney Trades Hall broadcasting station commenced operations, two weeks ago, a definite stage was marked in the progress of the Australian labor movement. Radio is the mightiest propaganda medium yet discovered and 2KY will be of great service to the workers when the real labor movement gets control. The First Workers' Radio. Most of the speakers on the opening night declared 2KY to be the first labor radio in the world. But many of them knew that on November the 9th, 1917, the radio station of Tsarkorge Selo fell in the hands of the Petrograd workers and has functioned as a real labor radio. How Mr. Willis must have trembled when one speaker referred to a message received by a Sydney amateur from the Arctic regions. How many votes would have been (Continued on page 2.) 2KY (Continued from Page 1.) lost had the speaker mentioned the hatred name of Soviet Radio Laboratory in Moscow from which the message was despatched. But the establishment of the station is an achievement and it must be used for real propaganda in the class struggle.[163]

The Outrage on the "Labor Daily" THE outrage perpetrated on this paper on Wednesday night bears a most striking resemblance to the outrages perpetrated in Italy at about the beginning of the Fascist Movement in that country. The Fascists did not begin with murder; that came later. At first, the methods of the Fascisti consisted of assault and battery only, or of the administration of nauseous and cathartic doses of physic. Subsequently, they proceeded to the burning down of places that they disapproved, and to such severe attacks on the men whom they disliked that these sometimes died of the injuries received. The bludgeon, the torch and the dagger came to be looked upon as the usual weapons of the Fascisti; and, after the victorious march of the Fascisti upon Rome, they boasted that they had, also, machine guns and bombs. The victory of the reactionary forces in Italy, which called themselves Fascisti, filled with joy persons in other countries who hated Labor and desired to maintain special privileges for the wealthy. In Britain, there came into existence an organisation called the British Fascisti. Already it has rendered itself detestable by various disorderly acts. One of the most notorious of the deeds attributed to the British Fascisti was the kidnapping of the noted advocate of "Left Wing" politics, known as Harrv Pollitt. Another was the "holding-up," at the point of the revolver, of certain services to the London "Daily Herald," which is the newspaper organ of Labor in England. Nobody has been punished for any of the outrages perpetrated in Britain that have been attributed to the British Fascisti — there is a Tory Government in power in Britain. There are branches of the British Fascisti in Australia. Every city has its branch. Threatening letters have been received by the "Labor Daily" and the Trades Hall Radio Station. Moreover, on Wednesday, we published a photographed reproduction of a letter from the British Fascisti in London to a person in Melbourne, in which the writer boasted of a determination to drive from office, by illegal violence, a constitutionally appointed Labor Government, and suggested that unconstitutional and seditious means should be taken to prevent Labor from taking office in this country, even if it got a majority of votes at the polls. The letter also alleged that there was a "definite assurance that the present Federal Government would co-operate" with the Fascisti. It seems highly probable that so-called British Fascisti were at the back of the outrage on the "Labor Daily" on Wednesday night. The Tory Press has, as might have been expected, rushed in to heap ridicule upon the account published by us of what is, certainly, the most serious outrage perpetrated upon a newspaper in this country during very many years. In this connection, however, we direct our readers attention to the statement, published elsewhere in this issue, of the Hon. C. C. Lazzarini, to the effect that the alleged statements by the police published by the Press are garbled and biased by the imaginations, and the partisan prejudices, of the newspapers in which they appear. Mr. Lazzarini says that no official statements have been issued by the police. AN UNLAWFUL ORGANISATION. In any case, the letter from the British secretary of the Fascisti brands it as an unlawful organisation. It should not be allowed to continue in this country its unlawful, mischievous and dangerous machinations. (S. A. ROSA, 4 Brisbane Street, Sydney.)[164]

CHARLTON BY RADIO. Mr. Charlton, Leader of the Federal Labor Party, will be broadcast from the studio of 2KY (Trades Hall) for twenty minutes, commencing at 7 tonight. The station will put sufficient power behind its wave length of 280 metres to enable listeners in the most remote parts of Australia to hear.[165]

EVERYDAY AND EVERYBODY. Heard Far and Wide. THE value of Australian broadcasting stations to listeners-in in New Zealand is instanced by an article in a Canterbury paper a few days ago in which the writer, at Timaru, who had a four-valve set, says: "I received 2BL (Broadcasters), 3LO (Melbourne), 3AR (Melbourne), 5CL (Adelaide), and 2FC (Farmer's) all on the loud speaker. I received the news of the Parker-Collins fight at 11.35 p.m. on Saturday. "I also heard KGO (California), on the 'phone, but he is not as strong as he used to be. KFI (California) also came in at almost loud speaker strength." No mention is made of the Sydney Trades Hall broadcasting station, 2KY, which was not officially opened on the date of writing. 2KY, however, has been heard all over Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Ocean.[166]

To-Day's Broadcasting Programmes. TRADES HALL. Call Sign 2KY. Wave Length 280 Metres. 8.0 p.m.: Tune in to the ticking of the clock; 8.3: Selection on Beale Electric Player Piano; 8.8: Humorous Song, Mr. W. Patterson; 8.15: Contralto Solo, Miss Vera Cornock; 8.25: Comic Song, "I'm Always Thinking of Her," J. Ricaby; 8.33: Mezzo Soprano, Miss Shand; 8.40: Fox Trot, Orpheus Gramophone; 8.48: Lyric Soprano, Miss Eva Seery. 8.55: Interval. 9.5: One-step, Beale Player Piano; 9.10: Humorous Song, Mr. W. Patterson: 9.20: Contralto Solo, Miss Vera Cornock; 9.30: News Items by courtesy "Labor Daily" Service; 9.40: Lyric Soprano, Miss Eva Seery; 9.48: Humorous Monologue, Herbert Brown; 9.58: Items on the Orpheus Gramophone; 10.15: Close Down. Arrangements have been made to broadcast the result of the Elections, as available. There will be an afternoon session, commencing at 2.30.[167]

LABOUR'S POLICY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD. Sir.— Regarding 2KY, the Labour broadcasting station, the erection of such a station for transmitting Labour propaganda at this time certainly puts a feather in the cap of the Nationalist party. It seems to convey the idea that Labour's policy is none too stable, and in this way: It is, of course, well known that many interjections crop up in the course of the delivery of a policy speech, some of which are easy to answer, some at times hard to answer, and others which it would not do to answer too correctly. The latter course would only be resorted to by an unscrupulous party who were trying to gain their end for reasons other than or beside those stated in their policy. A party who had to resort to such answers would naturally not feel too sure of gaining their objective, namely, power to govern the country in the way they wished, unless some means were found whereby these questions that undermined their policy could be eliminated. What better and more modern way to accomplish this than by wireless? By the utilisation of a broadcasting station controlled by themselves, the party's speeches could be delivered to a greater number of people than if the speech were delivered before a visible audience; and, also, worrying interjections would be entirely eliminated. Against this method, however, it may be said that the speaker's personality is lost on the audience to a certain extent by the mere fact of him being out of sight; but what personality has any speaker to lose who resorts to evasive answers to important questions regarding the country's welfare? From this the following conclusions can be drawn:— (1) That the Labour party have found it necessary to take refuge behind a broadcasting station controlled by themselves in order to preserve as much of their unannounced policy and peace of mind as possible, whereas (2) the Nationalist party contest the political battle in the open, are ready and willing to answer any questions relative to their policy during a speech, and who be-cause of this find it unnecessary to hide behind a broadcasting station, for the reasons previously given. Another thing: There must be many who like myself, are recording their first vote at these elections. In order to do this conscientiously it is necessary for those people to understand something of the reasons on which different policies are based. A person may know the policy of a party, but to understand it and to learn the reasons for it it is generally necessary to ask certain questions, that is, unless he is willing to take for granted everything that is said in the speeches to be in the best interests of the country. And how can this be done if one of the parties use a broadcasting station to deliver their speeches, and by so doing make it impossible to ask these questions? The only answer to this seems to be that this party wants to avoid these questions which so closely concern the country and peoples interest. And why should a party wish to do this if their policy is true and above-board? Hence there are now two more conclusions which can be arrived at. Again, the Labour party openly boasts of their station as being the first Labour broadcasting station in the world. It may be said to be so, simply because the morale of Labour parties in all other countries has not yet descended so low as that of the A.L P. as to need one, to help them in the making of unquestionable speeches. Perhaps you will say I am unduly biassed toward the Nationalist party. To this I would answer that I consider it to be the duty of every true Australian to take a certain amount of interest in their country's welfare, and if, after due consideration, you can arrive at different conclusions to the above points, I should indeed be interested to hear of them, and incidentally many others probably would also. Now, regarding an important point in Labour's policy, that of doing away with compulsory training of boys and men for our army, navy, and air force. I would like to know what this party contemplate doing with the air planes, warships, and artillery, etc., of the army, which if they gain power in the coming elections they propose to render useless. Certainly, they will be of no further use to Australia, but only so through force of circumstances. Does the Labour party propose to scrap them? And if so, at what useless cost to the country will these implements of national defence have been? Failing the scrapping idea, where does the Labour party propose to send them? I am sure that every true Australian will be interested to learn the answers to these questions, as they are the people who paid for these things, and they have a right to know what is going to happen to them. I am, etc., DOUGLAS SMITH. Savoy, Darlinghurst, Nov. 6.[168]

SYDNEY TRADES HALL (2KY). Received in Albany. C. H. Vernon (Albany) writes:— In reference to my remarks in my letter which was published in the last issue of "The Sunday Times" I mentioned having received a new station (2KY Sydney). I was under the impression that this station was run by the United Distributers Ltd., Sydney, but have since discovered that this firm evidently installed the gear and at the time I received them (October 26) were testing, hence the announcer mentioning that reports to be sent to this firm. "2KY is the Sydney Trades Hall station which you asked in your columns had any listener received. On the night of October 29 2KY's programme, which was mostly pianoforte solos and gramophone records went until 10.15 p.m. Perth time. "To any enthusiasts who desire to receive this station the following may be of interest. 60 turn coil in anode, aerial 60 turns and reaction 25 turns. 2KY will come in about 10 degrees less than 5 Don N, on each condenser."[169]

WIRELESS. Misuse of Broadcasting Stations. Quite a stir has been caused recently in New York in connection with a wide spread complaint concerning WNYC, the municipal station of the city of New 'York. Backed by the Citizens' Union, a suit was opened against the city authorities on the grounds that the maintenance of the station was a misuse of the city's funds; that the purpose and use of the station was utterly different from that indicated when the station was opened, and that it had been used repeatedly and continuously for grossly improper political propaganda. It was said also that the city officials had given out reports which were supposed to show that the material sent out from the station was entirely non-partisan, but that any listener knew the facts to be otherwise. Praise of the city's mayor had always been a dominant note of the "news of the day," it was said, and violent attacks on any who dared to question his actions had always been used to accentuate his wisdom. As might have been expected, the injunction asked by the Citizens' Union to confine the station to proper activities was denied. This instance, however, is only one of many that have been brought to light in America, and it is evidently very difficult for the public to prevent broadcasting stations being unfairly used to forward the interests of the party or individual operating them. The problem is one that interests us quite a lot in Australia, though it is apparent that all consideration of it has been forgotten by the Postmaster-General's department. It is quite easy to visualise an awkward situation arising in the case of the Trades Hall station, 2KY, which recently commenced operations in Sydney.[170]

TEACHING BY AIR. REPLIES TO MR. MUTCH. "OBSTRUCTIVE ATTITUDE" SAYS 2KY's MANAGER. THE obstructive attitude of Mr. Mutch in regard to the use of radio in education is worthy of a Conservative Government concerned with the restriction of knowledge, rather than of a progressive Labor Government concerned with the widest possible dissemination of knowledge among the workers, their wives and children." Thus, the manager of 2KY (Labor's Broadcasting Station), Mr. Gilbert J. Sinclair, yesterday. "If University extension lectures can be broadcast to millions of listeners-in in Great Britain, in America, and in Europe," he continued, "why should they not be broadcast in Sydney for the benefit of those workers who lack the time and money to attend a university? "If it is possible to broadcast a political speech successfully to tens of thousands of listeners-in in New South Wales, why in heaven's name is it not possible to broadcast equally successfully lectures from the technical experts of the School of Technology on the great variety of subject matter that intimately concern the improvement of the workers in their respective trades? IN WHAT WAY? "Mr. Mutch makes a good deal of the Fuller Government's short three months' experiment being 'hopelessly unsatisfactory.' In what way it was so hopelessly unsatisfactory we are not told. "The Minister for Education should know that broadcasting to be successful must have a satisfactory receiving apparatus at the other end. So half-hearted was the Fuller Government that it provided no receiving apparatus whatever in the schools. "But the Fuller Government, while it overlooked the receiving end, had at least the enterprise to institute the broadcasting of school subjects. "Mr. Mutch would keep out both." This retrogressive policy is completely out of harmony with the working-class desire for education, and with the progressive spirit of the age. "When Mr. Mutch complains of some message or other which he once listened-in to coming through like a 'cracked gramophone' or Chinese crackers,' he is giving gratuitously to all wireless listeners-in a public exhibition of how little he knows about the subject. DOES IT MEAN NOTHING? "Does it mean nothing to Mr. Mutch that there is a population of a million men, women and children in Sydney alone who could get clear reception of educational broadcasting, untroubled by statics? Has Mr. Mutch overlooked Sydney when he decided to keep wireless education out of the schools? "And in regard to reception in more distant areas, if Mr. Mutch has at all seriously considered the question he should know that there are methods both in broadcasting and in reception for dealing with static interference during the summer months. "These, together with the provision of State relay stations, would knock the bottom out of Mr. Mutch's objections. It is to be hoped that Mr. Mutch is not opposing the installation of the State radio relay stations with the same conservatism that he is applying to the utilisation of wireless for education. "It is true that Mr. Mutch states that he approves of the installation of radio sets in schools after school hours. This grudging concession will certainly not satisfy the growing body of public opinion in favor of the widest possible use of wireless for the education of the people. "No doubt the trade unions of New South Wales will have a few questions to ask Mr. Mutch in regard to his extraordinary attitude in regard to the spread of education by wireless among the working-class."[171]

THE MAN IN THE STREET. (To the Editor). 2KY UNDER CRITICISM. Sir,— "Professional Op." commenting upon the interference of 2KY states "that the fault re interference lies at the receiving apparatus," and "that only a mile from either 2KY or 2BL can cut out either station at will." Any fool can separate 2KY from 2BL or 2BL from 2KY without any loss of volume when using the three-coil circuit. But any fool cannot receive 2UE without loss of volume while 2KY is transmitting. It is doubtful if 10 sets out of every 1000 (Udisco included) employing detector and two stages of audio can receive 2UE without interference on satisfactory loud speaker strength while 2KY is on the air. This should not be and the fault lies not with the receiver but with 2KY. While not wishing to discredit the transmissions of 2KY, permit me to say that its transmissions of musical items, pianoforte, gramophone, band and violin cannot be compared to the transmissions of similar items from 2FC or 2BL, and even some items from 2UE put 2KY in the shade. This, of course, can only be expected till 2KY is tuned up to "concert pitch." However, 2KY is on the air. It is owned and controlled by workingmen for workingmen, and it is up to all workers to do their best to make it the finest broadcasting station in this ring-controlled Commonwealth.— Yours etc., H. L. DENFORD, St. Peters.[172]

CAN BE PROUD OF WORKERS' RADIO. VALUE OF STATION 2KY. REPLY TO CRITICS. MR. E. R. VOIGT, chairman of the wireless committee, replies to some criticism by Mr. H. L. Denford in the "Labor Daily" yesterday: "Mr. H. L. Denford states that when the receiving sets are unable to separate 2KY from 2UE, then the fault does not lie with the receiving set; it does not lie with 2UE; the fault lies with 2KY. "Mr. Denford makes no effort to adduce any evidence whatever in support of this serious charge. TWO METHODS. "There are two methods of deciding whether 2KY is interfering with 2UE, or vice-versa. The first is to check up accurately on the wave-length of each station. In the absence of any data, I assume Mr. Denford has not done this. "The second is to inspect the wireless inspector's log. If Mr. Denford had taken the trouble to do this before attempting to pillory 2KY publicly, he would find that on every occasion since testing, with one exception, the wave-length has been steadily maintained at 279 metres. "That one exception was when with the permission of the wireless inspector, the wave-length was reduced to 275 metres to get away from the harmonics of 2FC. SELECTIVITY LACKING. "Now 2KY wave-length is 280 and 2UE 293 metres. So that actually there has been a minimum of 14 metres always between the two stations (assuming that 2UE has kept to its own wave-length). Any receiving set that will not separate those two stations is lacking in selectivity. "Any radio engineer of experience will agree that many of the receiving sets, with some exceptions, in use in Australia and also those in Great Britain, are lacking in selectivity. After his recent trip to U.S.A., Percy W. Harris, editor of the 'Wireless Constructor,' confirms this. "Now, if there are thousands of unselective sets unable to separate 2KY from 2UE many of their owners on reading Mr. Denford's charge against the workers' station, 2KY, will conclude that we have an inefficient station. "That is emphatically not so. There is no station in Australia which has taken the pains to provide for the certain and easy maintenance of its wave-length as has 2KY. A comparison of our station with the orthodox stations will prove this at once. HARMONICS NOT INTERFERING. "Further, the engineers of 2KY have received several reports from listeners-in, indicating that they are actually receiving 2UE BELOW 2KY, whereas 2UE should be 14 metres above us. What has Mr. Denford to say to this? "Some people have actually complained that 2KY was interfering with Farmers' 2FC. The reverse has been the case. Farmers has been operating on 1120 metres in place of 1100. At 1120 2KY gets Farmers' harmonics. "The wireless inspector has already arranged that Farmers will reduce their wave-length from 1120 to their legitimate 1100 metres. "My statement a few days ago that 2FC was reducing its wave-length only meant that it was coming down 20 metres so that its harmonics would not interfere with 2KY. STRENGTH OF 2KY. "As regards the strength of 2KY, Mr. Denford should know, from the many public statements that have been made, that 2KY until a day ago has been operating on less than one-half of its licensed power, and only one-fifth of its available power, owing to the sudden and suspicious absence of valve from the market; 2KY has had to surmount many difficult obstacles. Mr. Denford's public criticism does not help us. But 2KY is a station of which the worker can feel proud."[173]

WIRELESS WEEK by WEEK. Our Budget of Broadcasting and Listening-in Lyrics Of the Greatest Value to the Seeker after Knowledge. RADIOGRAMS. The following Australian broadcasting stations are now in operation:— 2FC, Sydney, 1100 metres, 5 kilowatts; 2BL, Sydney, 353 metres, 1½ kilowatts; 2KY, Sydney, 280 metres, 1000 watts; 3LO, Melbourne, 371 metres, 5 kilowatts; 3AR, Melbourne, 480 metres, 1½ kilowatts; 4QG, Brisbane, 385 metres, 5 kilowatts; 5CL, Adelaide, 380 metres, 5 kilowatts; 5DN, Adelaide, 340 metres, 100 watts; 6WF, Perth, 1250 metres, 5 (sic) watts; 7ZL, Hobart, 410 metres, 1 (sic) watt; 1YA, Auckland, 330 metres, 100 watts; 3AC, Christchurch, 240 metres, 50 watts; 4YA, Dunedin, 370 metres, 200 watts.[174]

RADIO AND INVENTION. By "E.R.V." MR. MUTCH v BROADCASTING. BROADCASTING. Mr. Mutch's extraordinary attitude towards educational broadcasting is causing much adverse comment in trade union circles. Workers' children cannot attend the best schools. Their only chance of getting the best tuition is by wireless. Adult workers cannot attend the University and the technical colleges; these buildings could not house 5 per cent. of the workers. Wireless technical education would be a boon to thousands of workers. If Mr. Mutch had the interest to visit 2KY, the splendid broadcasting station established by his own trade union movement, perhaps he would get a better perspective on the potentialities of broadcasting.[175]

2KY CALLS. HAVE YOU YOUR SET? A very special offer is being made by Messrs. Harrington, radio and photographic specialists, to all those who are anxious to get the best results from the broadcasting of 2KY, the Trades Hall installation, or for that matter from any other broadcasting service. Two, three, and four-valve sets, complete in every detail, such as loud speaker, batteries and aerial equipment, are offered at most favorable prices, and the most exceptional extended terms of payment are gladly arranged. Crystal sets can also be obtained from 10/ to 25/. The radio specialities of Messrs. Harrington are in every way built on the best and most approved lines, and bear the insignia; "Trades Hall Approved Radio Products." The demand for wireless sets being so consistently great, early application for equipment is desirable. A line to Messrs. Harrington at 386 George Street, Sydney, will receive prompt attention.[176]

THE MAN IN THE STREET. (To the Editor). 2KY. STATION. Sir,— As Mr. E. T. Voigt resents public criticism of 2KY, I have replied to his statement of last Saturday by private letter to his Trades Hall address— Yours, etc., H. L. DENFORD, St. Peters.[177]

MR. WILLIS' SECRETARY. Mr Lang Asked If He Is Communist. SYDNEY, Thursday. — A question by Mr Lee, Nationalist Whip, caused disorder among Ministerialists in the Assembly today. "In view of the welcome statements by the Premier (Mr Lang) regarding his attitude towards Communists," said Mr. Lee, "does the Premier approve of the appointment of Mr Voigt as private secretary to Mr Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, as Mr Voigt is an avowed Communist? Was Mr Voigt's appointment approved by the Public Service Board, and was he granted preference over Australians?" When the Speaker had restored order, the Premier, glaring at Mr Lee said: "The honorable member has made an assertion that Mr Voigt is an avowed Communist. Either he will prove his words, or deny that Mr Voigt is a Communist. Until he does this man justice. I refuse to answer such a question." This evoked cheers from the Ministerialists.[178]

To-Day's Broadcasting Programmes. TRADES HALL. Call Sign, 2KY. Wave Length, 280 Metres. AFTERNOON SESSION. 2.30 Tune in to the ticking of the clock. 2.33 Musical items. 2.45 Special address by Mr. V. Voigt to Melrose School, Kiama. 3.0 Musical and vocal items. 4.45 Close down. EVENING SESSION. 7.45 Tune in to the ticking of the clock. 7.48 Latest items by courtesy "Labor Daily" service. 8.0 Children's hour announcement. 8.2 Pianoforte solo, Mrs. Wilson. 8.5 Humorous entertainer, Mr. Cecil Cooke. 8.15 Tenor solo, Mr. T. Moynihan. 8.23 Novelty interlude, Radio Twins, assisted by the Happiness Boys, Eric Sheldon and Harry Calman. 8.45 An appreciation of the Abrams treatment, Miss Girwin. 8.55 Lyric soprano solo, Miss Marie Muir, (a) Waltz Song, "Romeo and Juliet," (b) "Still of the Night." 9.5 Interval. 9.10 Pianologue, Miss Ethel Mare. 9.18 Contralto solo, Miss Beckie Jones. 9.25 Violin solo, Mr. Tom Burden. 9.33 Soprano solo, Miss King. 9.40 Mezzo soprano, Miss Fraser. 9.48 Late news. 9.55 Soprano solo, Miss D. Butterworth. 10.0 Close down. [179]

LABOR'S RADIO. CRITICISM WELCOMED. Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of the Labor wireless committee, 2KY, writes in reply to Mr. Denford:— "Allow me to assure Mr. Denford that I certainly do not resent any public criticism of 2KY. On the contrary, both through the columns of the 'Labor Daily,' and also through the medium of 2KY broadcast, I have invited the fullest possible criticism of the Labor station. "The wireless committee of 2KY will continue to welcome all criticism of the station, public or otherwise for it is only with the aid of such criticism that we can check up and improve our station."[180]

DEPLORABLE POLITICS. NATS.' GUTTER TRICKS. The Premier, in the Legislative Assembly yesterday, brought members of the Opposition up with a round turn in cases in which they had made unwarranted statements. The culprits, who have not been used to such treatment, wore a somewhat dazed air when forced to realise their own delinquency. Mr. Lee, Opposition Whip, asked the Premier in airy fashion whether, "in view of Mr. Lang's statements in regard to Communists, he approved of the appointment of Mr. Voigt, an avowed Communist, as private secretary to Mr. Willis, M.L.C., Vice-President of the Executive Council. Was the appointment made with the approval of the Public Service Board, and was the Premier in favor of preference to an Australian?" A Government member: You're not an Australian! Mr. Lang replied that the member for Botany had made an assertion that Mr. Voigt was an avowed Communist. Either the member would prove his word, or deny it, or he (Mr. Lang) would refuse to answer such a question. Returning to the subject later, Mr. Lang said he was about tired of putting down these falsehoods. Mr. Lang soon after had to inform Mr. Arkins that the smallest child in a school should know that wireless was controlled by the Commonwealth Government. If Mr. Garden had permission, or a license, for wireless broadcasting, it had been granted by Mr. Bruce. He would ask Mr. Arkins to refer the matter to his colleagues in the Federal Parliament.[181]

MR. HOONE ANSWERED. Sir,— Mr. C. Hoone is the first teacher who has set himself against educational broadcasting. Nothing is so good in this world that you can not scrape up some objection to it. Mr. Hoone raised two objections: (1) Static; (2) lack of personality. People listening-in close to big cities with high-powered stations are not appreciably troubled with static. Therefore, the static trouble is essentially a matter of power. Static would be reduced to a minimum by the provision of relay stations to boost up the power in outside country areas. Then, again, static is intensified and made troublesome on the reception end. If you have a set that you must strain to the point of oscillation, then you will bring in any atmospherics that may be floating around. The way to minimise statics is to have a set with enough margin of sensitivity to bring in the wanted stations without undue forcing. Too much length of wire in the aerial is another cause of undue interference from static. If you replace your two, three, or four wire aerial with a single wire aerial of, say, 80 to 100 feet, you will draw in less atmospherics. A large inductance connected in the ground circuit will also reduce static. Isolated crashes of static can be reduced by connecting a crystal detector or a resistance from antenna to ground.— Yours, etc., HERBERT E. BEAVER 2KY, Sydney.[182]

This seal assures you guaranteed equipment and quality at lowest possible prices. Look for it at all Radio goods you purchase. TRADES HALL PRODUCT Genuine, practical, co-operative prices — a saving on the average of 25 per cent. Unionists show your cards or badges. UNIONISTS! — NEW POWER! 2KY is now on full rated power! Purchase a Trades Hall Approved Radio Receiver and listen-in. VALVE SETS All United Valve Sets cover wave lengths from 200 to 2000 metres. The control is simple and very selective. In the Two and Three-Valve Sets there is only one tuning condenser, making tuning easy. Every part of standard quality — Genuine Bakelite Panels — A special quality set in material, workmanship, and beauty of finish. The UNITED TWO employs one regenerative detector, with one stage of audio amplification. The UNITED THREE uses a re-generative detector with two stages of audio amplification. The UNITED FOUR uses one stage tuned radio frequency, regenerative detector, and two stages audio frequency amplification. PRICES ARE AS FOLLOW:— £ s. d. 2-Valve Set, without acaccessories .. .. .. 10 10 0 2-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, 'Phones and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 14 13 0 2-Valve Set, with same equipment, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 18 6 0 3-Valve Set, without accessories .. .. .. 11 18 6 3-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker, and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 19 17 6 3-Valve Set, with same equipment as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 23 5 6 4-Valve Set, without accessories .. .. .. 15 0 0 4-Valve Set, with Valves, Dry Cells, "B" Batteries, Loud Speaker, and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 23 15 0 4-Valve Set, with same accessories as above, but Accumulator as "A" Battery .. .. .. 27 3 0 "THERE'S A REASON" The programmes of 2KY are being varied and improved day by day, and with the Station now operating on its full rated power, thousands of listeners-in from all over Australia are being entertained by the excellent variety of items broadcast. The Trades Hall Wireless Committee have set out with the laudable object of developing latent talent. To further this and amateur performers of all the Arts are being given the opportunity of entertaining the public over the air. Who knows what diamonds may be found in that unexplored mine of human talent? 2KY may be the means of giving to the world a second Melba or Tetrazzini. In addition to music, interesting educative lectures, bedtime stories, etc., from your Station, you can tune in to the other Australian Broadcast Stations, and find amusement and education for yourself and family. Remember 2KY is a "B" Class Station, and does not participate in any revenue collected by the Government from listeners in the form of license fees. Every Set sold bearing the Trades Hall seal is a direct source of revenue to your Station, so buy your Set and listen-in. These approved Radio Sets are built under rigid specifications as to quality by the United Distributors, Ltd., only, the designers and constructors of 2KY. Co-operation between the Trades Hall Wireless Committee, the Radio Retailers, and United Distributors, Ltd., has resulted in the greatest Radio value opportunity ever offered in any country — Sets of the highest possible quality at prices far less than those charged for at ordinary quality. Thousands have already seized the chance. Provide your home at once with your choice of Radio Equipment from this list, and help your Movement to expand. CRYSTAL SETS If you live within a radius of 25 miles of the city you can listen-in quite well on one of the following Crystal Sets. The original cost is only nominal, cost of upkeep nil, and tone absolutely pure and clear, with no possibility of distortion. PRICES ARE AS FOLLOW:— No. 410 — Double Slider Frost Crystal Set .. .. .. 0 17 6 Metro Crystal Set, complete with Head 'Phones and Aerial Equipment .. .. .. 1 5 0 Fortevox Jnr. Crystal Set 0 6 0 Astrophone Crystal Set, de luxe .. .. .. 1 5 0 Astrophone Crystal Set, Model B .. .. .. 0 13 9 Wizard Crystal Set, slider type .. .. .. 0 10 0 Pico Head 'Phones .. .. .. 0 13 6 Aerial Equipment Assembly .. .. .. 0 7 6 OBTAINABLE FROM x F. Lassetter and Co., Ltd. David Jones, Ltd. x Mick Simmons, Ltd. (Haymarket Branch). Miss Wallace, Royal Arcade. Swains, Ltd., Pitt Street. Colville Moore, 10 Rowe Street. R. H. Howell, 19 Barlow Street. x Keogh Radio, 503 George Street. J. T. Balsdon, Weston, Cessnock District Co-op. Society, Cessnock. W. Harry Wiles, Goulburn Street. Edgeleys' Ltd., Gen. Store, Bathurst. x Morley Johnson, Ltd., George St. Holdsworth, Macpherson, George St. x Radio Wireless Mfg. Co., George St. x Radio and Elec., 40 Pitt Street. Port Kembla Garage and Eng. Works, Port Kembla. J. Levenson, Pitt Street. x Harringtons, Ltd., George Street. Electrical Wireless Co., 503 Hunter St., Newcastle F. V. Hilliard, Hay St., Collaroy. x A. J. Benjamin, Ltd., Chatswood. R. Strangman, Lane Cove Rd., Crow's Nest. B. Hodge, Camden. Slingsby and Coles, Pitt Street. Marks' Electrical Co., 66 King Street. Firms marked with an x allow extended terms on sales.[183]

RADIO AND INVENTION By "E.R.V." A SELECTIVE CRYSTAL SET. The advent of 2KY on the air on a wave length close to 2UE has made it necessary for many of us to overhaul our sets and make them more selective. The circuit shown hereunder is very selective, and is particularly suitable for long distance experimenting. The circuit is unique, although it is well known to naval operators. Loose coupling is used, but in addition a fine adjusting condenser supplies capacity coupling between the coils. The aerial condenser is a .0003, and the capacity condenser is a Lissen fine adjusting condenser. The coils may be honeycomb, plug-in type, with a two-way coil holder. This set has given remarkable results, both in regard to long-distance reception and selectivity. We should be glad to have reports from any radio fans who may build this set. . . . RADIOYAT OF OHMAR CONIYAM. Awake, for Lightning in the Dead of Night Has struck the Aerial and put the Valves to Flight. And, lo! the Crystal of the East has caught 2KY on its testing night. MR. BEARD AT KIAMA. Mr. Gordon Beard, the designer of 2KY, and chief engineer of United Distributors, worked himself to a standstill on the Trades Hall broadcasting station. In order to get 2KY ready for the elections Mr. Beard created several continuous work records. Four hours' sleep in 72, and an average of 16 hours' work per day for weeks may violate the 44-hour principle, but it put 2KY on the air in record time. He would have put in 44 hours per day if it had been possible. Mr. Beard is now "resting up" at Kiama for a week. His rest takes the shape of creating a centre of interest in radio in Kiama, introducing radio in one of the local schools, and arranging for the transmission of wireless greeting from 2KY.[184]

1925 12[edit]

RADIO AND INVENTION. (By E.R.V.) SELECTIVE SINGLE-VALVER. The receiver illustrated this week is a splendid type, made according to practice, which will amply repay the builder for any trouble involved. Some have been complaining that they are unable to separate 2KY from 2UE. This set, which is very selective, will settle the argument. The primary, secondary and tickler coils can be of the honeycomb variety, mounted in a three-coil holder. The set can be contained in a cabinet with an overall height of 9½in., while the width and depth need only be 8in and 5in respectively. This set is very inexpensive to build, and will provide excellent all-round entertainment in the home with four or five sets of headphones if required. For loud-speaker work, it would be necessary to provide a two-stage amplifier. In both cases excellent results will be obtained.[185]

Dishonest Conduct. THE Labor Movement of Australia can expect that its ideas and its actions will meet with strong opposition from its opponents and from their daily Press. In this opposition to Labor ideals, and to Labor men, it is only to be expected that there will be a certain amount of misunderstanding, and even of misrepresentation. But the stream of abuse, the deliberate misrepresentation, and the malicious intrigue which in the past few months particularly has been directed against the Labor Movement in New South Wales by the "Evening News" and by the "Telegraph" pass the limit of decent journalism. The most venomous and unscrupulous journal attacking the Labor Movement at the present time is the "Evening News." This journal does not confine itself to criticising the plans and policy of Labor and the State Government. It devotes its columns to an insidious attempt to set one section of the Movement against the other, and one Cabinet Minister against the other, by the persistent issue of malevolent misstatements. A clear case of the maliciousness and dishonesty of the "Evening News" and the "Telegraph" is evidenced in their attacks upon Mr. E. R. Voigt, the secretary to the Vice-President of the Executive Council. These papers have persistently insinuated that Mr. Voigt is "one of the leading Communist body officials of New South Wales." Last week, an official statement was issued by the Communist Party flatly denying that Mr. Voigt was ever a member of that party. Copies were sent to all the anti-Labor Press. The "Sun," which had never taken part in the despicable anti-Labor intrigues of the "Evening News" and the "Telegraph," was the only paper honest and fair enough to print the denial. The "News" and "Telegraph" suppressed that official denial, for it nailed their dastardly lies to the counter. It cannot be said that the matter was not important enough to find space for. That very question had recently created a scene in the House of Assembly between the Premier and the Opposition Whip. It is clear that these two apologies for journalism are prepared to suppress anything that gives the lie to their "Red Campaign." In attacking Mr. Willis' secretary, these journalistic plotters are attacking Mr. A. C. Willis, for they quite obviously are manoeuvring to discredit the industrial wing of the Labor Party, and by creating a split cause the downfall of the Labor Government. It is openly stated that the "Evening News" intends shortly to launch a regular campaign in its columns against Mr. Willis. It may be concluded from this that Mr. Willis is a good and faithful servant of the Labor Movement. As regards the "Telegraph," a paper that will issue on the morning of the elections a poster depicting a few Sydney Communists and a number of Orientals, with the wilfully misleading title, "Bruce — Or These? is capable of anything. "BOLSHEVITIS." It is not surprising, therefore, to find this senile capitalist journal depicting to its deluded readers the lurid picture of a soviet attempt to capture the municipalities at the elections last Saturday. This is pure "Bolshevitis." The writers of this flapdoodle should be under medical treatment in a home. But the policy of the "Evening News" is deliberate, malicious misrepresentation, which should deceive no member of the working-class.[186]

RADIO. TRADES HALL SCHEME. An ambitious scheme has been initiated by the Trades Hall to extend the influence of the radio broadcasting station — 2KY — to the country. Efforts are being made to get into touch with everyone who has a receiving set in the back country, in order to induce them to listen-in to 2KY, and particularly those who have transmitting stations. The idea is that the transmitting sets should be used for relaying purposes, and already members of the wireless committee have visited a number of outlying places, endeavouring to induce the owners of sets to join in the transmitting scheme. At Wollongong, for instance, there is a small transmitting set, and the controlling authorities of the Labour Council's, station hope that arrangements may be made for it to pick up everything sent out from 2KY, and retransmit it so that the users of crystal sets for a distance of 25 miles around Wollongong will be able to hear what the Trades Hall is placing on the air. "We are convinced," stated on official of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station yesterday, "that the relaying work which is taking place in Britain and America is equally practicable in Australia. There is no reason why the Trades Hall station could not be used for educational purposes by the Department of Education and also by the Department of Health, and by the Minister for Labour and Industry, who could broadcast from the Trades Hall daily bulletins as to what jobs are offering. It is understood, of course, that as soon as the State Government station is established, the Trades Hall authorities will transfer to the Government station any broadcasting activities that might be entrusted to them." The Trades Hall wireless committee has made an offer to the Government, through Mr. A. C. Willis, vice-president of the executive council, to instal six receiving sets in schools or other public buildings. Three of these sets, it is proposed, should be placed in centres within a hundred miles of Sydney, and the remaining three within 250 miles. It is believed that by this means the Government can be convinced that what is now being done by broadcasting station 2FC in the way of carrying education to children in country schools, can just as easily be done from the Trades Hall station, 2KY.[187]

NOTHING PERFECT YET. RADIO IN SCHOOLS. Mr. Herbert E. Beaver, of 2KY radio station, combats the views held by Mr. C. Horne concerning radio in schools. He writes:— "In many countries of Europe, including Russia, radio is being more and more widely used in schools. In Japan, loud-speakers are used at substantial distances to conduct tests in shorthand writing. "Of course, we know there is some trouble from statics at times during the summer months, but four-fifths of a loaf is better than none at all. "Mr. Horne's idea is to do nothing until radio is perfect. It would be a bad lookout for radio if we were all like Mr. Horne. And nothing is perfect, anyway."[188]

TRADES HALL'S WIRELESS WHEEZE. INFLUENCE OF 2KY. PLANS TO EXTEND IT. THE TRADES HALL wireless committee has offered the Government, through Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, to instal six receiving sets in schools, or other public buildings. Three of these sets, it is proposed, should be placed in centres within 100 miles of Sydney. and the remaining three within 250 miles. An ambitious scheme has also been made by the Sydney Trades Hall authorities for the extension of the influence of their broadcasting station, 2KY to the country. The idea is that the transmitting sets should be used for relaying. Members of the wireless committee have contacted outlying places to endeavor to induce the owners of sets to join in the transmitting scheme "There is no reason," stated an official of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station today, "why the Trades Hall station could not be used for educational purposes by the Education Department and also by the Health Department, and by the Minister for Labor and Industry, who could broadcast from the Trades Hall daily bulletins as to what jobs were offering. "It is understood, of course, that as soon as the State Government station is established, the Trades Hall authorities will transfer to the Government station and broadcasting activities which might be entrusted to them."[189]

WIRELESS. DUTY ON RADIO GOODS. (BY ALAN BURROWS.) THOSE "PIRATES." The large number of unlicensed sets evidently in existence, as shown by the State figures, which were mentioned in this column last week, are put down to different causes by readers of the "Herald." "Air-pocket," William-street, writes:— I do not intend to renew my license if present conditions are permitted to continue, and I suppose there are hundreds who feel the same as myself. Previous to the coming of 2KY on the air we were able to enjoy many an evening's entertainment and pleasure listening to the splendid concerts and lectures broadcast from various halls in the city and suburbs by 2BL, as well as fairly good programmes from their studio. Now all this is changed; all we can get with an ordinary crystal set is the very poor stuff given out by 2KY. I might mention that there are seven wireless receiving sets in the same block as myself, and we are all in the same box, as we depended chiefly upon 2BL (being in the city). If 2KY were given a wave length of about 600 or 700 metres there would not be these complaints. . . . Mr. John T. Wynn, Campsie, writes:— Is it any wonder that people are unwilling to add to their expenses by buying a license? The cost of the parts is altogether too high. Personally I prefer English parts to American, and recently landed a pair of radio transformers. They carry the usual guarantee of British manufacture, and cost £2/12/6, postage included. The Customs are charging me 18/4 duty on this small portion of a wireless set. By the time a person has spent about £20 on English parts he is paying pretty dearly for the privilege of bringing them into the country. I have little fault to find with the programmes, except that the time wasted between items is very prolonged, especially in the case of 2BL. In the matter of waiting, the Trades Hall is a real nightmare. . . . The letters of both correspondents carry points which are undoubtedly worthy of consideration, although scarcely possessing the importance ascribed to them in each case. It cannot be denied that with some crystal sets — principally of the single-slider type — 2KY does cause interference; this is particularly noticeable in the city, as it is here where the Labour station is situated, whereas the two larger stations are now in the suburbs. In most cases, however, a double-circuit set will remedy the trouble. In respect of the waiting between items, few will deny that 2KY is an offender in this respect — but this station, it must be remembered, is in receipt of no direct revenue; its services, after all, are given freely. The question of the heavy duty imposed on wireless gear is a much bigger one. The net cost of landing American wireless gear is about 65 per cent., and that of English parts 55 per cent., varying slightly in one or two instances according to the classification. That the wireless public is paying this much more for its apparatus than it costs is certain; but whether, for the sake of Australian industry in radio, the added cost is worth it, must remain entirely a matter of opinion. The amount of wireless gear made in Australia is not large compared with that which is imported. About 12 types of valve are made by two Australian firms — formers, the cheaper class of coils, and batteries, on a larger scale (on account of their perishable qualities), are all the Australian-made parts which could be considered of any consequence. Few complete sets are imported, the assembly of gear being the largest section of the Australian radio industry.[190]

LABOR'S RADIO. COUNTRY EXTENSION OFFER TO GOVERNMENT. AN AMBITIOUS scheme has been initiated by the Sydney Trades Hall authorities, for the extension of their radio broadcasting station, 2KY, to the country. The Trades Hall is anxious to get into touch with everyone who has a receiving set in the back country, in order to induce them to listen in to 2KY, particularly those who have transmitting stations. The ideas is that the transmitting sets should be used for relaying purposes, and already members of the wireless committee have visited a number of outlying places, endeavoring to induce the owners of sets to join in the transmitting scheme. AT WOLLONGONG. At Wollongong, for instance, there is a small transmitting set, and the controlling authorities of the Labor Council's station hope that arrangements may be made for it to pick up everything sent out from 2KY and retransmit it, so that the users of crystal sets for a distance of 25 miles around Wollongong will be able to hear what the Trades Hall is placing on the air. "We are convinced," stated an official of the Trades Hall broadcasting station yesterday, "that the relaying work which is taking place in Britain and America is equally practicable in Australia. "There is no reason why the Trades Hall station could not be used for educational purposes by the Department of Education, and also by the Department of Health, and by the Minister for Labor and Industry, who could broadcast from the Trades Hall daily bulletins as to what jobs are offering. "It is understood, of course, that as soon as the State Government station is established, the Trades Hall authorities will transfer to the Government station any broadcasting activities that might be entrusted to them. OFFER TO GOVERNMENT. The Trades Hall wireless committee has made an offer to the Government, through Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council to install six receiving sets in schools or other public buildings. Three of these sets, it is proposed, should be placed in centres within 100 miles of Sydney, and the remaining three within 250 miles. It is believed that, by this means, the Government can be convinced that what is now being done by broadcasting station 2FC in the way of carrying education to children in country schools, can just as easily be done from the Trades Hall station, 2KY.[191]

THE LABOR RESEARCH AND INFORMATION BUREAU. SPECIALLY WRITTEN FOR THE "LABOR DAILY." Just Why It Exists And What it is Doing. THE Labor Research and Information Bureau was founded in Sydney in 1920, and endorsed by the All-Australian Congress of that year. It received support from a number of affiliated unions in 1921, and the next All-Australian Congress recommended the establishment of a State Bureau in each capital city, the existing Bureau in Sydney to be the head office of a Commonwealth organisation. This scheme has not yet been put into operation, but the Sydney Bureau has continued to function, under considerable difficulties. The founder of the bureau was Mr. E. R. Voigt, who established the whole system of national and international exchanges upon which investigations are based. Even if there were no officer in charge of the bureau, large quantities of useful matter would continue to arrive at the Trades Hall, by mail, and would be available to union officials. Nevertheless, such matter can only be made use of, in practice, if it is duly classified and filed for reference. This work alone requires a large amount of labor. SKILLED STAFF. Beside the compilation of reference files and the accumulation of documents and cuttings — which, with proper support from the unions, could be effectively carried out by a staff of unskilled workers — the bureau requires the services of men who will actively conduct investigations upon all the problems affecting the working class. This work is anything but automatic. It requires men of initiative, skilled in accountancy, and clearly understanding the economics of the capitalist system and the needs of the workers in the daily struggle. The Research Bureau should be able to supply all affiliated unions with facts, figures, and arguments for use in courts of arbitration and conciliation. It should be able to assist the Labor Party in the drafting of bills for the benefit of the workers, to inform the Labor Party as to the needs and desires of the organised workers, and, generally, to provide all genuine working-class propagandists with the truth as to any of the matters which are concealed from the workers by the various propaganda agencies of the capitalist class, miscalled sources of news and information. It may be well asked, "Can the Labor Research and Information Bureau do all this?" It could, indeed, do all this and more, if it received the full support of all sections of the Labor movement, industrial and political. But the movement itself suffers from all sorts of difficulties, financial and controversial, and it is difficult to convince every section that the work of the bureau is necessary to each separate organisation, as well as to the movement as a whole. ENLIGHTENS WORKERS. The basis of affiliation is the payment of 2d a member a year, for trades unions, with special rates for Labor Party branches, working-class political parties, and individuals. The bureau, therefore, stands ready to assist all genuine working-class activity with information bearing upon the struggle for higher standards of living, and for final emancipation. It sets out to enlighten the workers as to the nature and effects of capitalist domination of society; to disclose the operation of the productive forces and the organisation of capital in control of them; and to show the wages and conditions of workers in various parts of the world, their industrial and political organisation, and the steps which are being taken towards improvement. In 1922 an Economic Conference was called by the Prime Minister, Mr. Hughes, for the purpose of bringing together representatives of the employers and of the employees. If the Prime Minister, or anyone else, expected the conference to come to agreement upon the basis of the common interests of Capital and Labor, he was doomed to disappointment, as the only result of the conference was to bring out clearly and unmistakably the essential antagonism between the two, but, in making clear the position as to the characteristic aims and claims of each, the conference did much towards revelation of the real position. The proposals of the workers were drafted and read by Mr. E. R. Voigt, of the Labor Research and Information Bureau, who may be said to have conducted the whole case for the workers. The report of the con-ference given by the latter states that "the employers' offensive against the workers on account of allegedly high wages and lower production was decisively checked by conclusive statistics, showing relatively greater increases in output than in wages; while the employers' lament on the industrial crisis was cut short by a summary of the latest statistics, forcing, at last, an admission from the employers, in their formal proposals, that no crisis yet exists that would justify their attack on wages and hours." GIVES CONFIDENCE. Further, the report states, "The work of the bureau placed the employers at a disadvantage from start to finish, gave confidence to every Labor representative, and lent point and decision to each argument advanced on behalf of the working class." The loss of the services of Mr. Voigt was a calamity to the bureau, and for some months in 1924 the work almost ceased. It was revived, however, by Mr. E. M. Higgins, a young Australian, who had received a University training in England, and returned to devote his ability to the working class of the Commonwealth. After a year of hard struggle to get the bureau upon a financial footing, Mr. Higgins had to seek work elsewhere, and Mr. G. Winter, a certificated accountant from New Zealand, at present holds the position of secretary. Mr. Winter's bent is financial, and he has done a great deal towards revealing the profits and interconnections of the great companies which rule the financial situation in Australia. As the support of the unions continues to increase, the mass of matter received through the post is being duly classified, and filed for reference, and news cuttings upon many subjects, in systematic arrangement, tell the story of the British seaman's strike, the Federal elections, the deportation issue, etc., as these and similar matters develop. Materials are being collected from day to day for a history of the Labor Movement. At the same time, the latest statistics as to wages, prices, and population are closely studied, and the conclusions drawn therefrom, together with financial reports upon various companies, are published in various Labor papers, or, on occasion, broadcasted from 2KY. MANY QUESTIONS. As for the questions which the secretary is called upon to answer, they range from the origin of music to the real object of the League of Nations, but, in the main, they are questions dealing with matters of immediate importance to the unions concerned. The affiliated unions know where to come for such information, and they are seldom disappointed. On occasion the bureau has supplied witnesses for the unions in arbitration cases, with good effect in revealing the ability of the industries concerned to pay the wages or grant the conditions demanded by the workers. In fact, the bureau sets out to supply the workers with the facts of industry in Australia and the world, and, in so doing, it clears the way to the recognised goal of organised Labor — the control of industry by the workers in the interests of the workers themselves.[192]

Radio Notes. (Notes by "Anode.") RELAYING 2KY. An ambitious scheme has been initiated by the Sydney Trades-hall to extend the influence of the radio broadcasting station — 2KY — to the country. Efforts are being made to get into touch with everyone who has a receiving set in the back country, in order to induce them to listen-in to 2KY, and particularly those who have transmitting stations. The idea is that the transmitting sets should be used for relaying purposes, and already members of the wireless committee have visited a number of outlying places, endeavouring to induce the owners of sets to join in the transmitting scheme. At Wollongong, for instance, there is a small transmitting set, and the controlling authorities of the Labour Council's station hope that arrangements may be made for it to pick up everything sent out from 2KY, and re-transmit it so that the users of crystal sets for a distance of 25 miles around Wollongong will be able to hear what the Trades-hall is placing on the air. "We are convinced," stated an official of the Trades-hall Broadcasting Station, "that the relaying work which is taking place in Britain and America is equally practicable in Australia. There is no reason why the Trades-hall station could not be used for educational purposes by the Department of Education, and also by the Department of Health, and by the Minister for Labour and Industry, who could broadcast from the Trades-hall daily bulletins as to what jobs are offering. It is understood, of course, that as soon as the State Government station is established, the Trades-hall authorities will transfer to the Government station any broadcasting activities that might be entrusted to them." The Trades-hall wireless committee has made an offer to the Government, through Mr. A. C. Willis, vice-president of the executive council, to instal six receiving sets in schools or other public buildings. Three of these sets, it is proposed, should be placed in centres within a hundred miles of Sydney, and the remaining three within 260 miles. It is believed that by these means the Government can be convinced that what is now being done by broadcasting station 2FC in the way of carrying education to children in country schools, can just as easily be done from the Trades-hall station, 2KY.[193]

WIRELESS. ELIMINATING 2KY. (BY ALAN BURROWS.) Considerable comment is heard recently concerning the interference caused by 2KY, the "B" class station situated on the roof of the Trades Hall. That this station is proving troublesome to many listeners seems fairly certain; but, whilst at first its transmissions were rather erratic, the greater part of the fault now appears to be with the listeners themselves, or rather, with their sets. If, in the endeavour to receive 2BL or one of the "B" class stations, 2KY obtrudes itself, it is scarcely fair immediately to accuse this station of broad tuning or general inefficiency, or to take exception to its actual existence. In all probability 75 per cent. of the blame lies at the door of a badly designed receiving set; the balance can be distributed between circumstances and faults in 2KY's transmission. And when it is remembered that a similar difficulty has had to be faced, in a much accentuated form, in England and America — that it is, to a certain extent, inevitable in any country where there are many stations on the air — it can be seen that perhaps 2KY's share of the guilt is, after all, rather small. This, of course, applies to all stations. The trouble caused by any one does not always lie in its defects, but, like the faults of society, in "the system." There is little doubt that the wave length could be more wisely distributed, and that the stations could co-operate in their transmissions; but this is little consolation to the listener, who frequently finds himself receiving two programmes simultaneously. His concern is to find a way out without waiting for a reconstruction of the present system of broadcasting, which may, in the end, be doubtful in its effect. And there are few listeners who, at the expense of a little time and money, are so unfortunately situated that they cannot overcome the trouble of overlapping transmissions. Most of the complaints come from those in the city, who, because of their proximity to 2KY, find it harder to eliminate his transmissions, These listeners may find it an exceedingly difficult matter to render their sets sufficiently selective to achieve this; crystal sets, unless a wave trap is used, may find it next to impossible. The next series of complaints comes from those with single-slide crystal sets, and occasionally users of single-circuit valve outfits, such as the "PI" type. Here again, it is scarcely a fair test to expect high selectivity from these circuits, which are inherently broadly tuned. If interference, however, is experienced with any of the two-circuit sets — the ordinary loose-coupler, the three-coil regenerative valve set, or any of the modifications of these — it can, as a broad rule, be taken that whilst there may actually be no defect in the set, there are several ways in which improved selectivity can be gained. The scale might be said to follow these lines: Single sliders are not worth spending time or money upon; the little extra expended upon a loose-coupIer will be found a much wiser investment. If 2KY, or another nearby station, breaks through when using loose-couplers, their selectivity can generally be improved by connecting a variable condenser across the secondary coil. Another condenser connected in the aerial circuit may help, but it is uncertain if in this case it would justify the cost of a variable condenser. After this the next step is a valve set, which, however, should not consist of a "PI." It must always be remembered, too, that high resistance in a set, a poor earth or poor aerial insulation, always flattens a set's tuning. An outfit which is efficient in other directions will usually be found to have the (Photo) The simplest and cheapest form of wave trap — a coil tuned with a variable condenser, which absorbs the unwanted signals. advantage in selectivity also. Wave traps, of course, are the alternative in extreme cases. These present another angle of this problem, which is undoubtedly a very real one, and to which, at another time, we must return.[194]

WIRELESS. ITS WORTH TO WORKERS — THE WAY OF THE TRUSTS — LABOR MAKES GOOD BARGAIN. An interesting and illuminative address on wireless was delivered at Wollongong recently by Mr. Voigt. Mr. J. T. Sweeney, District Secretary of the W.I.U. of A., has been instructed by the Southern Miners Delegate Board, to forward us the following report of Mr. Voigt's address, which we have pleasure in publishing: Mr. Voigt said that two years ago he made a visit to the United States for the express purpose of inquiring into the industrial phases of health and hygiene. While there he became intensely interested in the phenomenal advance that was being made with wireless. At once, it was brought under his notice that never had any means of scientific progress been so insidiously used against the working class as wireless was being used in America. It most certainly provided the capitalists with the greatest weapon to hold back the progress of the Labor Movement that they had ever had. BREAKING A STRIKE. To prove this, he quoted the manner in which the San Pedro strike was broken, only on account of the insidious method in which news that was detrimental to the strikers was distributed in the air. Then, again, when the American pressmen's upheaval took place, it struck from the hands of the capitalist the most potent weapon he had until that time. During its progress there were no capitalist papers published. Through there not being any opposition Press, the pressmen were winning out, and had secured the goodwill of all sections of the working class. But, aided by some of the international leaders who were against the State strike, the newspaper employers seized the wireless stations, and broadcasted all over the country harrowing pictures of starving women and children, called the leaders of the strike I.W.W.s, Communists, Anarchists and Bolsheviks, and circulated heaps of the anti-working class propaganda that they know so well to get up. And the result was that within eleven days the strike was broken. Then, again, during the last elections, though there were not any Labor candidates, he was able to sense to the full the immense possibilities of wireless as an aid to the workers. There was no soap-box electioneering. All that a candidate did was to speak through a microphone and his messages went out to ten million listeners-in. THE "WIRELESS COMMITTEE" So interested did he become that he investigated the expenditure incurred in connection with the erection and construction of four of the leading wireless stations on the Pacific Coast, and as an engineer, he was able to form some idea as to the actual costs of same. While still in America, he had made recommendations to the Trade and Labor Council favoring the establishing of a wireless plant, and on his return it was only after several conferences that the "wireless committee", was appointed to investigate the matter. This committee had decided that the particular uses to which a Labor wireless station could be put were: (1) if there was stated virtue in publicity, then here, in Labor's own station, would be an enormous advantage and one that could be obtained at very little cost, and could transmit news to the whole Commonwealth almost simultaneously; (2) at the present time, the Trades and Labor organisation in Melbourne was almost a separate entity to the bodies in other States, but, with the advent of wireless, would result that cohesion which invariably comes from a more intimate knowledge of matters; (3) the whole Commonwealth would be in communication; (4) Labor's many local organisers that were far from rail and post could maintain receiving communication with their head offices; (5) most important of all, Labor's broadcasting station would provide that which was so essential to the success of the organisations in Labor' social sphere. Mr. Voigt pointed out that, though the "Labor Daily" reached over 80,000 buyers daily, Labor's broadcasting station would reach over 500,000. But he wished to point out that both the workers paper and the workers wireless were needed, and had come to stay. GULLING THE PUBLIC Everyone knew how the two existing broadcasting stations gulled the public. The seamen's strike was one instance; and, in this connection, only propaganda that had been against the strike was sent over the air. And yet the people of the Commonwealth had been told by the Postmaster-General that all of these stations were to remain strictly neutral and impartial. Continuing, the speaker said that he was then deputed to set about procuring a wireless station. The initial snag was the Postmaster-General's Department. He was astounded when he had found out how many don'ts there were in the wireless Act. And many of these don'ts were indeed ridiculous in the extreme. An instance was that section which said that the wireless broadcasting stations must not in any way interfere with the business of the Post and Telegraph Department. This was a sheer impossibility. By broadcasting the race results, wireless had reduced punters' telegrams by thousands. Marconigrams also interfered with the telegraph and postal services. These were only two of hundreds of such instances. It was a thing without precedent in the world that the working-class should want something scientific to be developed. For they were always against the development of most things scientific, fearing that they would make for reductions in the numbers of men that there would be work for. But with wireless it was the capitalistic class that would not allow any development. In most countries, wireless has been deliberately suppressed, and this was particularly the case in Australia. For in this country the license charge was the highest in the world. In many ways, wireless was being deliberately sabotaged. THE TRUSTS. There was the copyright trust, which levied 3/6 more than the actual cost of every gramophone record that was broadcast. As showing the extremes to which this trust was prepared to go, he instanced that when Broadcasters, Ltd., had picked up and rebroadcast the American station KDKA, the trust had actually demanded that copyright fees which KDKA had already paid be paid again by the Sydney firm. Over twenty-five per cent. of the total revenue of one or the Sydney broadcasting firms was collected by the copyright trust. Then there was the monopoly on patents, the taxation in this respect done was nearly crippling the industry. Then there was the Patents Trust. How many knew that for each and every valve socket on any wireless plant this trust had to be paid twelve shillings and sixpence? But worse than this was the fact that each trader had to sign an agreement that he would not inquire into the validity of the patents. These were but a few of the initial difficulties that he had found. Then he found that he could not get any private firm to quote him a price for the erection of a station. They, one and all, told him he would have to go to the trust. He did so, but got little or no satisfaction, for the trust refused to quote him for a station to be got from America. This body had quoted him a price for one of their stations, but the figure was enormous. For a long time he endeavored to get the other firms to come out into the open and defy this monster trust. LABOR'S GOOD BARGAIN. Eventually United Distributors rose to the occasion, and they constructed 2KY for £1200. Compared to the cost of the Adelaide station, £14.000, and a Queensland station, £21,000. Labor had secured a very good bargain for the power of 2KY was infinitely greater than that of those quoted. In this connection it was interesting to note that microphones which cost other stations £80 were secured by 2KY for a little more than £7. The trust speech amplifier cost £1100, and for 2KY a far superior one had cost only £31. These, remarked Mr. Voigt, were but a few of the many impositions that the workers had to contend with. But he wanted to state definitely that to not one of these combines would Labor's station pay anything. Labor intended to fight the trust in every possible way. Other stations were owned by the trust, but Labor's was going to belong to the unions only. There would be no payments at all to any trust. These trusts would take everything if they could. ENORMOUS POSSIBILITIES. Referring to the enormous possibilities of wireless. Mr. Voigt stated that these broadcasting stations were the beginning of something far greater than many anticipated. Only two years ago there was no wireless. But now, already, the conservative British Government had made arrangements so that it would have the sole rights for the transmission of power by wireless. The time was coming when we would be able to pick up the power generated naturally at our great lakes and transmit it over the ether and work the wheels of industry with it. Then, too, there was the matter of relay stations, which were to be the thing of the future. Already the Nationalist Party had entered into negotiations for a series of these relaying stations. Labor intended to erect about half a dozen such stations. This was the one reason why the crystal set was the set of the future. 2KY was to be managed by the whole of the trades unions of the Commonwealth.[195]

RADIO AND INVENTION. . . . 2KY Still Under-powered. Listeners-in to the Trade Hall Broadcasting Station will be interested to learn that the new valves for the completion of 2KY's equipment are expected to reach Australia within the next week or two. With the arrival of these new valves, the engineers of 2KY expect to increase the modulation of the station, and consequently its signal strength to about double what it is at present. The arrival of these new valves will also enable the quality of transmission to be improved, for the valves are being over-extended at present. [196]

HE'LL GET IT. Provoked Wife (discovering drunken husband on front steps fiddling with door-knob at 2 a.m.): "What are you doing there John?" Drunken Husband (still turning knob): "Shhh' I'm trying to get 2KY."[197]

1926[edit]

1926 01[edit]

Magic Wireless. By "Triode." Some Advice on the Selection of a Receiver. THE first question that comes to account is your situation. Where do you live? If you live in a Sydney suburb you require one class of receiver, cheap and easily managed, to hear the broadcasting programmes. If you live at Nyngan or Narromine, you require another kind. Distance makes all the difference in wireless sound-sending, as in any other kind of transport, and the further out you are the more your pleasure and convenience will cost. If you are a Sydneyite it is largely a matter of pleasure. If you belong to Emmaville or Culcairn, it is one of the greatest conveniences imaginable to have a good wireless receiver. The Sydneyite is not so greatly interested in the daily programmes of the broadcasting stations as the waybacks. All they give is close at hand, and plentifully so. But to anyone out in the country it must be little short of magic. It is magic, in fact. Just looking over a day's fare and taking some of the items at random, mark the following, and bear in mind that to some people it represents an unprecedented round of entertainment:— Pianoforte solo, Grieg "Sonata;" Mrs. Marion Bell (who circled the continent in a motor-car) describes her trip; Metropolitan Band, a march; from the Hippodrome Theatre, first act of Rigo grand opera, "The Barber of Seville;" lecture, a talk on foreign affairs; one-act comedy, 'Sweet and Twenty;" Mr. George Searl, comedian, in short sketches; Miss Alice Prowse, contralto; Mr. Stanley Catlet, tenor, in songs; instrumental trio, Ressiger's op. 77; dance music by the orchestra of a fashionable restaurant; the Supervisor of Domestic Arts, Education Department, on "Domestic Economy;" Prince Edward Theatre orchestra; Russian Balalaika orchestra; Miss Leonore Gotsch, "The Lorelei" (Liszt); French lecture by the Consul for France; Lionel Lawson, violinist, "Serenade" (Goddard); Mr. A. H. Lindo, musical lecture. The variety in music and general entertainment that is now available to listeners by wireless has never before been equalled in any institution in this world. We must be a very tired people if we grumble about it. There, in the few extracts given above out of a daily programme, is a range from grand opera to brass bands, from classical instrumental solos to jazz. With the loud speaker you can have a home entertainment and join in the choruses, or you can clear away the furniture and dance. The difference between getting your entertainment by broadcasting and going to the entertainment places for it is that with wireless you simply turn a dial, or move a slider, to flit from one theatre to an other, from the comedian to the classicist, from grand opera to the dance hall. Magic! There has never any-thing been heretofore given this world like it. The romantic writers imagined such things, and put them in the story-books, but here are these imaginings in actuality. I'm afraid it's a very bored and blase world that we do not appreciate it more. IT must not be forgotten that, in addition to what was mentioned in the foregoing, information is available on any subject you may be interested in. Are you a farmer? Your radio set will tell you how much your products sold at in the market in the morning. Are you a sporting man? Then you will hear the results of the races as soon as they are finished. (You will even have the race described, to you while the horses are running.) Have you children? They will listen with delight to the stories, and they will write to the broadcasting stations and hear the replies by this magic at 7 o'clock at night. You will get the weather forecasted at stated times; you will hear the prices of stocks and shares on 'Change during the day; you will hear the latest news of city and country, and from the other side of the world. Do you want to set your watch? Listen, at the arranged times and you will hear Sydney G.P.O. clock striking: Is there anything more you can want? SYDNEY has four (sic, five) broadcasting stations at work. The two principal, 2FC and 2BL, give the varied programmes from which the items have been picked, the one working on 1100 metres and the other on 353. Both employ good power, so that the whole metropolis should be able to hear them with crystal receivers. The Trades Hall (2KY) is on 280 metres, and the Burgin Electric (2BE) on 306 metres, 2FC starts at 10 in the forenoon, 2BL at 3 p.m. 2KY starts at 2.30 p.m. and gives, a varied instrumental and vocal programme. The principal Melbourne station, 3LO, can be heard with valve receivers, commencing at 11 a.m. They all go on till late at night. The public pay a license fee of £1 7s 6d for the metropolitan zone, a rate which decreases slightly with distance out into the country. ONE should not easily go wrong now in installing a receiver. The old days of experimenting and fumbling are gone, and the dealers will guarantee to give value for your money. There are few places now without a receiver somewhere near. The neophyte can "touch" the owner as a brother "fan," and his experience can be obtained and made use of. Outside the range of the crystal receivers, which is put down at about 25 miles, valves, or sound amplifiers, are necessary. The crystal receiver can cost from a few shillings to three or. four pounds. When you get outside the radius of the crystal, amplification is obtained with the bulb that looks like an electric lamp but which we know as a valve, and the Americans a tube. (Neither of the terms can be considered very applicable, but they are there to stay.) If the receiver is to be several hundred miles away, several valves will be wanted: The most important information that must be obtained from the dealers when installation is contemplated is as to the range and the number of valves required for hearing by headphones or by loud speaker. The loud speaker requires more than the 'phones. The dealers are prepared with information for any town in the interior. Valve receivers require batteries. One is a liquid battery of about six volts, the other a dry-cell battery of 30, 40, or more volts. When the liquid battery (accumulator) is used it has to be re-charged frequently at some source of electric power. Radioists prefer to use it whenever possible and convenient. But when that is not so a dry battery is used instead. Then another class of valve, known as the "dull emitter," is necessary. It costs more than the others, but a lot of trouble is saved. A valve set can be entirely of valves, or it may be a crystal detector with valves. A valve is either a detector or amplifier. Another term is "soft" or "hard" valve, the application being to the intensity of the vacuum. (The method of adding a valve to a crystal detector was set out in the "Mail" of July 15, 1925.) One valve alone gives much stronger signals than the crystal, and if the distance is not too great two should work a small loud speaker. ALL this is to some extent dependent upon the position of the installation. The type of aerial avail-able, whether it is masked by something intervening in the field of the broadcasting station, or the nature of the surrounding country, and so forth, must be taken into account. With a receiver of several valves such considerations are lessened, and some can be worked with an aerial inside a room or under the roof of the house. There are complicated circuits with self-regeneration or reflex power which give long ranges with one or two valves. The requirements all furnished to a dealer in the city according to what is stated in the foregoing, good reception instruments should be secured at the start. The dealers have carefully compiled data with which to judge the needs of the prospective purchasers, and in some cases will send an expert out to the country to make the installation. For those who are facile with the drill and the screwdriver, and know something of wires and electricity, the dealers will send all the parts, with blue print diagrams for the setting up, so that no mistake can be made, and the buyer can use the shop as an encyclopaedia on radio all the time. FOR one thing only, if for no other, radio, I should say, is a blessing of God. When you think of the change it has made for the unfortunates con-fined to their beds, and for the little children condemned to sickness at the time of life when all should be joy, radio broadcasting has come to us as a divine gift. The thought of the youngsters in the Children's Hospital with the headphones at each bedside is sufficient. Apart from that phase of the matter, radio for the people in the country is a splendid invention, and no farm should be without it. The business is now established in such a way that buyers, provided they give their requirements clearly, cannot be taken in and supplied with bad material. There is no difficulty about the working. Photography is more difficult than radio. Australia is eminently a place for it, and the New Year will probably see the list of license-holders very much increased.[198]

WIRELESS. WAVE TRAPS. (BY ALAN BURROWS.) It was mentioned some weeks ago that in the elimination of a troublesome station's transmission, the next step, after the different methods of sharpening the set's tuning have been tried unsuccessfully, is a wave trap. But it must be understood here that a wave trap should always be regarded as a last resource, something to fall back upon only when the ultimate limit of the set's selectivity has been reached. For a wave trap does not by any means increase an outfit's ability to tune sharply, and if, by alterations in the set itself, its use can possibly be avoided, a saving in both expense and efficiency will be gained. A wave trap is of little or no use in separating even moderately distant stations from each other — this depends upon the set's selectivity; but if a nearby station persistently breaks through the set's tuning, a wave trap, in almost every instance, will eliminate it successfully. The ubiquitous station 2KY can certainly be cut out, as can Pennant Hills, or any of the broadcasting stations, regardless of how close to any of them a listener may be. Still, a wave trap should never be regarded as anything but a necessary evil. Perhaps the principal reason for this lies in the fact that they invariably decrease the signal strength of all the stations being received. This decrease is not marked; but it is certainly noticeable, and with crystal sets is sufficient to be worthy of consideration. The cost will be about £1 — this also being a consideration. A variable condenser and a coil of the ordinary honeycomb variety, or preferably of some low-loss design, will meet the requirements of a wave trap, several variations being possible with this small amount of gear. The best form, perhaps, consists simply of of a low-resistance coil — one of heavy wire and few turns — connected directly between aerial and earth, to which is "loosely" coupled another coil — a 50-turn honeycomb or low-loss coil, this coll being tuned with a variable condenser connected across its terminals. A fairly simple arrangement on these lines consists of winding, spiral fashion, about twelve turns of heavy-gauge wire around a honeycomb coil. The ends of the primary or heavy coil are connected to aerial and earth, and a condenser is connected to the plugs of the coil, which, in turn, are connected to the aerial and earth terminals of the set. An alternative is to connect the primary coil between the aerial and the aerial terminal of the set, using the set's earth connection as usual. The arrangement of a "parallel" connected wave-trap, one of the best types. The condenser can have a capacity of .0005 mfds., whilst the size of the coil, of course, varies with the wave length of the station it is desired to eliminate. This circuit can take the form of wound honeycomb coil mentioned. Again, the condenser and coil may be connected in series, and "shunted" around the primary coil of the set — with the aerial and earth connected as usual; the wave trap would be also connected between the aerial and earth terminals. The simplest of all methods, perhaps, is that shown some time ago in this column — a coil connected into the aerial lead, and tuned with a condenser. This eliminates one coil, but is hardly as efficient as a coupled wave trap, which requires two coils. Every arrangement, in fact, is really only a slightly different means of reaching the same end — of tuning a coil to the wave length of the undesired station, and thus absorbing its signals.[199]

DINNER-TIME WIRELESS FOR THE WORKERS. The suggestion of the executive of the Labor Council that workers in large establishments should club together to provide themselves with loud-speaker listening-in sets for the purpose of hearing trade union news during the dinner-hour, has been enthusiastically taken up in two large establishments in Sydney. The broadcasters are 2KY, and for the purpose of hearing what is worth hearing in the matter of their welfare, the workers referred to have struck a levy of 6d. a week per member, payable until the cost of the set has been covered. Full information regarding the purchase of receiving sets can be obtained from the secretary of the Wireless Committee at the Trades Hall. It's a bread-and-butter matter for the worker, and distance does not affect Newcastle, Bathurst, Lithgow and Wollongong can hear just as well as Sydney. There will be a special service of news on the lines indicated.[200]

RADIO AND INVENTION. PROGRAMME OF 2KY. There has been some comment from the rank and file to the effect that the programme of 2KY should be less like that of the two capitalist stations, and more like that of a Labor broadcasting station. Labor listeners-in should know that the board of management of 2KY is at work organising a programme of Labor items, which will include Labor propaganda, trade union news, University and technical lectures and debates.[201]

Radio News Column. (By "Lojic") THE TRADES HALL BROADCASTING STATION. I have been very fortunate in having been conducted over station 2KY, the Sydney Trades Hall "B" class broadcasting station, situated in Goulburn Street. It was my privilege to be in the studio when artists were rendering their items to the invisible audience. The studio is simply a large room containing a piano, gramophone and, of course, a "Mike." "Mike," I might mention is a pedestal on which stands a cubical wooden box containing the microphone. The artist or announcer faces this, and it seems almost uncanny to be there and watch people speaking or singing, or playing to this inanimate object. However, on leaving the studio and entering the control room, the activities of "Mike" are soon apparent. A huge loud speaker is roaring out the music and speech, and by this the operator is able to estimate the quality of the broadcasting being sent out. On first entering this room one is first struck by the din. The aforementioned loud speaker is pouring forth its sounds and in addition a loud hum is emanating from the "innards" of the complex electrical installation which comprises the transmitter. The operator showed me the various parts of the machinery and explained their action and also gave me some very striking details as to the cost. Some time ago a combine was formed of firms dealing in wireless goods. Prices of component parts were fixed, and the combine settled down to a very prosperous and money grabbing future. One or two firms, however, refused to join this combine, and are able to carry on quite well and sell their goods at a much reduced rate. I had a circular from one of these firms some four or five months ago, and their price list showed items at least one-third cheaper than the other firms. However, to get to the point, the plant for the Trades Hall station is similar to the one manufactured for Brisbane, also one for Adelaide. The former cost £14,000 and the latter £15,000, and were manufactured by members of the combine. Now, the Trades Hall plant was tendered for by a firm outside the combine, and although identical with the other plants, the price was only £1600! This is practically only one tenth of the cost, and such a thing sounds incredible. However, I asked him if the figures were for publication and was assured they were correct. One part of the plant cost them £31 whereas it was quoted by the combine at £1178. This, then, shows the reason for the high cost of wireless; and in my modest opinion steps should be taken to smash the combine and bring wireless within everyone's reach. The station's announcer (Mr. Beaver) was very kind in showing me the studio, and explaining the various phases of the work. The station hopes to be on their full power of 1500 watts before long, and then should be stronger than at present. Naturally my first thoughts in the studio were the clearing up of the clock ticking that is heard in between items, and I found that a clock is included in portion of the mechanism, and the tick of this is heard when the studio is switched off. I thoroughly enjoyed my visit, and was delighted with the cordial reception and agreeably surprised at being shown the whole of the plant. This is in marked contrast to the reception a party of Dubbo Radio Club members received last Easter when we visited Farmer's 2FC, and weren't allowed near the studio when in action, neither were we allowed to see the control room or visit the transmitting plant.[202]

Wireless Week by Week. Everyone knows our eight A class stations, and most listeners-in have heard them, but how many people have tuned in each of our 12 B stations? Sydney has the largest number, of which the most important is 2KY at the Trades Hall. The others are 2UE, Electric Utilities Co., 2BE, Burgin Electric Co., and 2UW, Otto Sandel's station. The only other B station in New South Wales is that of H. A. Douglas, at Newcastle. Victoria has only two, both of which are outside Melbourne — 3WR at Wangaratta and 3EO, R. J. Egge, at Mildura. Queensland has four, two of which are at Brisbane, 4MB, Radio Manufacturers and Dr. V. McDowell (sic, McDowall), 4CM. The Queensland Government Relay station at Rockhampton, 4RN, is classed as a B station, and so is that of the Gold Radio Service, Toowoomba, 4GR. Most listeners know Adelaide's only B station, 5DN, which is run on business lines by a limited company, which makes its revenue through advertising matter.[203]

RADIO AND INVENTION. STATION 2KY. A transmitting station differs very little from a receiving set. Station 2KY, for instance, is similar to an eight-valve set. It has one stage of radio amplification, six stages of audio and one regenerative valve. The six stages of audio use six valves of ordinary 201a type, one 50-watt valve and 3 250-watt valves. The single stage of radio amplification requires 6 250-watt valves. The regenerative valve is rated at 250 watts. Each 250 watts is equivalent to nearly one-half horse-power. The B battery voltage is 3000 volts, and the current flowing from the B battery is nearly 1 ampere, instead of a few milliamps, as in a receiving set. A full description of 2KY will be broadcast from that station by Mr. Beard, the designer, tonight at 9 o'clock, and will form the first series of lectures by the chief engineer of United Distributors.[204]

DISTANCE RECORDS. 2KY SUCCESS STRENGTH AND CLARITY. IN a letter to the secretary of the Trades Hall Radio Club, the Mayor of Nelson (N.Z.) states that 2KY messages have been picked up there at loud speaker strength and with great clarity. This accomplishment speaks well for 2KY, as conditions at Nelson were not very favorable at the time, static having been troublesome. The Mayor of Nelson offers to send in official reports regarding the reception of 2KY transmission. He was using a 4-valve Roberts Knockout receiver. Mr. E. R. Voigt has also been informed by the Trades Hall Radio Club that a letter from South Africa intimates that 2KY has been picked up satisfactorily over there. Other reports, including Fiji, indicate that 2KY has been establishing records in many directions for long-distance receptions outside Australia.[205]

2KY. LISTEN-IN TO-NIGHT. All interested in wireless may anticipate a treat to-night, Mr. Beard, technical designer of 2KY, will continue his lecture on the construction of the world's first Labor broadcasting station, and will open up the fascinating mysteries of radio for all. Mr. Andro Addison will again broadcast music from his Androlin, invented and constructed by himself. Listen-in and tell us if you like it. Another novel item will be whistle selections by Mr. Syd. Macguire.[206]

1926 02[edit]

RADIO AND INVENTION. PI AND 3-COIL CIRCUITS. The diagrams herewith show forms of perhaps the most popular of all receivers. The PI is economical, and gives surprising long distance results. Its only disadvantage lies in the lack of selectivity. The 3-coil overcomes this problem of selectivity and freedom from interference, but necessitates the use of two tuning condensers. The PI, with an aperiodic aerial, can also be made to solve the interference problem without adding to the tuning controls. Fuller details of the operation and consideration of the above circuits will be broadcast at 9 to-night by Mr. Beard from station 2KY. He will use the above diagrams to illustrate his lecture. Keep these diagrams till 9 o'clock to-night. STATE RADIO SERVICE. Many listeners-in who have been following with keen interest the plans for a comprehensive State Radio Service submitted by Mr. A. C. Willis to Cabinet will be interested to learn that the matter is still receiving the close attention of the Labor Government of New South Wales, and is now reaching its final stages. It is to be hoped that the Labor Government will decide to run a great State service of broadcasting, not only in the interests of its own Governmental machinery, but also in the interests of the masses of the people, and in particular of those who are situated at great distances from the Sydney broadcasting stations and whose only hope of securing all the social amenities of broadcasting on simple inexpensive crystal sets lies in the erection of a series of Governmental relay stations, stretching throughout the State. The deliberations of the Government are being followed with keen interest in country areas.[207]

2KY. LISTEN-IN TO-NIGHT. Radio fans and all who use wireless should not fail to listen in to the radio lecture tonight by Mr. E. G. Beard; the designer of 2KY, Mr. Beard, will explain the operation of some of the most effective receiving sets in use to-day. The third chapter of the Universal film serial, "Perils of the Wild," which is arousing so much interest throughout the State, will be broadcast tonight, with atmospheric and realistic effects. Miss Nellie Graves will make a welcome reappearance, and Miss Amy Ruwald, one of 2KY's most versatile entertainers, will appear on the programme.[208]

RADIO AND INVENTION. THE REINARTZ CIRCUIT. This method of regeneration, named after a well-known American amateur, is really a big advance on the "P. I" or 3-coil type. In the Reinartz no moving coils are necessary, and all controlling is done by means of variable condensers. This permits of the use of simple switching arrangements when various bands of waves are to be received. Figure 1, Illustrates the Reinartz as used for short wave lengths. Figure 2, an adaptation for long wave lengths, while Figure 3 shows a combination, well-known commercially in Australia, for both long and short wave reception. This type of circuit is very much favored by experienced amateurs for long distance, ultra-short wave work, owing to the beautiful control of regeneration. Fuller details as to action and construction will be broadcast by Mr. Beard from 2KY at 9 p.m. Monday. Keep these diagrams an they will be referred to in the lecture. CHOICE OF A WAVE BAND. Considerable differences of opinion still exist as to whether broadcasting should take place on medium-long waves, short waves, or on both. Australia for the present is using both; America uses short waves only; England up till recently used short waves only, but lately has included the long. In Europe both long and short waves are used. It is interesting to study the causces which led to these various wave bands being adopted. In America it was un-doubtedly due to the fact that commercial houses dealing in radio goods wished to advertise to amateurs who were experimenting with radio before telephony became popular. In England the waves allotted for broadcasting were practically the only waves not used by commercial or military stations. In Australia we have very few commercial and military stations, and therefore should be able to make the wisest choice as to allocation of wave lengths for broad-casting purpose. This problem will be discussed over the air by Mr. Beard from 2KY station at about 9 p.m. on Friday. As the lecturer has had considerable experience on all wave lengths in England, Europe, and on the American coast, his remarks will be worth listening to.[209]

FIRE ALARM BY RADIO SPECIAL UTILITY FOR THE FORESTS. By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman of 2KY Wireless Committee. JUST when the success of the work of the Forestry Department was about to be announced a disastrous fire broke out in Murraguldrie, which laid waste several hundreds of acres of valuable timber. It is estimated that the loss resulting from this fire will probably exceed £60,000. THE most essential factor in coping with the outbreak of forest fire lies in rapid communication, and for this reason the forest ranger in many parts of the United States are being provided with radio transmitters in portable form. With the aid of these transmitters the location, extent, and direction of the fire can be instantaneously broad-cast throughout the State, and the necessary help concentrated and launched against the fire often before it has time to become ungovernable. If it is by this means possible to check a disastrous fire of the kind that broke out at Murraguldrie and obviate a £60,000 loss. It would justify many time over the provision of a number of transmitters at suitable points which would entail but the expense of a few hundred pounds. At the beginning of the present month the daily Press published news of a bush fire which broke out near Lilydale, in Victoria. A very interesting and significant factor in this fire was that the fire alarm was broadcast by radio during the church services in the morning. Listeners-in 'throughout the district picked up the news and circulated it in the town. By this rapid menu of communication a small army of fire-fighters was quickly assembled and launched successfully against the fire. It is becoming increasingly evident that it is no more possible for any community or Government to ignore the effectiveness and economy of radio as a means of rapid communication than it would be to attempt to ignore the telegraphs and the telephone. Radio has its special utility for the forests, the mines, the schools, the land, in the factories and workshops, for commerce and industry generally, a well as for the entertainment and information of the community at large. The instrument is at hand, it is up to us to use it.[210]

TRADES HALL STATION. Call Sign, 2KY. Wave Length, 280 Metres. Commencing at 2.30 p.m. today, a varied musical and vocal programme will be transmitted during the afternoon, closing down at 4.45 p.m., resuming at 6.30, and closing down at 10 p.m.[211]

1926 03[edit]

WORLD INTEREST. LABOR'S 2KY BREAKING NEW GROUND. MR E. R. VOIGT, Chairman of the Wireless Committee of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, states that according to a report to hand published in the "Chicago Tribune," the U.S. Trade Commissioner, Mr. E. G. Babbitt, Sydney, has furnished a report to the U.S. Department of Commerce, relating to the establishment of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station. According to the "Tribune," the official report refers to the Sydney Trades Hall as the first organisation of its kind to possess a radio broadcasting station, which was completed by local builders at what is claimed to be materially below the cost of any other station in Australia. United Distributors is mentioned as the builders of the Station, and particulars are given in regard to the power and wave length, as well as the drive system which is incorporated. This, and other reports to hand, indicate that the establishment of 2KY is creating a world interest, for it has broken new ground in broadcasting. It is expected, that, when the necessary technical and other arrangements have been completed, 2KY will make an attempt to transmit right through to America. In this event, the organised workers of New South Wales will endeavor to inform their fellow-workers in America all that has transpired in regard to our efforts to establish close contact with the workers of the world.[212]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By "Catwhisker") STATE RADIO LABOR GOVT.'S SCHEME STILL "IN THE AIR." To broadcast or not to broadcast. That is the question which exercises the collective mind of the Lang Government when it is not arranging to abolish the Upper House, communicating with the Governor, or sending envoys to Downing-street. FOR six months the State Government has been considering its proposed State radio scheme, but so far nothing tangible has resulted. As originally announced, the scheme provided for the establishment of a high power station at Sydney, with relay stations at Newcastle, Wollongong, Lithgow and Broken Hill. Dubbo and Albury were mentioned later, and it was stated that stations at other centres would also be erected. The scheme seems to have been delayed because Cabinet has been unable to find time to deal with it, A committee of three, consisting of the Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr. Willis), the Attorney-General (Mr. McTiernan), and the Minister for Labor and Industry (Mr. Baddeley), was appointed to inquire into proposals which had been submitted by Mr. E. Voigt, the originator of the Trades Hall station, but little progress has been made. TRADES HALL OFFER. Recently an offer was made to the Government on behalf of the Trades Hall to instal receiving sets in schools and other institutions to test the value of station 2KY as an educational medium. The offer has not yet been dealt with. It was originally suggested that the relay stations would pick up by wireless the programmes transmitted by the central Sydney station and rebroadcast them for the benefit of listeners with inexpensive sets. It is not likely, however, that reception by the relay stations will be carried out by wireless if the scheme comes into operation, as experience has shown that the system of land line communication provides the only reliable method of transmission of this kind.[213]

STATE RADIO SERVICE. COMMUNITY OWNERSHIP OF SETS INTERESTING QUEENSLAND PROPOSAL. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman, 2KY Wireless Committee). THE Queensland Labor Government has decided to give consideration to the establishment of Community Radio Trust, for the provision of wireless sets throughout the country areas. The activity of the Queensland Labor Government in matters pertaining to the development of radio communication is commendable. The Queensland Government is the only State Government which has prevented the setting up of an "A" Class broadcasting private monopoly. IN every State outside Queensland profit-making concerns have secured a monopoly of a rapidly expanding public service, which, if the present rate of progress is continued, will in a few short years, develop into one of the most essential services of the State and of the community. It should not be forgotten that radio is not only a means of entertainment, or even a means of publicity; it is a means of communication, VITAL MODERN UTILITY. There is no more vital factor in the existence and the continued development of any State than its system of communications. An army without communications is a rubble. A State without communications is unthinkable. Radio is the most rapid, the most economical, and the most quickly developing method of communication the world has ever known. The Queensland Government, by its action in securing this monopoly in the interests of the people, is building maybe better than its knows, for it is highly probable that in the near future, not only speech, but power, light and heat will be transmitted commercially, as it is today experimentally, by radio. Having established a State broadcasting station, the Queensland Government is driven inevitably by the logic of the situation to consider the reception end of radio communication. THE GREATEST BENEFIT. It must be obvious that if the Queensland station, 4QG is to be successful and to justify the enterprise of the State, It will have to ensure that its broadcasting is picked up by the greatest possible number of the community, and in particular by those who will benefit economically by the subject matter that is sent over the air. It is for this reason that the Government is now finding it desirable to consider some plan for developing the sale of receiving sets among the community, particularly in the country areas. In the country, radio development is a bread-and-butter question to the man on the land, for properly conducted it can make him independent of those vested interests which have so long thrived at his and the public expense. Radio can and does place the man on the land daily in possession of that essential market information which enables him to get a better price for his produce, and which in the end will mean cheaper food for the people. SOUND BUSINESS. The Queensland Government therefore see the necessity for getting as many receiving sets as possible into the hands of the dwellers in country areas, Apart from anything else, it is a sound business proposition, for the more receiving sets are taken up in the country or other areas of Queensland, the more the Government is likely to receive in the form of license fees. The original Community Radio Trust planned for the consideration of the Queensland Government was a corporation designed to assist groups of country dwellers to purchase wireless sets on easy terms. Dwellers in country areas were to be requested to club together and organise entertainment with a view to raising sufficient funds to pay a deposit of one-half of the cost of a suitable receiving set. The set would then be supplied by the Government, which would finance the sale and allow the balance to be paid off during a period of twelve months. The sets supplied would be tested by Government experts, and would be the best available, as well as being sup-piled without profit at the lowest possible price. MAINTENANCE SERVICE. The Government plan also included the establishment of a maintenance section, which for a small fee would provide the services of expert mechanics to keep the sets in the best and most efficient condition. Arrangements were also contemplated under the plan whereby the Minister for Public Instruction would allow the use of school-rooms in various country centres for the installation of public loud-speaker receiving sets. The school-rooms would therefore be used at night time, and at periods during the day when the school was not in progress for the purpose of providing public news, information and entertainment. This would make each school-room so set apart a community centre, which undoubtedly would develop a community spirit and public enterprise, which would be a great social asset. It would also enable the Government to keep in the closest possible contact with the dweller in country areas, an advantage that is hardly possible to over-estimate. The Queensland State Radio Service is operated for service — not for profit. Its plans are designed to give to the people of Queensland the fullest possible service of the greatest social asset of modern times — Radio.[214]

AIR SOUNDS. NOVEL CONTEST. 2KY AND RADIO. GENERAL interest has been aroused by the announcement made last week to the effect that the "LABOR DAILY" intended to run a Radio Sounds Competition, in conjunction with the management of 2KY. THE competition will take the form of broadcasting over the Labor Broadcasting Station 2KY, a number of sounds, some usual and some unusual, which we are all accustomed to hear during the course of our normal lives. These Radio Sounds will be broadcast each Tuesday evening at 8.30, commencing on Tuesday next, 30th inst. The sounds will continue to broadcast once each week for a period of six weeks. At the conclusion of this period, points will be allotted to each competitor according to the correctness of the replies. Additional points will also be given to those whose description of the sounds is qualified most accurately. For instance, one competitor may guess that the Radio Sound transmitted is that of a typewriter. For this he would be allotted the normal number of points for a correct guess. On the other hand, another competitor may guess correctly the make of typewriter used, and in that case he would be given a number of additional points over and above that of the correct guess referred to. At the conclusion of the contest, and when the points have been duly awarded, a series of prizes will be provided by the "Labor Daily." The nature of these prizes will be announced later. Meanwhile, all readers of this paper who are interested in the Radio Sounds Competition are invited to write to the "Radio Sounds" Committee, "Labor Daily," Sydney, and indicate what sounds they would suggest should be broadcast through the microphone. The paper may publish a selection of Radio Sounds suggested by its readers WHICH WILL NOT BE USED IN THE COMPETITION. Any suggestions by readers for Radio Sounds which it is decided to use in the competition WILL NOT BE PUBLISHED. Readers whose suggestions for Radio Sounds have been adopted will have the advantage of more readily recognising the sounds they have suggested when the same are broad-cast from 2KY. Mr. E. R. Voigt, Chairman of 2KY Wireless Committee, and Mr. H. Beaver, the manager of the Station, will in conjunction with this paper decide upon the Radio Sounds to be transmitted. In connection with this competition a good deal of interest has been aroused throughout the Radio trade. The fact that the Radio Sounds Competition synchronises with the holding of a great Radio Exhibition in Sydney, and the convention of the most important Radio Conference that has ever taken place in Australia, is a clear indication that the general public, the Radio Trades and the Radio Broadcasters and Radio Users are fully alive to the great developments that are impending in the most wonderful invention the world has ever witnessed. The Labor movement has been fully seized with the immense social importance of Radio. The enterprise of the trades unions of New South Wales in erecting the first Labor Broadcasting Station in the world, and one of the finest stations in the Commonwealth, is a concrete proof of Labor interest and Labor zeal. The "Labor Daily" stands behind the organised workers of New South Wales, and will leave no stone unturned to develop the interest of the broad masses of people in the great social advantages of Radio.[215]

WIRELESS LOAN. 2KY STATION. SUCCESSFUL RESULTS. Success is attending the appeal of the Wireless Committee of the Labor Council for a loan for the capital cost of 2KY, according to the report of the secretary of the Labor Council last night. The station was erected at a cost of £1632, and running expenses amount to £30 a week. The running is paid for from advertisements, although the station has been in existence only a few months. The loan is for the purpose of paying off the capital cost, which falls due next week. Mr. Garden explained to members that the union had refused to pay royalties to the combine, or recognise it in any way. In Adelaide the erection of a similar station had cost £6000, and the royalties paid amounted to a sum similar to that for which the Sydney station was erected. Yesterday the Amalgamated Engineering Union voted £500 towards the loan, and further sums are expected.[216]

1926 04[edit]

A.L.P. CONFERENCE SETTLES DOWN TO BUSINESS. THE SESSION OF THE A.L.P. Annual Conference was continued at the Trades Hall last night. CONSEQUENT ON THE PUBLICITY given to a reported fresh realignment of distinctive parties much curiosity was evinced in the possible new situation. THE PRINCIPAL THEME of discussion was a further application by the N.S.W. Tramway Employees' Union for admission of their delegates to the proceedings. THE VICE-PRESIDENT, Mr. Conroy, ruled that the Conference having adopted the interpretation as laid down by Mr. Magrath, the question could not be reopened, except on a motion to fix a specific time for its discussion. THIS RULING was objected to, and on being put to the Conference a decisive majority carried the dissenting motion. The tramwaymen's request was granted. THE RETURNING OFFICER announced the nominations received for the positions of Federal Executive representatives (two) and for six delegates to the Federal Council. OTHER BUSINESS was mostly confined to consideration of correspondence. Mr. Arthur Griffith's application to be readmitted to the Movement was set down to be heard at 9.15 p.m. on Friday. Value of Wireless. Mr. E. R. Voigt, on behalf of the wireless committee of the Trades and Labor Council, brought under notice of the conference the fact that they had in the Trades Hall the first high-power Labor broadcasting station in the world, 2KY. This was a factor of immense importance to the working cIass, said Mr. Voigt. He had seen in his travels the way in which wireless was used to break down the conditions that had been set up by the workers, and if broadcasting was a powerful instrument in the hands of the employing class, it was one which they could not afford to ignore. They were maintaining this magnificent station at considerable sacrifice, and the occasion of this great conference was one of which they should take the fullest possible ad-vantage. Widespread Interest. "We have at the back of the hall a hundred or two of an audience who are following the deliberations with great interest; but there must be outside, throughout the State and even in other States, tens of thousands of staunch Labor supporters who would be desirous of following the proceedings." On behalf of the wireless committee Mr. Voigt extended an offer to broad-cast the balance of the conference. He suggested that tonight they should broadcast between 8 and 9 o'clock the debates on the country session. An invitation was extended to country delegates to take advantage of his offer to give three minute talks, concerning matter deliberated in the conference, the arrangement to be continued throughout the conference. The use of an amplifier was also offered by Mr. Voigt to facilitate the chairman in the control of proceedings. "It is a very exhausting matter," declared Mr. Voigt, "and I am sure, however many of us may have disagreed with the standpoint taken by Mr. Magrath, many of us must have felt sincerely sorry for the mental and physical strain under which he labored during his presidency in the early part of the Conference." Conference decided to take advantage of the facility afforded by the Wireless Committee.[217]

RADIO AND INVENTION. BY E.R.V. A.L.P. CONFERENCE AND 2KY. On Wednesday Iast, the chairman of 2KY, Mr. E. R. Voigt, placed before Conference an offer from the wireless committee to broadcast from 2KY the deliberations of Conference each evening. The proposal was unanimously accepted, and many thousands of Labor listeners-in (and thousands of non-Labor men and women) had the opportunity of following the deliberations of one of the most memorable A.L.P. Conferences ever held. The proposal was particularly welcome to country delegates, and will no doubt be greatly appreciated by Labor men and women with sets in country areas throughout the State and beyond. Mr. Voigt also offered country delegates the facility of broadcasting three-minute talks to the public in general, and to their own country electorates in particular. These talks will be broadcast at 7.15 each evening during Conference, and deal with Conference matters.[218]

2KY POLICY. REAL LABOR STATION. DINNER-HOUR SERVICE FOR WORKSHOPS. MR. E. R. VOIGT, Chairman of 2KY Wireless Committee, states that it has been decided by the management of the Trades Hall broadcasting station to broadcast each day a special session between the hours of 12 noon and 2 p.m. for the benefit of those workshops which are installing loud speaker receiving sets. The afternoon service will in future be discontinued and the midday service will take its place. At the midday service there will be broadcast each day a complete list of the various meetings of trade unions which are convened in the Trades Hall during the evening, together with a short resume of the business for which each meeting is called. During the evening service the management will broadcast particulars of all the trade union meetings convened in the Trades Hall for the following day. This service will no doubt be greatly appreciated by the many thousands of trade unionists who take a keen Interest in the affairs of their own union. INVITATION TO UNIONS. Trade union secretaries and other officers are invited to make use of 2KY for broadcasting trade union news and reports to their members, or by addressing their members in those workshops and factories where loud-speaker sets have been installed. It has also been decided by the management of 2KY to discontinue the children's hour temporarily, and to commence the evening service at 7.30 p.m. in place of 7.45 p.m. As far as possible, endeavor will be made to arrange the bulk of the lectures to take place before 8.15 p.m. A particularly educative and informative series of lectures on Labor legislation and on the sciences from the working-class standpoint are being regularly broadcast from 2KY, and an effort will be made to standardise the times at which the lectures are broadcast, so that all listeners-in know that lectures take place at a given hour each evening.[219]

WIRELESS WAVES. THE RADIO FOR LABOR PROPAGANDA. One of the most important resolutions carried by the Easter A.L.P. Conference was the approval given to form a Labor Broadcasting Company. To those who have given no thought to the subject the proposal may seem fantastic; but a careful analysis of what can be done in the field of propaganda by means of the radio should be sufficient to guarantee the success of the proposed undertaking. The recommendation on the subject which was adopted by Conference reads: "That Conference affirms the desirability of a Labor broadcasting station. "That a committee of five members from Conference, together with five members elected by the incoming Executive, be authorised to proceed with a suitable scheme. "That the scheme be along the lines of forming a company of shareholding unions, on the principles embodied in the constitution of Labor Papers Ltd." On proceeding to elect the five representatives from Conference, nine nominations were received, and these, by consent of Conference, were declared the committee, five of whom will meet the Central Executive representatives when they are elected. 2KY SYDNEY. Those who have seen 2KY Sydney are enamored with the outfit, and there is no reason why Melbourne should not fol-low in the footsteps of the Sydney Trades and Labor Council, and also have its Labor radio station. WIRELESS IN RUSSIA. Russia, perhaps more so than other countries, is making great use of wireless as a means of communication and propaganda. Recent reports state that extensive plans for popularising wireless are being developed, particularly in the villages. All broadcasting, receiving, and transmission stations are being brought up to date, and important experiments are being made with short-wave transmission methods, which, in the opinion of experts, possess great future possibilities. The twenty broadcasting stations used for radio purposes are conducted by various local government departments, trades unions, and societies, and serve loud speakers in clubs and factories, and in the home. LABOR RADIO FOR VICTORIA. If the Radio can be made to serve Labor — and it can, and is being used in various countries — then the time is ripe for a Victorian radio station. Behind the scheme are many enthusiasts, the plans have been thought out, and only the co-operation of the unions is required to consummate the objective. Comrades, think the matter over, and when your help is sought, give it for a worthy cause. J. F. CHAPPLE. Unity Hall.[220]

WIRELESS. LUNCH-HOUR SERVICE FROM 2KY. Commencing tomorrow the Trades Hall Broadcasting station (2KY) is changing its policy, and will introduce a special lunch hour service, which will start at noon, and close down at 3 p.m. This midday session will take the place of the present afternoon session.[221]

1926 05[edit]

ROMANCE OF RADIO. WONDERFUL STRIDES MADE BY NEW SCIENCE. ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT. MANIFOLD USES OF WIRELESS. (By E. R. VOIGT.) In 1897 Marconi was asked: "How far do you think a wireless despatch could be sent?" "Twenty miles" was his answer. "Why do you limit it to twenty miles?" "I am speaking within practical limits," said the world's great wireless inventor. Every scientist and every inventor must be a man of vision and imagination. Signor Marconi was not lacking in these gifts, yet even he could not foresee the rapid and spectacular development of radio which the next few years was to bring, nor the unlimited possibilities which the new science was destined to unfold. "Twenty miles" was Marconi's estimate of the limits of radio communication. And to-day, we in Australia are telegraphing to America, Europe and Japan. Today radio telephone conversations are provided as a regular service between London, Paris, New York and Honolulu. REMARKABLE ADVANCES. A few years ago 50,000 watts were required to send a message in Morse code across the Atlantic from Corn-wall to Newfoundland. At that time the receiving instruments were so crude that only the preliminary three dots were faintly registered. The Morse message could not be detected. Today amateurs are regularly transmitting across the globe on the insignificant power of 20 watts, and Sydney radio fans converse with New Zealand on a power of less than one watt, or one fiftieth of the power of the ordinary household electric light. Five years ago, no one dreamed of the possibilities of radio broadcasting. Nowadays, the President of the United States addresses 12,000,000 listeners-in by the most rapid, powerful, and economical engine of communication ever discovered — radio. ITS MANY USES. In every political, industrial, or social crisis, it is to radio that our statesmen and leaders first turn. It is over the air that our Prime Minister, our Premier, and our party leaders issue their policy speeches to the great army of listeners-in. There can be no question that in the case of any industrial crisis it is to the quick and easy radio communications that the public will first learn the vital happenings of the hour. And should war break out again among the great nations of the earth, it is the great radio stations that will first flash out the news. Three years ago there was not a wireless store in Sydney. Commercially, radio is not much more than two years old in the Commonwealth. To-day, radio in Australia is a thriving industry, with great factories, hundreds of stores and thousands of workers. Never in the history of mankind has the progress of any invention been so phenomenal or penetrated so rapidly and effectively into the social lives of the people. A NEW SCIENCE. What is this new invention, which might more properly be described as a new science? In order to obtain an intelligent grasp of the position of radio in the social activities of the people, not only today, but also in the immediate future, it is essential to consider briefly the origin and the development of this latest branch of science and industry. Only by a study of past forms can we appreciate the present and adequately forecast the future. The old-fashion view of science was epitomised by Josh Billings when he wrote: "There is this odds between a humorous lecture and a scientific one. You have got to understand the humorous lecture to enjoy it; but you can enjoy the scientific lecture without understanding it." The world is getting more enlightened. Nowadays we are not content to enjoy science without understanding it. More and more of the people want to know all about it. Let us try to understand something of the origin and the principles underlying the development of radio. BORN OF ELECTRICITY. Radio is the latest offspring of electricity. Although only a few years old, radio is already a colossus, straddling the wide world from pole to pole, and penetrating with inconceivable rapidity into the social activities of the people. What is electricity? A few years ago it was customary for our electricians to tell us that while our technicians were skilled in the uses to which they put electricity, no one had yet plumbed the nature of the force that was rapidly supplanting all other sources of power, light and heat. Today we are, however, nearer to knowing just what is this force which we call "electricity." When, comparatively recently, the theory was advanced by science that the last indivisible particle of matter was not the atom, but that each atom itself was composed of countless smaller bodies, called "electrons," few people then realised the revolutionary nature of the discovery. This theory, explained the extraordinary properties and behavior of radium. It laid the basis for progress and development in X-ray photography. It helped our technicians to understand and develop the telephone, the telegraph, our electrical lighting and heating systems, and the multitudinous forms to which electricity is now employed in domestic and in industrial life. THE MYSTERY OF MATTER. In place of working slowly in the dark the electron theory now provided us with a clear guiding principle. It further laid the foundation for the development of the most amazing invention of modern times — radio. Scientists now conceive that the whole world — the chair you sit on, the tobacco you smoke, the book you read and the air you breathe — are all composed of what it has been agreed to call "electrons." Even atoms, formerly supposed to be indivisible, are now discovered to be regular miniature solar systems composed of thousands and millions of actively rotating electrons. Each atom — iron, wood, rubber, water or gas — has its own little solar system — just so many electrons, and no more. HIDDEN FORCE. Now. as long as these atoms maintain their respective number of electrons nothing startling happens and no electrical effects are observable. There does not seem to be anything very electrical about your chair or your book. That is only because the electrons are behaving themselves in a proper state of equilibrium. In reality each seemingly inoffensive domestic article is a terrific mine of suppressed and unleashed force, capable of blowing up the Legislative Council, the Trades Hall or the Income Tax Department, or driving a battleship around the world. This may seem an amazing claim to make, but when scientists came to measure the energy thrown off by radium, helium and similar substances, whose electronic energy had become unleashed, it was realised that a handful of any matter contains within its atomic structure sufficient power to stagged the minds of the most imaginative among us. BUSY ELECTRONS Now all substances may be deprived of electrons, or, on the other hand, they may receive more than their due share of electrons, and when either of these two conditions occurs the substances in question are electrified. It any particle of matter has fewer electrons than is normally the case, we say that it is positively charged with electricity and we denote this by the plus sign. When the reverse is the case, and the substance has a surplus of electrons, we say that it is negatively charged, and we indicate this by the minus sign. Bodies so charged have peculiar properties. They can push electrons out from the negative terminal, or they can pull them in at the positive terminal. When an electric spark flashes across the gap between two terminals, this is caused by the surging backwards and forwards of electrons trying to distribute themselves so that there shall be no more electrons on one side of the gap than there are on the other. It is this transfer of electronic energy which is the basic principle underlying the operation of your electric iron, washer, light, or radiator, and that provides the power for driving the tramway system and the great factories. It is also this activity of electron, ascertained by our scientific men, and directed and developed by our radio engineers, which has made possible the most phenomenal of all scientific developments — Radio.[222]

ROMANCE OF RADIO. EARLY DAYS OF DISCOVERY. EXPERIMENTS OF THE PIONEERS. WIRELESS IS A SOCIAL PRODUCT. NO MAN can write a complete history of any great invention. The task would be too colossal, for no such invention is due to the unaided efforts of any individual. Every invention is the product of the restless sea of labor activity, and its origins stretch hack throughout the ages into antiquity. Even a comprehensive history of radio would require several volumes for its adequate treatment, and in it should be detailed the efforts and achievements of the many prominent experimenters who have contributed to the final result. (By E. R. VOIGT.) IT is nevertheless desirable that any survey of the brilliant field of radio development should include an outline, however brief, of the origin of the new science that is penetrating so rapidly into every branch of our industrial and social activities. It is to the experiments of Professor Heinrich Herz, a German scientist, that we can trace the beginnings of radio. In the eighties, Professor Herz conducted a series of experiments and finally constructed the first apparatus for propagating and for detecting ether waves. It was Professor Herz who first developed and applied the principles of oscillation and resonance, which are the basis of radio transmission and reception. But it was Signor Guglielmo Marconi, then a young Italian student, who first realised the commercial possibilities of Herz's experiments, and who translated them into the first practical radio stations. In these days of popular broadcasting, it is difficult to realise that it is not many years ago since Marconi conducted his first experiments in radio, signalling a few hundred yards, and using the Morse telegraph code. MARCONI'S GOOD FORTUNE. Marconi was very fortunate. His experience as a young inventor differed very much from those of most other inventors. Instead of his experiments being received with cold scepticism, he secured the interest and the assistance of highly placed statesmen in the British and in the Italian Governments. Take all the good luck out of the world, and millionaires and heroes would be mighty scarce. Marconi was lucky in following in the footsteps of Herz. He was lucky, too, in having the backing of two powerful Governments. But what we have to remember is this: That if Herz, Marconi, Fleming and De Forest had never lived radio would nevertheless have stepped upon the stage of humanity at the psychological moment. Radio, like every other great inven-tlon, is not an individual but a social product. It was the inevitable outcome of the conditions and the discoveries in science which had preceded it. At the psychological moment, when the future of radio appeared to be very limited, the most wonderful of all radio devices — the vacuum or electron valve — appeared on the horizon. THE "MAGIC" VALVE. Before ever radio had been heard of and before Herz made his classic experiments in oscillation and resonance, the valve was passing through its embryonic stages, ready to take its place when needed in the greatest invention of the ages. The oscillating valve has been called the Aladdin's lamp of radio. There can be no question that the lamp that Aladdin rubbed produced effects no more startling and no more miraculous than the oscillating valve when applied to radio. For nearly a generation before the advent of wireless the filament in the ordinary incandescent lamp had glowed, without anyone suspecting that it did anything more than shed light. But the famous American inventor, Thomas A. Edison, had discovered that the filament of the electric lamp possessed a very curious property. In one of his lamps he mounted a plate. The plate did not touch the filament and formed part of a circuit of its own in which was connected a measuring device. EDISON'S DISCOVERY. When Edison turned on the current and the filament glowed, a strange phenomenon was observed. The needle of the measuring device in the plate circuit indicated a flow of current, although there was no connection between the plate and the current. It was very evident that electricity must have jumped the gap between the glowing filament and the plate. Most great discoveries are stumbled upon blindly. The necessary chain of logic leading up to them is built up afterwards. The phenomenon which Edison discovered was called by scientists the "Edison Effect." Edison himself could not explain it, nor could any other scientist for the next twenty years. Soon after Marconi started his company, he engaged an eminent Englishman, Professor J. A. Fleming, as his chief engineer. It was Professor Fleming who saw the great possibilities of the "Edison Effect." THE FLEMING VALVES. In studying this effect, Professor Fleming discovered that the flow of electrons was always in the same direction and that this flow could be controlled by a rheostat in the filament circuit. Constructing a special valve for the purpose, Fleming was the first to apply the Edison Effect in radio communication. The Fleming valves, the first radio valves, made excellent detectors for "spark" radio signal. Following quickly on the Fleming valve came the discovery of the three-element valve by Dr. Lee De Forest, who inserted a grid between the filament and the plate. These valve discoveries were perhaps the most important discoveries yet made in the development of radio communication. The Fleming valve made possible long-distance telegraphy because of its extraordinary sensitiveness. It was the Fleming valve which laid the foundation of the great network of marine radio communication which today is an essential and vital part of the equipment of the shipping of every civilised country. No less amazing was the improvement introduced by Dr. Lee De Forest, who demonstrated that one valve could be magnified by a second valve; that of the second by a third; that of the third by a fourth, and so on. MADE BROADCASTING POSSIBLE. It is this improvement which has made possible the great high-power broadcasting stations which are so rapidly becoming a regular feature of our everyday lives. Valve can be added to valve until the original effect is magnified as much as 10,000,000,000,000 times, if need be. Thus the walking of a fly becomes a thunderous tramping; and the slightly muffled ticking of a small clock in 2KY's studio, hardly perceptible a yard away, becomes a deafening series of sledge-hammer blows which can be heard at the other side of the globe. It would be impossible to give adequate mention to the host of workers who have made the amazing development of radio possible. The three mentioned are only typical, and their efforts have been supported and supplemented by workers in many countries, and notably by thousands of amateur and schoolboys. The future of every science is in the hands of our youth. Never was this more true than in the case of the youngest and most rapidly developing science of all — Radio.[223]

RADIO EXHIBITION. 2KY to Broadcast. The Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, 2KY, is to broadcast its programme tomorrow night from the platform of the Radio and Electrical Exhibition. Special items are being arranged for the occasion, as the committee of 2KY and the Electrical Employers' Association, under the auspices of which the exhibition is being held, are of opinion that 2KY is performing good service in the popularising of radio. Tonight 2BL (Broadcasters) is to give another programme, and on Saturday night Farmer's (2FC) is to use the exhibition platform as a broadcasting studio. The practice of broadcasting in public is proving very popular.[224]

ROMANCE OF RADIO. SAVING LIVES AT SEA. PRACTICAL USES OF SHIPS' WIRELESS. NOT A MERE GLORIFIED GRAMOPHONE. (By E. R. VOIGT.) WHILE IT CAN hardly be claimed that radio was born at sea, yet there is no doubt that the first great practical application of radio was in the marine service. EVEN BEFORE the World War, which gave immense impetus to the development of radio communication, the world had been thrilled by feats of wireless upon the ocean. Many among us can recall the dramatic moments when radio flashed the first calls for help from a sinking ship. It was undoubtedly this intensely humanitarian aspect of radio that first impressed itself upon the public consciousness. In the marine field, perhaps the greatest asset of radio is its possibility of safeguarding the lives of those at sea. That this fact is fully recognised and appreciated by mercantile and naval authorities is clearly demonstrated by the fact that no ship may put to sea without an effective radio equipment. Numerous have been the instances in which the imperilled lives of those at sea have been saved by radio. The part played by radio in marine disasters is illustrated by the case of the s.s. City of Honolulu, which was burned and abandoned 700 miles off the Californian coast on October 12, 1922. "STAND-BY" SIGNAL. When the conflagration was discovered the radio operator was instructed to broadcast signals to all ships to stand by for notification of the position of the burning vessel. Operator Bell's report then states: "We then heard KPH. the Radio Corporation Station at San Francisco, with whom we had been working immediately before the general alarm, instruct all ships to keep quiet and stand by." "Five minutes later our broadcast position was acknowledged by Station KPH, the U.S. Navy transport Thomas, the s.s. Enterprise, and the s.s. City of Los Angeles." Immediately afterwards several of the nearest ships were steaming full speed for the burning wreck. Imagine the relief of those on board the doomed vessel. No longer were they alone and abandoned. The great world knew their plight, knew their position, and was in constant communication with them, and they knew that every available resource of civilisation would be exerted in a supreme effort to save their lives. It was radio that made all this possible. NO LIVES LOST. "At 9 o'clock," continued the operator's report, "I broadcasted 'All off the boat except captain, chief engineer, first officer, fourth officer and myself. Expect to leave the boat any minute now.' About 9.40 we heard Station KFS, the Federal Telegraph Co.'s station at San Francisco." Six hours later the victims were picked up by the s.s. West Faralon and transferred to the Naval transport Thomas next morning, which was hurrying to the scene. No lives were lost, and all the re-???? were saved. The 263 people on board the doomed steamer were safely landed at Los Angeles at 7 o'clock in the morning on October 16. This is a case typical of others. It clearly indicates why radio has become an essential and a vital part of the equipment of every seagoing vessel. To ???? the science of radio has become so far advanced that the transmission of the distress signal in Morse, SOS, can be arranged to sound an alarm gong on any vessel within a range of hundreds of miles, so that even if the operator were not in his operating room the distress signal would be received and noted. THE RADIO COMPASS. Not only in times of distress through information sent out daily between ship and ship, and between ship and shore, does radio serve the causes of humanity. In the actual avoidance of distress and disaster, radio is now used at sea. The radio compass, a remarkable device, now makes it possible for any ship to ascertain its bearing at any time regardless of the weather. Few people realise the perils that must be navigated on even the most frequented highways of the sea until some terrible disaster like the wrecking of the five U.S. Naval vessels off the coast of California in 1924, through a miscalculation of their bearings. The radio compass ensures the possibility of accurate calculation at all times and in any weather. OTHER SERVICES. Recently another remarkable service has been rendered by radio to those at sea. Many of us will remember last year the case of a sick man at sea whose life hung upon a delicate operation, for which there was not the necessary medical assistance on board. A radio signal for assistance brought to the rescue an Italian ship, whose surgeon performed the operation and probably saved the sick man's life. Recently another inestimable radio service has been added to the toilers of the sea. By an agreement reached between the Seaman's Institute and the Radio Corporation of America, it is now possible for anyone at sea to obtain medical advice by radio. This humanitarian service is rendered without charge. The comprehensive nature and the utility of this service will be apparent when it is remembered that for a distance of approximately one fourth of the circumference of the entire globe a ship is now able to keep in constant communication with the shore. RADIO TELEPHONY. So rapid and amazing has been the development of radio at sea that one of the foremost radio engineers in America states that it is no wild prophecy to state that within the space of a brief period — say two or three years, perhaps sooner — it will be possible for any one to pick up the telephone in his home or business office, to be connected with a passenger liner in the Pacific or the Atlantic Ocean, by means of radio and wire, and carry on communication with the human voice, with no greater difficulty than is experienced to-day in speaking over the ordinary wire telephone. Already very successful demonstrations of this service have been made, and we have only to wait for its commercial development. The actual pro-vision of such a service is now being jointly considered by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and the Radio Corporation of America. No less rapid and amazing developments of radio communication have taken place within the last three or four years on land, in the air, and under the sea. LABOR STANDS FOR RADIO. In view of the advanced state of technical efficiency to which radio has developed, in view of the great utility of radio as the most rapid and economical system of communication and publicity the world has ever known, it is to be wondered that those who are responsible for the development of radio in the service of the organised workers of Australia refuse to regard it merely as a means of entertainment, as a glorified gramophone? The Australian Labor Movement stands for the fullest and most widespread development of radio among the community. It will seek to remove every one of those stupid hidebound restrictions which the authorities in their unwisdom have seen fit to impose on the development of radio among the people. With a powerful broadcasting station at their service daily, the Trade Unions of New South Wales will leave no stone unturned to ensure, sooner or later, that every working class family is provided with the social and economic advantages of radio.[225]

RADIO EXHIBITION. The Trades Hall broadcasting station (2KY) will broadcast its programme tomorrow night (Friday) from the platform of the Radio and Electrical Exhibition. Tonight 2BL (Broadcasters) will give another programme, and on Saturday night Farmer's (2FC) will use the exhibition platform as a broadcasting studio.[226]

ROMANCE OF RADIO. EVOLUTION OF BROADCASTING. NOW A GREAT PUBLIC SERVICE. SUPPLEMENTARY EDUCATION SYSTEM. (By E. R. VOIGT.) BEFORE THE ADVENT of broadcasting a few years ago, radio communication was an increasingly important arm of the Government service and the mercantile marine. BUT THE APPLICATION of radio telephony to the purpose of broadcasting made a complete change in the aspect of radio. With giant strides radio broadcasting ranged itself alongside the other public services. Those firms who were engaged In the manufacture and sale of radio equipment, no matter in what country they were operating, would readily admit that the extent and scope of their activities prior to the advent of broadcasting, were inconsiderable compared with the almost unlimited field which broadcasting has opened up. Two or three years ago many wise acres grew sarcastic regarding the future development of broadcasting. It was only a passing fancy, they said. Some people with very small heads are like pins, similarly handicapped — very apt to get into things beyond their depth. Few of those old shell-backs would have the hardihood to regard radio broadcasting as a "fad" to-day. Broadcasting is an institution. It is a great and growing public utility, No man knows to what extent broadcasting will have grown a few years hence. Even conservative Governments, like that of Great Britain and also that of the Commonwealth of Australia, have been forced to recognise the public service provided by radio broadcasting. and have established some measure of governmental control. SCARED OF PUBLICITY When broadcasting was first introduced, one of the arguments used against it was that the information broadcast would be public to everyone. You can imagine somewhat similar arguments being used against the innovation of the telephone and the telegraph, by the "moss-backs" of that day, who favored the sealed letter and that only, as a means of written communication. That kind of criticism did not stop the development of the telegraph and telephone. It did not stop the phenomenal development of radio broadcasting. The fact is that this is an age of publicity. An invention to aid publicity will develop much more rapidly than an invention to maintain secrecy. The radio stations can be used for secret communication. The fact that the stations have been developed so extensively for public broadcasting indicates clearly in which direction lies their great public utility. REACHING MILLIONS AT ONCE. What was reckoned by the sceptics to be a drawback, is now a technical virtue. Broadcasting, a new way of reaching scores of thousands and even millions at the same time, is the outcome. To regard broadcasting as a passing fad or even as a means of entertainment only is quite erroneous. In spite of the fact that there are still difficulties to overcome — there always will be in any progressive development, whether these difficulties are concerned with Interference, or static, or improvements of apparatus, radio broadcasting has opened up a source of unlimited power and influ-ence. When it is possible, as was stated during the last American Presidential election, for a Presidential candidate to address over ten millions of people simultaneously, this is a power that challenges the imagination. It is but natural that this newly-risen power should be looked upon with suspicion by some of the older institutions, which, if they were more progressive, would greatly benefit by its adoption. THEATRICAL EXPERIMENT. Little more than a year ago, it was reported in the Sydney Press that the British theatres were opposed to the broadcasting of their programmes, believing that if the people could listen-in to the programmes in the comfort of their own homes, this would adversely affect the ticket office receipts. Finally, two theatres allowed their programmes to be broadcast. The result was not a diminution in their receipts, but an increase of some £2000 per week. The Postmaster-General of Australia is afraid that the use of radio by the public for communication would adversely affect the receipts of the telegraphs and the telephones, and the Commonwealth wireless regulations contain a very stringent and a very stupid clause to the effect that our broadcasting stations must not be used to compete with the aforesaid Government services. Imagine the inventor of the telephone system being told that his invention could only be used provided it did not compete with the mail and telegraph services. The telephone service would have been strangled at birth. SUCCESS OF THE TELEPHONE. The fact is that the telephones supplemented the mail and the telegraph services, and by proving to be a most useful public service they facilitated and enhanced the use of all means of communication. The full and free use of radio communication as a public service would do likewise. There is one useful development of radio broadcasting of which other nations are taking full advantage, but which we in Australia are slow to realise and slower still to adopt. As a very valuable means of supplementary education, radio broadcasting opens up a new field of endeavor. All the main broadcasting stations all the relay stations in the British system regularly broadcast educational sessions, both during the afternoon and during the evening. PROVED SUCCESSFUL There is nothing experimental about these educational sessions. They have been tried and proved successful, and are now an essential and a rapidly-developing arm of the British educational system. By this means it is possible to put within the reach of adults, and also the young students, expert tuition in specialised branches, which they otherwise could never take advantage of. In U.S.A., several agricultural colleges broadcast a regular curriculum for the benefit of those on the land, and conduct examinations in varied subjects by radio. If educational broadcasting can be accomplished on such a scale with advantage in other countries, it can also be done in Australia. The Trade Hall Broadcasting Station 2KY, is fully seized of the advantages that are to be gained by broadcasting educational sessions from the working-class point of view. Every evening's programme includes informative lectures. In the establishment of a trade union broadcasting station, the first of its kind in any capitalist country, the trade unionists of New South Wales have opened up a new field for broadcasting, which Labor organisations in other States of the Commonwealth will not be slow to follow. POLITICAL USES Station 2KY is making serious breach in the old idea that broadcasting is merely a means of entertainment — a glorified gramophone. It is developing the utility side of broadcasting, which is bound, eventually, immensely to increase Its scope and power. Lastly, it should not be forgotten that the Sydney Trade Union Station has definitely scotched the idea that broadcasting cannot be used for political purposes. In doing so, it has still further enlarged the scope for broadcasting, for there can be no question but that every politician true to type will not fail to take the fullest advantage of the most potentially powerful engine of publicity and advertisement yet devised. Radio broadcasting has come to stay. The art of broadcasting can no more go back than can the telephone, the telegraph, the railway, or any of the modern utilities which play their part in our dally lives. AN EFFECTIVE STAND. (Photo) The display of Amalgamated Wireless (A'sia.), Ltd., at the Radio and Electrical Exhibition at the Town Hall.[227]

RADIO AND HEALTH. "GREAT BENEFIT," SAYS MR. CANN. "Radio must inevitable benefit the health of the community," said the Minister for Health, Mr. Cann, in a brief address, at the Radio and Electrical Exhibition last night. "The time will come when every hospital inmate will be provided with the social amenities of radio, and who can tell what great benefits the development of radio may confer upon medical science — and suffering humanity?" Both the Government and the great industrial organisations, the Minister proceeded, realised that wireless had become something more than a mere name to Australians. "Any movement that will bring the social and economic advantages of radio to the largest possible number of the community must be of great value," Mr. Cann pointed out. "Such a movement will have the goodwill of the organised workers of New South Wales, and we have clear evidence of this in the interest that is being taken in 2KY — the first Labor broadcasting station.[228]

ROMANCE OF RADIO. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. AMAZING GROWTH AND GREAT FUTURE. AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE. (By E. R. VOIGT.) The phenomenal rise of broadcasting , desirable as it is in the main, has given rise to a delusion which still persists among a section of the radio community. That delusion is that radio is in the main a means of entertainment, a species of glorified gramophone, and, like the gramophone, will one day in the near future be discarded by the public in favor of some new fad. No greater error could be made. No thoughtful person who has surveyed the whole field of radio activity could possibly subscribe to that view. THE first query that is signalled between the war vessels of the navy on going into action does not concern itself with the big guns, or the ammunition, or with the mechanical efficiency of the ships' engines. The question that is flashed out in effect is: "Is your wireless equipment in order." That is the first vital question. It is hardly necessary to particularise upon the employment of radio communication during the Great War. Radio was an essential and a vital part of the equipment of all the belligerent armies. There can be no question but that much of the rapid technical advance of radio communication is due to the urgent demand for its use and development during the European war. Few men would have the hardihood seriously to submit to the naval and military authorities that radio is but a passing craze to be ranked with the gramophone or any other means of entertainment. THE FIRST IMPORTANCE. The great fact that should be hammered home is this: Radio is a means of communication. It is more: Radio is the most rapid, the most economical, and the most comprehensive system of communication the world has ever known. This fact has immense importance, both socially and economically, for the community. The social aspect of radio communication will be dealt with later. Dealing now with the economic aspect, it should be realised that there is a great relationship between communcation and trade. It has been stated that trade follows the flag. It would be more correct to state that trade follows the lines of communication. There is no doubt that the main reason for the rapid development of commercial sending stations by the great imperialist nations constitute a due recognition of the necessity for radio communication in commercial expansion. WIRELESS IN U.S.A. While London is still undoubtedly the centre of the world's cable system, it is a fact worthy of notice that the United States has developed into the centre of the world's communication by radio. There are more commercial radio circuits in operation in the United States at present than there are in the rest of the world combined. While the cable services connecting the continents of the world represent a development of some fifty years, it is well to bear in mind that radio commercial communication is only approximately three years in existence. Yet it is a striking fact that the radio transmitters in U.S.A. are now handling between 25 and 30 per cent. of the entire volume of telegraphic messages which are being sent between the United States and Europe. Unlike the cable services, these radio circuits do not terminate in Great Britain. Direct radio communication has now been established between most of the European countries and America. Not only do the radio transmitters cost but a fraction of that of the cables, but radio opens up great possibilities for high-speed transmission. SPEED ATTAINMENTS. Already it is possible to transmit over 100 words per minute and operate duplex, which means sending and receiving at the same time, in other words, a speed of 200 words per minute is attainable. It is reasonable to expect that radio will rapidly develop higher speeds until we are able to send and receive at speeds of 1000 words per minute or more. This development of commercial radio means cheaper communications, and cheaper communications mean greater intercourse in commerce and industry, and among the peoples of the world. It means more. It means the breaking down of those international and racial barriers which have always been the great asset of war lords and the great vested interests in which every modern war has its roots. SAFEGUARD AGAINST WAR. The spread of radio communication among the peoples of the world will do more to render was impossible than by any other invention ever devised. But to accomplish this radio must be in the hands of the people. Radio will never be in the hands of the people until it is first in the hands of the organised workers. It is estimated by the U.S.A. Government that approximately 20,000,000 listeners-in constitute the present radio audience, an audience that is increasing with astonishing rapidity. The following statistics issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce and Industry clearly indicate the power, the influence, and the prodigious industrial growth of radio in that country:— 300 United States Government radio stations. 600 radio broadcasting stations sending out daily news and entertainment. 5,000,000 homes equipped with radio receivers. 350,000 radio receiving sets on farms. 3732 U.S. vessels equipped for radio transmission and reception. 2100 radio manufacturing establishments. 2000 wholesalers, and 15,000 retailers. 250,000,000 dollars (£150,000,000) turnover in radio products. FOR THE STUDENT. Every civilised community today has its network of radio transmission and reception, and in the most advanced countries, such as U.S.A., Great Britain, Germany, and Russia, radio is being used by the authorities for increasing the educational facilities of the people. In Great Britain today every broadcasting station, both the main stations and the relay stations, broadcast either daily or at regular periods during the week educational sessions for the schools. In the very near future no back-Woodsman, no camper, and no isolated dweller in the bush need be cut off from the outer world. Even to-day our expeditions to the North Pole, to the wastes of the Saragossa Sea, or to the silent reaches of the Amazon can maintain through a simple radio outfit contact with the civilised world an inestimable advantage. Every railway station waiting room, every hotel, and every apartment house will be a receiving station. Radio will be brought to every bedside in every hospital as it should and could be today. LABOR IS ALERT. The organisations of the workers and the employers will be a network of radio communications. Labor in Australia is well seized with the desirability, the utility, and the inevitability of free and unrestricted radio communication and the present restrictions will sooner or later be swept away. Candidates for Parliament will no longer travel around the country wasting their substance and health in order to address a few hundreds every evening. They will speak to millions simultaneously through some great broadcasting station, as they do in America to-day. The deadening monotony of farm life will disappear. The Einsteins and the Lenins of the future will expound their views to us direct. Sailors on the lonely seas will listen. A new international language will arise. The world, for all its eight thousand miles of diameter, will shrivel up into a small ball before the advance of radio.[229]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (Photo) This set was not on view at the Radio Exhibition. The owner says that with it he can get Rugby and 2KY equally well. The cork in the bottle (which latter has a capacity of 2 pints) makes the set low-loss, and the condensed milk tin is, of course, used as a condenser, and tends to sweeten the music broadcast.[230]

COAL OWNERS AND 2KY. FOILED AGAIN. ENGINEMEN'S CASE ON THE RADIO. The colliery proprietors at great expense, have been advertising in the big capitalist daily newspapers a featured story of the cause of the stoppage of work on the coal-mining areas of the States affected. The "Labor Daily," at considerable pecuniary sacrifice, declined to accept the proffered advertisement in the full knowledge that the publicity agent of the Coal Proprietors' Association had misstated the actual position, and by publishing such an advertisement would become an accessory to the dissemination of a false presentment of the case. The capitalists' oligarchy sought other means, and tried to employ the service of the Labor Council's 2KY wireless to transmit their message. The Federated Engine Drivers and Firemen's Association got hot on their tracks, and last night a message was released from 2KY wireless station, pointing out the true position, as set out in the exhaustive statement published in Wednesday's "Labor Daily," from Mr. H. C. Gibson general secretary of the Federated Engine Drivers and Firemen's Association. There was no equivocation in the plain, honest statement released last night, and listeners in must have been impressed by its ring of sincerity. Need for strong support for the Trades Hall broadcasting station was stressed by members of the committee at the Labor Council last night. The matter was raised by Mr. J. McDonald, when he asked if it was correct that the station had accepted an advertisement from an employers' association, after it had been turned down by the "Labor Daily." "I cannot answer that at this short notice," said Mr. Stewart, a member of the committee. "It is true that the Sane Democracy League has a contract with the station. "We have to make the station pay, and can only take steps to combat pernicious propaganda," he continued. "It is the unions' fault if they do not make proper use of it." Mr. J. Garden strenuously denied that the 2KY station broadcast any such, or similar, matter as that referred to by Mr. McDonald. It was decided to refer the matter to the executive so that the station might be put on a paying basis.[231]

1926 06[edit]

2KY HUSTLES. For several weeks Station 2KY has been transmitting on its new power of 1500 watts, and congratulatory reports have been received from New Zealand, as well as different parts of Australia. With the appointment as director of Mr. C. G. C. Christie, a comprehensive scheme of expansion along the lines of news service, entertainment, and education, has been embarked on. The station has been in operation about nine months. On June 5 2KY will present a varied programme at St. James's Hall, Phillip-street. The items will be broadcast.[232]

GROWTH OF 2KY. INCREASED POWER — NEW DIRECTOR. Station 2KY has now been in operation roughly nine months, during which time its standard and recognition has been steadily increasing under the direction of Mr. Herbert Beaver. It has now been decided to embark on an extensive scheme of expansion. POWER DOUBLED. The first step has been taken by the doubling of the power output, making it 1500 watts, and consideration is being given to provide further increased power up to 8000 watts. The station has been running now for some weeks on the 1500 watts, and most laudatory reports are coming in from all over Australia and New Zealand. Even on the old power the station's American reports were numerous and satisfactory without exception. Reports on the 1500 watt reception in America are eagerly being awaited. A very comprehensive scheme of expansion along the lines of news service, entertainment and education has been drawn up by Mr. G. G. Christie, who has just been appointed to be the director of the station for a long term. Mr. Beaver will still be associated with the station. PARAMOUNT STATION. Every possible avenue open to wireless is to be entered and it is hoped that 2KY will become a paramount station. Mr. Christie has so much confidence in the future of this station that he has relinquished a highly lucrative practice as a solicitor in order to accept the directorship. Mr. Christie was educated at Melbourne and Sydney Grammar Schools, passed through the Schools of Arts, Philosophy and Law at the Sydney University, graduating LLB. in 1920, in which year he was admitted a solicitor of the Supreme Court of N.S.W. He is 34 years, and a son of Mr. Geo. Christie, the well-known Public Accountant of Sydney.[233]

WIRELESS. New Sydney Station. The Theosophical Society has decided to establish a broadcasting station at the Adyar Hall, Sydney, and for that purpose a "B" class license has been granted by the Postmaster-General to the Theosophical Broadcasting Station, Limited, which has an authorised capital of £3000. The wave-length has been provisionally fixed at 326 metres, and it is stated that the new station will operate with a power of 3000 watts, which is nominally somewhat higher than the power now used by 2BL. There are some doubts as to the advisability of having this wave-length and power so close to that of 2BL and 2KY, the Trades Hall station, and the Post-office Department has made a provision in granting the license that the conditions are subject to review in the event of the new station interfering with other stations. It is believed that some re-arrangement of wave-lengths will become imperative when 2BL becomes a super-power station to-wards the end of this month. No definite date, however, has been announced for the Theosophical Society's station going on the air, but it will not be sooner than three months from now. Radio organisations in New South Wales have stated they will object to any serious interference with the excellent programmes now being provided by 4QG, Brisbane, which can, even on single-valve receivers, be received at good strength and clearness anywhere in the Sydney metropolitan area alternately with 2BL and 3LO, Melbourne. In order to retain the interest in broadcasting from the "A" class stations, it is contended by the Wireless Institute and the radio section of the New South Wales Electrical Employers' Association that the Post-office Department should keep the margin between the different "A" class stations as wide as possible, and prevent any interference with their programmes by "B" class stations. A request to that effect has been forwarded by the different wireless organisations in the Commonwealth to the Postmaster-General.[234]

To-day's Broadcasting Programmes. TRADES HALL. Call Sign 2KY. Wave Length 280 Metres. 7.45 p.m., Tune-in to the ticking of the clock; 7.48, Latest news items and sporting results; 8.0, 2KY's second public entertainment, "A Night in the Studio," to be broadcast from St. James' Hall, Phillip Street; 8.3, Musical interlude, Albert Hilder's Kentuckians; 8.10 Soprano solos, Miss Zara Nellsson; 8.18, Pianologue, Miss Amy Ruwald; 8.26, Hawaiian novelty interlude, Mr. Will Masters; 8.36, Contralto solos, Miss Vera Cornock; 8.44, Dance Classique, Miss Peggy Welsh; 8.50, Soprano solos, Miss Edith Welsh; 8.58, Speciality duets, Miss Betty Forrester and Mr. Alf Border; 9.10, Musical Interlude, Palais Royal Californians (Mr. Walter Beehan, leader), by kind permission of J. C. Bendrodt Ltd.; 9.20, Return to St. James' Hall; 9.21, Eastern Extravaganza, Long Chang Troupe, Chinese wonderworkers: 9.40. A short talk on 2KY, Mr. E. R. Voigt (chairman); 9.45, Humorous monologues Nelle O'Sullivan; 9.55, Whistling solos, Miss Lily Wallace; 10.5, Tenor solos, Mr. George F. Manuel; 10.12, Mezzo-soprano solos, Miss Maisie Carroll; 10.28, Odd and ends, Herbert Beaver; 10.30, Curtain.[235]

WIRELESS. 2KY, the Trades Hall station, states that from to-night it will be on increased power, this being the second increase of power within three weeks, in addition to its ordinary programme, this station will this week broadcast at the afternoon and evening sessions items for the benefit of sick children in hospitals.[236]

THEOSOPHISTS. New Radio Station. HIGH CLASS WIRELESS. Radio listeners are to have another broadcast station in Sydney within the next three months, to be owned and operated by the Theosophical Society. The new station has been licensed with a power of 3000 watts, sufficient to penetrate every corner of Australia and New Zealand, and a wave length of 326 metres. It will be used partly in the interests of the society, and also for the inculcation of a love of art, music, science, literature, and generally any thing that tends to elevate the national outlook. Mr. A. E. Bennett, hon. secretary of the Theosophical Society stated that the new station would be in operation about the end of August. "Our station will not be conducted on sectarian or party lines," said Mr. Bennett. "It is a Theosophical Station, and therefore dedicated to the promotion of the brotherhood. It will be available to all who are working for Australia's uplift, provided there is no abuse of that spirit of mutual goodwill, tolerance and courtesy which the station is established to promote. Neither personal attack nor any disrespect for beliefs which people may hold sacred will for an instant be tolerated, but political parties, religious bodies, and social organisations, will be able, within these limitations, to make use of the Station. "We hope to arrange programmes which will not only include talks on the great principles of Theosophy, but also good music, especially Australian music, talks on art, science, the drama, literature, current events, and so forth, as well as lecturettes by representatives of all social, political and religious movements, which stand for Australia's uplift and solidarity. We shall also introduce a number of novel features which will prove both attractive and helpful towards the end we have in view." In the beginning it is intended to operate the station on about four nights a week for two or three hours each night. The site of the station will most likely be the roof of the Adyar Hall, which is the property of the Theosophical Society — hence the letters of the call sign, 2AH. The station will be in the B class, which receives no revenue from the Government, but the Theosophical Society will derive income from outside bodies which use the station. As the Trades Hall Station, 2KY, has recently increased its power, listeners are finding an abundance of variety in their aerial entertainment.[237]

STATE WIRELESS SCHEME. Far-reaching Proposals. CABINET TO DECIDE SOON. Plans for the establishment of a State wireless station in Sydney, and for relay stations throughout New South Wales, which the promoters consider may become one of the most vital services in the community, are to be placed before Cabinet within the next few weeks for final decision. It is nearly a year since Cabinet instructed Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, "to inquire as to establishment of a State wireless station, and report to a future meeting." Later, a subcommittee was appointed to go into the information which had been collected; but, owing to the absence of two of its members, one of whom is in England, a new subcommittee was appointed. Meanwhile, the Trades Hall station, 2KY, was established, and in some quarters it was prophesied that little more would be heard of State wireless. As a matter of fact, 2KY has been performing some of the functions of a State wireless station, such as the broadcasting of lectures on behalf of the Health Department, but it is now announced that, subject to the approval of Cabinet, an early move will be made to set afoot the original project. Proposed Uses. The inquiries which have been made are considered to indicate immense possibilities for such a scheme, and probably a far more ambitious plan will be submitted to Cabinet than that first conceived. The police force, for instance, have been pressing lately for a broadcasting station of their own, not only for use in keeping in touch with patrols, but also for traffic regulation purposes on the lines of American and European practice. In those countries, wireless has proved to be of great utility in directing streams of traffic so as to avoid congestion in any one street. The Fire Board, too, is considering the utilisation of wireless as an aid to its fire-fighting efforts, and it is understood that an official has been specially detailed to deal with this matter. The Railways Department is contemplating the installation of wireless receiving sets on a large scale. Grouping of all these wireless activities under the control of the State Wireless station is contemplated, and one of the members of the subcommittee stated yesterday that he considered the scheme would be one of the most far-reaching to be put into operation anywhere. "One need only look a little way into the future," he said, "to recognise the possibility of light, heat, and power being broadcast by wireless, in which case the plant would become vital to the life of the community." Various organisations have been urging the Government to act with regard to broadcasting. Requests have been made by country centres, the Radio Conference in the Town Hall recently, and the last A.L.P. Conference. It has been represented, on behalf of the farming community, that information regarding the markets, the crops, and agricultural lectures would be of special interest. National Party feeling, it is understood, is in favor of the establishment of a publicly-owned wireless station in New South Wales, but within the Federal jurisdiction. The possibility of the introduction of legislation, conserving to the State Government rights of broadcasting power, heat, and light, on the lines of that adopted in England, is mooted, and may be a further subject of Cabinet consideration.[238]

WIRELESS. 2KY PROMISES IMPROVEMENTS. An official communication from 2KY states that improvements in transmission and programme will be effected in the near future. This station is now "putting over" a children's hour, which is conducted by Mr. Thompson, the well-known hospital story-teller. The children's session is on Monday, Tuesday, and Friday nights. On Wednesday, June 30, Mr. C. G. C. Christie will give the first of a series of sketches entitled "Great Grandmothers," which will deal with a group of Australia's first institutions, such as race-courses, theatre, newspaper, church, mail-boat, and so on. On Saturday evening, July 3, this station will broadcast the Labour choir of 100 voices from King's Hall. Another new feature this week will be a "shipping log," which will be an item of general interest, giving movements of mail and other boats.[239]

1926 07[edit]

EVERYDAY and EVERYBODY. Olympic Champion at 2KY. A SPECIAL sporting feature has been arranged by the management of 2KY, which should be appreciated by the many active athletes in New South Wales. A series of lectures on "Scientific Training" will be broadcast each week by E. R. Voigt, whose reputation as an athlete and authority on diet and training is world-wide. Mr. Voigt was the winner of the Five Miles Championship in the Olympic Games, held in London in 1908, and has many times held British, Australian, and Continental championships extending over distances from one to 10 miles, just prior to the war, he was running in Victoria, where he won the Victorian One Mile Championship. While on the track in Victoria, he smashed all Australian records from two to six miles. In breaking the two-mile Australian record, Mr. Voigt lowered Alfred Shrubb's figures made during the visit of this great runner some years pre-viously. His time was 9min. 38sec. for the distance. Mr. Voigt's times in-clude 19.40 for the 4 miles. 9.30 for two miles, and 4.19 4-5 for the one mile.[240]

RADIO JOTTINGS. 2KY And Debates. Realising that lecturettes and debates do not hold listeners-in attention, and cause them to switch over to other stations. 2KY has decided to institute a system of a tabloid form for these items. In the case of debates a short, concise 500 words case will be supplied to the station by a debater. This will be submitted to his opposer, who will prepare a 500 word reply in answer, including any fresh facts he may wish to propound. The first debater will amend his original case to cover the fresh issues. The debate will then be ready to broadcast, and transmission to listeners will only take seven minutes. 2KY fans will in this way be treated to bright, crisp, well-considered arguments instead of rambling dissertations. Lecturers are asked to confine themselves to the set-down space. Short chamber recitals of instrumental and vocal music are being arranged for the afternoon sessions of 2KY. Consuls-General on Radio. Special arrangements have been made with Consuls-General of various countries to broadcast messages to Australia from 2KY broadcasting station. On Wednesday the Japanese Consul-General for Australia will put his message on the air. On that evening the station's programme will comprise items vocal and otherwise of typical Japanese character. The same idea will be repeated on July 14, when the Italian Consul will broadcast, he will be followed by the French and Belgian Consuls.[241]

HANDICAPS TO BROADCASTING. ROYALTIES ON GENIUS. APPEAL TO MINISTER. OPENING OF 2BL. "AT the present time the imposition of royalties on materials and inventions necessary to broadcasting is a serious handicap, and I do not think it is going too far to point out that the position in this respect is definitely retarding progress." Mr. Justly Rawlings made this statement during his address of welcome to Mr. Marr, Federal Hon. Minister, at the official opening of 2BL's new high-power station at Coogee yesterday. Mr. Rawlings urged the appointment of a Royal Commission to investigate the question of patent royalties. A hundred guests assembled at Coogee station to witness the official opening of the new high-power station. The question of copyright was also touched upon by Mr. Rawlings. "The matter of copyright opens up avenues of grave possibilities of serious injustice to a new and vital industry," he pointed out. "Claims that are inordinate have been made and forced upon broadcasting companies under threats of legal action which, if allowed to be taken would have resulted in severe restriction, if not the complete breakdown of broadcasting." GOVERNMENT WATCHING. In declaring the new station open, Mr. Marr said that dissatisfaction existed in Australia regarding broadcasting. This state of affairs was unavoidable and was experienced in other countries, where changes in methods had been made necessary. The Government was watching the position closely, but no radical change would be made without consultation and careful consideration. "The future of broadcasting was almost fearsome in its possibilities," said Mr. Marr. "The day of telephotography and television are not far distant." The question of the evasion of licenses by listeners-in in New South Wales was also referred to by Mr. Marr, who explained that the Post Office was doing its utmost "to rope the wireless pirates in and make them pay not only fees but fines as well." VICTORIA LEADS. A contrast between the popularity of broadcasting in New South Wales and Victoria was, the Minister said, evidenced by the fact that there were 64,000 licenses in Victoria compared with 37,000 in New South Wales. This was the cause of grave concern to broadcasting companies of the State and 2BL aimed, by the establishing of their high-power station, to put New South Wales in a better position regarding wireless service. Mr. Lloyd Jones, one of the directors, in thanking Mr. Marr for his sympathetic interest in broadcasting, referred to the evils of piracy, and exhorted the Press and the Federal Government to assist the stations to bring to book the offenders who evade the licenses. Those present included Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council; Ald. McGuinness (Deputy-Lord Mayor), Mr. L. P. R. Bean (chairman of directors of 2BL), Messrs. J. W. Kitto (Deputy-P.M.G.), W. T. S. Crawford (radio inspector), Senator Grant, Maj.-Gen. Bruche, Mr. E. T. Fiske (managing director A.M.W.), George Wright, P. H. Pettyfer (chairman, radio section of Employers' Assn.), C. G. Christie (director. 2KY), E. R. Voigt, R. H. O'Brien, H. Wiles, C. C. Faulkner, E. R. Cutler, W. E. Coote, Basil Cooke, J. Harrington, Jas. Nangle, T. D. Hincher, and George Taylor. (Photo) Mr. Marr.[242]

STATION NEWS. Mr. C. G. C. Christie, LL.B., is broadcasting, from 2KY, an interesting series of lectures covering the following subjects:— Australia's First Church, Theatre, Post Office, Racecourse, and other constructions of interest. A radio research laboratory is being established under the supervision of 2KY's engineer, Mr. H..P. J. Sinclair.[243]

RADIO JOTTINGS. . . 2KY Features. Advices received show that Station 2KY is being heard in Japan and occasionally America reports reception. But most pleasing are the reports which show perfect interstate reception, right under the nose, at it were, of the aerials of the big broadcasting stations. The reception seems to be specially good in Melbourne and Victoria generally; also South Australia. New Zealand is a little intermittent, and South Australia fairly good. The institution by 2KY of national nights, when Consuls of various countries broadcast messages to the Australian people, is proving very successful. Last Wednesday it was Japan's turn, when Mr. Tokugawa, O.B.E., Consul-General in Australia for Japan, sent a message to the public of Australia. During the evening selections from Grand Opera were sung in Japanese by Mr. Sasaki, also some dainty Japanese songs in English. 2KY officials claim that this is the first time in the world that such transmission has taken place. Wednesday evening the Italian Consul-General will transmit his message, and a similar programme will be delivered in Italian. The dates of Belgian and French evenings will be announced later. The idea of these features is to show the possibility wireless possesses for the promotion of peace and goodwill among nations. Mr. C. G. C. Christie, director of 2KY, is preparing a new series of thumbnail sketches of prominent Labor men. Mr. Christie is running a series of short historical sketches entitled "Great Grandmothers," dealing with historical institutions. Wednesday's subject is "Australia's First Post Office." These sketches have entailed a considerable amount of research among old records, and are particularly bright and interesting. It is not generally known that 2KY has one of the oldest regular broadcasting artists in the world. This is Mr. Edelston, aged 82 years, who broadcasts excellent monologues from the studio. Another interesting item which is now included in the programme of 2KY is the biweekly theatre critique. Facilities for viewing the various plays have been afforded 2KY officials through the courtesy of different theatrical enterprises. Novelty is given to the feature by the fact that the critique is actually placed on the air from the theatre where the play is being criticised. This applies to many pictures filmed in Sydney. New books are also reviewed, this feature being especially popular with country listeners. Station 2KY is arranging to include in its programme as soon as convenient telephonic requests for particular gramophone records.[244]

STRIKE BREAKING BY WIRELESS. ABUSE OF BRITISH RADIO. SEIZED BY THE GOVERNMENT. LESSON FOR AUSTRALIA. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman 2KY Wireless Committee.) THE outstanding fact in the industrial dispute between the mine owners and the miners in Great Britain, and its extension to a general strike, was the sinister part played by the so-called "Impartial' Broadcasting Stations. These powerful broadcasting stations were immediately seized by the Baldwin Government, and projected into the struggle between the employers and the workers. They were not used to facilitate a settlement of the dispute; they were not used against the employers; they were used ruthlessly to break down the resistance of the workers. SOME of the greatest hoaxes ever worked off on the long-suffering masses have been successfully operated under the cloak of "impartiality." In these day of political Press campaigns, it is almost humorous to reflect that, before the advent of the Labor Press, the capitalist organs called themselves "impartial." Again, the Liberal Codlins and Tory Shorts of bygone days virtuously and vociferously announced themselves as "impartial" defenders of the public weal. The workers learned by bitter experience that such "impartiality" was a delusion and a snare. The workers were forced to establish their own Press and their own political parties. Notwithstanding the exposure of these illusions, we were again informed that the great broadcasting stations to which a benevolent anti-Labor Government has granted a monopoly of essential public services were "impartial." The general public was lulled, the British Labor leaders, etherially speaking, dozed on; only the most respectable and insidious propaganda was injected into the body politic — until the last general election. The sleepers stirred uneasily, but it needed a general strike to wake them up. Employers' Weapon. When the British workers exercised their inherent right not to work under conditions which they considered unjust, they acted quite within their legal and moral rights. One of the most potent weapons of the employers in breaking a strike is the daily Press; but when the Press workers walked out, too, the British Government seized the whole of the "impartial" broadcasting stations. What did the Government do with these stations; did it use them impartially to bring about an amicable settlement? Did it denounce employers and workers alike for their intractability? The Government did nothing of the kind, it used the whole network of broadcasting and relay stations to force the workers back to work unconditionally, i.e., on the terms of the employers. How far did the Government succeed in this? An article in the current issue of a local Radio journal by Captain L. F. Plugge, B. Sc., F.R.A.S., F.R.M.S., member of the general committee of the Radio Society of Great Britain, leaves no doubt either about the intentions of the British Government, nor of the part played by the broadcasting stations in the recent industrial crisis. "Historic" Speech. Captain Plugge states: At no time in the history of any country has it been possible for a Prime Minister at the moment of a great national crisis to address with his own voice all the citizens whose Government he represents. When Mr. Baldwin delivered his historic broadcast speech, when, in clear, decisive and unequivocal manner he declared to one and all that he would under no circumstances consent to reopen negotiations unless the general strike was unconditionally withdrawn, one wondered if broadcasting was not in the act of producing the greatest demonstration of its utility. Captain Plugge is "clear and unequivocal," to. According to Captain Plugge, the use of the "impartial" broadcasting stations in forcing millions of men unconditionally back to work on terms repugnant to them, is "the greatest demonstration of its utility." A very generous tribute is paid by Captain Plugge to the blacklegs or volunteers, "who can learn in half an hour the work which some men claim to need half a lifetime to master." It was wireless alone that made this strike-breaking organisation possible, for the anti-Labor forces had their lines of communication cut by the strike of the Pressmen. The Strike-Breakers The gallant captain is frank in the matter: To mention only a few other way in which help was provided (by wireless), there were the special appeals for instruction to volunteers. Mr. Baldwin's transport arrangements for women workers, advice to the general public, and last, but not least, Mr. Joynson Hicks' two personal appeals for special constables which led to such a wonderful response in favor of peace and order. All these things would have been impossible without wireless. The volunteers are scabs: the women workers are not the real workers who slave year in and year out on bare subsistence wages, but women of wealth and leisure, willing to step into the breech for a few weeks to keep their unfortunate sisters under the heel; and the special constable is the British equivalent of the Fascisti. After all this strike-breaking organisation by wireless, the coup-de-grace was administered by Baldwin through the network of "impartial broadcasting stations." Let us quote Cuptain Plugge again: Every striker has a wireless set, or has a friend who has one. It is safe to presume that apart from an inconsiderable handful, every one was listening to the Premier . . . I have always felt confident that broadcasting would revolutionise the outlook of the ordinary citizen and influence his life in hitherto unthought of ways, and from the moment the Prime Minister had finished his address, I felt that the strike was over. More "Impartiality." So it was. A strike can end in two ways: with the victory or with the defeat of the workers. What Captain Plugge is heralding is not so much the end of the strike as the defeat of the worker. He is greatly elated with the important part wireless played in that defeat, he make this clear: The trade unions laid their plans for a general stoppage, and that they were not able to achieve, this was due, I submit, in no small measure to the microphone of the British Broadcasting Company. The Editor of this Radio Journal, which, of course, is quite an impartial organ, devoted to the new science of radio, deems this article sufficiently important to attach an Editorial Note at the head: HOW BROADCASTING SERVED A WONDERFUL PURPOSE IS ADMIRABLY ILLUSTRATED IN THIS ARTICLE BY CAPTAN PLUGGE. The Lesson The use of wireless against the workers in the British General Strike is no isolated phenomenon. Wireless was successfully used against the British Labor Party in the last elections. Wireless is a regular part of the employers' equipment in America to break strikes. The two outstanding instances are the New York Web Pressmen's strike and the Sand Pedro Waterside Strike. Wireless has been used, and will be more and more used in Australia to defeat the workers politically and industrially. The lesson is clear and unmistakable. It is the same lesson that we learned when we established our own Press. It is the same lesson that we learned when we broke away from the old capitalist parties and established our own Parliamentary party. Workers' Place in the Air. The organised workers of Australia must secure a place on the air in every State of the Commonwealth. They must erect and run a complete chain of Inter-locking Labor broad-casting stations. They must take steps to ensure that every trade unionist has a receiving set, and is therefore in ready contact with the central station. This plan is well within the financial resources of the worker. A start has been made in N.S.W. with the erection of 2KY. Victoria has formally decided to follow suit with another powerful broadcasting station. No time should be lost by the Labor Movement in the remaining States in securing a place on the air for the organised workers.[245]

BIG CONGRESS. ALL TRADE UNIONS THE REFERENDUM. SYDNEY, AUGUST 7. IN the absence of Mr. A. C. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, Mr. E. R. Voigt, secretary to Mr. Willis, made an important statement yesterday regarding the All-Australian Trade Union Congress to be held in Sydney, August 7. Mr. Voigt said the Congress had been convened by Mr. Willis, who was secretary of the last Congress. The Trades and Labor Council had some weeks ago demanded that a Congress should take place for the purpose of dealing with the Referenda proposals. The Commonwealth Council of the Miners' Federation, of which Mr. Willis is a member, passed a resolution in the same terms, and the hope was expressed that a combined Congress would be held, not only of the Trade Unions throughout Australia. but comprising representatives also from the political side. This had been done. Congress had been called. ESSENTIALLY T.U. CONGRESS. It was essentially a Trades Union Congress, summoned for the purpose of discussing Referenda proposals. Three members had been invited from each State A.L.P. Executive, and the whole of the Commonwealth Executive of the A.L.P. Mr. Charlton, as the leader of the Federal Labor Party, had also been asked to take part in the deliberations. It was hoped that all sides would be able to express their views and evolve a common policy instead of going to the polls disunited. NOT ANTI-CHARLTON. "Mr. Willis," said Mr. Voigt, "has not expressed himself one way or the other in regard to the rights of the matter. He has merely called the Congress as he has a right to do, to obtain that expression from the whole of the movement. Congress will not end with the discussion of the Referenda proposals. "There are many other vital matters of interest to the Trades Union Movement as a whole which have developed since the last Congress in 1922. These matters will be dismissed after the Referenda question has been settled. This is in no sense a move antagonistic to Mr. Charlton, or anyone else in the Labor Movement."[246]

1926 08[edit]

2KY. LISTEN-IN TO-NIGHT. MR. E. R. VOIGT, ex-Olympic champion, will continue his Sporting series of lecturettes on "Scientific Training." Tonight he will deal with "Path Practice for Middle and Long Distance Runners." At 9.20 p.m. Mr. J. C. Eldridge will resume his Social Science series of lecturetttes. There will be a varied musical programme. Little Sylvia Auckland's comedienne will broadcast two items and a novelty interlude will be provided by Bo Bilake and his mandola. There will be a special announcement by Ald. Mostyn who will deal with the plans of the Municipal Council for providing the community with modern electrical equipment through the new municipal sales branch. This will be an important announcement, which all householders with sets should listen-in to.[247]

WIRELESS. COPYRIGHT CHARGES FOR "B" STATIONS. Tomorrow afternoon a conference will be held in Melbourne, by direction of the Prime Minister, between representatives of the "B" broadcasting stations of Australia and directors of the Australasian Performing Rights Association, with a view to defining the position of the "B" broadcasting stations respecting copyright music and the payment to be made for transmission. The owners of the "B" class stations in Sydney and other parts of New South Wales view this matter with some concern, and have agreed that they will, at this conference, make a request to the Prime Minister to grant a Royal Commission to inquire into the whole question of the administration and control of broadcasting in Australia, including copyright charges. The following resolution, which was unanimously passed at a recent meeting of the owners or representatives of "B" class stations in New South Wales, on the motion of Mr. Voigt (2KY), seconded by Mr. Burgin (2BE), will form the basis of the representations to be made by the owners of "B" class stations in this State at the Melbourne conference:— "That the Federal Government be urged immediately to grant the Royal Commission asked for by the recent Commonwealth Radio Conference, because this meeting is definitely of the opinion that such Royal Commission is urgently required, in the best interests of radio, and also to emphasise that the 'B' class stations should participate in radio revenue." ANTI-REFERENDUM CAMPAIGN BY 2KY. Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of 2KY, the Trades Hall broadcasting station, replied on Saturday to a question raised in the Federal Parliament by Mr. Perkins, M.P., whether the Postmaster-General was aware that 2KY was going to be used to combat the referendum proposals. "The implication is that there is some restriction on the broadcasting of political views over 2KY," said Mr. Voigt, "but I desire to inform the listening-in public that no such restriction is contained in the wireless regulations, and the management of 2KY is free to use the station as often as it chooses on any political questions. "On the other hand, the policy of 2KY is to permit expression on all great social questions of views opposed to its own, reserving the right of reply to its own speakers, and relying upon the justice of the Labour case when placed side by side with that of its opponents. 2KY is conducting a wireless campaign against the referendum proposals under the directorship of Mr. J. C. Eldridge, and several speakers have already addressed listeners-in. Nevertheless, the most prominent speakers and public men in favour of the proposals will be invited to state their case over 2KY."[248]

O, PETALS ARE FLOATING IN GOULBURN STREET. LOVE FINDS A WAY. Christie and Mrs. Hodgson at Trades Hall. LISTEN IN TO 2KY. GOULBURN STREET: THE WAY TO THE TRADES HALL AND 2KY. (Photo) "PETAL." PETALS are falling. Falling softly . . . every day. FALLING on Goulburn-street, like silent blessings, to lend a touch of beauty to the squalid way that leads to the Trades Hall. Little flutterings of sweetness that send, by wireless, a flutter to Someone's Heart as Someone hears the sound of those petals falling . . . Oh . . . so . . . softly . . . PETALS, Petals, all the way . . . LISTEN-IN to 2KY and you may pick up, on the Soft Speaker, the echo of a love story, a sweet crooning tale that broke up a home, severed a little mother from her big husband, and created the divorce scandal of the decade — the sensational Hodgson suit. FOLLOW Petal's footsteps . . . nearly every morning . . . hear them pit-pat, pit-pat up the street . . . THE Court story is not to be broadcasted, but Charles Grant Campbell Christie, one of Mrs. Hodgson's lovers, is directing 2KY, and the pretty dark-eyed Olive calls to see him almost daily. Should the microphone be switched on when she calls, what an interesting half-hour for the subscribers — such things have happened before in the history of radio in Sydney. The broadcasting station of 2KY is located on the top of the Trades Hall in Goulburn-street; an atmosphere rather associated with industrial squabbles and mundane political intrigues than with a love story rendolent with violets and fresh-smelling gum tips. Still, love will always find a way, and not even an all-consuming ambition can surmount as many obstacles or be so unreceptive to cross currents and annoying statics. Olive Beatrice Hodgson doesn't fit into the atmosphere of the Trades Hall. She is petite, chic, and her large dark eyes suggest the soft pools of tenderness — the Trades Hall is a dirty unromantic building with wearisome stairs that lead up and around and up again, to 2KY. She is not concerned with the fluctuations of the basic wage. Her thoughts, maybe, are higher up — up where a slight man with poetic features sits and directs 2KY. So she climbs the weary staircase to the broadcasting station to be welcomed with a soft smile from Charlie Christie, which apparently makes the climb worth while. What does the effort to climb the stairs mean after the ordeal she went through in the public gaze when her former husband, big Ralph Vivian Hodgson alleged against her that she had committed adultery with Christie at Darlinghurst, Katoomba, Greenwich, Parsley Bay, Vaucluse, Watson's Bay, Martin Place, Sydney, and other places in N.S.W. Her husband, according to his story in the Divorce Court, had objected to Charlie, but Olive replied, "I have known Charlie a long time, and he has always been decent to me." "Because I married you, I'm not going to give up all my old friends." "Tiny" Hodgson divorced her, but even that, it seems, did not have the effect of separating her from the poetic Charlie. How could it be expected to, for had not Charlie's declaration of his love for her, his "Petal," been broadcasted to the world? When temporarily separated from her he once wrote, "Ye Gods. Darling! How I am missing you! I have an absolute empty void feeling, sweetheart, and am aching for the feel of your lips. "I wonder are your lips as soft as my dream girl's, just like the softness of wattle blossoms. "Bye-bye, darling. You know I love you, Petal." How could such love suffer separation, even if there are three flights of weary, dusty stairs to climb? Now that "Petal" is freed from her big husband who wore a night-shirt when at home and pyjamas when away, does Charlie still whisper those tender flower songs to his dark-eyed "Petal." is not the concern at anyone but themselves if he does, but radio stations have been known before to-day to broadcast things not on the programme as arranged. (Photo) Christie hastening to 2KY. Some of them have been spicy, too, but surely none so sweetly tender as those letters from Charlie Christie to his little Petal. Or course Charlie pleaded during the divorce proceedings that he was not mentally responsible for those outpourings of his soul. Then again Charlie is married now — at least that is so, according to a certain morning sheet which pushes 2KY. He is married to his job. When he was appointed as Director of 2KY this near-newspaper announced that law was his profession; radio his hobby — and 2KY his wife. Wives are fickle creatures at times, as "Tiny" Hodgson could probably aver should Charlie Christie ask the big fellow for his opinion on the matter. And, in wireless parlance, when the microphone is left 'on' you are "on the air" "Are your lips as soft as my dream girl's, just like the softness of wattle blossoms" On the air from 2KY.[249][250]

NOTES FOR SPEAKERS. (By E. R. VOIGT.) JOINT LABOR "NO" COMMITTEES. The Commerce and Industry Bill provides for:— (a) Granting powers to the Federal Government to intervene in the individual States for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes. (b) Investing these powers in the hands of "authorities" acting independently of Parliament. (c) Dealing with trusts and combinations in restraint of trade, trade unions, and associations of employers and employees for industrial purposes, including the formation, dissolution, regulation and control thereof. Point 1.— Clause (a) takes industrial power out of the hands of the State Labor Government. Clause (b) hands this power over to authorities acting independently of Parliament. Point 2.— The Bruce "authorities" are three Judges appointed for life, two of whom in a recent judgement have already declared against the 44-hour week. Point 3.— When moving the second reading of the bill in Parliament. Bruce stated that these authorities would have "absolute power, as wide as anyone can desire." Point 4.— Parliament can control only the appointment of these authorities; it has no control whatever over their decisions or actions. Point 5.— With Bruce's six-year majority in the Senate, his authorities would have six years' free scope to smash down the wages, and lengthen the hours of the workers, and to consolidate their industrial dictatorship. Point 6.— As both amendments sought by Bruce re Constitutional amendments, they could not be abrogated by any succeeding Labor Government. Point 7.— The Industry and Commerce Bill is contradictory to the A.L.P. Platform. The latter would give "unlimited legislative powers to the Federal Parliament." The former would give no such powers to the Federal Parliament, but would hand absolute power (over trade unions) to irresponsible authorities. Point 8.— Absolute power is granted over trade unions, but not over trusts and combines. Note the cunning qualification. Trusts must be proved at law to be "in restraint of trade" — a practically impossible task.[251]

TO HELP YOU. SPEECHES FOR "NO." SOME VALUABLE DATA. THE joint anti-Referendum committee of the trades unions and the Australian Labor Party is forging ahead with its campaign, and hundreds of speakers will be addressing meetings on behalf of the organised workers in all parts of the State. In order to strengthen the hands of speakers, an arrangement has been made between the joint committee and the "Labor Daily" for the publication of a series of Speakers Notes each day in the "Labor Daily." This special feature will be conducted by one of the best known publicists in the Labor Movement, Mr. E. R. Voigt, ex-director of the Labor Research Bureau. Mr. Voigt has made a special study of the Referendum bills, and the points he will make from day to day will not only be of interest and assistance to platform speakers, but also to thousands of workers for propaganda work in tram, train, or workshop, who are determined to do their bit towards the defeat of the most dangerous legislation ever directed against the lives and liberties of trade unionists. Cut out these "Notes" each day, and file them for reference.[252]

AIMING FOR DISCORD. ANTI-LABOR PRESS. MR. VOIGT IS ATTACKED. MORE LIES NAILED. Two ???? newspapers well-known for their anti-Labor bias have been leaving no stone unturned to create discord and division among those who are at the head of the N.S.W. Labor attack on the Referendum proposals. This manoeuvre has taken the form of endeavoring to foment discord between Mr. E. R. Voigt, who was appointed publicity officer on the Joint Labor Anti-Referendum Committee of the Trade Unions and the A. L. P., and Mr. W. Carey, General Secretary of the A.L.P. The statements made by these newspapers not only violate the canons of decent journalism, but contain gross error of fact. The attacks of these journals are directed mainly (photo)Mr. Voigt. against Mr. Voigt, and while no credence should be attached to the statements purported to have been made either by Mr. Carey or by Mr. Voigt, it is desirable that the untrue statements made should be pilloried. Against Mr. Voigt it is stated, (1) that he is a comparative newcomer to Australia; (2) that he offered his services to the Labor Referendum Campaign Committee; (3) that the committee instructed him to write statements and issue them under Mr. Carey's name; (4) that Mr. Voigt has never held a position in the Labor Party, and (5) that he has no official standing in the movement. Each of these statements is untrue. (1) Mr. Voigt first came to Australia over 15 years ago. (2) He never "offered his services to the L.R.C. Committee." The latter made a request for assistance. (3) The committee did not instruct Mr. Voigt to issue all statements under Mr. Carey's name. (4) Mr. Voigt is president of the Warringah Labor League, official delegate to the North Shore Electoral Council, was a delegate to the last A.L.P. Conference, is a member of the Special Committee for the revision of rules and constitution of the party, and publicity officer in the present Referendum campaign. (5) As a trade unionist and a member of the A.L.P., as well as in other official positions in the Labor Movement, too well-known to need enumeration, Mr. Voigt unquestionably occupies an important official position in the Labor Movement of Australia. This attack will deceive no one in the ranks of the organised workers, where the integrity, ability and official standing of Mr. Voigt in the Labor Movement of this country are recognised and appreciated. It can only serve to confuse the issues of the Referendum amongst those outside the Labor Movement, at a time when clarity of thought and perception were never more needed, than in this grave constitutional crisis. "No"— twice is the answer.[253]

Readers' Problems — Queries Answered. R. N. Shaw (Wauchope): The "B" class stations in this State which transmit at various times are 2KY, 280 metres; 2UW, 263 metres; 2MK, 275; 2UE, 297; 2HD, 288; 2BE, 326; 2GB, 316. Similar stations are operating in other States, but the power, in most instances, is so low that clear, reception is very difficult.[254]

SHORT WAVES. SPORT FROM 2KY. Station 2KY is concentrating on sporting transmissions. Every Monday night Mr. W. M. Rutledge will broadcast criticisms and information relating to every branch of sport. This feature will be in addition to the racing talks given during the week by Mr. T. G. Hopkins. Every Friday night news items will be broadcast for the special benefit of country listeners. Opponents of the Referendum are conducting a thorough campaign from 2KY but, it is stated, addresses by "Yes" advocated are also broadcast so as to give listeners both sides of the question.[255]

1926 09[edit]

LISTEN-IN TO-NIGHT. 2KY FEATURES. TO-NIGHT from 2KY Mr. J. C. Eldridge, who is directing Labor's Air Campaign against the Referendum proposals, will continue the service, and introduce more of Labor's prominent speakers, including Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., Vice-President of the Executive Council, Messrs. F. Taylor, A. McBeth, J. Stewart, W. J. Gibb, and R. Hefferon. Miss Molly McLennan will reappear in some of her popular soprano solos. A musical interlude will be provided by the Palais Royal Californians at 8.45.[256]

CAN SAY "NO" BY WIRELESS. POSITION OF 2KY. WHIRLWIND CAMPAIGN. "SOME confusion has arisen in the Labor Air Campaign over the decision of the Postmaster-General not to allow any speakers to state the case for a 'No' vote against the Referendum proposals," said Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of 2KY Broadcasting Station. "It should be clearly understood that the references of the Postmaster-General applied only to 'A' class broadcasting stations receiving revenue from the licensee fees of listeners-in. "All intending speakers from the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station 2KY can rest assured," added Mr. Voigt, "that 2KY, being a 'B' class station, does not come under the restriction imposed by the Postmaster-General. "The management of 2KY is not transgressing the regulations in any way by arranging for the free use of the station for campaign work in connection with the Referendum and the campaign will be contained every evening at the various times stipulated until the eve of polling day. MUST HAVE WIRELESS CHAIN. This statement is not intended to diminish in any degree the indignation of the Trades Union Movement at the refusal of the Postmaster-General to allow Mr. Mahony or anyone else on behalf of the Labor Movement to state the 'No' case against the Referendum over the 'A' class broadcasting stations. "Such refusal will only quicken the determination of the Labor Movement to establish its own chain of broadcasting stations. "For those who do not know," concluded Mr. Voigt, it should be added that 2KY Referendum Air Campaign, under the leadership of Mr. J. C. Eldridge is arranging for a whirlwind campaign of several sessions each evening. Every working man or woman who has a receiving set should do his best toward the defeat of the dangerous anti-Labor Referendum proposals, by inviting as many of his friends as possible to listen in to our best speaker each evening on 2KY Broadcasting Station."[257]

Wonderful Quartz Crystal. The piezo crystal, as it is called, possesses curious qualities, some of which have been known for some time. The crystal mostly used is clear quartz ground down to extreme thinness. Suitably connected to a source of power, the crystal may be made to oscillate at an absolutely constant speed. Its output of power is small, but that is a trifle, for valves are used to build the energy to a point where it is possible to govern a considerably greater amount of power. The modern listener is familiar with this phenomenon of harmonic emission. When listening to 2KY for example, the first harmonics of 3AR will be encountered. It occurs at double frequency, or, more popularly, of half wavelength. It is difficult to grind a quartz crystal down to a point where it will oscillate say 300 million times per second. Speeds of up to 20 million are fairly easy to secure. This corresponds to 50 metres wavelength. The first harmonic is 25 metres, and so this harmonic is selected and amplified to control a transmitter working on that wavelength. Owing to its mechanical nature the crystal never varies in speed of oscillation, so a crystal controlled transmitter has an absolutely constant wavelength. Such an advantage enables considerably smaller power to be used, and thus it has been possible to signal over distances of 10,000 miles with a receiving valve and a dry cell "B" battery.[258]

WIRELESS. Broadcasting Information. FEATURES FOR COMING WEEK. THE TRADES HALL STATION. This station has been used extensively during the present week for the transmission of Labour propaganda in favour of a "No" vote on both questions in the referendum issue to be voted on tomorrow. Mr. C. G. C. Christie, director of 2KY, stated yesterday that it was his intention to devote special sessions each day to the transmission of sporting information. On Monday nights Mr. W. M. Rutledge will criticise and give general information regarding topical sporting events. On Tuesday nights there will be a special service of racing news and sporting talks. On Wednesdays and Fridays Mr. T. G. Hopkins will give racing information and anticipations for the following Saturday events. Mr. E. R. Voigt, who is an Olympic 5-mile champion, is to broadcast athletic reminiscences and give hints on the training of athletes. Motor racing from the Speedway Royal is broadcast from the ringside by 2KY, and each Friday night this station gives a description of the fights at the Leichhardt Stadium.[259]

YOU SHOULD READ THIS CAREFULLY BEFORE YOU VOTE. A COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY OF LABOR'S STRONG CASE AGAINST THE REFERENDUM PROPOSALS. (Specially written for the "Labor Daily" by E. R. VOIGT.) (IN THIS ARTICLE Mr. E. R. Voigt, on behalf of the Combined "No" Committee, sums up Labor's case against the Referendum. In plain language, Mr. Voigt describes the two proposals, whose real import is so cunningly hidden in obscure verbiage, and the dangers are laid bare for all to see. THE greatest asset of the anti-Labor forces in Australia, as in every other community, is and always has been the ignorance of the masses. Never in the history of the Commonwealth has there been an occasion when the enemies of the workers have so obviously relied upon the ignorance of the public in order to snatch comprehensive and drastic powers for use against the trade union movement. The Premier of New South Wales Mr. Lang, has stated with truth that not one per cent. of the population of Australia has read or understands the bills upon which they are called upon to vote. Let us take these referendum proposals, strip them of their legal verbiage, and dissect them, for in the clear understanding of their dangerous nature lies the certainty of their defeat at the polls to-morrow. The referendum proposals comprise two bills, referred to popularly as the Industry and Commerce Bill, and the Essential Services Bill. Both bills are amendments of the Constitution. If passed by an unwary and unenlightened public their provisions cannot be altered or amended by any succeeding Labor Government. This tendency to curtail the power of Parliament and a corresponding tendency to augment the power of individuals runs like a ???? motif through the Bruce referendum proposals. It indicates more clearly than anything else the fundamental difference in viewpoint between the Nationalist Government and the Labor Party. The Industry and Commerce Bill deals with the provisions of section 51 of the Constitution Act, and provides for:— (1) A uniform company law. (2) Granting powers to the Federal Government to intervene in the individual States for the prevention and settlement of industrial disputes. (3) Investing these powers, together with other comprehensive new powers in the hands of authorities, acting independ-ently of Parliament. (4) Dealing with trusts and combina-tions in restraint of trade, trade unions and associations of employers and employees for industrial purposes, including the formation, dissolution, regulations and control thereof. There are two languages current in Australia: (1) Plain English, and (2) lawyers' English. No legal documents are written in plain English. If they were it is safe to say that many of the Acts now on the Statute Books would not have been tolerated by the public. For instance, if the Bruce Government wanted power to deport or imprison any working-class leaders to whom it objected, in place of stating the fact in plain English, it would doubtless enact a law giving the Government or its "authorities" power "TO TAKE SUCH ACTION AS MAY BE DEEMED NECESSARY FOR THE PEACE, ORDER AND GOOD GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH." This covers the whole ground and more — in phraseology to which no exception can be taken. It gives the authorities free scope to imprison, bomb?, starve, or deport at will. Expressed in plain English, such a law would arouse among the public the greatest indignation and opposition. Expressed in lawyers' English the Bill is slipped through, and the powers are there to be used when necessary or practicable. The Referendum Bills of the Bruce Government are couched in lawyers' English, just as vague, just as comprehensive, and just as dangerous to the organised worker as the hypothetical case cited above. The digest of the Industry and Commerce Bill here given represents an attempt to reduce the legal verbiage to something approaching plain English. Further translation will be made later. The most dangerous reactionary measures are those which contain some shadow of justice. A good case can be made out for the uniform company law contemplated under clause (1). This is a matter for the companies themselves, and does not closely concern the Labor Movement. The second clause, which deals with the granting of powers to the Federal Government to intervene in the individual States for the settlement of industrial deputes is one to which Labor would have no objection IN PRINCIPLE, although in the hands of an anti-Labor Government it might be open to grave objection IN PRACTICE. This is the clause that forms the basis of the claim made by some misguided Federal Labor leaders that the Industry and Commerce Bill corresponds with the Labor platform. If the bill contained this clause only there would be some justification for the claim of the Labor "Yes-Noers," but the very next clause (4) completely destroys any resemblance to the Labor platform. It does this by investing these powers IN THE HANDS OF AUTHORITIES ACTING INDEPENDENTLY OF PARLIAMENT. The Labor platform would give all existing industrial powers to the Federal Parliament. The Bruce referendum proposals would give no industrial power either to the Federal or to the State Parliament, but ALL POWER TO THE AUTHORITIES. These Authorities would be three judges, appointed for life. FROM WHOSE DECISIONS, RIGHT OR WRONG, THERE CAN BE NO APPEAL. Mr. Bruce himself stated in the Federal Parliament during the second reading of the bill that the powers to be given to these three Authorities would be "ABSOLUTE POWER, AS WIDE AS ANYONE CAN DESIRE." Mr. W. M. Hughes was no less frank. On June 3, he stated in the Federal Parliament (Hansard p. 2599). "WHEN THIS AUTHORITY HAS BEEN SET UP, PARLIAMENT CAN DO NOTHING." Mr. W. A. Watt, ex-Premier of Victoria, stated (Hansard, 2605): "Even if they were Angels in Heaven, I should hesitate to give them the enormous powers that are included in these extensions of powers." This stripping from Parliament of all industrial legislative power, and the concentration of such powers (together with new and greatly increased powers into the hands of three judges appointed by the Bruce Government for life, and irresponsible either to Parliament or People, is the very antithesis of the Labor Platform and is a gross outrage upon any civilised community. Well might Mr. Watt say (Hansard 2605): "If the policy of the Government in correlation with this bill is given effect. THESE THREE MEN WILL HOLD IN THE HOLLOW OF THEIR HANDS THE FORTUNES, PROSPECTS AND CAREERS OF AT LEAST 80 PER CENT. OF THE AUSTRALIAN PEOPLE." The Czar, the Kaiser and Mussolini, had no such power as Mr. Bruce and Mr. Charlton would give to these three Industrial Mussolinis. Let it be clearly understood that the powers to be given to these Authorities under the Referendum bills are NOT CONFINED TO ARBITRATION. Read carefully through clause (4) set out at the beginning of this article, and you will see a typical example of dangerous and drastic powers wrapped up in Lawyer's English, cunningly worded to provide the maximum power against Trade Unions, and the minimum power against Trusts and Combines. You will notice that the power over Trusts and Combines is qualified by the term "in restraint of trade." You will notice, too, that the power over Trades Unions HAS NO SUCH QUALIFICATION. Mr. Bruce himself exposed this sham control of Trust and Combines when he told his hearers in the Sydney Chamber of Commerce that: "THE DIFFICULTY OF PROVING RESTRAINT OF TRADE IN A COURT OF LAW IS SUCH that there need be no fear of interference with legitimate trade." The control over Trusts and Combines provided in the Referendum is not worth the paper it is written on. The only way to control a Trust is to nationalise or socialise it together with all the other means of production, distribution and exchange. Behind the "Control of Trusts" bait, you will notice the steel trap set for the Trade Unions. This trap is contained in the words: "FORMATION, DISSOLUTION, REGULATION AND CONTROL" of Trade Unions. Just what does that mean in plain English? It means that the Authorities appointed by the Bruce Government will have the power legally to proceed with the establishment of bogus Trade Unions. These bogus Trade Unions could be established in times of industrial peace with the specific object in weakening the organisation of the workers. Can you imagine anything more likely to create chronic industrial unrest? If the Prime Minister's "Authorities' do not intend to use this power, WHY PROVIDE FOR IT UNDER THE BILL? Again, under the term "DISSOLUTION," the Federal Government claims the right to SMASH ANY TRADE UNION TO WHICH IT MAY TAKE OBJECTION. That is the meaning of the term in plain English. If Mr. Bruce had had this power at the time of the Seamen's strike, can you imagine what would have happen-ed to the Seamen's Union? It would have run the almost certain risk of being LEGALLY DISSOLVED, as would any other big Trade Union whose members refuse to work upon terms which they considered unfair or unjust. But the most dangerous terms in this ridiculously comprehensive clause are those referring to the REGULATION AND CONTROL OF TRADE UNIONS. There is no definition of the term, "regulation and control." The terrific powers invested here over Trade Unions are limited only by the degree of possible malevolence or stupidity of the Authorities or by what the Trade Unions will suffer before they revolt against the operation of the law. Under this vague clause, the Authorlties could object to any Trade Union officer who displeases them, and order his removal. They could decide what should be done with the funds of the union, and refuse to allow these funds to be used for political pur-poses, for the support of workers on strike, or for the upkeep of the "Labor Daily and the Labor Wireless Station. This clause has no limits. It is itself the dizzy limit of legislation gone mad. It will be observed that the whole of this drastic and far-reaching clause concerning the formation, dissolution, regulation and control of Trade Unions has COMPLETELY ESCAPED THE NOTICE OF MR CHARLTON AND THE FEDERAL LABOR "YES-NOERS." In his speech before the All-Australian Trade Union Congress, Mr. Charlton never passed one word of reference to this dangerous anti-Trade Union clause. In spite of the furore of indignation which has arisen from the Trade Unions throughout Australia over this latest Bruce attempt to break down and control their organisations, both MR. BRUCE AND MR. CHARLTON KEEP SILENCE, and prefer to talk amiably, about Federal arbitration. This is not a matter of arbitration, State or Federal: IT IS A MATTER OF THE INVESTMENT OF POWERS IN THE HANDS OF INDUSTRIAL DICTATORS WHEREBY THEY CAN SMASH AND CONTROL TRADE UNIONS AT WILL. That is the issue which Mr. Charlton and Mr. Bruce evade. That is the measure on which Mr. Charlton urges the Labor Movement to vote "YES-YES." But that is the most dangerous of all the measures contained in the Bruce Referendum, and upon which EVERY SANE AND LOYAL LABOR MAN AND WOMAN MUST REGISTER A DECISIVE "NO" VOTE TO-MORROW. The second Referendum question dealing with Essential Services, is a monument of cunning Lawyer's English. It reads: "Protecting the interests of the public in case of actual or probable interruption of any essential service." In plain English, it means: GIVING THE BRUCE GOVERNMENT THE POWER TO ORGANISE STRIKE BREAKING GANGS, ARREST AND GAOL WORKERS EN MASSE WITHOUT WARRANT, SUSPEND ALL CIVIL LAW, USE THE NAVAL AND MILITARY FORCES TO BREAK STRIKES, AND INTRODUCE INDUSTRIAL CONSCRIPTION. There is no definition of the term "protecting" or of the phrase "interests of the public," or of the term "interruption," or of the phrase "essential services," and to make this power ABSOLUTE, the Government can bring down the mailed fist even if an interruption is PROBABLE in the dim and distant future. The Essential Services bill is so crude, so comprehensive, so ???? Federal Labor's "Yes-Noers" advocate an emphatic "NO" vote. Bur Mr. Bruce himself states that it is AN ESSENTlAL PART OF THE INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE BILL Now we know what to do. MAKE NO MISTAKE VOTE "NO" TWICE.[260]

"No," "No" — To-day's The Day. "NO" or — "NOTHING." That is the real issue confronting the electors of the Commonwealth today. Vote "No" — twice — you workers, or be — there is no need to mince matters — prepared to possess in the way of privileges, working and living conditions what you and your forebears had in the black past — before you organised into militant unions, and incepted the world's most progressive people's movement — just NOTHING. WE have heard the Prime Minister and his cronies make their excuses for fathering this fateful and very expensive Referendum. We have read all the feeble arguments that have been advanced in favor of these innocent-looking proposals to amend the Federal Constitution as it concerns industry and commerce and essential services. And we have come to just these conclusions: (1.) Mr. Bruce and his intimates hare talked with tongue in cheek. (2.) The Referendum is a high-power Tory bomb, intended to blast and shatter the foundations of the great edifice that the workers of this country are building. (3.) An affirmative vote will mean at least a quarter of a century's industrial martyrdom and struggling to win back ground lost. Mr. Bruce is a practised hypocrite. Do not overlook this fact. Most of the power he SAYS he wants, he ALREADY HAS. What he really wants is the power the people must NEVER GIVE to — ANYONE. We would direct the attention of those who did not read the article in our Friday's issue to the very lucid exposition of the position as summarised by Mr. E. R. Voigt on behalf of the Combined "No" Campaign Committee. Nothing more logical and effective has been written against the proposals. Also the statement issued by the Hornsby branch of the A.L.P.. elsewhere in today's issue, should be perused before going to the poll. Those whose crosses today do not go in the squares opposite "No," in both cases, are, in effect, conspiring with Mr. Bruce and Capitalism to:— (1.) Set up an authority of three exclusive Tory Judges, who, remote from any interference by the people (Parliament) During their lifetime, will have ABSOLUTE CONTROL of the lives and destinies of all workers and their kin. (2.) Give a confirmed Tory Government the MAXIMUM power against Trades Unions and the MINIMUM power against Trusts and Combines — power against workers that CAN and WILL be used in such way as to blast the Labor Movement, and prevent a workers' Government from winning the Treasury benches for many years to come. (3.) Form, dissolve, regulate, and control Trade Union, and ESTABLISH BOGUS TRADE UNIONS. (4.) Decide who is and who is not a SUITABLE union official. For instance, it might be considered that Mr. Dan. Rees and Mr. R. Heffron were not fit and proper officials. Imagine, say, Mr. Archdale Parkhill or Sir Thomas Henley displacing them! (5.) Close up the "LABOR DAILY" and the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station 2KY. (6.) Organise STRIKE-BREAKING gangs and ARREST and GAOL workers without warrant. (7.) Suspend all civil law and USE H.M.S. Melbourne and other war vessels and the citizen force to break strikes and WHIP the WORKER BACK to the JOB with T.N.T. and sharp, cruel bayonets. DO NOT "TRUST" HIM. Think before you vote. Imagine the conscripted trainee standing guard over his father who line protested at, say, the latest wage reduction, and increased hours of labor. SUCH A SITUATION WOULD NOT BE IMPOSSIBLE if we "TRUST" Mr. Bruce today. Don't "TRUST" him. Remember that under the law you must vote today, or be fined. Get to the poll good and early. It is fatal always to procrastinate. The indications are that the commonsense people of the Commonwealth will "wipe the floor" with Mr. Bruce and his proposals today, but FORMAL votes clinch all arguments. Remember! "NO," or — "NOTHING."[261]

WIRELESS. WIRELESS INSTITUTE ACTIVITIES. The New South Wales section of the Wireless Institute has arranged for an interesting broadcast experiment tomorrow night, when a short story dealing with Australian wireless, written for the purpose of encouraging listeners to join the Listeners' League, will be simultaneously placed on the air from 2FC, 2BL, 2KY, 2MK, and 2WI (the institute station on 250 metres). The simultaneous reception of the same item from five different stations should provide listeners-in with a unique form of entertainment, and an opportunity of making a test of the clarity and volume of the different stations transmitting.[262]

UNIQUE BROADCAST. Unique broadcasting will be carried out at 7.40 tonight, when a talk indicating the aims of the Listeners' League will be given, under the auspices of the Wireless Institute, from 2FC, 2BL, 2KY, 2MK, and the Wireless Institute station, 2WI (on 250 metres). The transmission will be simultaneous. In connection with Boys' Week, which is being promoted by the Rotary Club, an exhibition will be held at the Town Hull on September 30 and October 1. The Institute will arrange a wireless section, and four prizes will be given (1) for the best home-made crystal set made by a boy under 15; (2) for the best assembled valve set made by a boy under 19, (3) for the best single piece of home-made apparatus made by a boy under 19: and (4) for the best diagram in ink of a wireless hook up drawn by a boy under 19.[263]

WHY THE BIG "YES" VOTE IN N.S.W. AND QUEENSLAND? WHILE it is now clear that both referendum proposals will be defeated by an overwhelming majority, the most striking feature of the voting is the large vote cast in favor of the Bruce proposals in New South Wales and Queensland. The fact that the largest "Yes" vote in the Commonwealth was cast in the two States where Labor is most powerfully entrenched has undoubtedly come as a distinct shock to the Labor Movement. What is the explanation of this phenomenon? The capitalist Press informs us that the reason of the "Yes" vote in New South Wales is to be found in the revulsion of feeling of the "people" against the Lang Government. We are informed that the "people" (which just means the capitalists) are shocked at the state of the Governments's finances, at the wicked Worker's Compensation Act, and are burning with desire to put in another Government that will abolish the 44-hour week. We can afford to disregard this deliberate lie. Organisation — the Key. But the question remains, why is the "Yes" vote strongest in the very two States which possess the two most powerful and determined Labor Governments, and where the Labor Movement, political and industrial, stood in determined opposition to both proposals? The whole of this question turns upon the vital matter of ORGANISATION. Let us take the Nationalist side first. Mr. Pratten, Minister for Trade and Customs, stated yesterday:--Except perhaps in New South Wales, NONE OF THE REGULAR PARTY ORGANISATIONS CONCONDUCTED A CAMPAIGN IN FAVOR OF THE PROPOSALS. That is the first big factor in the New South Wales "Yes" vote. The Nationalist Party machine concentrated its energies in New South Wales to organise for the carrying of the referendum proposals. The fact that Mr. Bavin stood outside the party machine had little or no effect. The vote proved that. There can be no question but that the Nationalists were well organised in this State. Millions of leaflets were distributed, and practically every A.L.P. branch secretary was supplied with the "Yes" literature of Mr. Charlton and the Commonwealth Council of Federal Unions. The measure of Nationalist success in New South Wales is the measure of their effective organisation as compared with the Labor Party organisation. If we are not fully seized with that fact, then we have learned nothing from the referendum poll. The Victorian Result. In Victoria the failure of the "Yes" vote is due not so much to the solidarity and organisation of Labor opposition, as to the division and failure of Nationalism itself. This statement is not meant to belittle in any way the magnificent fight put up against the referendum proposals by the Victorian "No" campaign committee and the courageous band of stalwart trade unionists who stood out against Mr. Charlton and his Federal Labor "Yessers." All credit is due to these working men and women for the great fight they put up on behalf of the vital interests of the trades unions, but it is no use blinking at the fact that if the Victorian Nationalist Parliamentary Party, together with the whole of the Melbourne Nationalist Press, and the machine of the Victorian Nationalist Party, had been united in a campaign in favor of the referendum proposals, the voting in Victoria would have been radically different from what it is. In South Australia, Western Australia, and in Tasmania, according to Mr. Pratten, the regular Nationalist Party organisation was not used, as it was in New South Wales, to conduct an affirmative referendum campaign. The Lesson There can be no question that these important factors have largely contributed to the overwhelming "No" vote in these States. Summing up the position, therefore, New South Wales and Queensland bore the brunt of the Nationalist attack in the referendum. Nationalism concentrated where Labor was strongest. So far as New South Wales is concerned, the close election results clearly indicate the urgent necessity for the appointment of a permanent party organiser. In future it should not be possible for any anti-Labor Government to precipitate any election for which the Labor Movement is unprepared. Labor Party organising should not be hastily done at election times. It should be permanent, progressive, and should conform to a definite plan. That is the essential lesson of the referendum. E. R. VOIGT.[264]

PROPAGANDA BY WIRELESS. POSITION OF 2KY. "NO RESTRICTIONS." THE following statement has been sent to the "Sydney Morning Herald" by Mr. E. R. Voigt, on behalf of the wireless committee of 2KY Broadcasting Station:— "May I," said Mr. Voigt, "correct a wrong impression which may arise in the public mind from a statement made in your ('S.M. Herald') wireless column? Referring to the recent Referendum campaign, it is stated that: "The Trades Hall Station was nightly used for the delivery of addresses on the 'No' side, despite objections raised by the Post Office Department." "I desire to state that no objections to the use of 2KY for political purposes have been lodged with the management of the station by the Post Office Department, either during the Referendum campaign or at any other period during the existence of 2KY. "The statements concerning restrictions on political propaganda issued by the Post Office Department during the Referendum campaign referred only to 'A' class stations. QUITE IN ORDER. "A" class station receive the bulk of their revenue from the licence fees of listeners-in, and the Post Office Department deems it necessary, in the public interest, to see that the listeners-in receive value for their money in entertainment. Regarding political speeches as in an entirely different category from speeches on any other subjects or entertainment the P.M.G. has deemed it essential to entree drastic restrictions. "Such restrictions, however, do not apply to B class stations, such as 2KY which receive no revenue whatever from listeners-in fees. "It was stated on behalf of 2KY at its inception that the management proposed to conform to the wireless regulations. There is nothing in the wireless regulations which prohibits the use of 2KY in the manner in which it has been used during the Referendum campaign, or at any other time."[265]

HIGH POWER FOR 2GB. The Theosophical broadcasting station 2GB announces that it will be on its full licensed power of 3000 watts, on Wednesday next, and the occasion will be commemorated by the presentation of a special programme. On Sunday last the large valves imported for the station arrived, and no time has been lost in fitting them and preparing for the increased power. Up to the present the station has operated on an input of 800 watts. Even on the lower input the station appears to have operated extremely successfully, congratulatory letters having been received from other States and New Zealand. The special programme on Wednesday night will include a diversity of instrumental and vocal numbers, and there will be several instructional addresses concerning the station, which should prove interesting. The constructional engineer, Mr. E. G. Beard, will lecture on the power and potentialities of the new station, and Bishop Arundale will deliver a short address on the subject of 2GB. The transimission of 2GB on its present power makes it somewhat of a feat for listeners on the ordinary three circuit tuner, or on a crystal set to receive 2BL or 2KY without interference from 2GB. It is anticipated that this difficulty will be intensified when 2GB goes on its increased power. On Monday night Mr. Beard, the engineer who constructed 2GB, announced from that station that the Theosophical Society was arranging for the supply of wave traps at reduced prices to obviate the three local stations, that are on a close wave band, interfering with each other. Obviously the only way to prevent this interference is for the Post Office to reallocate the wave lengths of the stations whose transmissions interfere with each other.[266]

RADIO WOULD PREVENT RAIL DISASTERS. (BY E. R. VOIGT, Chairman, 2KY Radio Committee.) THE Murulla disaster need never have occurred if the trains of New South Wales were equipped with radio telephones, such as are used today on the trains in Germany and in Russia. It often needs a grave disaster to shock us out of the old-established rut in which we are embedded, and to realise that dangerous risks are still being run — risks which the advance of science and invention renders quite unnecessary. If both trains in the Murulla accident had been equipped with simple and comparatively inexpensive radio apparatus, it would have been an easy matter to radio at once to all trains within, say, 100 mile, details of the direction taken by the breakaway trucks. Once the direction of the runaway trucks was fixed the oncoming passenger train could have taken adequate steps to avoid the crash. Why is it necessary to incur terrible loss of life to bring the authorities to the realisation that science has already provided the means for its avoidance? But not only in the avoidance of such disasters as that of Murulla would the provision of radio telephone on trains benefit the community. There is a vast field of utility for radio-equipped trains in the quick and economic transaction of the multitudinous business of the whole railway system. The railways themselves are a vast network of communication, and as such they should be in the forefront in the adoption of the most modern, the quickest, and the most economical method of communication yet discovered — radio communication.[267]

WIRELESS. WIRELESS AND POLITICS. In a statement the wireless committee of the Trades Hall broadcasting station (2KY) asserts "that no objections to the use of 2KY for political purposes have been lodged with the management of the station by the Post Office Department, either during the referendum campaign or at any other period during the existence of 2KY. The statements concerning restrictions on political propaganda issued by the Post Office Department during the referendum campaign referred only to 'A' class stations. 'A' class stations receive the bulk of their revenue from the license fees of listeners-in, and the Post Office Department deems it necessary in the public interest to see that the listeners-in receive value for their money in entertainment. Regarding political speeches as in an entirely different category from speeches on any other subjects or entertainment, the Postmaster-General has deemed it essential to enforce drastic restrictions. Such restrictions, however, do not apply to 'B' class stations, such as 2KY, which receive no revenue whatever from listeners-in fees."[268]

RADIO ON THE RAILWAYS. (By C. C. FAULKNER, Director Radio Broadcast Bureau.) There is a method of using radio for the prevention of railway accidents simpler even than that explained by Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman 2KY Radio Committee in yesterday's "Labor Daily." My suggestion was that the Railway Commissioners should equip the principal passenger trains — such as the Moree Mail — with radio telephones. These are used in Russia and Germany (as Mr. Voigt points out), so that business people and others in the cities can ring up travellers on the train and talk to them just the same as to ordinary telephone subscribers. The conversations are carried along telephone wires at the side of the railway, and have only a few feet to skip from the telephone line through the air to the radio receiver on the train. In the case of the Murulla accident, as soon as the goods train broke away some one would have run to the telephone in the Murulla station office and telephoned the oncoming mail train. In this particular case there was (so far as I can estimate) only about three to five minutes to spare, as the goods train travelled one and a half miles on the main line before the collision occurred, so that it is impossible that in any case the accident might not have been averted. But there was time to try, and the consequences of the accident suggest that the Commissioners might well take into consideration the question of equipping their trains with a radio service. Apart from value of radio to prevent accidents of this kind, radio reception on long-distance trains has proved in Canada particularly an excellent means of whiling away the tedium. From the time a passenger leaves one side of Canada till he reaches the other — a journey of over 3000 miles — he can constantly hear broadcasting stations. It has also been tried on trains in this State, and has proved successful. The cost to equip a passenger train like the Melbourne Limited Express with a receiving set and 26 pairs of head 'phones would be about £200.[269]

MURULLA DISASTER: RADIO ON THE RAILWAYS. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman 2KY Radio Committee.) THE statement published in the "Labor Daily" on Friday last by Mr. C. C. Faulkner, Director Radio Broadcast Bureau, in regard to the avoidance of the terrible disaster at Murulla by the provision of trains with radio telephones, should appeal to the intelligence and to the humanitarian instincts of every thoughtful man and woman. The fact that it is now readily within the reach of the railway authorities to prevent a recurrence of such shocking disasters through the application of a simple and comparatively inexpensive means of inter-train radio communication should not only be borne in mind by the public, but should be impressed upon those in authority, upon whose shoulders rests the responsibility for the reasonably safe transit of the community by railway. In Australia, every train which leaves the railway station becomes "blind." In its "blind" rush from place to place it is guided by signalmen from point to point and from line to line. But all trains are "blind" as to what is in front of them. Any uncalculated happening or accident, such as that which occurred with the breakaway trucks at Murulla generally means disaster. With the great growth and increasing complexity of our railway system, it becomes ever more urgent that our trains should not be allowed to run "blind." The system of railway communication which was suitable for traffic twenty or fifty years ago becomes totally inadequate today and scientific engineering has already provided for considerably enlarging our railway communications by the provision of inter-train communication, as well as communication between moving trains and the multitudinous offices, works and institutions comprised in our network of telephonic communication. Mr. Faulkner refers to the wide-spread adoption of radio on trains in Canada; Mr. Lynn Rudolph submits details of the employment of radio telephones on trains and ships in Rus-sia; I have already described in these columns the regular radio service conducted in fast-running trains in Germany. What is Australia doing in this development of railway communication? Nothing whatever. Yet it is a curious fact that the N.S.W. Department of Works and Railways is at present proceeding with the construction and installation of an extensive system of radio communication which rivals the plans now before the Government. These plans comprise the erection and installation of eight radio transmitting stations. There will be four land stations, of approximately 500 watts power each, situated at Barren Jack, Gundagai, Murrumburrah and Cootamundra, and four portable stations. This extensive system of radio communication will be used in conjunction with the Barren Jack hydro-electric scheme. In case of breakdowns or where the ordinary communication which would be in the usual course conducted by telephone or telegraph is called for, this will now be conducted by radio. Tenders were called for land wire, wired wireless, and straight-out wireless systems, and the latter was adopted. The saving to the department in cost of installation and also in upkeep over the usual telephone or wired wireless must be very substantial, and the straight-out wireless system in addition is very much more flexible. By no other system would it have been possible to provide for portable stations, and the utility of the latter, particularly in cases of reconstruction or breakdowns, will at once be apparent. In view of the activity of the Department of Works and Railways in radio communication, it surely cannot be long before the urgent necessity for the provision of trains with radio telephones is duly recognised and acted upon in the interests of the safety of the travelling community. These beginnings of radio activity in Governmental departments naturally at once raises the question of some central State Department for radio communications. All the plants installed will need to be maintained and kept in efficient working order, and it is but in the nature of economy and efficiency that the development of radio communication in such departments as the Railways, Works, Police or the Fire Boards should conform to a common plan, with common standards of efficiency and a central maintenance department. Reverting to radio on trains, it is a curious fact that in spite of the lack of radio equipment on trains in Australia it was in Australia where the first successful experiments in radio communication from moving trains were accomplished. These successful experiments were conducted by Mr. George Taylor, now president of the Association for Developing Wireless in Australia.[270]

IN CANADA PASSENGERS LISTEN IN. WITH reference to the exclusive articles in the "Labor Daily" by Mr. E. R. Voigt (chairman of the Trades Hall Broadcasting Committee), and Mr. C. C. Faulkner (director of the Radio Broadcast Bureau, on the value of radio for preventing railway collisions, an interesting article appears in the latest issue of the London "Radio Times." The Canadian National Railways (writes Captain L. F. Plugge) were the first railway system in the world to adopt radio as a part of the regular service of transportation, and a chain of broadcasting stations radiating in-formation and entertainment, north, south, east and west across the continent of North America, has been established with powerful links in Montreal, Moncton, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Saskatoon, Edmonton, and Calgary. The first radio transmissions from a station to a moving train were successfully carried out under the direction of Sir Ernest Rutherford, on October 13, 1902. Sir Ernest was then Professor of Physics at McGill University of Montreal. In 1925 the Canadian National Railways was the first transportation system to establish wireless as a definite part of the service to be rendered to the public. The Canadian National Railways have at present some nine stations working throughout Canada. These stations do not broadcast daily, but as a rule something like twice a week, which somehow corresponds to the position of the transcontinental trains. The call signs allotted to these stations have been distributed in a very consistent manner. These call signs are of four letters, all of them beginning with CNR, which stands for "Canadian National Railways," followed by a letter which is the first letter of the town in which it is situated: thus we get CNRO for Ottawa; CNRW for Winnipeg; CNRM for Montreal. There is one exception to this, how-ever, namely, Moncton, and this call sign is CNRA, to avoid confusion with Montreal. The wave-length of the station varies between 313 and 517 metres. Most station transmit on a power of 500 watts, but there are two which use 750 and two 1 k.w. Plans are now under consideration by officials of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, which depart-ment has control of wireless and radio in Canada, for a standardisation of wave-length by cities, and changes have already been made during this month to the Montreal and Toronto station, which have been respectively changed from 435 metres to 410, and 356 to 350 metres. Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada, is the most easterly of the Canadian National Railways' radio chain, and the most easterly of all wireless stations in North America. It is quite consistently heard in Great Britain when it broadcasts on Tuesday and Friday nights. The difference in time between Moncton and Britain is only four hours. This is the smallest difference in time between any American time and England. It was from this station that a special programme was recently broadcast for the British Isles. This station is one of the remote control type, the studio being situated at some distance from the panels and the aerials, so as to avoid extraneous noises and to obtain greater clarity of tone. All transcontinental trains of the C.N.R. and other principal trains are equipped with wireless receiving sets, by means of which entertainment for passengers is provided when the train is in motion or at a standstill at a station. Reception on such trains is very clear, covering a wide range. The aerials used consist of a seven-strand double wire placed on the roof of the library observation cars. The sets are operated on a loud-speaker or head-phones, according to the requirements of passengers. Last Christmas, for the entertainment of children, all stations of the chain prepared a special broadcast of Santa Claus. Children were invited to write, explaining their wants, and the response to this appeal was so great that the clerical staff at the various centres were compelled to spend many extra hours acknowledging receipt on behalf of the time-honored patron of childhood.[271]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By "Catwhisker") EASIER TUNING. HOW 2FC's CHANGE WILL AFFECT RECEIVING SETS. How will 2FC's change of wave length, which will be made at 7 a.m., on October 2, affect the type of set used by the average listener? As in most changes of the kind, there will probably be some confusion followed by complaints, but when things settle down it will be found to be a change for the better. IN the first place, sets must be selective. As a matter of fact, they must be selective now, for with the operations of 2KY and 2GB, to say nothing of 2UW, the single slider crystal set and the PI valve circuit ceased to have any real utility, except in cases where the users were favorably situated in regard to the broadcasting stations. A margin of at least 89 metres will separate the two 5 k.w. stations here. This, in the opinion of the P.M.G.'s Department, is reasonably adequate. It is pretty safe to prophesy that a set which is selective now in rela-tion to Sydney stations will be selec-tive after October 2, notwithstanding that this will be the first occasion in Australia that two 5 k.w. stations have operated so close together on low wave lengths. The man with a loose coupler will suddenly find that half of his windings will be of no use, because there will be no longer any need to tune up to 1100 metres. The best thing he can do is to tune in to 442 metres, measure about 20 turns beyond that point, and cut the remaining wire off to eliminate dead-end losses. If he wishes to receive ships, he will, of course, go beyond 600 metres, UNTUNED PRIMARY As to the valve user, he will find tuning considerably simplified. If he wishes, he may leave his set as it is at present. That is to say, if he is using a tuned aerial and tuned secondary with honeycomb coils or spider web coils he may leave them as they are. But he will find his 100 and 150 turn coils interesting relics. The big advantage is that the change will permit the use of an aperiodic (untuned) primary, and so the number of controls will be lessened by one, and the need for changing coils eliminated. The primary may consist of from five to ten turns of wire arranged on a former, or in any recognised method. No variable condenser will be needed with it. The secondary should consist of a coil of from 50 to 60 turns, with a .0005 variable condenser across it. The reaction coil is unaltered. To tune in turn the condenser dial, and if necessary move the reaction coil — and that's all there is to it. To stabilise the set the lead from the filament to the lower end of the secondary coil may be connected to earth. Those listeners with sets which include a switch-over arrangement to get 2FC will find the switch and the coils connected to it obsolete.[272]

2KY MEETING. The committee of 2KY wireless has an important meeting at 10 o'clock this morning at the Trades Hall. Through an oversight this engagement was not communicated to Mr. J. A. Beasley (president of the Labor Council) yesterday. As Mr. Beasley has been resting since his return from the Geneva Conference, the committee has not been able to get in touch with him and seek the columns of this paper to communicate their desire.[273]

Magic Wireless. By "Triode." Exit the Long Wave Length. WHAT will be the effect on wireless receivers when 2FC comes down to the lower wave length? One will be that we will have better wireless. Receivers that have been able to hear 2BL and 2FC without any trouble because they were so far apart, and 2KY by itself with a little trouble, will now have to improve so that 2FC can be separated from 2BL. The differences in the wave lengths are obtainable by varied sizes of coils, but it will be found in some cases that the receiver will need improvement in other respect if you wish to hear one station by itself and not an interesting duet, with one discoursing (short talk) on the best bait to catch spider's with, and the other with several sizes in saxophones playing a merry tune. A margin of about 90 metres between two five-kilowatt stations requires some tuning. The set that is selective now will be selective when the change is made, but those who seek to eliminate waste will shorten their coils. The loose coupler that receives 2FC will have a lot of useless wire, and the best plan is for it to be unwound. It can be done experimentally, unwinding a little and trying the effect, bit by bit. The 100 and 150 turn coils will not be of much use on this side of the continent, though it must be remembered that Perth station is still up in the long wave rank. The condenser many sets have had on the aerial can be taken out. In that position it simply shortens the aerial, and as all the Sydney stations will require about the same length there will be no need for it. The necessity for changing coils will also lessen or be done away with. Primary and secondary of, say, 30 and 50 turns should serve in most cases; but there is no definite rule possible. Here the spider formers are useful. Made of cardboard with arms, the wire wound in and out, and the ends made fast to holders of bakelite that can he bought for the purpose with the legs to plug in, a few turns can easily be put on or taken off. Then if honeycomb coils are desired they can be wound, or purchased, accordingly. For the standard three-coil regenerative receiver try 50, 75, and 75 tuned on the primary, with a .001 condenser for the secondary at a .0005. So far as "the trade" is concerned there will be changes. The imported American sets will gain an advantage, as they are made for the lower wave-length band in the vicinity of 500 and 600 metres, and cannot receive the 1100-metre station without alteration. The cheap sets will become dearer. It is easy to make a simple receiver that will receive two stations nearly 1000 metres apart. To receive and hear them separately requires something different, and more expensive material will become necessary. The buyers of complete sets will require to consult with the makers if they find they cannot get each station clearly and without interference from the others. The amateur who builds his own will, of course, experiment on the lines of the foregoing, and will soon find out what is wanted.[274]

1926 10[edit]

WIRELESS. Interference Problems. MORE WAVE-LENGTH CHANGES. The increase in the transmitting power of the Theosophical Society's station (2GB) has caused a fresh volume of complaints concerning interference to reach the broadcasting stations and the Post Office Department. Strict tests of the transmission of 2GB have been made by the radio experts of the Post Office during the past week, and it has been found that the station is steadily adhering to its licensed wave length, and that no fault can be found with either the power used or the modulation. Despite this, 2BL has been inundated with complaints that in certain districts it is impossible to receive 2BL without such interference from 2GB that clear and regular reception of other station is almost impossible. Judging by the nature of the complaints, it seems that the users of valve sets are suffering nearly as much by the distortion caused by interference as are the users of crystal sets. Both 2BL and 2GB have, during the past week, spent some time in explaining over the air how the interference can be obviated. Briefly, the suggestions are to get more selective receivers, or to put a wavetrap on the present receivers, whether they be crystal or valve sets. On the other hand, the letters from listeners invariably assert that it is unfair to compel them to pay anything from £1 to £5 or more to have their present receivers made selective, or to compel them to scrap the present sets in favour of a super-selective receiver. Many listeners say that if the interference continues they will have no option but to dismantle their aerials and discontinue paying the license fee. Radio dealers and the Post Office Department admit that there is every possibility of a great many listeners cancelling their licenses owing to the problems arising from interference, but they contend that the number doing so will be small compared with the number who will take out new licenses when the wave length of all the high-class stations is brought within the broadcast band. Listeners who are seriously inconvenienced by interstation interference should make their complaints direct to the radio inspector at the Post Office, and also to the broadcasting station concerned. The broadcast stations have expressed their willingness to do all they can to assist listeners, but they recommend that in the case of commercial sets the dealer from whom the set was purchased should be appealed to in the first instance for advice and assistance. It is contended that many receivers which at present tune "broadly" can be made sufficiently selective to separate all the high-powered State stations at a comparatively small cost. Members of the Wireless Institute, whose head office is in the Royal Society's rooms, Elizabeth-street, have also expressed their willingness to help listeners. It may be that some members of the Institute residing in the district where there are many complaints from interference, and that their advice may be received "on the spot" and by an actual test of the receiving set. It will thus be seen that there are so many means of assistance for listeners that it is not necessary for any owner of a receiving set to suffer for a prolonged period from interference. MORE WAVE-LENGTH CHANGES. There are indications that the radio experts of the Post Office Department have taken serious notice of the interference, and that the result will be a further change in the licensed wave length of some of the more powerful of the broadcast stations in this State. It is realised that the primary responsibility of the Post Office is to protect the two "A" class stations from unnecessary interference, as it is for the programmes of these two stations that the license fee is paid. The new wave length of 2FC has been fixed sufficiently above 2BL to preclude the possibility of its being interfered with by any other station in this State. The reception of some interstate stations may possibly be rendered more difficult by the placing of another high powered local station on the broadcast band, but listeners who desire to receive inter-state stations can easily provide themselves with sufficiently powerful and selective sets to make distant reception a very simple matter. But there is no good and sufficient reason for the maintenance of 2BL, 2GB, and 2KY so close to each other. In order to get over the difficulty of interference 2BL has informed the Post Office Department, in reply to questions, that it is willing to vary its wave length by 25 metres either way, but preferably lower than at present, and to put in crystal control, so as to secure absolute precision in its transmission. The Post Office Department has not, as yet, signified its decision on this matter, further than by a non-committal intimation that the wave lengths of all the "B" class stations in New South Wales are now under consideration, and that the intention is that they shall be removed sufficiently far from the "A" class stations as to preclude the possibility of their causing any interference on reasonably selective receivers. Radio dealers are urging that an early decision be come to by the Post Office Department on this matter, and also on the question of the relay stations, in order that the unsettled conditions now ruling in the radio industry may be removed as quickly as possible.[275]

HIGH COST OF RADIO AMUSEMENT MUST BE REDUCED. IF NO RELIEF, STATE GOVERNMENT SHOULD ACT. The high cost of listening-in should be reduced — and the services given by the broadcasting monopolists should be improved. Unless both these phases of our domestic wireless affairs are attended to — the costs reduced and the services improved — the holders of listening licenses will be justified in demanding of the Federal Government that it should take over the broadcasting work itself. If the Federal Government — the present custodians of the interests of listeners — fails, then recourse can be had only to the State Government, with the request that it should take up broadcasting work. The cost of a wireless license is 27/6, and of that 2/6 goes to the public revenue. It is really a collecting fee. The power and might of the chief Government of the land is at the disposal of the broadcasting companies — they enjoy police protection, so to speak, for half-a-crown per head of the license-holders. They have no bad debts on their books — no worries, no troubles, no cares. The two A class stations in Sydney divide up 25/ of every license fee — Farmers 2FC station getting 70 per cent., or 17/6, and Broadcasters Limited 2BL, 30 per cent., or 7/6. Between the two they are getting far too much from the people, and, between the two they are not giving as good a service as we think the license payers are entitled to expect. Possibly the chiefs of the broadcasting companies will claim that as they are satisfying the demands of a not over interested public department, they are giving all that need be given; possibly they will claim that they are doing their best, but that claim will not be much consolation to those who do the paying, and have no power to call the tune. Possibly there will be some listeners-in satisfied with paying what they do, and willing to put up with what is offered to them, but that will not dispose of the grievances of the general body of owners of licensed sets. There is a regulation providing that a Government officer shall inspect the programmes offered for the consumption of the license-holders, but it is an illuminating sidelight on the whole business to learn that that inspection is a sort of go-as-you-please affair that takes place as often as once a month. Sydney listeners-in have been given a bad time during the recent past, because the wave length of 2BL (353 metres) is too close to that of 2KY (280 metres), 2GB (400 metres), and 2XT (255 metres). From 7 o'clock this morning station 2FC will operate on a 442 metres wave length, and the result for listeners will be a jumble. The average set owner who wants to hear the oft-repeated music of "Rose Marie" does not wish to have it served up to him with a fairy tale or a lecture on vitamines, or a comic song loosed into the air by another station. It might be a great advantage to possess a receiving set that will take all the stations, but all the joys of that advantage disappear when, because of the relativity of the wave lengths, all the programmes tumble in a mixed up musical mess or talkative tangle, and cannot be sorted out. Another grievance of listeners is that they are too often served up what can be regarded as second-hand music. They patronize the theatres and then get the theatres' music wished on to them over the wireless. That is not fair to those listeners who are theatregoers — and with the general mix-up due to the present wave lengths it is hardly fair to the artists.[276]

RADIO DOWN ON THE FARM: EXAMPLE FROM AMERICA. AT the Producers and Consumers Conference recently concluded at Bathurst, the question of the advantages of radio broadcasting was freely discussed among several groups of town and country delegates. It may with truth be stated that today we have only Sydney broadcasting, for the bulk of the dwellers in country areas in New South Wales either cannot afford to purchase expensive valve sets, or are not disposed to take their first plunge into radio by an expenditure of £50 or more. The establishment of a number of Relay Broadcasting Stations in country areas, such as is contemplated both by the Labor Government and by the Nationalist Party, would for the first time place radio reception within the reach of the land population as a whole. In this respect it is interesting to note what is being done in America at the present time. The first Radio Farm College was organised by the Kansas State Agricultural College. This State Institution has an enrolment of over 5000 ???? farmers, all of them bona-fide students. In all branches of agriculture, instruction is daily broadcast by the State's own broadcasting station. KSAC, at specified study time, and tuned in to, not only by the 5000 farmer students, but by many thousands of men on the land who are not actually enrolled as students. Examinations are conducted by the State College over the air, and certificates for proficiency are granted to students in the various agricultural subjects listed. So successful has the Kansas State experiment proved that the U.S. Government has now decided to establish on a large scale a U.S. Govt. Radio Farm School, under the jurisdiction of Mr. S. Pickard, Chief of the Radio Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. By these arrangements the Government will take over ten or twelve important broadcasting stations, situated at strategic points across the union. Lessons will be broadcast dealing with crops, horticulture, livestock and poultry. All the subjects will be treated by specialists assigned to perform this task, so that the farmers will have at their disposal the most scientific and up-to-date information which the Government can provide. Under this scheme, it is contemplated that over one million farmers will enrol at the Radio Farm School of the Department of Agriculture at Washington. A farmer stands in a different category from most students in other lines, for he can apply his newly-acquired knowledge day by day in his work on the farm. Farms in U.S.A. will be transformed into scientific laboratories and college certificates will be issued to farmers, without requiring them to leave the land which they till. The Radio Farm School of the U.S. Department of Agriculture constitutes a most revolutionary departure in the use of radio as a means of imparting instruction. It marks also the break-up of the old misconception that radio broadcasting and reception are conducted for amusement only, and indicates very clearly to all those who have followed the development of radio communication, that there is before us an immense field of development in education, in commerce, and in industry which radio is destined to invade and to dominate. The schedule of the U.S. Government Radio Farm School will remain in operation all the year round. The year will be divided into four quarters, and information suitable to the respective farming seasons will be broadcast by radio throughout the year. The subject of livestock, for example, includes brief and concise lectures on the feeding and management of sheep, cattle, pigs and horses. Courses in poultry are divided into the four quarters of the year, and are given in accordance with the seasonal requirements of poultry raising. George Washington, who had a vision of a National University, in his most far-sighted moments never dreamed of a U.S. Government Radio Farm School reaching a million or more isolated farm homes. And what is possible in America is also possible in New South Wales.— E. R. VOIGT, Chairman, 2KY Wireless Committee.[277]

NEW RULES FOR A.L.P. CONFERENCE. COUNTRY ORGANISATION. GENERAL OUTLINE. ALTHOUGH the Rules Committee appointed by the first A.L.P. Conference was to draw up a revised constitution ???? the Party was instructed to report to next Conference and is therefore not ???? to issue its report in the meantime the committee is nevertheless of the opinion that the rank and file of the movement is entitled to be informed before conference of the general and basic principles upon which the new rules are and constitution are based. The committee considers that this procedure is all the more desirable and necessary in view of the malicious misrepresentations regarding the work of the Rules Committee which are appearing from time to time in the anti-Labor Press. The committee therefore decided to instruct the secretary of the committee acting in conjunction with the chairman to publish in the "Labor Daily," a series ??? statements outlining the ???? ???? the new rules and ???? which will be submitted to the Special ???? A.L.P. executive. Country Interests. The first charge upon the Rules Committee in undertaking work of revision was to provide country members of the party with ???? country organisations for the trans -action of all those matters which are of paramount interest to Labor men and women on the land. The committee had a very definite mandate from the first annual Conference to make this special provision for country members. To accomplish this important task. the new constitution provides for the grouping of the State Party into two main groups: (1) Metropolitan, (2) Country. Provincial Conferences Just prior to the annual general Conference each main group will convene an annual provincial Conference. It is the A.P.C. that will deal with the mass of business placed upon the agenda by the various leagues and unions. At the last annual Conference, the agenda contained no fewer than 400 items, and this immense mass of business should have been submitted to an unwieldy conference composed of over 350 delegates. Such a conference would have required months to deal adequately with the business before it. Under the new rules, the two provincial Conferences will undertake the task of working through the agenda, and a considerably reduced volume of business will be handed over for the annual general Conference to settle. Fewer Delegates The annual general Conference will be composed of a considerably reduced number of delegates, and the method of its selection will be dealt with in a subsequent statement. The specific object of the reduction of the number of delegates attending the A.G.C. is quite obviously to ensure the business of the unions and leagues receiving adequate consideration. The country delegates for the first time, will, therefore, be able to secure adequate discussion and consideration of country matters not only at their own provincial Conference, but also at the annual general Conference. For the purposes of more effective and closer organisation the country will be divided into three divisions: North, West-Central and South. Labor in the Country. The special organisation of the country members provided for under the new rules conform on general principles with the proposals put forward by the country group at the last annual Conference, and will unquestionably greatly strengthen country representation within the ranks of the party. It will do more; by providing for the adequate consideration of country matters (which is not practicable under the old rules) the power and influence of the Labor Party in country centres will be greatly increased. The Rules Committee appointed by last Conference comprised Messrs. A. C. Willis (chairman), M. Griffin, W. Webster, J. Kilburn, Ald. Mostyn, E. C. Magrath, and E. R. Voigt (secretary). The amended rules dealing with country members have had the unanimous support of the country members of the committee.[278]

OTHER STATES. SYDNEY TOPICS. From Our Correspondent. . . . TROUBLE IN RADIO. Trouble has arisen again in the wireless circle owing to the intrusion of the Theosophical Station 2GB on a wave length of 326 metres. It has been in working order, three nights a week, for some time, but lately increased its power, with the result that many receivers are practically useless when 2GB is on the air. The average receiver in inexpert hands — which is probably the case with the majority — gets the Trades Hall (280 metres) and Broadcasters Ltd. (353 metres) and the Theosophical Station all together. Consequently complaints are heard on every hand. This week they will probably be greater, as Farmer's are commencing on their new allocation of 442 metres wave length. The principal stations are now all within a range of 280 to 442 metres, and some revision is anticipated. The State is slow in its growth in radio, the number of licences being far below those of Victoria, and as the expense of alteration of sets to meet the new conditions will amount to perhaps £1, or in some cases to more, it is probable that some will be cancelled. 2BL and 2GB are broadcasting information about making receivers selective so as to overcome the difficulty, with wave traps and otherwise, and 2BL has intimated to the Postal department that it is willing to vary its wave length 25 metres either way in order to provide a larger gap.[279]

Radio — The Boon. An All-round Comfort, Wonderful Growth. (By C. C. FAULKNER). RADIO in N.S.W. is steadily increasing in popularity. Something in the nature of a boom is with us. Yet the enlarged business seems to be on a firm basis, and not likely to fall off. What is the cause of this activity in wireless? Broadcasting is just three years old with us, yet it has grown into a great industry, supporting something like 400 licensed dealers in New South Wales, and employees of one kind and another running into thousands. Whereas three years ago the only radio known in this State apart from commercial wireless consisted of amateurs conversing with each other, and an occasional concert broadcast by some more ambitious amateur. We now have in New South Wales two "A" class stations, which are comparable with the best in the world from the point of view of service rendered to the public; two or three "B" class stations, which remain on the air late at night and broadcast at other off times when no other aerial entertainment is available, and sundry experimental stations. The effect of this radio activity is very far reaching. A consignment of wool, a few trucks of sheep, cattle, or of farm produce, arrives at the metropolitan market; the date of their arrival has probably been fixed because the producer hundreds of miles away in the country has learned from his radio set that the market is likely to be favorable. Or a drover, nursing a flock of sheep along the stock routes of the drought-stricken areas, may suddenly change the direction in which he is travelling, because overnight he has heard the Government Meteorologist in Sydney sending out word of rain in a particular area, with the promise of more to come. At the present moment perhaps the drover is nursing his charges along the dusty road, but now he knows that if he can travel them for another week or ten days to the place indicated he will find new grass springing from the formerly parched earth. The information he has picked up on his portable set may mean a saving of thousands of pounds, and probably he could not have learned it within a week, if ever, by other means of communication. Thus in many ways radio is helping to eliminate waste, and so keep down the cost of living. The year that has passed has seen the first Labor radio station in the world spring into life, and 2KY is now on the air nightly from the Sydney Trades Hall. It gives out a political philosophy of its own kind. Hundreds, perhaps thousands, have joined the ranks of radio listeners as the result of the building of this new station. The new Theosophical station, 2GB, has also its following. Both the A class stations have increased their power, and between them, together with 2KY and the other B class stations — not to speak of inter-State and oversea radiocasters — sufficient entertainment is sent through the air daily and nightly to keep everyone from feeling dull. That all this radio activity is to the community's good cannot be doubted. Residents of the remotest parts of the State are finding their sense of isolation broken down. By the turn of a dial they can tune in a time-payment radio set to a discussion on international affairs, and if they like to get on to a telephone they can challenge the lecturer by ringing up the broadcasting station and having their conflicting opinion broadcast to the world. Children who have never seen the sea can hear the thunder of the surf and the shouting of the beach crowds as a broadcast station places on the air all the sounds of a surf carnival. Hospital patients are being brightened by concerts and lectures by radio. Sporting men learn the results of the races within a minute of the finish. In the case of Randwick and Moorefield they hear each race described by an expert eye-witness while the race is being run. Bed-ridden and aged folk hear church services twice each Sunday; the best bands in the land are to be heard almost any night. Theatres are broadcast — whole acts of operas and dramas at a time. Radio has an unlimited field. As printing can be used to record any words, so the broadcasting stations can, and do, place on the air the sound of anything worth while.[280]

1926 11[edit]

SELECTIVE SET. OFFICIALLY ENDORSED. Crystal users who desire to build a really selective set should study the one described and illustrated below. It is recommended by the radio inspector (Mr. Crawford), and has been exhaustively tested by members of his staff. With the set situated about 300 yards from Sandel's station, from 2BL, 2KY, or 2GB, these stations have been satisfactorily cut out. No test has yet been made close to 2FC, but the radio officials believe that it would prove equally efficient there. The circuit is an example of the fact that there is nothing new under the sun. It was patented more than 25 years ago, but has been allowed to fall more or less into disuse. At first glance it bears a strong likeness to the orthodox two-circuit crystal circuit. It differs from that, however, in that the ordinary procedure is reversed, and the secondary coil made smaller than the primary. The other difference is that a .001 variable condenser is placed across the secondary coil, instead of the usual .0005. The argument in favor of these changes is that a small inductance (32 turns) and a large condenser (.001) in the secondary makes for a "stiff circuit," which, while it loses somewhat in sensitivity, is very selective. With high power stations all around us sensitivity is not the vital factor that it was. Following are the official recommendations regarding parts required:— Aerial, about 80ft. to 100ft., total length; two .001 variable condensers; spider web coil of 50 turns No. 23 S.W.G.; spider web coil of 32 turns No. 22 S.W.G.; crystal detector; one .001 fixed condenser; telephones; earth connection. The price of the set, without the aerial, works out at £2 13s 2d, but radio officials explain that in estimating this they have taken the cheapest prices they could find. The cheapest goods, of course, are not necessarily the best. The price is made up as follows:— Two variable condensers, £1 4s 6d; stationary spider web coil, 1s 3d; variable spider web coil, 1s 9d; pins, 1s 6d; crystal detector, 1s 6d; fixed condenser, 1s 6d; telephones, 16s; earth connection, four terminals — one for aerial, one for earth, and two for 'phones — 8d; box to hold set, 4s 6d; total, £2 13s 2d. Tuning is accomplished by rotating the two variable condensers. If interference is experienced, one of the coils should be gradually moved away from the other, the second variable condenser being slightly adjusted at the same time. If, however, the two coils are kept too far apart the strength of the signals will diminish.[281]

Conference Has Such Faith in John T. Lang That It Gives Him Full Power. PREMIER MADE ALL POWERFUL. GREATEST CONFERENCE YET. SINCERITY THE KEYNOTE. "DISRUPTION WILL SPELL RUIN". FATE OF GOVERNOR AND DIEHARDS. BY 274 votes to 4, the Special A.L.P. Conference last night showed its implicit faith in Mr. Lang, the Premier, by giving him almost dictatorial powers in the Parliamentary arena. Although for the moment we are up against it in this State, I want the delegates to believe me when I say that if I continue to retain the confidence of the people of New South Wales, not only will the Nominee House be out of your way, but imported Governors will be a thing of the past." — Mr. Lang. Wild cheering broke out when the Premier made this announcement last night before the greatest Labor Conference that has assembled in this State. Scenes of enthusiasm such as are rarely witnessed greeted Mr. Lang when he rose to speak, and every utterance was marked by applause on the part of the delegates in appreciation of their leader. Mr. Lang started to elaborate his statement, but on calmer consideration he remarked, "Perhaps I had better be a bit careful of my subject." This caused renewed cheering and the Premier, again referring to these matters, declared: "Both belong to a bygone age; they are both relics of a system that is utterly incompatible to a democratic country such as this, and all I have to say is that as far as I am concerned in both these questions, the fight is on, and it is going to be a fight to a finish." Loud "Hear, hears," and cries of "Good on you," again greeted the Premier. "I am here tonight not to tell you what I would like you to do, but to learn from you what you would like the Government to do," added Mr. Lang. The President, Mr. W. H. Seale, arrived on the platform at 7.35 p.m. but it was not until 7.50 p.m. that the conference was declared open. On the platform were the Premier (Mr. Lang), the Chief Secretary (Mr. Lazzarini), the Minister for Labor and Industry (Mr. Baddeley), the Minister for Justice (Mr. McKell), Messrs. L. M. Tully, Murray, Ratcliffe, Ely, Stokes, F. Burke, and Gosling, Ms.L.A. The Minister for Health (Mr. Cann), the Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr Willis), Messrs. Gillies, Housington, Scully, Keegan, J. Clark, Ms.L.A., Messrs. J. T. Tyrrell, E. W. Cruickshank, E. Gravndler, T. Doyle, ?. W. Ryan, Ms.L.C., E. C. Riley, S?? Percy Cole-man, W. G. Mahony, Ms.H.R., and Senator Grant were in the body of the hall. Mr. Batten (Victoria) was present as a visitor from the Victorian Labor party. At the opening of conference there were about 290 delegates present. Over 250 delegates are credentialled. As is usual, the public, who were clamouring outside, were admitted by formal resolution, but an exception was made as to the admission of the the "Evening News" being specially excluded. Mr. A. H. Moate was elected time-keeper, defeating Mr. J. Butler, of St. George, for the position by 182 votes to 91. Credentials For the position of minute secretary there were two nominations. Mr. E. R. Voigt (North Sydney) was suc-cessful with 152 votes as against Mr. I. B. Coman (Redfern), 139 votes. "Where are all the votes coming from?" queried a delegate, when the result was announced. Messrs. W. T. Padgen (Eastern Sub-urbs), J. McGarry (Furnishing Trades), J. R. O'Reilly (Hairdressers), and Dan Clyne were appointed as tellers. Mr. S. Bird (Miners) moved the adoption of the Credentials Committee report, which, he stated, was something unique in the history of conferences because up to the present, although a number of protests had been entered no persons had been shut out. Protest had been received from North Sydney, Western Suburbs, St. George, Cootamundra, Ryde, Oxley and Maitland, but in every case, after exhaustive inquiry, it was decided to permit the delegates elected to take their seats.[282]

COMPLETE HARMONY MARKS CONFERENCE. NEW RULES FOR BRANCHES AND UNIONS. "LABOR MOVEMENT MUST BE AS BROAD AS THE NATION," SAYS MR. WILLIS. LINKING UP THE TOWNS AND COUNTRY "UNITED FRONT" IS THE SLOGAN OF THE FUTURE. THE SPECIAL CONFERENCE of the New South Wales branch of the Australian Labor Party concluded its deliberation on Saturday. The new draft of constitutional rules was submitted by Mr. A. C. Willis, M.L.C., who lucidly explained the proposals. He trenchantly dealt with the enemy Press in their attempts to distort the actual meaning, and critically exposed the Communist bogey. The Revision Committee's report was adopted, after members of the committee had attested to their unanimity of agreement. The rules now will be sent on to leagues, councils, and unions for consideration, and remitted back to next conference. A series of resolutions pledging Conference to support the official newspaper, the "Labor Daily," met with the unanimous approval of delegates, and a committee was appointed to promote the papers further expansion. Such excellent progress was made that the whole of the business was concluded at 5.45 p.m., when Conference rose. THE PREMIER was greeted with cheers when he mounted the platform and took the seat beside Mr. Seale (President). . . . No Office of Profit. Mr. Webster drew attention to the effect of the proposed new rule 81, which would in future make it impossible for any member of the executive to be a candidate for a preselection ballot or to accept any office of profit or honor under the Government. Mr. Peter Connolly (Newcastle Ironworkers): If the committee is unanimous, why all this tongue-wagging? The report of the chairman should be sufficient. It was decided, however, to hear the two remaining members, Messrs. Kilburn and Voigt. The Parliamentarians Mr. J. Kilburn (Bricklayers' Union) said he was committed to every principle contained in the new rules. "Again and again," he said, "the workers in Britain have been betrayed by their political representatives. The rules in Britain and the rules here give Parliamentarians too much freedom. The work is not carried on by Parliament. The sacrifice is not made in Parliament — it is made in industry, by the working-class wives and children. "The industrial workers are just coming into their own. They are going to dominate the political as well as the industrial arena. "Conference after conference was packed by Parliamentarians, and by those who are out of Parliament and want to get in. The industrial section is battling along without any great desire to get into Parliament. "I would rather be a soldier in a working-class army than a general in the circus Parliament so often is. (Cheers and laughter.) "I am prepared to wash dirty linen here — not in the capitalist Press." What Has A.W.U. Done? Referring to the speeches of two A.W.U. men on Friday night. Mr. Kilburn said "to be true to democracy comes very well from the A.W.U. (Cheers). "If the A.W.U. has not attempted to sidetrack and befool us, what in Heaven has it done? "The trades unions — the industrial factor —is to be the dominant factor in the A.L.P. It's time we called a spade a spade, and hit out straight from the shoulder. "British Imperialism is getting its hand on Australia. It's the dukes and governors and that sort of people who would make Australia what Britain is to-day. The people who have ruined Britain would leave this country in the same rotten position." Mr. E. R. Voigt refuted the allegation of discourtesy levelled against the committee by Mr. Griffin, pointing out that consideration for the country member had been the first wish of the members of the committee. He was in entire agreement with the principle underlying the new rules, but pointed out that they were subject to the will of the movement. The group system of electing the executive would, he considered, ensure a full and comprehensive representation of unions, and it was hoped to ultimately apply this to Parliament. The leagues had been generously treated in regard to representation. Readmissions Mr. P. Connolly (Newcastle) asked the chairman of the Rules Committee why the last clause of Rule 2 was deleted. This provided that any member of Parliament or Conscriptionist candidate be expelled for advocating conscription shall not at any time under any pretext be readmitted to membership.[283]

Personographs. THE 2KY MAN. HERB. EDWARD BEAVER, manager of 2KY broadcasting station, Trades Hall, Goulburn-street, has been a student of wireless for years. He is a native of Broken Hill; where he was educated in the public school. Always he had a hankering after the theatrical life, and soon after leaving school he joined the profession. Later, he became interested in wireless, and took up broadcasting. In his rare hours of leisure, the optimistic Herb specialises in magic.[284]

LOUGHLIN TALKS OF IMPIOUS HANDS. CLUTCHING AT LABOR. HIS "RED" NIGHTMARE WILLIS, VOIGT, AND GARDEN PLUS YOUNG. Sunday. On Saturday night, Mr. Loughlin, ex-Minister for Lands, addressed a big meeting in the street. The speaker was heckled by several men throughout, but got a hearing. At the end of his speech a vote of confidence was carried by acclamation. The chair was occupied by Mr. D. Deasey, ex-president of the Labor League, the motion being moved by Mr. P. M. O'Connor, and seconded by Mr. J. W. Byrne. At the conclusion of Mr. Loughlin's speech, the meeting was addressed by Mr. W. M. Webster, in opposition to the ex-Minister. He also got a good hearing, punctuated with applause. Mr. Loughlin said he wished to emphasise that he had not joined the Nationalists, or Country Party, and had not the slightest intention of doing so under any circumstances. IMPIOUS HANDS. "It is well known," he contended, "that a motley crowd of Communists and their sympathisers have for years been trying to get control of the Labor movement. At every election I gave the people in my electorate an assurance that the movement would not be so dominated. "I even went so far as to say that the return of a Labor Government would be the best guarantee against any such possibility. Thousands of people voted for me on that assurance. "I know that had people not been able to accept my undertaking to keep impious hands off the movement, I should not have been returned, and this applies to most country Labor members. "This was illustrated very well at the recent referendum and the previous Federal elections. "At conference, after conference since 1919, I did my share in fighting off the "Red" grip, but the tactics of the Communists won out at the recent special conference, and the win was not the less effective because many of the delegates did not realise what was happening. WILLIS AND "L.D." The decision at that conference was the result of a carefully planned effort by Messrs. Willis, Voigt and Garden, assisted by the 'Labor Daily.' "Mr. A. C. Willis was unfortunately readmitted to the Labor Movement after the 1919 industrial breakaway. The establishment of the 'Labor Daily' gave him a new and powerful weapon in strict consonance with Communist tactics, prestige and strength. The Parliamentary party had to be destroyed, and this was attempted by means of the cowardly bribery stories, which cast suspicion over all the members. "Unfortunately the Premier was too weak to stand against these influences. The dictatorship is a monstrous deformity of the movement, and is an expression of the movement's control by men not in sympathy with Australian ideals, and who have no right to control it. "Its institution and continued existence is entirely incompatible with the undertakings I gave to my constituents. If I tolerate the dictatorship, I violate my word to you. Had it been possible for me to resign and re-contest my seat, I should have done so immediately. OTHER ALTERNATIVE. "I then faced the other alternative. I might have proved false to the people who elected me, by accepting the dictatorship and drifting along. "If our own Premier is so weak as to accept the dictatorship, I won't. I would have been utterly false to the movement if I had, and I won't damn well do it. "The other course was to fight the dictatorship. The only way to do this seriously, was to rebel as we did in the famous Dooley fight, when we found that the Labor movement was solidly with the rebels. "Failing an effective attack on the dictatorship, it could only remain for the three rebels to seek the verdict of the people, who, after all, are the most concerned. "Cabinet, Caucus and the Executive considered the matter, and all three agreed that it would be better to have the elections than follow us in a fight. Consequently the whole matter is in the people's hands, having been placed there by all the parties to the dispute. "We cannot fight it from within. Jock Garden and his satellites even came up to Caucus, and bludgeoned and coerced members to do what they wanted them to do. "I believe that I have proved my sincerity in this matter by giving up my post as Minister for Lands. That meant a good deal to me with my heavy family responsibilities. "WORLD OF GOOD." "The action of Messrs. Goodin, Gillies and myself has already done a world of good, but the fight must go on till the movement is utterly and finally freed from the poisonous influences I have spoken of. Otherwise the movement will become but a medium for the propagation of Communist doctrines and the community would be in a condition leading to anarchy, chaos and despair. "I believe that I have taken a course which will ultimately benefit a great humane party and the country generally, and I expect to see the people in this constituency rise superior to all the machines and endorse my actions." Mr. Loughlin also addressed a meeting at Marengo on Saturday afternoon. A resolution was carried by 12 votes to 6, endorsing Mr. Loughlin's action. (Photo) Mr. P. Loughlin. (Photo) Mr. W. M. Webster.[285]

1926 12[edit]

WIRELESS. POLITICAL BROADCASTING. The Trades Hall station (2KY) is making arrangements for an intensive radio education campaign immediately after the New Year, preparatory to the coming State elections.[286]

Radio Growth. 2KY Notes. 2KY "Turf Topics," conducted by Mr. T. G. Hopkins, have attracted a large circle of listeners-in. Mr. Hopkins' mail each week keeps him busy answering questions. Several of his correspondents have suggested that he answer their queries over the air. At the conclusion of this Friday night talks, Mr. Hopkins will answer a limited number of questions appertaining to the turf. Just give him a ring at City 546, and let him solve your turf problems. During the week a full description of the Dempsey-Tunney fight was broadcast from the Arcadia Theatre, by 2KY. The announcer had the microphone in the dress circle and happened to sit in front of a gentleman who became very excited and in spite of it being only a picture insisted on giving Dempsey his advice, once he got quite carried away and told Dempsey "to slam that right in," suiting the words with the action, he caught the announcer on the ear. As he was a fairly big fellow, and the sample of his right was convincing, the announcer decided that discretion was the better part of valor, and moved to safer quarters. 2G.B.'s Wireless Talks. Station 2GB is having a series of interesting talks on wireless by their constructional engineer, Mr. Beard. Two year prior to the commencement of the Great War, Mr. Beard was trained in the British Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Signal School. In 1920 he came out to Australia in one of the gift destroyers. For about two years and a half after that he was with the United Distributors in charge of the technical side of their wireless, and designed for them their receivers. He also designed the Trade Hall transmission station and the Theosophical Station 2GB.[287]

SHORT WAVES. RADIO ENGINEER ILL. Mr. E. G. Beard, 2GB'S constructional engineer, has been operated on for appendicitis. He is making satisfactory progress.[288]

RELAY STATIONS AT LAST. BUT IN VICTORIA. N.S.W. BEHIND IN RADIO. RADIO representatives who tour the country areas have reported that a large and increasing body of opinion among the farming community is demanding the establishment of country broadcasting centres in the form of relay stations. Radio is far more essential to the men on the land than it is to the dwellers in the cities, and this applies as regards the social needs as well as the economic needs of the farmers. This has been recognised in certain quarters in New South Wales, where the Government has had under consideration for the past 18 months a comprehensive plan for the establishment of relay stations in country areas. STATE PLANS. These plans have had the endorsement of the two A.L.P. Conferences, the Commonwealth Radio Conference, and a large number of country municipalities and local bodies. In the meantime, while the State Labor Government in N.S.W. is still hesitating, two private companies in N.S.W. are making efforts to secure a monopoly of country broadcasting, and in the case of Victoria a private broadcasting company has already stepped into the field. The Victorian plans are very comprehensive, and when the stations are completed it will be possible for country listeners-in everywhere throughout the State to tune in to the local station, and through the local station to the big Melbourne station, on a simple, inexpensive crystal set. VICTORIAN CAPITALISM MOVES. The establishment of such relay stations will give an immense impetus to the sale of radio sets in the country, and it is safe to state that in a short period practically every country dweller in Victoria will be the possessor of a radio set. The new development will have immense social, economic and political consequences. The greatest drawback to country life undoubtedly is the lack of social amenities. Radio will counteract this, for it will place at the service of the country dweller the latest news from home and abroad, and the cream of the music and entertainment of the big cities. The economic value of the latest stock, grain and market reports received daily have already been stressed by farmers on many occasions, and the value to the men on the land of weather reports, time signals and lectures and information by the Government's agricultural experts is no less apparent. INFLUENCE ON ELECTIONS. But the part that will be of particular interest to the Labor Movement is that which is bound up with the political side. In a short period practically every country dweller in Victoria will be a listener-in. Imagine what will happen during an election — or during a big industrial crisis. It is true that during an election only one Parliamentary Leader from each side is supposed to broadcast his political views from the "A" class broadcasting station. But in the guise of "news" there is no limit to the political speeches and anti-Labor propaganda which can be broadcast day by day to the country dwellers. LOADED NEWS. Not only can the minds of the country dwellers be influenced by Nationalist propaganda during election times, or during strikes, but week in and week out, and year in and year out the same propaganda, disguised as "news," will be used to establish in the minds of the country dweller an anti-Labor complex, which will be a deciding factor at the ballot box. That is the situation which is now being developed in Victoria. When will the Labor Movement wake up to the profound economic and nominal significance of radio? — E. R. Voigt, chairman 2KY Wireless Committee.[289]

More Venomous Lies. THE political situation in N.S.W. does not present difficulties to honest Labor men and women who read newspapers other than the "Worker." There was an impasse which may be recorded in three sinister chapters. Chapter 1.— Peter Loughlin, supported by the A.W.U. bosses and a number of political aspirants in Caucus, planned in secret the overthrow of the best and most uncompromising Premier Labor in this State has ever had. They failed ignominiously. The fact that they almost wrecked the Labor Government did not concern them. All they succeeded in doing was to split the Parliamentary Caucus. Chapter 2.— A Special A.L.P. Conference was convened to allow the rank and file to settle the issue. Mr. Loughlin had not the courage to appear at conference to defend his act of treachery. The opposition of the A.W.U. bosses, after a half-hearted attempt, collapsed hopelessly. Realising their complete isolation they had not the courage to vote. By 274 votes against 4, Conference completely vindicated Premier Lang. Nothing could be more decisive. Chapter 3.— Did the A.W.U. bosses and their hireling Press loyally accept the expressed will of the Labor movement? Not they. To the accompaniment of the vociferous approval of the whole of the Capitalist Press, they proceeded to attack the Premier, and pave the way for the blackest act of treachery that could be committed by any Labor supporter. That disgraceful act of treachery occurred when Mr. Loughlin crossed the floor of the House and voted with the representatives of the capitalist class for the express purpose of wrecking the Labor Government. That is the plain, unvarnished truth. It is a sordid story of plotting and treachery by those callously indifferent as to the welfare of the great Labor movement. Seeing the treacherous part the A.W.U. bosses have taken in supporting the renegade and attempting to wreck the Labor Government, it would be futile to expect any honest or frank account of the situation from their subservient tools on the A.W.U. ("Worker") Press. In recent editorials in the Queensland "Worker," as well as in the N.S.W. publication, the garbled accounts of the crisis in New South Wales are neither honest nor frank. To read the Queensland remarkable example of muddy journalistic whitewash, one would never dream that Mr. Loughlin had violated his solemn and sacred pledge to the Labor movement. One would almost think that this renegade was a patriotic martyr who had knifed the Labor Government — not in the interests of the Nationalists and the A.W.U. bosses, but in the interests of the Labor Government itself. Carefully avoiding any reference to the pledge-breaker's attempt to wreck the Labor Government, the Queensland "Worker" tactfully refers to the act of treachery as "just a vote to suspend the standing orders." That may not be honest, but it sounds all right. The editorial on "The Crisis in New South Wales" contains not one word of condemnation of Mr. Loughlin's act of treachery in voting with the Nationalists, and in attempting to force a dissolution of the Labor Government. On the other hand, much space is devoted to an attempt to discredit the Premier, Mr. Lang, the Vice-President of the Executive Council, Mr. Willis, the Trades and Labor Council of N.S.W., and the last A.L.P. Conference. Delegates to the last A.L.P. Conference in this State will be interested to learn that the "Worker" scribe in another State says that it was allegedly "packed." He wasn't there, so, of course, he knows. And the trade unionists on the N.S.W. Trades and Labor Council will be interested also to learn that their organisation, which not even their enemies in this State would deny is absolutely clean, is considered by the Queensland "Worker" editor to be linked up with "faked tickets" and "crook ballot boxes." Of course the "Worker" gives not the slightest evidence to justify this base insinuation. Evidence is unnecessary apparently — and inconvenient. A reference to "faked tickets" and "crook ballot boxes" is amusing, coming as it does from the Press representative of the infamous Bailey Gang. The lining up of the Brisbane "Worker" in the vile attacks being launched by the Bailey Gang against the Premier of N.S.W. and the State Party is evidence of the malevolent influence of the Gang upon its paid tools in other States. A few years ago, the Bailey Gang, then known as the "Black Hand Gang," had the Labor Party by the throat in this State. And the stench of its corruption, culminating in the famous ballot box scandals, reeked high to Heaven. In the ballot box trials, the Bailey Gang had every opportunity for a fair and ever, favorable judgment, for the arbiter appointed was an A.W.U. man, one of their own trusted representatives, Mr. E. G. Theodore. So overpowering, however, was the evidence of corruption that the verdict went against the Gang. It is the part played by Mr. A. C. Willis in cleaning out the corrupt Black Hand Gang that has earned their undying hatred — a hatred that expresses itself week by week in the venomous out-pourings of H. E. Boote in the "Worker," with dutiful echoes from the editor of the Brisbane "Worker." In 1922, the fight was between those who stood for a clean Labor Movement on the one side and the crooks and intriguers, backed by the A.W.U. Central Branch bosses and the dutiful "Worker" scribes, on the other. THE LINE OF CLEAVAGE. In 1926, in the political crisis now threatening the existence of the best and most fearless Labor Government Australia has ever had, the line of cleavage is the same: the Labor movement versus the political crooks. And the culminating reason why Lang, Willis and Voigt are being fought with such hatred and bitterness by the Bailey Gang is that they stand solidly behind the proposed new rules for the State A.L.P., which will make crook work exceedingly difficult, and A.W.U. domination of the State Executive impossible. That is the crux of the whole trouble in New South Wales. But one could never discover this truth by reading the Press of the A.W.U. bosses.[290]

1927[edit]

1927 01[edit]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By "Catwhisker") CANCELLATIONS WHY IS N.S.W. PULLING DOWN ITS AERIAL? Why is the number of licence cancellations greater in New South Wales than in any other State? Is the existence of high powered "B" class stations in the metropolitan area a contributing cause? FIGURES published in this page show that for the month of December 2167 new licences were issued in New South Wales, and cancellations numbered 1207. But for the large number of cancellations this State would have been able to show a respectable increase in the number of listeners. This is not an isolated case. Figures for previous months have shown an unusually large number of cancellations. What is the cause? At first glance the reduction in 2FC's wave might be thought to have been responsible. As far as 2FC is concerned, it is certainly true that we have passed through a period of transition, during which listeners who were affected have decided either to discontinue listening in or to get more selective sets. But that period must come to an end soon — if it has not already ended. While 2FC's wave length partially explains the position, it does not wholly do so. Those who should know give it as their opinion that the real cause lies in the existence of high-powered "B" class stations in thickly-populated areas. This opinion is said to be borne out by the number of cancellations in certain areas. The writer cannot vouch for these statements, but if they are correct they open up an important issue. FARTHER AFIELD Sydney has more "B" class stations than any other City in the Commonwealth, and the power of one of the stations here is greater than that of one of the Melbourne "A" class stations. The more stations in a given area, and the greater their power, the more difficult is the listeners' problem. Farmer and Co. showed wisdom when they moved from Willoughby to Pennant Hills. It is questionable, however, whether Broadcasters should have been allowed to settle in Coogee, 2GB at Mosman, and 2KY adjacent to the industrial suburbs. Probably these stations will find it necessary to move farther afield in the future, especially if power is further increased. The question is one which will no doubt occupy the attention of the Royal Commission when Dr. Page sees fit to announce the personnel of that body.[291]

Australian Made Unions. . . . 2KY WIRELESS. HERBERT E. BEAVER, manager 2KY since inception. Born Broken Hill, Educated public schools Broken Hill and Adelaide. Extensive theatrical experience, including vaudeville, revue, comedy, drama, etc. Toured Australia several times with own productions. Hobby: The art of magic and magicians. Recognised as one of Australia's leading authorities on subject. Keenly interested in radio for many years. [292]

The radio and electrical exhibition that is to be held in the Sydney Town Hall from February 23 to March 5 promises to be a wonderful show. Last May an exhibition was held in the basement of the Town Hall, but, for this occasion the Great Hall and Vestibule have been engaged, and so far as space is concerned the exhibition will be just half as large again as the last one. The period of the exhibition is 10 days, as compared with six previously. Although the arrangements are not yet complete, it is already apparent that the collection of radio and electrical appliances will outdo anything of the kind hitherto seen in Australia. Great progress has been made in wireless, and the most up-to-date apparatus and innumerable novelties are being manufactured and imported for the exhibition. Electricity is becoming more and more used for domestic purposes, and the exhibition committee is preparing a display of electric cooking stoves, sweepers, cleaners, irons, refrigerators, fans, and everything which makes the modern up-to-date home. During the ten days both the A class broadcasting stations will broadcast programmes from the Town Hall platform, and three B class stations (2GB, 2KY, and 2BE) will also assist to entertain visitors.[293]

EVILS OF MONOPOLY IN WIRELESS. HOW THE PUBLIC SUFFER. NEED FOR PROTECTION. THAT the present condition of the wireless industry in Australia is in a very unsatisfactory state, and that the burden which listeners-in have to carry is quite unjustified, being heavier than in any other part of the world, was the opinion expressed by Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of 2KY Broadcasting Station yesterday. "Added to this, on the manufacturing side," said Mr. Voigt, "the various firms which are engaged in this new industry of tremendous potentialities also suffer under restrictive burdens, which are operating detrimentally to the development of radio in this country. "The Federal Nationalist Government made its first great error when it joined with Amalgamated Wireless in the exploitation of the Australian radio public, its second great mistake was to grant virtual monopolies in A. class broadcasting to private profit-making concerns. "To place essential public services under private monopolies whose main concern is the production of profit is a gross betrayal of public trust. The paramount matter which calls for the attention of the Federal and State Governments is the matter of providing country centres with broadcasting services in the form of relay stations. STATE MUST ACT. "The N.S.W, State Government already has a complete project before it for consideration, and if it does not move quickly, it is likely to find a fresh monopoly, for broadcasting in country areas has been placed exclusively in the hands or profit-making concerns, as instanced by the application of stations 2BL and 2FC, to erect a relay station at Newcastle, which would cut directly across the Government's plans. "In the case of Victoria, a private company, 3LO, has already secured the necessary license for erecting country broadcasting stations, which definitely excludes State control. "This important matter of allowing country broadcasting to fall into the hands of private companies, which will assuredly disseminate everyday Nationalist propaganda in the form of news from the Nationalist daily papers, is a matter which vitally concerns the Labor Movement as a whole. "It is therefore essential that the various Labor Governments take cognisance of what is happening in regard to the sale of the birthright of the people in wireless communication." A STARTLING REPORT. At a meeting of the Association for the Development of Wireless at the Royal Society's rooms yesterday, the president submitted a report on the position of radio in Australia. Copies of this report will be sent to all Federal Ministers and members, and also to members of the State Parliaments. It is certain that the disclosures in the report will have a profound influence upon the work of the Royal Com-mission us they throw into bold relief the essential need of the Commission to clear up the unsatisfactory state of affairs into which radio has drifted in this country.[294]

1927 02[edit]

"BROTHERS IN ARMS." BRITISH COMMUNISTS CABLE A.W.U. ATTITUDE ON CHINA. CONVENTION STARTLED. (Special to "Labor Daily.") KATOOMBA, Tuesday. AT the A.W.U. Convention at Katoomba today, the following cable message was received from the Communist Party of Great Britain. "London, January 27. Communist Party congratulates the Australian Workers' Union on their great stand against war on the Chinese nation seeing that they are fighting for civilised standards." This message came from the London secretary, and was delivered by an ordinary telegraph messenger. When read to the august assemblage it simply took away the breath of the best class of the A.W.U. aristocracy. It caused quite hilarity among the delegates, who yesterday were forced to listen to the diatribes against Messrs. A. C. Willis, J. S. Garden, S. A. Rosa, Arthur Rae, and E. R. Voigt. "At last we are brothers in arms," exclaimed one delegate. GETTING TO BUSINESS. The comments in yesterday's "Labor Daily" had a most salutary effect on the proceedings of the A.W.U. Convention to-day. "Red" rules were forgotten; abstract issues taboo; and parochial propagandists felt the frigidity of a cold shoulder. Delegates from the other parts of Australia were reminded that the primary object for which they were assembled was the consideration of the matter submitted by the various branches, shearing sheds, sewer workers, and other laborious workers, covering the actual activities of the organisation. It was a "Red business" day, and delegates were engaged on subjects they were more familiar with than the "Boote-Worker" propaganda that has been served up to them for the best part of a fortnight. NEGLECTED NORTH. Mr. Harold Nelson, M.H.R. for Darwin, was in attendance, and by permission of the Convention he addressed the delegates. He pointed out the want of some central body controlling the urbanisation in the Northern Territory, and referred to the chaotic conditions resulting from the multiplicity of unions concerned in the operations of industry in the Territory. The Convention decided to send an official to report on the situation, with a view to further action. COMPENSATION ACT. A long discussion ensued on the question of the Workers' Compensation Act in New South Wales, relating to men engaged in mines and sewer works, especially as regarding those workers who had contracted silicosis and other pulmonary complaints as a result of their occupation. The Convention decided to appoint a deputation, comprising Messrs. Murphy, S. A. Lamond (Queensland), Johnson (W.A.), W. Mahoney and G. Buckland (N.S.W.), to wait upon the Minister for Labor and Industry, Mr. Baddeley, seeking remedial benefits, either by interpreting the present Act more broadly or, if necessary, an amendment of the Act.[295]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By "Catwhisker") COMPARISONS. MELBOURNE IS A FOREST OF AERIALS. Melbourne is a forest of aerials. In the hackneyed phrase, broadcasting has become part of the life of the people there. IN two years a remarkable change has been wrought in broadcasting in the southern capital. Then the new recreation was tentative, experimental, undecided. Now it is established to an extent that amazes the Sydney visitor. Almost every suburban home one visits contains a receiving set of some sort — ranging from the crystal to the four-valver. Broadcasting artists are discussed by listeners in a way that is comparable only with the general habit of discussing theatrical stars. Programmes are compared, and announcers and other studio personalities commented on to a greater extent than is the case in Sydney. (Photo caption - New York end of the trans-oceanic radio telephonic apparatus. A call to England is put through in the time taken up in making a regular long-distance call.) Probably no single reason will account for the fact that Victoria has nearly 100,000 licensed listeners while New South Wales has only 48,000. There are many reasons. In the first place, the wave length position in Victoria was rectified before the original arrangement had time to do much harm. In the second, climatic reasons cause Melburnians to stay at home more than Sydney residents do, and there is consequently more inducement for stay-at-homes to listen in. Another important reason is that 3LO has had, in the vernacular, "an open go." That station is the only 5 k.w. station in Victoria. Any sort of ragtime set will bring it in in the suburbs. Selectivity is not the vital factor that it is in Sydney. Compare Melbourne with its 5 k.w. station at Braybrook, the 1600 watt station of 3AR in Melbourne and a small-power B class station which transmits periodically — with the position in Sydney. Here we have 2FC (5 k.w.) at Pennant Hills, 2BL (5 k.w.) at Coogee, 2GB (3 k.w.) at Mosman, 2KY (1500 watts) in Goulburn-street, as well as Burgin Electric and Otto Sandel. Sydney, in fact, has too many high-power stations, or rather, the stations are too closely grouped in the metropolitan area. It is to be hoped that the Royal Commission will inquire closely into this phase of the matter, as well as the question of relay stations. Relay stations must be erected in the country, and existing high-power stations moved from thickly populated areas if broadcasting in this State is to progress as it has in Victoria.[296]

RADIO JOTTINGS. SELECTING THE RIGHT SET. A USEFUL GUIDE. "If I buy or build a set, of how many valves shall it be? What are the advantages of two or more valves over one? Shall I build the set myself or buy it ready-made?" These and dozen of similar questions invariably form tough problems for the man whose interest in radio is beginning to awaken, and although he is seeking only a little sane advice the well-intentioned tips of friends and the keenness of salesmen soon leaves him still deeper in uncertainty. To begin with, what do you expect from a set. Enough volume for a pair of ear-phones or sufficient sound to fill a good-sized room. Other factors, of course, are tone, ease of control, distance-getting qualities and economy. For the man who needs a set only for the 'phones and the local stations — 2BL, 2FC, 2KY, 2GB, 2UE, and 2UW — a simple crystal set is ideal. But should he desire to reach out for interstate stations at least one valve will be necessary. There are no batteries on a crystal set. Then for moderately loud speaker reproduction on the locals and good 'phone strength on the interstate stations, two or more valves will be essential. On some three-valve sets all the locals and some of the interstates can be brought in on the speaker, and additional valves after that make for increased range and volume. RANGE AND VOLUME. A one-valve set is fairly economical on batteries, and has moderately good range, but is essentially a selfish set. Two or more pairs of 'phone, of course, can be hitched up, but usually it will not work a speaker. The thing to remember is that the more valves used the greater will be the range and volume, with certain exceptions which are really not worth dilating upon in an article of this description, and the great-er will be initial and upkeep cost. For the man who is interested in radio solely as an entertainer, the ready-built set is preferable, but if he wishes to know just how and why everything works, the better plan would be to build it at home. And there is a certain satisfaction, too, in being able to say, "I built it myself." BROAD OUTLINE. The following brand outline may prove useful as a guide: Crystal sets — 'phone strength on the local stations; one-valve — good 'phone volume on the local stations, interstate reception possible; two-valves — speaker strength on the locals; 'phone strength on the interstate stations; three-valves — good speaker volume on the locals, interstate speaker reception possible; four and more valves — good speaker volume on all local and most interstate stations. Initial and upkeep costs are governed by the number and type of valves. The best four and five valve circuits for everyday reception are probably the Neutrodyne, the Reinartz, and the Browning-Drake.[297]

LABOR UPHEAVAL IN N.S.W. "Red Rules" War. MINISTER ACCUSED OF PLOTTING. (By Our Labor Representative) SYDNEY, Tuesday.— One of the most amazing documents ever issued from the headquarters of the Australian Labor Party is that adopted by the executive at a special meeting last night. It is to be circulated among leagues and electoral councils to advise them against the adoption of the "Red Rules," formulated by the committee appointed by the last conference. Among other things the document declares that "the deadly grip of Communism is gradually becoming tighter and tighter on the Labor movement." And it further says, "Plot and plotters have been at work for the past four years." Then it says: "The plotters have been Messrs. Willis, Voigt and Garden, and others, acting on behalf of the Communist Party." BITTER ANTAGONISM. Mr. Willis is a State Minister, and the denunciation of a member of the Labor Government is unparalleled in the history of the movement. It is index of the bitter antagonism which has grown up between the Australian Workers' Union and what has come to be known as the "Willis faction" — that is the miners' wing, controlled by Mr. Willis and others. The proposed "red rules" forwarded in the last A.L.P. conference to branches and a special committee is appointed by conference to look at the draft. COMMUNIST CONTROL The "red rules" were thrown overboard by the Parliamentary Labor Caucus last week. Now the executive of the party charge a Minister of the Crown with being a principal in something which is bluntly described as a ????. The circular asserts that if certain people have their way the next act will be singed at the conference in June, and the curtain will fall with the Communist members and emissaries in full control of the Labor machine and entrenched behind a set of rules which will allow no escape. The circular says: "No unkindly word can be said of Garden or the part he has played. He was acting in the interests of the Communist party, to which he belongs. But what of Willis and Voigt?" The circular then states: "Under the guise of A.L.P. membership, they have been secretly and seditiously working for the domination of the movement by the Communist party."[298]

WIRELESS & RADIO. (By "Catwhisker") TO-MORROW BIG EXHIBITION OPENS AT TOWN HALL. Tomorrow the Radio and Electrical Exhibition will be opened at the Town Hall. It will continue for ten days. In addition to displays by representative firms of the latest developments in radio receivers and all appurtenances of this rapidly-moving art, the five chief broadcasting stations of Sydney will transmit from the hall on different evenings. No radio enthusiast should miss this exhibition, and those who intend to become listeners-in cannot do better than see the big display. THE first function of the exhibition is to provide information for those who visit it. Radio will not stand still. Each year sees some further improvement in methods of reception as well as transmission. The trade, then, has the job of showing as attractively as possible the latest designs in sets and parts. That this phase of the exhibition will be interesting goes without saying. The second feature of the show is that it will be a recruiting ground for new listeners-in: Many who come to scoff will remain to listen. Last year's exhibition proved that, and this one will demonstrate it even more forcibly, since broadcasting in this State, has now become more stabilised. Appropriately enough, the broadcasting companies will provide the entertainment. Star programmes will be transmitted from the platform by 2BL, 2FC, 2GB, 2KY, and 2BE. To-morrow and on February 26, March 2 and 3, in the afternoons and evenings, station 2FC will broadcast, featuring Madame Elsa Stralia, Messrs. Max Brodi, Alfred O'Shea, and the 2FC Dance Band. STEADILY GROWING. On Thursday and on February 28, March 4 and 5, 2BL will occupy the platform with Miss Nell Crane and Mr. A. J. Lawrence, Miss Amy Ostinga, contralto, Mr. Peter Sutherland, and other well-known artists. Station 2GB will transmit on February 25; 2KY on March 1, and 2BE on March 3. Exhibitions such as those form milestones along the path of radio progress. Compare the broadcasting position in this State to-day with that at the time of the last exhibition. While it is not nearly as good as it should be, it is undeniably better than it was. There are more listeners-in, and when that is said almost everything is said. The number is steadily growing, and will continue to grow. It may be that next year's exhibition will need to be housed in a larger building even than the Town Hall.[299]

"A PERSONAL ATTACK ON A. C. WILLIS." LAZZARINI STATES HIS POSITION. HOW ALL-AUSTRALIAN CONGRESS REMARKS WERE DISTORTED. WILLIS ON "FURY OF FUTILE OPPOSITION." IN a statement yesterday, Mr. Willis, Vice-President of the Executive Council, scathingly criticised those persons forming a faction on the State Executive, "undoubtedly under the Bailey influence." The abandonment of the Easter Conference at which the new rules were to come up for ratification, Mr. Willis describes as a gross violation of the constitution of the A.L.P., and a studied insult to the rank and file. Mr. Lazzarini, Chief Secretary, who was chairman of the Parliamentary Committee, members associated with the Executive members in revising the new rules, and reporting thereon, also made a statement yesterday, in which he dissociates himself from the personal attack on Mr. Willis, which oozes from every line of the Executive faction manifesto broadcast by the anti-Labor Press for the past couple of days. The Chief Secretary charges the authors of the manifesto with deliberately misquoting the remarks of Mr. Willis at the All-Australian Trades Union Congress. FACTION BETRAYS CONFERENCE. MR. A. C. Willis, Chairman of the Rules Committee, appointed by the last two A.L.P. Conferences made the following statement yesterday: For some years past, the annual conference of the Australian Labor Party, have clearly indicated profound dissatisfaction with the rules and constitution of the party. This dissatisfaction came to a head at the last annual conference of the party, when a special committee was elected from among the assembled delegates for the express purpose of drafting a set of new rules which would — (1) Provide for group representation along the lines demanded by the country delegates on the one hand, and by the Trade Union delegates on the other. (2) Reduce the unwieldy number of the annual conference to workable size. (3) Substitute a more satisfactory method for the election of the executive. The Committee. This committee comprised two country members specially elected to watch country interests, and two other members. The committee comprised Messrs. W. Webster (country), M. J. Griffin (country), J. Mostyn (the present Lord Mayor of Sydney), J. Kilburn (secretary of the Bricklayers' Union), E. C. Magrath (secretary, Printing Trades Union), E. R. Voigt (president of the Warringah branch A.L.P.), and the subscriber. The broad line upon which the new rules were to be based had already been indicated by previous A.L.P. conferences, by a mass meeting of country delegates to the last annual A.L.P. conference, and by a State conference of Trade Unions. These broad principles comprised: (1) Establishment of a special country organisation and conference where purely country business will be transacted. (2) Separate group representative for the country on the executive. (3) Corresponding grouping of the affiliated Trade Unions, with group representation direct on to executive. (4) The deletion of the vicious "Plenary Powers" rule, and the substitution of greater control of the executive by the rank and file. (5) The general application of majority rule. These are the cardinal principles round which all the rules revolve. Wire Pulling Squelched. The reason why the new rules have raised such a fury of futile opposition amongst the faction which by intrigue has now secured control of the A.L.P. Executive is very clearly because the new rules break up all the machinery for wire-pulling and intrigue which has been built up throughout years with the help of the old rules. Under the new rules, every section of the party would be guaranteed fair and just representation, and no more, not only at conference, but also on the executive. That means that no faction could secure more than its fair share, and that is what hurts the faction which now controls a majority of the executive, although it could. . . . . [300]

1927 03[edit]

NEVER BEEN TO MOSCOW. MR. E. R. VOIGT. Allegations that Mr. E. R. Voigt, private secretary to the vice-president of the Executive Council, had visited Mos-cow, were rebutted by Mr. Willis in the legislative Council yesterday, who said that Mr. Voigt had never set foot in Soviet Russia. Mr. Voigt was, said Mr. Willis, born in Manchester, and had come to Australia 16 years ago, when he established the firm of Voigt and King, engineers. He was a much-travelled man, and had visited most of the countries of the world. He had visited Russia on one occasion only, in 1909, when he was a member of a British champion amateur athletic team. This team had toured many Russian towns, including St. Petersburg, but not Moscow. The trip, of course, had no political significance.[301]

THE INDUSTRIAL RECORD OF MR. VOIGT. Sir,— "W.N.R." writes (E.N. 2/3/27) that communism was not mentioned at the Economic Conference convened by Mr. Hughes, and that Mr. Voigt was no more communist for having attended than were Sir Robert Gibson and Mr. William Brooks. Some wild men of economics with whom Voigt sat, and the company kept by Sir Robert Gibson and Mr. Brooks, made a little difference, surely. One side stood for, and spoke for, capitalism; the other, mostly for some "ism" destructive of capitalism, if not proclaimed communism. At the University debate Mr. Voigt and another advocated one of the "isms," which it shouldn't be necessary to particularise more than to identify. "W.N.R." writes also that the Labor Research and Investigation Bureau is "a statistical bureau dealing almost exclusively with data on hours, wages, industrial health, and hygiene." Those may be the subjects, but the propaganda is — or was — frankly of the "ism" flavor. Anyhow, can't Voigt speak for himself? — X. Redfern.[302]

Puffs, Pars, & Personals, FROM OUR CONTEMPORARIES. Sydney Trades Hall, resembling nothing so much as a rabbit warren, is considered by those who have cause to frequent it daily to have more stairways, and unlighted at that, than any other building of its size in the city. Agitation after agitation has been set in motion for the provision of an elevator, and quite a large sum has been subscribed, towards the cost of its installation. But still the "wage plug" and his paid official have to climb. Needless to say, the office of the Trades Hall Association is not on the top floor — it is on the first, so that the secretary (Mr. George Rutter) seldom experiences the gasping for breath and the fluttering of the heart that follow the severe climb. Union officials say that there will be no lift in the Hall until "George's office is put in the room under the tower, where the machinery of the wireless station, 2KY, is now housed.— Sajax in "Daily Telegraph."[303]

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales. IN BANKRUPTCY. NOTICE TO CREDITORS. ACCOUNTS and plans of distribution in the undermentioned estates, showing dividends as specified hereunder, are now filed in the Office of the Registrar in Bankruptcy, Supreme Court Building, Elizabeth-street, Sydney, for the inspection of persons interested; and notice is hereby given that such accounts and plans will be submitted to the Court for confirmation on Monday, the 28th March, 1927, at 10 a.m., if not previously objected to:— Frank Robert Bertie Chin, trading as C. Barnes & Co., of 235 Sussex-street, Sydney (No. 23,780), a third account and plan of distribution, showing payment of a dividend of two shillings and threepence three farthings in the £ on account of an equalising dividend on one claim admitted since the second account was filed. Michael Slattery, of Meershauni Vale, farmer (No. 25,405), a second account and plan of distribution, showing payment of an equalising dividend of three shillings and four pence in the £ on seven claims admitted since the first account was filed, and a second dividend of two pence and thirteen-sixteenths of a penny in the £ on all proved concurrent claims. Edward Dryen, of Wagga, motor salesman (No. 25,780), a first account and plan of distribution, showing payment of two proved preferential claims in full (£25 8s. 2d.); a first dividend of one shilling in the £ on all proved concurrent claims, and a balance of £19 12s. 4d. carried forward to the credit of the estate. Accounts current only in the following estates:— No. 25,959. Charles Grant Campbell Christie, of 2KY Broadcasting Station, Trades Hall, Goulburn-street, Sydney, and lately practising at 14 Martin-place, Sydney, as a solicitor. No. 26,047. Alexander Hodges, of Greta, winch-driver. No. 26,053. Emmeline Wild Maclean, of Pittwater-road, Narrabeen, and carried on business at Palm Beach, married woman. No. 26,059. Robert Inkster Ballenden, of 57 William-street, Mayfield, labourer. No. 26,060. Percy Oliver Parkinson, of Ernest-street, Belmont, shiftman. No. 26,063. William Denis Donoghue, of Oxford-street, Riverstone, butcher. No. 26,069. Michael Joseph Mulchin, of 13 Fitzgerald-street, Camperdown, brass finisher. No. 26,073. Raymond Frederick Spruce, of Bull-street, Mayfield, labourer. No. 26,092. Robert Parsons, of Hobart-road, New Lambton, miner. C. F. W. LLOYD, Official Assignee. 182 Phillip-street, Sydney, 10th March, 1927. 3849 £2 10s.[304]

AXE FALLS. SEALE EXPELLED BIRD IS SUSPENDED. A.L.P. HEADS BUSY. INQUIRY ABOUT VOIGT. Mr. W. H. Seale was expelled from the Labor Movement by the A.L.P Executive last night. Mr. G. Bird was suspended and a committee of three was appointed to inquire into Mr. E. R. Voigt's alleged "Communistic activities." A warning has been issued to Messrs. Seale and Bird against collecting sustentation or any other fees belonging to the party. Only 17 members attended, including Mr. Conroy, who presided, and an obvious faction spirit of unanimity was maintained throughout the proceedings. Mr. W. Carey, general secretary, objected to the "Labor Daily" representative securing an attendance-list from the roll-book, on the ground that it was a new departure to publish the names of those who attended meetings. Mr. Conroy, though at first agreeable to the names being published, upheld Mr. Carey's objection. On Mr. Seale being expelled, Mr. F. Conroy was formally elected president. Mr. T. Holloway moved the following expulsion motion, which was carried unanimously on the voices:— "In view of the long-continued and systematic defiance of the rules and constitution of the Australian Labor Party by Mr. W. H. Seale, the executive, under the plenary powers vested in it by such rules and constitution of the A.L.P. declares that he has placed himself outside the movement." Mr. Holloway then again met with general approval in reading the following letter to be sent to Messrs. Seale and Bird: "Dear Sirs,— The executive has noted the fact that you, acting in conjunction with S. Bird or W. H. Seale, and others, have opened an office in the Trades Hall, Sydney, styling yourselves A.L.P., State of N.S.W., and have, with him, issued statements in the 'Labor Daily,' and published circulars calling upon affiliated unions, councils and leagues to pay you sustenation fees, conference and other moneys. "The executive declares that your action in so doing is not only a deliberate defiance of the rules and constitution of the party, but also an action that you will be held strictly accountable for in law. I now call upon you to forward at once to me at — all books or other documents and all moneys in your possession or control. This property belongs to the Australian Labor Party. And I also direct you not to receive further money from any affiliated organisation for A.L.P. purposes.— Yours faithfully, (to be signed by) W. CAREY, General Secretary. Suspension Owing to Mr. Bird acting as secretary of the State Party controlled by Mr. Seale, it was agreed that he be suspended. Mr. E. Voigt, who should take Mr. Bird's place on the executive as alternate delegate, was objected by Mr. McGarry. Mr. McGarry alleged that Mr. Voigt was an avowed Communist and was consequently ineligible to sit on the A.L.P. Executive. It was moved by the speaker "That a committee of three be appointed to inquire into Mr. Voigt's Communistic activities, and his eligibility to act as a member of the executive. The motion was accepted unanimously and Messrs. McGarry, Harrop and Anderson were appointed to make the investigations. It was decided to insert advertisements in the "Labor Daily" advising that the executive would not be responsible for any debts contracted in its name by Mr. Seale or any other unauthorised person. Basic Wage On the motion of Mr. Terry, it was agreed that "This executive views with alarm the turn of events taken in connection with the basic wage, and we are of the opinion that all basic wage earners will be forced below the line of subsistence if it falls below four guineas a week."[305]

VOIGT AND "BLACK HAND." WILL DEFY THEM "CONFERENCE WILL DEAL WITH THEM." "THAT the proposed "inquiry" into his conduct is merely the mask for another attempt by the"Black Hand" section of the A.L.P. Executive to cloak a further move in its fight against the Labor Movement is the belief of Mr. E. R. Voigt. "The faction on the A.L.P. Executive which is opposed to to the new rules and to the Easter Conference, having 'expelled' the president, Mr. Seale, for doing his duty," said Mr. Voigt", are now greatly perturbed because, according to the constitution and to the expressed will of the last annual Conference, I am the next alternate delegate to be moved up to the 'vacant' place on the Executive. "Since neither the constitution nor the expressed will of the annual Conference has ever troubled the unscrupulous gang which has secured control of the Executive machine it is not surprising to learn that this gang suddenly decides to block my constitutional admittance to the Executive under cover of an inquiry along the lines proposed by the Nationalists in both Parliamentary Houses. SOUND UNIONIST. "I desire the Labor Movement of New South Wales to know that I have been a sound trade unionist for 28 years. During this period I have never once scabbed upon a fellow unionist. "The President of the A.L.P. and 14 executive members are at present on strike in the interests of the rank and file against the political bosses now controlling the executive ma-chine, and I desire to make it clear that under no circumstance would I take my seat with that gang and act the part of a scab on those who are fighting for the elementary constitutional rights of the rank and file. "Never in the history of the Labor Movement in this State has there been such an overwhelming demand for the annual Conference in direct defiance of an executive edict," he concluded. "The annual Conference will deal with the political bosses — and the scabs and renegades, too."[306]

1927 04[edit]

RADIOGRAMS. By AERIAL. 2BL, Sydney, during last weekend successfully relayed a broadcast programme from a Holland station. Every item was clearly received, and it is considered, the greatest feat in broadcast history. N.S.W. has now two A class stations and eight B stations, the latter ranging from 250 to 316 metres in wavelength, and from 100 to 1500 watts power; 2KY, the Trades Hall station, is the only B class station using a power above 1000 watts.[307]

REPORT OF LABOR PAPERS AND WIRELESS BROADCASTING COMMITTEE. Since the last Annual Conference, the committees appointed to deal with Labor Papers and wireless broadcasting respectively, held several separate meetings. Later, it was thought advisable to amalgamate the two proposals. Arrangements have now been completed for the formation of the Industrial Printing and Publicity Co. Ltd., which is to combine the following functions:— (a) Union owned and controlled printery; (b) A weekly Labor paper, capable of being converted into a daily on special occasions. (c) Wireless broadcasting. Year after year at Labor Conferences and Trades Hall Council meetings, the urgent necessity of developing better propaganda for the Movement has been stressed, and it has been long desired that the present weekly Labor paper in this State, the "Labor Call," should be reorganised and enlarged, and its power and influence extended. The above company has made satisfactory arrangements with the present "Labor Call" directorate to take over the "Labor Call" and its plant and assets, in exchange for shares in the new company, to the extent of the value of those assets. The company's capital will be divided into two classes of shares: (a) 15,000 ordinary shares, which may be issued to societies registered under the Provident Societies Act, and (b) 35,000 4 per cent, preferential shares, which will be issued to trades unions and Labor organisations (including the Australian Labor Party). Of the 15,000 shares mentioned in (a) above, not more than 100 shares may be issued to individuals, to comply with the Companies' Act. The 4 per cent. preferential shares, issuable to trades unions, are for the purpose of ensuring to the unions at least Savings Bank interest return on the money invested, and the directors feel that this should ensure a ready response from trades unions in this State, par-ticularly when it is considered the great benefits that would accrue to the Labor Movement generally by having such Effective means of propaganda as a live weekly Labor journal and a broadcasting station, in addition to an up-to-date printing and bookbinding plant. The provisional directors of the new company are as follows:— Messrs. G. A. Carter, J. F. Chapple, C. Crofts, A. S. Drakeford, R. Elliott, H. E. Foster, J. F. Hannan, J. J. Holland, M.L.A.; E. J. Holloway, A. Lewis, D. L. McNamara, M.L.C., and J. H. Scullin, M.H.R. A block of land has been secured close to the Trades Hall, on which it is proposed to immediately erect a building large enough for the requirements of the company.[308]

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ELECTED BY THE 1926 CONFERENCE TO ESTABLISH A LABOR RADIO BROADCASTING STATION. Following the decision of the 1926 A.L.P. Conference that a Labor Broadcasting Station should be established, a committee was elected, comprising five members from the A.L.P. Annual Conference, five members from the A.L.P. Central Executive, and five members from the Trades Hall Council. This committee held its first meeting on May 21, 1926, when Comrade C. Crofts was appointed Chairman and J. F. Chapple Secretary. Certain matters of policy were discussed and approved, and a sub-committee was elected to give effect to the decisions and to take such steps as might be necessary to establish the station. A number of later meetings were held by the committee and sub-committee, and the following is an outline of the progress made. Memorandum and Articles of Association were drawn up and approved, with the object of forming a company with £10,000 capital in shares of £1 each, the control to be vested in the shareholding unions, the A.L.P. Central Executive and the Trades Hall Council, the head office to be at the Trades Hall, call signal to be 3KZ, and the name "The 3KZ Broadcasting Company of Victoria Limited." Every phase of activity, including broadcasting, conducting concerts, etc., for programme purposes or otherwise; the publishing of any magazine or journal incidental to the promotion and the advertising of the business, the promotion of competitions, etc., the purchase or acquisition of copy-rights, patents, etc.; the broadcasting of programmes and of advertisements, the establishment of relay stations, the indenting, purchase or manufacture or sale of all radio equipment, trading as agents or sub-agents in radio goods, and other such pro-visions, were embraced in the Memorandum. On the eve of seeking registration, it was urged by members of the committee that the committee which proposed to take over the present "Labor Call" was also about to register as a new company, and request Unions to take up shares; that it was not in the best interests of the Movement to promote the flotation of two companies at the one time, and that better results could be achieved by amalgamating the two proposals. A conference was arranged with members of the Labor Paper Committee, and as that body was agreeable to include the establishment of a wireless station in its Memorandum of Association, the Radio Committee met on July 5, 1926, and carried the following resolution:— "That whereas the Labor Paper Committee is agreeable to incorporate and provide for the installation and operation of a broadcasting station in the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the proposed Industrial Printing and Publishing Company, this committee agrees to the proposed incorporation, and confers on the Radio Sub-Committee full power to complete (in collaboration with the Paper Committee) the business for which this Committee was elected." The report of the Labor Paper Committee will indicate the progress made with the flotation of the Company, and the proposed erection of a four-story building which will house the printing press and the wireless plant. It was understood that the Labor Paper Committee concurred with the view of the Radio Committee that, whereas one Board of Directors could control the two ventures, there should be two committees of management created, in order that each undertaking might be efficiently supervised and controlled, and this aspect will be followed up when the project takes definite shape. On the general question of providing a Radio Broadcasting Station, various enquiries and investigations were made along the lines of erecting a 1600-watt station on a 300-metre wave length, and two firms competent to undertake the erection of the station have already evinced a keen interest in our proposals. Application was made to the Postmaster-General for the issue of a "B" Class Licence, and an assurance was secured that the licence would be issued on furnishing the circuit plans and other essential details. Considerable correspondence also took place between the committee and various parties interested in our scheme, including 4QG, of Brisbane, and 2KY, of Sydney. Technical expert advice has been promised, and at an opportune time will be availed of. Since amalgamating with the Labor Paper Committee no progress has been possible, because the erection of the proposed new building was a first essential step. The preliminary enquiries, however, disclosed information of a most encouraging nature, and there would appear to be no reason why Labor should not have its own Labor Radio Station within a reasonable period of time. It is, however, essential to the progress of the company that additional Unions should take up their quota of share capital at the earliest possible date. Signed on behalf of the Radio Committee, C. CROFTS, Chairman. J. F. CHAPPLE, Secretary.[309]

1927 05[edit]

BROKE DOWN. 2KY SENSATION. MYSTERIOUS FAULTS. Giving evidence today before the Wireless Commission, Mr. E. G. Beard, who was responsible for the technical installation at the Trades Hall station, 2KY, told of a sensational happening at the station recently. The station broke down between the afternoon and night transmissions, he said, and on investigating the cause he found that the clips connecting the grid leak had mysteriously come off, that a valve had been short circuited, and the generator burned out in a way that suggested that a needle had been driven into the armature. He understood that an investigation had been carried out.[310]

1927 06[edit]

LOSS AND GAIN. MR. E. R. VOIGT, WHO represented the Trades Hall Broadcasting Station before the Wireless Royal Commission yesterday, was responsible for one of the most humorous interludes since the Commission came to Sydney. Mr. Voigt had complained of the P.M.G.'s Department refusing to allow broadcasting communication to be held. Mr. George Taylor asked witness if he did not think that if radio was allowed as a means of transmitting messages the postal, telephone, and telegraph revenue would suffer enormously. Witness: If a sanitary system was installed at Dee Why, where I live, the manufacturers of sanitary pans would suffer considerable hardship.(Prolonged laughter.)[311]

WHAT WIRELESS LACKS. Tariff Wanted on Sets. 2KY'S DIFFICULTIES. The need for a protective duty on wireless sets and the tribulations that beset the beginnings of 2KY, the Trades Hall station, were discussed before the Wireless Commission yesterday. Mr. Ernest Gordon Beard, chief engineer of United Distributors, Limited, went further into his scheme for placing broadcasting on a higher plane. He said that 150 to 550 metre wave lengths should be divided into equal parts for the six States. DUMPING AMERICA'S REJECTS. He was in favor of a protective tariff on sets. American sets were selling at something like a quarter the price it would cost to manufacture them in Australia, because they were defective, and United States firms were landing them here at considerably below cost. He instanced four-valve sets now selling at £2/10/, which would cost £5 to £6 to manufacture here. The chairman said that the matter was one for the Tariff Board. Mr. Beard went on to say that broadcasting stations should not be obliged at the present time to provide subsidiary power plants, because the expense would be too great until broadcasting were more greatly utilised. TRADES HALL TROUBLES. E. R. Voigt, representing station 2KY, said his station had cost £1636 to construct. He said there had been claims for royalties from the Australian Performing Rights Association, and from Amalgamated Wireless when the station was under construction. They had refused to recognise the rights of these parties for royalties. No royalties were paid at all. He said the management of 2KY has been faced at the start with an obstacle in the form of a demand from the Postmaster-General's Department not to use the station for the broadcasting of political propaganda. This order was later lifted however. Witness gave evidence concerning the cost of a speech amplifier, which was used in the station. He made inquiries into the price of the imported article, which cost £1100. He had one made locally — a better-finished and altogether higher class article — for £60. The commission was adjourned until 10 a.m. to-day.[312]

COST OF 2KY. EARLY STRUGGLES AUSTRALIAN-MADE. EMIL ROBERT VOIGT told the Wireless Royal Commission yesterday of the barriers placed in the way of trade unionists who wished to control a broadcasting station. Amalgamated Wireless had demanded royalties on the Trades Hall station 2KY, he said and when the station was about to open Amalgamated Wireless could not supply valves. The lowest price for which an imported speech amplifier could be purchased was £1100 but 2KY had one built in Australia for £60 said Mr. Voigt. The Australian article was superior to the imported one in every way. Witness said he was president of the Labor Council wireless committee. Station 2KY cost £1636/6/8 to construct. The amount was contributed by unionists. The station was built by union labor under the direction of Mr. Beard, chief engineer for United Distributors, Ltd. At one time a breakdown occurred. It was thought that the defect was due to foul play. However the fault was located in a choke. PROFIT AND LOSS During 1926 the revenue received amounted to £535 and the expenditure to £1641. Bad debts totalled £431, one advertising firm failing to meet its payments. The deficit in the years' trading revenue was made up by the various interested unions. Mr. Voigt said ????? sented themselves with ????? the station. Firstly, it had be ?????. I that 2KY was to be built for educational purposes, as well as ?????? entertainment. The Postmaster-General's Department would not permit the station to broadcast messages to the 400-odd Labor Party branches throughout the State. They were informed that wireless could not compete with the postal, telephone, and telegraph service in any way. In witness' opinion, this was one of the main obstacles retarding the progress of broadcasting in Australia. However, the Public Works Departmeut was constructing eight relay stations in connection with the Burrenjuck hydro-electric scheme, and a large sum of money had been allowed in the Government estimates for the purpose. "I hope as a result of the Commission that this obstacle will be removed," said Mr. Voigt. SECOND HURDLE. The second hurdle was the limited finance available. Thirdly, Amalgamated Wireless claimed royalties on patents which they claimed were used in the equipment of the station. The lowest estimate for an imported speech amplifier was £1100, but Mr. Beard constructed one for £60. Through breaking down the barriers placed by Amalgamated Wireless and another firm, the Trades Hall station was built at a figure within the financial reach of the unions. A few weeks prior to the station being opened the fourth difficulty that of securing material, presented itself. 2KY applied to Amalgamated Wireless for valves, but were told that there were none available. This statement was doubted, and another user of valves was requested to inquire for them. He did so, and was told over the telephone that he could secure them. When application was made at the office of Amalgamated Wireless delivery was refused. as it was stated that there was none available. Eventually, said witness, after hunting all over Australia and New Zealand the valve were secured and the station was started. Mr. Lewis, for Amalgamated Wireless, asked witness if he had made a study of broadcasting international political propaganda, such as was done in Russia. Mr. Voigt said he did not understand what international political propaganda was. "DIVIDE WAVE LENGTH." Ernest Gordon Beard, chief engineer of United Distributors gave further details of his scheme to place broadcasting in a position to give greater service to the public. Wave lengths of 150 to 550 metres should be divided into equal parts for the six States of the Commonwealth, he said. Witness asked the Commission to give consideration to the advisability of placing a protective tariff on wire-less sets. American sets were selling at a quarter of the cost to manufacture them in Australia. These foreign sets were defective and rather than scrap them American firms were landing them here considerably below cost. Four-valve sets were selling at £2/10/ when they cost between £5 and £6 to manufacture. The Chairman said that witness' complaint was a matter that should be brought before the Tariff Board. Broadcasting stations, said witness, should not be obliged at present to provide subsidiary power plants. Until broadcasting became a greater utility the expense would be too great. In the event of a shortage of power the lighting of the city should be the first consideration.[313]

WIRELESS. Interstate Reception. EXPERT'S PROPOSAL. Mr. E. G. Beard, consulting engineer to station 2GB, and chief engineer of United Distributors Company, who continued his evidence yesterday before the Royal Commission on Wireless, outlined a scheme for allocating wave lengths, which, he claimed, would make interstate reception remarkably easy. Mr. Beard suggested that the wave band of 150 to 550 metres should be divided into six equal parts, one part to be allotted to each State. Two waves each 30 kilocycles from the centre of the band should be allotted, one to each "A" class station. Two waves 10 kilocycles from the centre of the band should be allotted, one to each "A" station as relay sink waves, each station to take the sink wave nearest its own wave length. By sink wave he meant a wave to be used by several low-power stations intended for local reception only, and which were separated by at least 200 miles. The "B" stations should be allocated waves starting with those waves 20 kilocycles from the nearest "A" stations, and allotted 10 kilocycles apart to the limits of the band. They could then use unlimited power. Adjacent bands of waves should be allotted to adjacent States. All stations, said Mr. Beard, should be crystal controlled, and the crystals supplied by the Postmaster-General's department, with the license to transmit. Thus the stations would be given their wave length in material fact, and not in abstract numbers. Interstate reception would then be remarkably easy. The nearest station to cause interference to an interstate "A" station would be a station of less than 500 watts, with a difference of wave length of 90 kilocycles, which was equivalent to the difference between 2BL and 5CL. No interference was experienced between those stations, despite the fact that the power of 2BL was 5000 watts. The nearest "A" station would be 150 kilocycles away, and the next 330 kilocycles. Every listener would be guaranteed reception from any "A" station without interference. "B" STATIONS. The situation with regard to "B" stations, continued Mr. Beard, would be much better than at present, although not quite so ideal as in the case of the "A" stations. On the other hand, the public did not pay to hear the "B" stations. Every town of importance could have eight small "B" stations for local reception, and still have no interference. Probably more than 1000 stations could be accommodated in the scheme, and 96 stations, including both "A" and "B," could operate with sufficient power to cover the whole of Australia. One or two points required special treatment, continued Mr. Beard. Western Australia was the only station working on a long wave length. He suggested that the lowest band should be allotted to Western Australia, and that the present Perth station should continue transmitting on its present wave length for a period of one or two years, and that immediately duplicate transmission should be started on a low wave length, as provided in the scheme. At the end of two years the long wave station should be closed down. He further suggested that the existing "A" class licenses should only be renewed at the end of their present term on condition that the power used was 25,000 watts, either by one main station or by means of relay stations, so as to ensure satisfactory daylight service. Owing to the water-cooled valve, said Mr. Beard, the cost of using 25,000 watts today would be no greater than that of using 2000 watts four years ago. In the navy a 5000-watt station would give a range of approximately 150 miles, and a station of 25,000 watts a range of 700 or 800 miles at sea. "TREMENDOUS INTERFERENCE."With regard to interference, witness said that experiments he had conducted showed that 2FC caused tremendous interference when the wave length dropped. His firm found that none of their sets could operate owing to the interference. Mr. C. D. Maclurcan, a well-known experimenter, had told him that he believed 2FC was radiating two wave lengths which were very far apart. He had conducted experiments at Gunnedah, and found that 2FC interfered with other "A" stations, due to the damping of their transmitted wave. He had inspected 2FC station, and found all the factors to produce high damping. The regulations were very vague. If the regulations concerned the type of wave transmitted instead of the type of apparatus such a thing could not happen. Tests had proved that 2FC was not using nearly the same power just before the drop in the wave length as that used when the station started operating three or four years ago. It was doubtful if it was using more than 1000 watts. Consequently, daylight reception was impossible. Witness asked if the commission could assist in preventing American sets being dumped into Australia. He had seen sets imported for £2/10/, the material in which was worth £5 or £6, but they were bad sets which could not be sold on the American market. The chairman (Mr. J. H. Hammond, K.C.) said it was a matter for the Tariff Board. In reply to Mr. Taylor, witness said that 2KY, a 3000-watt station, cost £1600. A tender was received for £1250 for transmitting plant only. In reply to Mr. Lewis (for Amalgamated Wireless), witness said it was not a fact that the system of modulation at station 2GB was an infringement of the patent of Amalgamated Wireless. He had refused to allow Mr. Tapp (representative of Amalgamated Wireless) to inspect that portion of the set because he (Mr. Beard) proposed at that time to apply for patent rights concerning certain principles of the apparatus. He did not apply for the patent. He built stations 2GB and 2KY. Mr. Lewis: Are you proud of the quality of them? Witness: No. Mr. Lewis: Are you proud of their strength? Witness: Yes. Richard Hungerford, manager of Standard Telephones and Cables. Ltd., produced agreements and correspondence on the subject of patent rights. In reply to the chairman, he said his company had agreed to pay Amalgamated Wireless royally of 12/6 a valve holder, because when there was a doubt with regard to patent rights it was better to compromise than to fight. The Australian General Electric was not, as stated by a witness, paying royalty twice in regard to the superheterodyne sets. TRADES HALL STATION. Emil Robert Voigt, representing station 2KY, said that the station had cost £1636/6/8. It was constructed by unionists under the supervision of Mr. Beard. Broadcasting from the station was interrupted on one occasion by a breakdown. They discovered damage inside the choke, also that one of the leads in the set had been wrenched away in such a nature that it could not possibly have dropped itself. They thought there was some foul play; but they had been unable to find out the cause. The revenue of the station for 1926 was £535, and the expenditure £164. The Performing Rights Association had made claims which were rejected. The Amalgamated Wireless had made a claim indirectly through United Distributors Company when the station was building, He understood they claimed royalty, also that those controlling 2KY should pledge themselves not to use the station for advertising purposes. They refused the claims. Among other difficulties met with was the notification from the Postmaster-General's Department that 2KY could not be used in any way that would conflict with the postal regulations. They had built the station particularly to communicate between the central party and its branches, and between branch and branch. He hoped those obstacles would be removed. The inquiry was adjourned till 10 o'clock this morning.[314]

BOARD FAVORED WIRELESS CONTROL. VOIGT HAS HIS SAY. MR. T. M. SHAKESPEARE told the Wireless Commission today that the N.S.W. Country Press Association favored a board of control for wireless in each State, free from Government control. It considered that it should be no part of broadcasting to include propaganda or advertising in programmes. The Chairman, Mr. Hammond, K.C. said that in the evidence placed before the Commission there had been almost a total absence of criticism of the present control. Witness said criticism was useless. The Country Press thought they would get a "better go" from people who were alive and up-to-date. In reply to the chairman, witness gave as evidence of the detrimental effects of the present control the P.M.G.'s refusal to allow the broadcasting of news. The Chairman: Would you be better off with a board? Witness: The members would be business men, and would act promptly. That is what an offi-cial can never do. A proposal had been made to the Country Press by Amalgamated Wire-less, said witness, to supply news at 9/6 a 100 words, if seven papers entered into the scheme, or 22/6 a 100 words if 20 papers were supplied. In reply to a question witness said: "It is a question whether we will put in our own station at Canberra at a cost of £2000 or pay Amalgamated Wireless £5000 and be done with it." "BOLSHEVIK CONTROL" Mr. E. K. Voigt, who stated that he was secretary to the Vice-president of the Executive Council, Mr. Willis, until two weeks ago, outlined a scheme for a State "B" class broadcasting station with country relay stations. He stated that he did not speak on behalf of the State Government. Mr. Markell, representing 2BL: Is not your scheme an insidious way of getting control of broadcasting into your own hands?— My hands? No; those of the body you represent? — What body? The Bolshevik body?— I don't represent the Bolsheviks. Witness appealed to the chairman for protection. Mr. Markell: Do you consider the term "Bolshevik" offensive? Witness did not reply. Mr. Markell: Do you know that your scheme is similar to that in use in Russia to-day?— No. Witness said he regarded international communication as a possibility under his scheme. "PECULIAR FACT" Mr. Braddon, for 2FC, drew witness' attention to the "peculiar fact" that while his scheme was said to be for the State the first wave length he suggested cut out all crystal sets, and the second wave length could not be heard except more than 500 miles away. Asked what his experience of wireless was, witness said that when he was in America he manufactured and sold radio sets.[315]

"NOT RED." GOVERNMENT RADIO SCHEME. HOT DENIAL. INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION POSSIBLE. Hot passages with Mr. Markell, who appeared for 2BL, marked the evidence of Mr. E. R. Voigt at the Wireless Commission today. Mr. Voigt, who said he represented 2KY, warmly denied that the proposed State radio scheme was on all fours with that in operation in Russia. Pressed for a definite reply, he admitted that the station might be used for international communication. Mr. Voigt, who said that until two weeks ago he was private secretary to the Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr. Willis), gave details of the proposed place for the establishment of a State B class station with relaying stations in the country. The place, he said, was ready to be put into operation. The Chairman: You are not authorised to speak on behalf of the Government? Witness: No. He said, in reply to other questions, that tenders for the erection of the proposed station had not been called, nor had the matter been brought under the notice of the Postmaster-General. Mr. Markell subjected the witness to a rigid cross-examination. "Who do you represent at this inquiry," he demanded. Mr. Voigt answered "2KY." He also said he represented the necessities of New South Wales. Mr. Markell asked witness why, in his references to the State Government's scheme to establish a wireless station, he repeatedly used the word "we." Mr. Voigt said it had no particular application, and he warmly resented the suggestion that the use of the word might indicate Bolshevik interests. "Have I no protection," he demanded of the chairman. A further suggestion by Mr. Markell that the scheme outlined was on all fours with that now in operation in Russia was also resented by the witness. He said it was similar to stations now working in U.S.A. and elsewhere. "Who would have control of this station," Mr Markell demanded. "The Government," he answered. "What Government," counsel persisted. "The Government in power." "Is it proposed to be used for inter-national communication," Mr. Markell went on. "Primarily for State communication." "Is it for international communication," asked Mr. Markell, insisting on a definite answer. "That is a possibility," witness conceded.[316]

MR. VOIGT KNOWS NOTHING ABOUT THE BOLSHEVIKS. INSULTING SUGGESTIONS AT RADIO COMMISSION. MR. E. R. Voigt hotly refuted a suggestion at the Wireless Royal Commission yesterday, that he was representing the Bolsheviks. "I am representing the people of New South Wales, and I know nothing about the Bolsheviks," he said. Witness had said that he had recommended to the Government that a station be built and operated on two wave lengths, from 100 to 40 metres. This would mean that communication would be easily established with the outside world. Mr. Voigt denied that the low wave lengths were to be used as in Russia, for broadcasting propaganda. Users of crystal sets would receive no benefit from such a station. Mr. Voigt explained to the Commission that at his previous appearance he was under the impression his remarks were to be confined solely to the Trades Hall broadcasting station, 2KY. However, he intended to speak on general matters concerning broadcasting. Up to the end of last year, he said, the Federal Government received £3,500,000 in Customs duly on wireless equipment. If £200,000 was allocated from this amount to the "A" class broadcasting stations, it would do much to improve the standard of broadcasting. General complaint was made in the trade concerning the license fees, which were considered excessive. Witness thought that ten shillings would be sufficient for the public to pay directly. THE ALLOCATION. Of the license fee, five shillings should be allocated to the Commonwealth Government to cover administrative work, two shillings and six pence to the State Governments as an incentive to establish relay stations, two shillings to be distributed to any "A" or "B" class station at the discretion of the listener-in, and the remaining sixpence should be allocated to research work recommended by the Government. Continuing, Mr. Voigt said that the Labor movement had established its own wireless station at considerable expense. Following this progressive move, scores of people who otherwise would not have shown any interest in wireless had purchased sets. It was only fair that when stations helped to such an extent to swell the revenue that they should receive some portion of it. Mr. T. M. Shakespeare, secretary of the Country Press and Australian Provincial Press Associations, said that his executive held that the Common-wealth Government should hold the suzerain authority over wireless in Australia, but that the work of broadcasting should be entrusted to an independent board in each State, elected by the parties most interested and free from political control. They also held that it should be no part of any broadcasting privilege to include paid propaganda or advertising in any programme while participating in income arbitrarily raised by license fees from owners of wireless sets. WOMEN'S INTERESTS. Marie Holmes, representing the Housewives' Association, an organisation with a membership of 8000 in this State, told the Commission that women were interested in fashions, despite what a male witness had said. Latest fashions from Paris, London and New York should be broadcast, also hints to the mother, cooking recipes, and talks on general hygiene in the home. William John Maclardy, managing director of 2BL, stated that on the Saturday prior to the Commission meeting in Sydney, his company was served with a writ for £6000, being royalties claimed by Amalgamated Wireless. Both parties were willing that the basis of the claim be gone into, but the chairman held that a Royal Com-mission could not discuss any matter that was subjudice. However, he added that it would have been proper had the writ been withheld till the Commission had concluded. Mr. Lewis, for Amalgamated Wireless, said that the writ had been issued somewhat as an oversight, and that his company did not wish to baulk the Commission. (Photo Caption) Mr. Voigt.[317]

MORSE KEY AT 2KY STATION FOR THEIR FRIENDS. DEPT. ORDERED REMOVAL. Giving evidence before the Wireless Commission today, the chief manager of Telegraph and Wireless, Postmaster-General's Department, said that it was found that a Morse key, capable of being used for wireless telegraphic communication, was connected with 2KY's plant. It was removed on representations from the department. James Malone, the official in question, said that on examination of 2KY's plant the key was found connected with the circuit which rendered the equipment capable of being used for wireless telegraphy. "We requested them to take it down, and they did so," he said. "It is not in accordance with the regulations." The Chairman: They made no secret that they intended broadcasting messages to their friends? Witness: No. Apparently in all innocence they thought they had permission under their license to do it? — Yes. EXPERIMENTS IN COUNTRY. Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector for New South Wales, who gave evidence yesterday, was further examined. He gave particulars of experiments made by the department at Gundagai and Dubbo, of daylight reception with a six-valve set. These he described as very successful. Speaking of interference by oscillating sets, witness said that the troubles complained of by listeners-in were due to a variety of causes. Every moving electrical machine, even the coils of a motor car, could cause interference. Answering a question as to where reception from N.S.W. stations was bad at night, witness mentioned Lithgow, the Blue Mountains, and from the northern side of Newcastle to Single-ton. Reception at night from 3LO and 4QG was invariably good. The Chairman: What, in your opinion, is the remedy for this state of affairs? Witness: Relay stations. MORE CRYSTAL SETS. Mr. Crawford gave a mass of figures showing the proportion of crystal sets to valves in various suburbs of Sydney. These showed that the percentage was in favor of crystal sets by 60 to 55. In only one area inspected did the valve sets exceed the crystal, and that was in Randwick. Kensington, Coogee, Bondi, Woollahra, &c., where the figures were 879 and 831 respectively. Replying to Mr. Markell, witness said he would guarantee satisfactory reception on a crystal set over a radius of 15 miles but not over 25 miles. "If you look after the crystal user you automatically protect the valve user," he said, in reply to another question. The Chairman: The position is such, in your opinion, as to justify the erection of a certain number of relay stations?" SELF-SUPPORTING SCHEME. Sir James Elder: Do you recommend the erection of relay stations without inquiry into the whole matter by a scientific or research bureau? Witness: Yes; the judicious erection of relay stations, in my opinion, would bring such an increase of licenses that the scheme would be self-supporting. High-powered stations, he pointed out, would never reach the man at Wagga with a crystal set, for instance. People in Wagga and towns similarly situated, with limited means, were crying out for reception, and could not get it. Conrad F. Holley, public accountant, auditor for Broadcasters, Ltd., explained that up to December 31, 1926, the accumulated losses of Broadcasters, Ltd., was £14,745. There was little scope for saving. The company was economically and efficiently managed. IN CASE OF STRIKES. James Malone, chief manager of Telegraphs and Wireless, Postmaster-General's Department gave evidence that inquiries made in December, 1926 as to the provision of duplicate power by broadcasting stations (so as to avoid stoppages through industrial unrest or breakdown of supply) showed. that five stations had made such provision or were arranging for auxiliary services, while three had none. These three depended solely on public supply. In the case of 3LO a whole day's service was lost because of industrial trouble at Yallourn. All stations in England and America, had auxiliary power. Witness believed that such provision was necessary here. AMALGAMATED WIRELESS. In reference to a statement made by him yesterday, and replying to an in-quiry by Mr. Lewis (representing Amalgamated Wireless), the chairman said that nothing which had come be-fore him up to the present indicated that Amalgamated Wireless had ex-ceeded their legal rights. Continuing his evidence, Mr. Malone said he did not favor the regulation or examination of dealers. Replying to the chairman, witness said that adverse reports had been received from officers of his department respecting the manner in which the accounts of 3AR (Vic.) were kept, but matters had now been remedied. Departmental officers had also expressed opinions on various allocations of revenue by 3LO (Vic.) — payments of directors' fees and payments to associated companies. These reports were in Sydney, he said, and he would let the Commission have them.[318]

BROADCASTING FINANCES. ALLOCATION OF REVENUE. MELBOURNE STATIONS PROFIT. Victoria Has Majority of Licences. SYDNEY, Wednesday.— The director of posts and telegraphs (Mr. H. P. Brown) informed the Royal commission on wireless today that, in view of the statements of witnesses that there were thousands of unlicensed listeners in New South Wales, he had arranged for a staff of trained, detectives to search for the supposed "pirates." Mr. Brown submitted a return showing the number of licences in force at the end of May, 1927, in the Commonwealth, to be 215,801. The licences issued in the various States were as follows:— New South Wales, 57,231; Victoria, 113,977; Queensland, 22,287; South Australia, 16,061; Western Australia, 3,874; Tasmania, 2,351. The department received £28,000 from wireless licences, and the cost of administration was £18,000, said Mr. Brown. He would not say that the profit to the department was £10,000 last year, but there was no doubt that the department had made a substantial profit. James Malone, chief manager of telegraphs and wireless, Postmaster-General's department, said that on December 30, 1926, the department asked all broadcasting stations in Australia to make arrangements to provide safeguards during industrial unrest, or in the event of a breakdown of the normal power supply, so that the maintenance of the broadcasting service would not be interrupted. Five of the companies had replied that auxiliary power supplies were already available, or were being arranged. Three others were considering the installation of plant, A serious stoppage had occurred at 3LO, Melbourne, when the power supply was reduced owing to the industrial unrest at Yallourn. The whole of the service for one day was missed. Station at Trades Hall. The Chairman. — Do you think it fair to ask broadcasting stations that are already losing money to instal a duplicate power plant? Witness replied that he did, with certain modifications. Continuing, he said that when the Trades Hall station, 2KY, was built a key was connected in the circuit, which rendered the plant capable of being used to transmit telegraphic messages. That was contrary to the regulations, and, when requested, the key was removed. The Chairman. — They made no secret of the fact that they intended to broadcast messages to their friends? Witness.— At the time they had in mind the possibility of communications of that nature. I do not suggest anything underhand. In reply to the chairman witness said that the department had received an adverse report concerning the method of keeping the accounts at station 3AR, Melbourne. The method had been altered. Comments on allocations of revenue had been expressed by officers of the department concerning 3LO, Melbourne, in respect of payments of directors' fees, and payments of sums to associated companies. Payments to the directors of 3LO totalled £5,750, as follows:— Mr. J. A. Tait, £1,650; Sir George Tallis, ; Mr. George Wright, £800; Mr. Fink, £550; Mr. Lloyd, £550; Farmer and Co., £1,400; and £100 travelling expenses to Mr. George Wright. A report by an officer of the department on March 10, 1927, showed the following payments on account of 3LO:— Directors' fees, £5,750; manager, £1,000; studio manager, £572; J. C. Williamson Ltd., £2,000; Amalgamated Wireless for royalties, £12,000; profit, £11,600; total, £32,922. The report also stated that the amount paid.out of the licence fees to 3LO was £72,000. Consequently it would be seen that a rather large bite went in payments which brought very little satisfaction to those who paid. Mr. W. T. Crawford, radio inspector for New South Wales, who continued his evidence from the previous day, quoted figures which showed that the proportion of crystal sets in use in New South Wales was from 55 to 60 per cent. of the total sets. In reply to the chairman he said that the position in New South Wales justified the erection of some relay stations. The commission adjourned until tomorrow.[319]

DETAILS OF SCHEME. Messrs. Willis and Voight Behind It. SYDNEY, Thursday. A scheme to endeavor to have a State wireless broadcasting station was decided on by Cabinet yesterday. Mr Lang said it had been decided to take action without delay to secure State rights in the air by the establishment of a State wireless service. The scheme will be conducted on lines similar to the Queensland Government's wireless telegraph regulations." The regulations provide that there shall be only two "A" class stations in this State. The two stations are already in existence. Mr Lang's Government for some time has been coquetting with the idea of establishing a central "B" class station, with relay stations in country centres. Now comes the "A" class station proposal. The prime movers in the first place were Mr A. C. Willis and Mr Emil R. Voigt. The latter, when giving evidence before the Royal Commission, admitted that one purpose of the 2KY Trades Hall station was to communicate with Labor organisations elsewhere. Whether Cabinet intends to challenge the Federal Government's right to control wireless has not been made known. Whether the State Government will carry out its intention to establish an A class radio station depends primarily on the attitude of the Commonwealth Government, which will be guided by the report of the Royal Commission on Wireless. The State Government's point of view will be placed before the Commission shortly.[320]

A STATE WIRELESS STATION. The announcement last Thursday by Mr. Lang that the State Government intended to take steps immediately to launch a State Government wireless station was duly endorsed by Mr. Willis on the following day with some detail as to its objects. It is almost exactly two years since the original Lang Cabinet first considered the proposal, which seems not to have made very much progress — Mr. Lang and other Ministers apparently were opposed to it — until the present Lang Cabinet was installed on the ruins of the old one. But Mr. Willis had not then Mr. Lang in his pocket. Mr. Willis disclosed what he had in mind at the opening of the 2KY station in November, 1925, when he said that the Government was planning a high-power station, with a series of relay stations throughout the country, and that the service would not only facilitate the business of the State, but that it would do much to transform the whole social life of the community. For the meaning of that enigmatic phrase — Mr. Willis does not often commit himself — we have some guidance from other quarters. Mr. Garden at the same function said that the main purpose of 2KY was to "educate and guide the workers towards the fulfilment of the common objective the world over, the Socialist Commonwealth." Accordingly, listeners in at that station have been for weeks regaled with "lecturettes on China," often by announcers whose pronunciation has suggested that English is not their mother tongue. Garden himself has been unable to describe a mooted trip to China, but he has expatiated on the wonders of his visit to Moscow. During the past fortnight, the Wireless Commission has had Mr. Voigt, who is, or was, chairman of 2KY, before it on two occasions. On the same subject, the proposed State Government station, it has also heard Mr. Beard, the engineer who built 2KY. We remember that it was this Mr, Beard, then described as a local experimenter, who in August, 1925, happened to receive a message from the Russian Soviet station at Nijni Novgorod, announcing in four languages, including English. Mr. Voigt told the Wireless Commission that the State station was wanted so that "we" might transmit departmental information. When asked who "we" were, he denied that he was speaking for the Government, and said he was referring to the people of New South Wales. In cross examination, Mr. Voigt admitted that the station was also required for communication with oversea countries, and he named Britain and the United States, but he said he had considered no other country. It was Mr. Voigt's 2KY station that was, according to the evidence of a postal official, found with an unauthorised Morse key connected, and was promptly ordered to remove it. Mr. Beard gave evidence, as to the intentions of State Ministers, and the predicaments in which State departments found themselves for want of such a station. As to these departments, we can only say that the police department, one of those quoted, was formerly reported as wanting full use of any such station if it was to be of any service. In Queensland, the Minister for Education has stated that not much reliance can be placed on State broadcasting as a means of facilitating educational facilities. In any case, is not the telephone a sufficient medium of quick communication between these and other departmental offices. Has it not also the merit of secrecy, and considerable advantages over wireless mes-sages in Morse. As for general entertainments (one of the stated objects), we should have thought that those for whom Mr. Voigt spoke had their opportunity already in 2KY. Commenting on Mr. Beard's exposition of the need of a State longwave station supplying relay stations in the country, another engineer, Mr. Allsop, said he did not think the scheme was practicable, as the cost of maintenance would be too great. What is the explanation of this demand for a Labour Government station, desired to be placed in the old Darlinghurst Gaol, behind good thick walls and stout gates? We know from its earlier history that it was hatched in a committee whose moving spirits were Messrs. Willis and Voigt. Is it a mere coincidence that the Third International is constructing a widespread net of radio stations in Russia, which have connections in America, Asia, and Africa, for furtherance of the war of propaganda which Moscow has declared on the British Empire? Moscow Postal Department has published an official statement that the Soviet Government "must" execute a programme to construct regional stations to "serve as relay stations to connect Moscow with the remotest localities;" and the bulletin of the Swiss organisation which watches the Third International and publishes this statement, declares the aim is to provide "a means to give the signal of the proletariat's general insurrection in the world at the moment when Zinovieff (alias Radomyslsky) will judge right to place the hand on the hour of universal revolution." We turn again to Mr. Voigt's admissions on cross-examination before the Wireless Commission about foreign connections for a local "departmental communication" station. The veil is surely very thin.[321]

Public Gives Laurels to 2UW. There is a surprising number of radio enthusiasts who turn from the programmes of the principal (A class) broadcasting stations, and find entertainment in the smaller (B class) stations, which received no subsidy from the Government. Although some of the B class stations work on a power of one-tenth or less of that of the others, they are heard in many parts of the State; indeed, in other parts of Australia as well. A listener writes from a place 130 miles from Broken Hill, stating that he received the B class stations, 2UW and 2KY, excellently, and at about equal strength, the music of his five-valve receiver being heard 300 yards away. A settler at Yenda (Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area) wrote to 2UW:— "Your transmission was excellent. I have never yet managed to get 2FC so well." A listener, wrote from Warrnambool, Victoria, to 2UW:— "I am listening to your station for the first time. You do not fade, but come in very clear." Numbers of listeners seem to stumble on the B class stations unawares. One man writes from Woonona, via Bulli:— "Whenever I get a bit down in the dumps I hop on to the set and look for 2UW." Of the four principal B class stations in Sydney, two — the Trades Hall and Theosophical stations — are run for propaganda. The others are mainly for advertising purposes.[322]

CRUSHING WIRELESS IMPOSTS. £60 WORTH FOR £11,000. TRUST'S EXACTIONS EXPOSURE BY MR. WILLIS. MR. A. C. WILLIS, Vice-President of the Executive Council, made a statement yesterday laying bare the propaganda of the Wireless Trust against the Government Wireless system. The rapacity of the Trust is exposed in charging £11,000 for a speech amplifier, whereas a similar device made in Australia for 2KY cost but £60. In the editions of the "Wireless Weekly" issued on June 4 and June 11 last, an attack has been made upon the State Wireless service which the Lang Government has decided to establish, said Mr. Watts. I am informed that the "Wireless Weekly"' is controlled by the Wireless Trust, and according to evidence given before the Royal Commission on Wireless ???? A ???? broadcasting station in this State are interested financially in this project. This accounts for the vicious attack launched by the Trust through its organisation in the "Wireless Weekly" against the Government's proposed service. We have already two excellent A class stations in this State, and a number of other stations which even if they do not fully succeed, at least try hard to give the public a broadcasting service, that is a service of entertainment and education. Unless a broadcast station has this ideal as its objective, it has no justification whatever for its existence. 2GB and 2KY The editor Mr. Watts pointed out, apparently regards entertainment as the only justification for the existence of broadcasting stations. Would be so that was no justification for Pennant Hills station with its communication with the ships at sea, or for Garden Island naval wireless station, or for the half-dozen existing stations now being operated by the New South Wales Labor Government? Would he say that adequate grounds could not be shown for the use of wireless by the police, the Fire Brigade or the Agriculture Department? "The editor of 'Wireless Weekly' hastily assumes that hundreds of thousands of pounds would be needed to start the State Wireless Service. He is evidently basing his estimates upon the extortionate figures usually demanded by the Wireless Trust. Contrast the cost of establishing 2GB and 2KY with the prices charged for erecting 2FC, which was built by the Wireless Trust. According to evidence before the Royal Commission, 2FC cost approximately £15,000; 2GB, which is approximately the same size, cost £3,000, just one-fifth the price of 2FC erected by the Trust; 2KY cost £1600. Trust Extortions. "According to evidence before the Commission, the Trust price for a speech amplifier was approximately £11,000. The speech amplifier made for 2KY by Australian workmen cost less than £60, and was at least as good, if not a better job, than the imported speech amplifier supplied by the Trust. "Contrast also the upkeep of the Trust apparatus. Farmer's Station, 2FC, requires a staff of ten persons; 2FC, requires a staff of ten persons; only to run their broadcasting station. "The total running cost of 2FC exceeds £30,000 per annum, and 2BL approximately £15,000. The total running cost of 2GB, a station of approximately the same size as 2FC, is less than £30 per week. It will therefore be seen that the position of privilege of both the Wireless Trust and the 'A' class broadcasting stations appears to be menaced by the erection of a State service at a comparative cost, which would place the stations referred to at a disadvantage. The proposed State service would give the radio public substantial advantages over those now enjoyed.[323]

1927 07[edit]

WIRELESS. . . MR. WILLIS AND STATE WIRELESS. PROPOSED STATE STATION. The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Mr. Willis) says that the State Government is determined to proceed with the construction of a State broadcasting station at the earliest opportunity. He claims that the venture will not be a costly one, and points to the fact that Station 2GB was erected at a cost of £3000 and Station 2KY, for the Labour Council, at £1600. Mr. Willis points out that 2GB, according to evidence given before the Royal Commission on Wireless, is being operated at a cost of £30 weekly, and contrasts this figure with the running costs of 2FC and 2BL, which, he estimates, at £30,000 and £15,000 per annum respectively. On this subject Mr. Willis comments:— "It will be seen that the position of privilege of the "A" broadcasting stations appears to be menanced by the erection of a State service at a comparative cost which would place the stations referred to at a disadvantage. The proposed State service would give the radio public substantial advantages over those now enjoyed."[324]

WIRELESS FOR THE STATE. "SHORT WAVE" CONTROVERSY VOIGT VINDICATED. The approbation that has greeted the British Broadcasting Corporation's intention of establishing a short-wave station at Daventry for Empire-wide transmission is somewhat amusing. ??? announced by the Lang Government some time ago, and was most vehemently criticised by the very people who are now commending the proposal. Mr. E. R. Voigt, who ???? is adviser to the Government on its wireless policy, was violently assailed when he propounded the same recently at the Wireless Royal Commission. Commenting on the volte face of certain persons, Mr. Voigt said yesterday that he was attacked when he outlined the Government's plans for the establishment of a central broadcasting station and six relay stations in the country, at the Wireless Commission. "I was asked," he said, "on what wave lengths the station would operate, and I stated that two waves would be employed, a medium and a short wave. I was attacked most viciously and discourteously by Mr. Markell who represented 2BL Broadcasters Ltd., and also by Mr. Braddon, representing Farmer's station. SIMILAR TO RUSSIAN. It was stated that the ???? station was to be similar to the stations employed in Russia. The short wave length was attacked as an ???? principle and Russian idea. "Now that Mr MacLardy, is the manager of 2BL and also the representatives of Farmer's, are claiming in the columns of the "Sun" newspaper the decision of the British Broadcasting Corporation which is controlled by the British Government. "The proposed new station will operate on the same wave length as that contemplated by New South Wales Government. Mr. MacLardy say that he has advocated all along the short wave length for long distance communication. "However, there was a total absence of any recommendation in favor of short wave lengths when I was attacked before the Commission. "Apparently what is perfectly right, proper, and sensible for the British Government to do is wholly wrong, improper, and foolish for the Government of New South Wales to attempt. It is apparently right for the British Government to contemplate long-distance communication, and it is utterly wrong for the New South Wales Government to do likewise. ???? efficient for the British Government to operate on a wave of 30 metres, but in the eyes of these prejudiced people it is quite inefficient for the New South Wales Government to broadcast on the same wave length. MERELY PREJUDICE. The British Government is not a ???? Bolshevik Government for ???? a short wave length, but the New South Wales Government is condemned viciously, and attacked because it proposed to do the same thing. The whole matter brings into relief the prejudiced views of prejudiced people. Station 2BL is supposed to function impartially in the public interest, and a station in which neither political side has an advantage. Their legal representative viciously attacked the Labor Government for proposing to operate on the short wave in addition to the longer wave length. "The representative of the same company." he added, "shows his partiality by praising the British Tory Government, by doing the very thing his legal representative condemned in the Lang Government's wireless plans."[325][326]

N.S. W. Broadcasting Stations. Metres 2FC — FARMER'S, LTD. ........ 442 2BL — BROADCASTERS, LTD. ........ 353 2GB — THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY ........ 316 2KY — TRADES HALL ........ 280 2UW — OTTO SANDEL ........ 267 2MK — MOCKLER BROS., Bathurst ........ 275 2UE — ELECTRICAL UTILITIES ........ 293 2BE — BURGIN ELECTRIC ........ 316 2HD — H. A. DOUGLAS, Newcastle ........ 283[327]

1927 08[edit]
1927 09[edit]

RADIO TRUST SHOULD BE DISSOLVED. COMMISSION'S REPORT. 2KY CHAIRMAN'S VIEWS. "THE essential feature of the report of the Royal Commission on Wireless is its exposure of the repressive part played by the Wireless Trust, and the general antagonism which its ruthless monopoly has engendered in all branches of radio throughout the Commonwealth." So said Mr. E. R. Voigt, chairman of Broadcasting Station 2KY, when interviewed yesterday regarding his opinion of the report of the Royal Commission on Wireless. The report of the Royal Commission is clear and explicit in the facts and figures it advances in support of its contentions that Amalgamated Wireless Ltd. has acted in a manner detrimental to wireless development in the Commonwealth," said Mr. Voigt. "I fully endorse the statement made at the head of an editorial in the 'Sun' on Wednesday night, which read as follows:— "RADIO — A 'SOULLESS MONOPOLY'" "The report of the Royal Commission on Wireless is a damning indictment of the company which for so many years has had a monopoly of this utility in the Commonwealth. We have heard a great deal from radical speakers about 'soulless monopolies.' This, evidently, is the original soulless monopoly from from which the phrase had been coined. Federal Government to Blame. "It must be emphasised," Mr. Voigt went on to say, "that the report of the Royal Commission and its indictment of the Wireless Trust is at the same time a severe indictment of the Federal Nationalist Government. "I should like to call the attention of readers of the 'Labor Daily' to the outstanding fact that it is the Federal Nationalist Government which has given rise to the establishment of the Wireless Trust, which has acted as a blight on wireless development, and that it is the Federal Government which to-day is the bed-fellow of the Wireless Trust and which actually owns a majority of the shares in that soulless monopoly.' "While the report of the Royal Commission wilt be supported by the whole of the radio public throughout the Commonwealth, and its indictment of the Wireless Trust, I would like to point out that the recommendations are not in keeping with its exposure of the present wireless situation. "While the report flays Amalgamated Wireless, its recommendations nevertheless would only fasten this blight more securely upon the backs of the radio public and the radio trade. "For instance," said Mr. Voigt, "in place of their theoretical 12/6 per valve socket which the Trust at present demands from the wireless trade, but which it certainly dues not get in general, the commission proposes to give a very real 5/ per valve socket. This would act as a drag upon the wireless trade and undoubtedly would mean that the wireless public would be required to pay more for their valve sets, and the trust would benefit correspondingly. Something for Nothing. "Again, at the present time, no B Class broadcasting station, to my knowledge, is paying anything whatever to the Wireless Trust or to the copyright combine. "But if the report of the Royal Commission were adopted 2KY and all the other B class stations would be required to pay the exorbitant sum of 10 per cent. on their gross earnings into the pockets of the Wireless Trust, and 4d per piece to the insatiable copyright combine. "This means giving these 'two soulless combines' large sums of money where at present they receive nothing at all." "In short, the Commission proposes to reduce the imaginary charges of the two trusts which nobody pays, and to substitute amounts which all concerned will have to pay. This, of course, acts right into the hands of the Trust, and will be regarded very unfavorably by the radio public. "The most illogical part of the report of the Royal Commission is contained in the above recommendation, for the Commission proposes, in effect, that the radio public of Australia shall pay large sums of money into the pockets of the Wireless Trust, and afterwards at some future date determine whether the patents upon which such sums have been paid are valid. "The logical way would have been to recommend that no payments should be made by the public until the validity of the patents had been established. Wrong Control "With regard to the Wireless Committee suggested by the Royal Commission for the control of all wireless throughout the Commonwealth, while this is a step in the right direction, it is exceedingly badly executed. "It should be noticed that the Wireless Committee proposed by the Commission would be practically under the control of three officers of the Postal Department, and this is like placing the development of motor traffic in the hands of the Railway Department. "I should also like to point out to the readers of the 'Labor Daily,' and, in particular, to the Labor Government, that there is no provision made upon the Wireless Committee for a representative of the State Government," said Mr. Voigt. "It will be noticed that definite provision is made for the Wireless Institute and for the licensed listeners-in, but there is none for the State Government of New South Wales, which undoubtedly is a bigger organisation than either of the two foregoing, and which already has large vested interests in the eight stations already operating in the State, and whose potential interests in the new State wireless are immense. "I would commend the statement by the Royal Commission that broadcasting stations should be encouraged to include educational matter in their programmes, and I might mention that when I proposed that the State wireless service should be used for this purpose there was hostile opposition from the then Minister for Education, Mr. Mutch. Sets Not Affected. "An exceedingly interesting part of the recommendations of the Royal Commission is that which refers to the reallocation of wave lengths along the lines drafted by Mr. E. J. Beard, and I would like to inform readers of the 'Labor Daily' that this reallocation would take place within the existing wave length, and therefore would not affect the construction of their existing sets in any way whatever. "If Mr. Beard's suggestions were given effect to, the net result would be to provide for more broadcasting stations being placed upon the air with less interference than exists at present. Such a reallocation of wave lengths would fit in admirably with the plans of the State wireless service. To sum up the situation, there can be no question in the minds of the radio public but that an indispensible condition of the progress of wireless in Australia must be the dissolution of that repressive trust known as Amalgamated Wireless Ltd., and the Labor Movement, through its political representatives and through its industrial organisations, must press for the realisation of that part of the Royal Commission's report which suggests that the shareholders in the Wireless Trust should be bought out by the Federal Government. Charges Not Justified. "The alternative suggestion by the Royal Commission is unthinkable. This alternative suggestion, which includes the charge of 5/ per valve socket for radio sets and the payment of 2/ per license fee, would bring in the Wire-less Trust over £100,000 per annum as a payment against patent rights which are only valued at approximately £90,000, when in all probability only a few thousand pounds have been paid by the Wireless Trust. "Many of these patents, according to the Royal Commission's report, are worth less, so that the Commission's suggestion that the radio public should be muleted to the extent of over £100,000 per annum is quite unjustified. "The only way out of the impasse is for the Federal Government to give up the patent rights and dissolve the Wireless Trust, thus paving the way for free and unhampered development of radio in Australia."[328]

EVERYDAY AND EVERYBODY. . . LABOR'S FINE WIRELESS. THE Trades Hall Broadcasting Station, 2KY, has been operating on low power — 250 watts — during the past few months, experimenting with deeper modulation, and the results have really been remarkable. Reports have been received from all over Australia and New Zealand, commenting on the clarity and volume of reception, and a letter from Mr. Donald Wright, of San Pedro, California, U.S.A., reporting that he had logged 2KY on August 5 is one of 2KY's most treasured reports. Now that the experiments have been brought to such a successful conclusion, 2KY will, within the next few days, go back on to full power — 1500 watts — with the benefit of the deeper modulation. This should bring further distant reports, and considerably improve local reception.[329]

1927 10[edit]
1927 11[edit]
1927 12[edit]

RADIO'S PART IN OUR DEFENCE. BIG CONFERENCE OPENS. "I CAN visualise the day when, if Australia has to defend herself, we shall be able to nullify the approach of either men o' war or aeroplanes by radio." That statement was made by Sir Charles Rosenthal at the Town Hall today at the Commonwealth Radio Conference, which was opened by the Lord Mayor. Sir Charles was responding to a welcome extended to him as president of the Architects' Association. Incidentally he pointed out that Australia was the only country in the world in whose territory there had never been war. WELCOMED TO CONFERENCE. Others welcomed to the conference were Dr. Arthur, Minister for Health, representing the State Government; Mr. Crawford, Chief Radio Expert, Commonwealth Government; Mr. M'Lean, Institute of Engineers; Mr. Nangle, Government Astronomer; Mr. Walker, representing the radio trade; Mr. Walter Young, Listeners' League; Mrs. P. M. Taylor, hon. sec. Town Planning Association; and Mr. Farmer Whyte, Institute of Journalists. Others participating in the conference were Messrs. O. Anderson, 2FC; G. A. Saunders and Bennett, 2GB: E. R. Voigt, United Distributors; E. G. Beard, Wire-less Institute; J. S. Garden, 2KY; and various representatives of the wireless trade. Mr. George A. Taylor, president of the Association for Developing Wireless in Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji, occupied the chair. A general feeling of optimism as to the future of wireless in Australia was voiced by him and other speakers. The Lord Mayor, in opening the conference, said he understood that the association had been having a great battle with the Government, but he hoped the Government would in future give it every assistance. We have the brains in Australia to develop anything," said Ald. Mostyn, "and why not wireless?" Before getting down to the business, which was the constitution of a number of committees to report to conference tomorrow, approval was given by the delegates, standing for a moment in silence, for a radio message to be sent to the King.[330]

WIRELESS AGREEMENT. TERMS STRONGLY CONDEMNED. £200,000 INVOLVED. Strong disapproval of the terms of the proposed agreement between the Commonwealth Government and Amalgamated Wireless, Ltd., was expressed at yesterday's Commonwealth Radio Conference. Before the agreement is ratified, it was suggested by Mr. George Taylor, chairman, that the whole question should be revised by a board of experts. Particular exception was taken to those provisions of the proposed agreement which relate to patent rights and royalties, the legal actions taken by A.W.U. against David Jones, Ltd., and Myers, Ltd., for the recovery of past royalties, being speedily referred to. According to Mr. E. A. Voigt, the question whether the Federal Government should pay the A.W.A. a sum exceeding £200,000 under the agreement was dependent upon the defence made by the firms referred to. He stated that the report prepared by the subcommittee appointed by conference pointed out that it was difficult to understand why private firms should have to finance legal action in which the whole of the people of the Commonwealth were concerned. Whether the A.W.A. won or lost the legal actions, there was nothing to prevent the company from instituting actions in respect to other patents. HUGE LIABILITY. Mr. Voigt added that unless the defence in the cases mentioned was properly organised, the Commonwealth would be compelled to pay £200,000. Other firms, he pointed out, had used these particular patents, and they, too, would be liable to unlimited demands for royalties; also, every owner of a wireless set purchased before the date of the agreement would be liable. Further consideration of the problem was postponed till January 10, when the Conference will reassemble.[331]

1928[edit]

1928 01[edit]

P.M.G. MAKES WAR ON WIRELESS. WOULD SQUEEZE OUT B CLASS STATIONS. ROYAL COMMISSION'S REPORT IS IGNORED. RADIO INTERESTS UP IN ARMS. (By E. R. VOIGT, Chairman 2KY Broadcasting Station.) THE B CLASS BROADCASTING STATIONS constitute the principal avenue through which broadcasting can be developed in the future, commercially, industrially, and socially. The new proposals of the Postmaster-General constitute a serious attack against the very existence of the B class broadcasting stations. The Postmaster-General's plans are calculated to drive the B class stations out of existence, and leave the way clear for the ruthless exploitation of the public through the monopolist A class broadcasting stations, concerned mainly with their own profits and not with the interests of the public. THE alteration of wave lengths contemplated in the new proposals from the Postmaster-General's Department comprise:— (1) The grouping of all A class stations within the wave band of 300 to 500 metres. (2) The allocation or 250 to 300 metres for country broadcasting stations. (3) The grouping of all B class stations within the wave band of 225 to 250 metres. It will be noticed that while the above proposals do not materially improve the position of the A class broadcasting stations, they not only, by gross overcrowding, prevent the efficient operation of the B class stations, they also preclude any further development of non-monopolist broadcasting stations. By confining all the B class broadcasting stations in the Commonwealth within a wave band of 225 to 250 metres, it will be obvious to every listener-in that it will be impossible to operate any such stations without constant interference one with another. American Example. The B class stations constitute the backbone of radio broadcasting development and utility in Australia. The phenomenal radio development of the United States, which is considerably in advance of that of any other country in the world, has been largely due to the existence of hundreds of B class broadcasting stations. The monopolist revenue-receiving A class broadcasting stations do not exist in America. The first effect of the iniquitous proposals directed against the B class stations would be: (1) To render obsolete practically all existing broadcast receivers in Australia which have been built for a minimum wave length of 250 metres. (2) To place all B class stations outside the reception of existing Australian broadcast receivers. (3) To create universal interference between B-class broadcasting stations. (4) To limit drastically the power of the B class stations, owing to interference. (5) To prevent country listeners-in from enjoying reception from any other than the A class broadcasting stations, owing to the weakened power of the B-class stations. These proposals are therefore tantamount to driving the B-class stations out of existence. Could Not Continue. This set of conditions is so absurd that it is impossible to consider them as possessing any degree of permanence. In short, the new proposals would prove untenable, and a new set of more logical and just conditions would require to be laid down in another 12 months' time, thus again doing irreparable damage to the stability of trade and the development of radio in Australia. It seems almost beyond reason that such proposals as these can have emanated from any responsible Government department, but this department has proved time and again that it is diametrically opposed to the free use or free development of radio in Australia. It will not be forgotten that the Federal Government attempted to prevent the development of amateur transmissions in Australia, and if the Government had had its way in crush-ing out the amateur transmissions in the development of radio in Australia the recent success which has attended In-ternational broadcasting would never have been achieved. Nobody Consulted. Again, in addition to the attempt of the Federal Government to saddle the wireless trade and the radio public with the repressive claims of such wireless monopolists as the Amalgamated Wireless, the Copyright Combine, etc., it has attempted to lower the power of B-class stations and to prevent the broadcasting of political matters, apart from the recent conclusion of an agreement with the A.W.A. which is injurious to the development of radio in Australia. All this provides the background for the present attempt to hamstring the development of radio in Australia, it can only be classed as an act of gross stupidity and impertinence for the Postmaster-General's Department to take upon itself the onus of creating such drastic alterations in radio without attempting to commit the great organisations involved therein i.e., broadcasting stations, radio trade and the general radio public as represented through their organisations. What of the Commission? In attempting to foist this arbitrary measure upon the radio public, the Postmaster-General's Department is acting directly contrary to the recommendations of the Royal Commission which distinctly stated that in the consideration of any matter affecting the wavelengths, the proposals submitted to the Commission should be carefully considered. The new proposals have caused a great commotion among the radio public. Hurried meetings have been called by the broadcasting stations, the radio trade groups, and by the associations representing the radio public generally, and there can be no question but that these destructive proposals will be met with the most uncompromising opposition. LAB. COUNCIL PROTESTS. "This council emphatically protests against the proposed change in wave-lengths emanating from the P.M.G.'s to the existence of 2KY Station. "This council requests the A.L.P. New South Wales branch, to immediately call on the Federal Labor Party to oppose publicly and departmentally the interference with the rights of 2KY. "Further, the council hereby determines that if its station shall remain effectively in contact with the working classes, and will continue to operate on the power and wavelength on which the license was granted, and under which conditions the station was constructed. The above resolution was carried unanimously at last night's meeting of the Trades and Labor Council.[332]

WIRELESS WAVE-LENGTHS. Protest by Labor Council of N.S.W. At last Thursday night's meeting of the Labor Council of New South Wales there was a spirited protest against the alteration of wireless wave lengths contemplated in the new proposals from the Postmaster-General's Department, under which all "B" class stations are to be grouped within the wave bands of 225 to 250 metres. It was claimed that this would seriously interfere with the broadcasting operations of the Labor Broadcasting Station at the Trades Hall. The following resolution was adopted: "This Council emphatically protests against the proposed change in wave lengths emanating from the P.M.G.'s Department to the existence of 2KY Station. "This Council requests the A.L.P., New South Wales Branch, to immediately call on the Federal Labor Party to oppose publicly and departmentally the interference with the rights of 2KY. "Further, the Council hereby determines that its station shall remain effectively in contact with the working classes, and will continue to operate on the power and wave length on which the license was granted, and under which conditions the station was constructed."[333]

WIRELESS. Revising Wave Lengths. INCREASE IN TRANSMITTING POWER. Discussion proceeds in various centres of the radio industry concerning the effect of the proposed change in wave lengths which the Postmaster-General (Mr. Gibson) has announced will become operative in April next. Owners of receiving sets, whether of the crystal, one valve, or multi-valve make, are concerned with the alterations that will have to be made in their sets to permit of receiving the low wave "B" stations as well as the higher wave "A" stations. A series of tests have been made, officially and semi-officially, which demonstrated conclusively that in the case of multi-valve sets, no change will be necessary so far as the "A" stations are concerned. These stations are to be maintained on the wave band between 300 and 600 metres. There will probably only be one station — that of Hobart, now 516 metres — above the 500 metres. Any moderately selective multi-valve receiver will, the tests showed, bring in stations from 250 to 500 metres. There is an undue crowding of the stations now between 350 and 400 metres. These stations include 2BL (Sydney), 353 metres; 3LO (Melbourne), 371 metres; 4QG (Brisbane), 385 metres; and 5CL (Adelaide), 395 metres. It takes a sensitive and selective receiver to separate these stations during ordinary broadcasts, and on some occasions even the best receivers fail to do so unless aided by some sort of "trapping" device. In Sydney the position is further complicated by the closeness of the wave lengths of the "B" stations, especially 2UE (293 metres), 2KY (280 metres), and 2UW (267 metres). The additional power that is being used by 2UE since its being leased by the Roman Catholic Church has caused difficulty in the separation of these three stations in different parts of the metropolitan area on crystal and the less selective valve sets. If these "B" stations, and also 2GB and 2BE (now licensed for 316 metres) are all brought within the 200-250 wave band, as is proposed by the Postmaster-General, it will be necessary to have the great majority of existing receivers in the Sydney area considerably modified and made more selective, so as to ensure their tuning selectively between 200 and 500 metres. This will be a problem in the case of receiving sets fitted with the older makes of coils and condensers, and with crystal sets fitted with slider coil inductances. Radio engineers now assert that the older makes of coils and inductances are obsolete, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many sets installed up to three years ago are still giving satisfactory reception — both as regards quality and selectivity — and the owners of such sets will naturally object to "scrap" them to permit of their receiving one or two extra "B" stations. The whole problem bristles with difficulty. It is generally admitted that the change indicated by the Postmaster-General is essential for better interstate reception, but listeners and radio dealers and manufacturers fear that the changes may be too drastic in certain respects. It is for this reason that demands are being made that before the new wave lengths become operative there should be conferences between the experts of the Post-office Department and those interested in the manufacture and purchase of receiving sets. An amicable conference, it is contended, would enable a change to be made that would not be unduly costly to listeners — and, after all, the listeners are the persons most to be considered by the purveyors of radio entertainment and receivers. TRANSMITTING POWER. There is a consensus of opinion that the time has arrived when the "A" class stations of Australia should be permitted to increase their transmitting power to 50-kilowatts — or even 100-kilowatts — should they so desire, and that at the same time they should be authorised to establish a limited number of relay stations in areas selected by radio experts as being the most suitable for the popularising and development of radio in the remoter parts of the different States. Dr. A. M. Goldsmith, chief radio engineer of the General Electric Company of America, and senior member of the board of consulting engineers of the National Broadcasting Company of America, in a considered statement on the power of broadcasting stations, says that "whilst it is possible to cover the United States with a limited number of extremely high-power stations, it is, nevertheless, a fact that it is not possible indefinitely to increase the reliably reached audience of a station by merely increasing the transmitting power, using any technical methods now available." He points out that "in the present state of our engineering knowledge we do not know how to overcome fading or irregular fluctuation and distortion of signals, which effect begins to detract from the quality of the programmes received at distances between approximately 75 and 150 miles from the transmitting station. If, accordingly, we aim at 150 miles' range as the greatest feasible service distance now technically available and use 50-kilowatts — or even as high as 1000-kilowatts in certain special districts — we shall accomplish about all that can be expected of a single broadcasting station using existing methods of transmission and serving listeners using existing methods of reception." After explaining the difficulties of increasing power to 1000 kilowatts and its unnecessary cost, having regard to the limited number of listeners that would be effectively served, Dr. Goldsmith says the obvious solution of the distance problem in broadcasting is to have a chain of stations separated by distances preferably not in excess of 200 to 300 miles. He emphasises that the establishment of a network of low power stations of limited range would not ensure the effective covering of the intermediate territory, and that such a procedure would be technically unsound and economically unjustified.[334]

Scandal on the Air. Scandal was ever a long-tongued jade. The invention of wireless has multiplied her wiles and her wickedness. Sydney Trades and Labor Council controls the 2KY wireless service from the Trades Hall. Some of the industrial unions domiciled in the Goulburn Street Temple of Labor are by no means enamored