History of Western Theatre: 17th Century to Now/Late English 18th

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Richard Brinsley Sheridan[edit]

Richard Sheridan wrote two of the comic masterworks of the late 18th century. Portrait of the author by Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)

One of the major figures of late 18th century British comedy was Irish playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816) for "The rivals" (1775) and "The school for scandal" (1777).

Moses (1917) pointed out that "'The School for Scandal' has persisted from generation to generation, not because of its story, not because of its reflection of eighteenth century habits and customs, not because of its idea, which is hardly noteworthy, but because of its humanity underlying the superficial, a humanity which is eternal, whether in powder and patches, in hoop skirts, or in the fashions of the present. There is a spontaneous flow of humor in this drama, dependent upon character, rather than upon situation or local reference. In fact, an over-abundance of local reference would take the sympathetic appeal away from a comedy after the age had passed." (p 179) Bernbaum (1915) pointed out its sentimental elements. "Those passages of Sheridan’s play which are...devoted to an attack upon detraction and hypocrisy, are composed in a wholly comic manner: the Scandal Club is excoriated; and Joseph Surface, the pharisaical man of sentiment, hoist by his own petard, is made an object of aversion. But Sheridan did not maintain an attitude of mockery or scorn towards other and equally important characters. Charles Surface and his uncle, as well as Sir Peter and Lady Teazle, however amusing the scenes in which they figure, are designed to be amiable. 'Lady Teazle,' a contemporary complains,'is more likely to excite imitation than disgust.' In his conception of these characters, Sheridan resembles mid-eighteenth-century playwrights like Hoadly, with their amusing but lovable personages, rather than Congreve or Molière...The fact was that as long as the general spirit of the time was so kindly disposed towards human nature, as long as there was so little support for the sterner ethical point of view, true comedy of character must remain an occasional tour de force and could not flourish abundantly. Sheridan kept within the bounds to which sensibility had confined the Comic Muse. A spirited satirist of manners, he is, as a satirist of morals, hesitant and superficial...It is because the prodigal Charles Surface is charitable to the distressed, and affectionately grateful to ”the old fellow who had been very good to him,” that he wins the hand of Maria and gains his uncle’s forgiveness for his extravagances. What cures Lady Teazle of her mightiness is her overhearing that Sir Peter, despite the vexations she has caused him, still loves her so deeply that he intends to provide most generously for her future comfort.” (pp 257-258)

"The rivals"[edit]

Lydia Languish's sentimental feelings are rewarded at the end, as played by Elsie Leslie (1881-1966) in 1899

Time: 1770s. Place: Bath, England.

Text at http://www.bibliomania.com/0/6/284/2000/frameset.html https://archive.org/details/britishdramaaco03unkngoog https://archive.org/details/britishtheatreo33inchgoog https://archive.org/details/schoolschoolmast00pottiala

Lydia Languish is a novel-reader and as a consequence prefers a half-pay ensign than a baronet, which is why Jack Absolute, son and heir of Sir Anthony, courts her under the false name of Ensign Beverley. Instead, Sir Anthony and Mrs Malaprop, Lydia's aunt, wish her to marry Jack, unaware that the two men are the same. Loving Beverley, Lydia refuses to accept Jack. Her aunt is outraged at such boldness. "What business have you, miss, with preference and aversion?" she asks Lydia. "They don’t become a young woman; and you ought to know, that as both always wear off, ’tis safest in matrimony to begin with a little aversion." None of the three know Jack Absolute as Beverley, while he, unaware that his father intends to marry him to Lydia, refuses to submit himself to his choice, presuming another woman is intended. Despite her troubles, Lydia finds time to commiserate with her friend, Julia, "a slave to the caprice, the whim, the jealousy of this ungrateful Faulkland, who will ever delay assuming the right of a husband..." After being away for a while, Faulkland asks her neighbor, Bob Acres, about the condition of Julia's state mind in his absence, expecting her to mope or grieve, but instead Bob heard her singing: "My heart’s my own, my will is free," to a jolly tune, to Faulkland despair. "Fool! fool that I am! to fix all my happiness on such a trifler!" he exclaims. Jack's servant discovers from Lydia's servant that his master's father wishes him to marry none other than his love, Lydia. On learning this, Jack pretends to accept his father's choice out of obedience to his will, without even troubling about what she looks like. "I own I should rather choose a wife of mine to have the usual number of limbs, and a limited quantity of back: and though one eye may be very agreeable, yet as the prejudice has always run in favour of two, I would not wish to affect a singularity in that article," Jack says to his astounded father. Faulkland confronts Julia with Bob's report. "I never can be happy in your absence," she assures him. But, to her sorrow, he continues to doubt her sincerity. "Women are not used to weigh and separate the motives of their affections: the cold dictates of prudence, gratitude, or filial duty, may sometimes be mistaken for the pleadings of the heart," he asserts. She leaves him in tears, he standing all the more tormented. Meanwhile, Jack presents himself as his own person to the mispronouncing Mrs Malaprop, pretending to be glad to know a woman of her intellect, to which she gladly responds. "Ah! few gentlemen, now-a-days, know how to value the ineffectual qualities in a woman," she declares, and advises him she has intercepted one of her niece's love-letters addressed by a man named Beverley. In view of Lydia's romantic ideals, Jack continues to present himself to her as Ensign Beverley, revealing that her aunt believes her to be Jack Absolute. "Ha! ha! ha! I can’t forbear laughing to think how her sagacity is overreached," she says. When the spying aunt overhears her say: "Let her choice be Captain Absolute, but Beverley is mine," she exclaims: "I am astonished at her assurance!- to his face- this is to his face." She takes Lydia abruptly away from him. Meanwhile, Bob tells his firebrand friend, Sir Lucius O’Trigger, that he was unjustly supplanted from Lydia's love by a man named Beverley, unaware that the man in question is his friend, Jack. Lucius proposes that a duel should settle the matter. As a result, Bob asks Jack to carry his challenge to Beverley. At last, Sir Anthony takes his son with him to settle the marriage prospect with Mrs Malaprop and Lydia, at which time all three discover the truth, Lydia bitterly disappointed that there will be no romantic elopement, exclaiming to her aunt: "Ma’am, you once commanded me never to think of Beverley again- there is the man- I now obey you: for, from this moment, I renounce him for ever." Smarting from this blow, Jack is in such bad humor that he and Lucius quarrel, which for the latter necessarily means that a duel must settle their difference, Jack accepting the challenge in King’s-Mead-Fields with Faulkland as his second. At last, Julia, to Faulkland's grief, despairing at ever assuring him of her love, declares that they must part. Julia's discussion with Lydia of their unhappy love affairs is interrupted by Mrs Malaprop, who, receiving news of Jack's upcoming duel from his servant, cries out when asked what is the matter: "Why, murder’s the matter! slaughter’s the matter! killing’s the matter!- but he can tell you the perpendiculars." Lucius, whom Mrs Malaprop considers a possible love-match for herself, arrives in King’s-Mead-Fields and inadvertently frightens Bob almost out of his wits with talk of blood and death, at which point Jack arrives with Faulkland, the latter with two duels on his slate, because Lucius believes Faulkland to be Beverley and encourages him to fight with Bob, which neither wish to do. Lucius is disgusted at Bob's attitude, but, in any event, he turns to fight Jack, both drawing their swords until interrupted by the alarmed trio of Anthony, Lydia, and Julia. Bob yields his pretensions towards Lydia to Jack, as does Lucius on learning that the love-letters sent to him were not written by Lydia but by Mrs Malaprop, while Julia finally accepts the tormented Faulkland. "Our happiness is now as unalloyed as general," Lydia concludes.

"The school for scandal"[edit]

Like so many people, Lady Teazle, played by Ada Rehan (1859-1916) in 1893, is fond of backbiting

Time: 1770s. Place: London, England.

Text at http://www.bibliomania.com/0/6/284/2001/frameset.html https://archive.org/details/schoolschoolmast00pottiala

Lady Sneerwell confers with her confidante, Snake, about a plan to attract Charles Surface as a husband of hers. She receives a group of persons whose only purpose is to speak ill of everyone else. Sir Peter Teazle is unhappy about his marriage, blaming their difference in age. He complains of his wife's resistance to his authority, to which she retorts: "If your wanted authority over me, you should have adopted me, and not married me: I am sure you were old enough." He obtains no better comfort at Lady Sneerwell's house, where as usual the occupants tear apart many a reputation while playing cards. Lady Teazle surprises Joseph Surface, Charles' brother, a man she has designs on for amorous relations, on his knees before a woman he attempts to seduce by the name of Maria. Joseph defends himself by saying: "Maria has somehow suspected the tender concern I have for her happiness, and threatened to acquaint Sir Peter with her suspicions," when actually he is after both women. Meanwhile, an old friend of Peter has returned from the Indies, Sir Oliver Surface, the uncle who often in the past has been generous to his nephews, Joseph and Charles. Peter speaks well of the secretly profligate Joseph but ill of the openly profligate Charles. He also speaks ill of Maria, but finds resistance in his intent to marry her to Joseph. To test Charles who has never seen him, Oliver pretends to be a money lender named Premium. As Peter reported, Oliver notes many signs of profligacy in his nephew, but yet the rake refuses to sell a picture of himself, which makes amends for all the rest. When Lady Teazle visits Joseph at his house, she is disagreeably surprised by the arrival of her husband and hides behind a screen. Peter informs Joseph of his discovery of who his wife's lover is: no other than Charles, then begins to speak of his own hopes for Maria, which Joseph, knowing Lady Teazle within earshot, attempts to interrupt. When they hear Charles outside intent on speaking to his brother, Peter wants to overhear their conversation so that he may know for sure whether the rumors concerning his wife are true. He hides inside a closet and, on the way, notes a figure hiding behind the screen and is told she is a milliner. "Sly rogue! Sly rogue!" laughs Peter. Joseph asks Charles about the rumors concerning Peter's wife, but he denies it. "I always understood you were her favorite," Charles says, which the worried Joseph denies and, to interrupt him, points towards the closet, from which Charles pulls out Peter, relieved about what he just heard. Peter whispers to Charles about the milliner. They laugh over it as Charles pulls down the screen, revealing not a milliner, to Peter's chagrin, but his wife. A mortified Joseph next receives the visit of a certain Mr Stanley, Sir Oliver in another disguise, to whom he says that what his uncle has done for him so far is a "mere nothing" and sends him rudely away. The school for scandal next hear rumors concerning a duel between Charles and Peter, a matter of contention being whether it was with swords or pistols and the extent of Peter's injuries, but Peter enters intact and orders the scandal-mongers out of his house. Hearing their uncle is about to arrive, Joseph and Charles push away the compromising Premium/Stanley, until they discover he is Sir Oliver. When Lady Sneerwell is cheated of her designs on Charles by the treacherous Snake, no obstacle remains for Charles to marry Maria.

Oliver Goldsmith[edit]

Oliver Goldsmith wrote two comic masterworks of late 18th century theatre. Portrait of the author by an unknown artist

Another major figure of late 18th century British comedy was Irish playwright Oliver Goldsmith (1730-1774). Goldsmith's laurel remains fresh with two comedies: "She stoops to conquer" (1773) and "The good-natured man" (1768).

Bernbaum (1915) pointed out that in "She stoops to conquer", "unlike The Good-Natured Man, the spirit of merriment is never extinguished. Even when Marlow, carried away by his admiration and love, proposes marriage to Miss Hardcastle, whom he still thinks a servant, her beguiling manner, and the perplexity of the eavesdroppers, keep the situation comic. The characterization of Miss Hardcastle, to speak of only one of the well-known personages, is a notable departure from that of the contemporary sentimental heroines, including Miss Richland of The Good-Natured Man. Her frank delight on being told that her prospective lover is handsome; her chagrin because he is shy and reserved; her failure to be shocked by his scandalous reputation, or even by the innuendoes which he addresses to her in ignorance of her identity; her ennui in the 'sober, sentimental interview' with him; and the zest with which she deceives him: all these traits of mischievous girlhood were as uncommon as vivacious. Nobody is idealized, reformed, or wept over. Nearly everyone is amused by the actions of the others; and all, without exception, are amusing to the audience. On the other hand, no character in the play is satirically lashed after the manner of the comic dramatists of the Restoration. The power of sentimentalism stayed the hand of its antagonist. Instead of deriding faults, Goldsmith smiles at foibles. He laughs with Tony Lumpkin, not at him. The only approach he makes to the kind of motif that Wycherley, Congreve, and Vanbrugh founded their comedies upon may be seen in the circumstance that the mother-wit of Tony upsets the plans of those who look upon him as their intellectual inferior; and this point Goldsmith does not emphasize. He is even less inclined to a sarcastic criticism of life than his master, Farquhar... He thinks to destroy sentimental comedy without offending the kindly attitude towards human nature which is the basis of its existence.” (pp 244-246)

Bernbaum (1915) pointed out that the main plot of "The good-natured man" was similar to that of other sentimental comedies, "humorous but not trenchantly satiric, tender but not strongly emotional” whereby the author “gave...a larger proportion of comic scenes than had been customary in sentimental comedies since 1762. Low characters such as had been as a rule excluded from them, he admitted in the persons of two comical bailiffs whose vulgar impertinence in conversation with the heroine disgusted the public. His subplot, though it began with a situation like that in [Richard Steele’s] “The conscious lovers” (1722) and [Edward Moore’s] “The foundling” (1748) he conducted through a series of amusing misunderstandings. He enlivened his dialogue with unforced pleasantry; and drew admirably ridiculous figures in Sir Thomas Lofty, a pretender to political influence, and in Mr Croaker, a lugubrious borrower of trouble...“ (pp 227-228)

"She stoops to conquer"[edit]

Charles, played by Kyrle Bellew (1850-1911), is able to present himself boldly to Kate, played by Eleanor Robson (1879-1979, provided he believes her to be a whore, 1905 production

Time: 1770s. Place: England.

Text at http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/goldsmth/stoops/index.htm http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/She_Stoops_to_Conquer https://archive.org/details/britishdramaaco03unkngoog http://www.bartleby.com/18/3/

Out of mischief, Tony Lumpkin, Mrs Hardcastle's son by her first husband, tricks Charles Marlow and George Hastings, intending to marry Kate Hardcastle and Constance Neville, respectively, into believing that Kate's father is the landlord of an inn. On entering Harcastle's house, the two men take little notice of the surprised host, which they take for a mere innkeeper, while continuing their discussion on apparel and interrupting him rudely whenever he speaks, then brusquely asking for warm punch. To Hardcastle's surprise, Charles calls to consult with the cook while George wants to see the bill of fare. They do not approve of the first course of the proposed meal. "Damn your pig, I say," George thunders, "And damn your prune sauce, say I," Charles thunders, then both wish to verify whether the beds are properly aired. Constance is as surprised to see George as he is to see her. She informs him that this must be one of Tony's tricks, whom Mrs Hardcastle, her aunt, wishes to have her marry, but she reassures her lover on that point. "You have nothing to fear from him, I assure you. You'd adore him if you knew how heartily he despises me." When Kate enters, Charles, still thinking he is inside an inn, becomes very uneasy and disconcerted, his usual timidity before the opposite sex. He starts bravely but when George and Constance leave, he falters again and barely looks at her face despite her encouragements. Mrs Hardcastle is fawned on by George, but she is displeased at Tony's lack of attention towards Constance. George sounds Tony about Constance's personality, saying: "But there is a meek modesty about her that charms me." "Yes, but curb her never so little, she kicks up, and you're flung in a ditch," Tony retorts. Despite such words, George swears he will be loyal to her. "If you but assist me, I'll engage to whip her off to France, and you shall never hear more of her," he says, which Tony enthusiastically approves of, robbing his mother's jewels to facilitate their elopement. Meanwhile, Hardcastle and Kate disagree on Charles' personality, the former considering him impudent, the latter excessively bashful. Mrs Hardcastle cries out in distress on discovering the loss of her jewels, at which Tony laughs, pretending she is joking, to her confusion and irritation. To help Charles out of his timidity, Kate stoops to disguise herself as a barmaid; he suddenly becomes much bolder. They are interrupted by Hardcastle, astounded to find such a man perceived as modest. Meanwhile, George hands over to Charles the casket of jewels, who in turn hands it over to the person he takes as the landlady for safe keeping, in reality Mrs Hardcastle. When next meeting Charles, Hardcastle complains of his servants' drinking, one of whom, Jeremy, seems to be quite drunk. Charles comments he was only following his orders. "I don't know what you'd have more, unless you'd have the poor devil soused in a beer-barrel," Charles says. The irritated Hardcastle orders him out of his house. Charles is about to when at last Kate informs him where they are, inside his potential father-in-law's house. He is immediately smitten with her, but yet cannot forego to consider their unequal conditions. Before Mrs Hardcastle, Constance and Tony pretend to exchange loving glances. Tony receives a letter from George about their imminent elopement, but he has a hard time reading it, so that Constance, to dull Mrs Hardcastle's suspicions, pretends she is reading about cockfighting and crumples it as being of no interest. On the contrary, the invention interests Tony so much that Mrs Hardcastle takes it away from her and thereby discovers her niece's intention to elope. She decides to take Constance away to another aunt of hers. Meanwhile, Charles' father arrives, laughing with Hardcastle at Charles' mistake, but both are surprised when after Hardcastle proposes marriage, Charles protests. "We had but one interview, and that was formal, modest, and uninteresting," he declares. When he leaves, Kate promises to resolve the enigma if they overhear the couple behind a screen. Meanwhile, Tony has been deliberately leading his mother and cousin round the house without their noticing it. While Tony speaks to his father as if he were a stranger, his mother runs off to hide behind a tree in fear of bandits until she can no longer hold, crying out to Tony's amusement: "O lud! he'll murder my poor boy, my darling! Here, good gentleman, whet your rage upon me. Take my money, my life, but spare that young gentleman, spare my child if you have any mercy." Observing Charles and Kate behind a screen, Marlow is amazed on hearing his son's unprecedented eloquence, after which Hardcastle emerges to reveal, to Charles' amazement, that Charles has been courting all this time not a barmaid but his daughter. When George and Constance present themselves before the Hardcastles, Charles is glad to see them claim their due.

"The good-natured man"[edit]

Embarrassed to reveal his financial troubles, Honeywood pretends to Miss Richland that the bailiffs are army officers. Painting by William Powell Frith (1819-1909)

Time: 1760s. Place: England.

Text at http://www.kobobooks.com/ebook/The-good-naturd-man-She/book-LMpPxAPWFUaPH0qCQR3yvQ/page1.html

Sir William Honeywood worries that his nephew's good-natured personality too often leads him into depts. To test his nephew's friends, he announces to Jarvis, the nephew's servant, that he intends calling a bailiff to arrest him for debt. Honeywood (the nephew) loves Miss Richland, a wealthy ward to Croaker, who intends instead to have her wed his son, Leontine. But Leontine loves another woman, Olivia, whom he met in France while intending to take back his sister, living there since childhood with Croaker's sister. Unknown to Croaker, Leontine returned from France with Olivia, who pretends to be Leontine's sister. Despite his father's encouragements, Leontine courts with little enthusiasm Miss Richland, who, discovering his secret regarding Olivia, pretends to be interested in the proposal. Meanwhile, Croaker receives a letter from his sister, announcing that his daughter is engaged to be married to an English gentleman of large fortune. A second suitor to Miss Richland appears: Lofty, who, hearing about the rumor that she loves Honeywood, sends her to him "in his present doleful situation". Mistaking the person in the letter, Croaker gently scolds Olivia for being so secretive about her engagement, while she, thinking her secret discovered, is overjoyed at his apparent approval of her marriage with his son. When Leontine enters as happy as she, openly avowing his love, Croaker cannot believe his ears. "Marrying Olivia! Marrying his own sister! Sure, the boy is out of his senses," he says. The couple are forced to back-track their claim on each other, swearing to escape and marry in Scotland with Honeywood's "advice and assistance". As a result of his uncle's plot, Honeywood is distressed when two bailiffs enter to speak with him. To avoid embarrassment, he pays them to pretend to be military officers, but Miss Richland discovers this trick as well. She meets the disguised Sir William Honeywood, who informs her of his true identity and also of Lofty's false pretenses in the matter of obtaining her fortune from the treasury department of the government. Lofty unwittingly exposes himself by pretending to know Sir William before Sir William himself. Jarvis then informs him that, on his son's orders, he is to accompany Leontine and Olivia on their flight to Scotland. Thanks to his uncle's intervention, Honeywood is released from custody of the bailiffs. Discovering Honeywood's ignorance of his benefactor, Lofty insinuates that it is thanks to his own person. In return, he asks Honeywood to court Miss Richland for his sake, which the good-natured man reluctantly agrees to do. Meanwhile, Jarvis informs Olivia that Honeywood, contrary to his promises, is unable to provide financial support for her marriage with Leontine. She writes a violent letter to her lover, but it is accidently intercepted by Croaker, who entirely mistakes its purport, believing himself to be threatened by unknown persons, "singled out for gunpowder plots". When Miss Richland hears Honeywood speak on Lofty's behalf, she huffily declares: "Mr Honeywood, let me tell you that you wrong my sentiments and yourself. When I first applied to your friendship, I expected advice and assistance; but now, sir, I see that it is in vain to expect happiness from him who has been so bad an economist of his own and that I must disclaim his friendship who ceases to be a friend to himself." When Croaker reveals to Honeywood his fears at being attacked by unknown persons, he advises him thus: "This letter requires twenty guineas to be left at the bar of the Talbot Inn. If it be indeed an incendiary letter, what if you and I, sir, go there and when the writer comes to be paid his expected booty, seize him." But when Leontine discovers Honeywood's lack of funds and his father's presence at the inn seemingly led by him, he suspects treachery on the part of his friend and challenges him to a duel, interrupted by Croaker's outcries on mistaking the postboy for the incendiary. Olivia is at last forced to admit to Croaker she is not his daughter. At the same time, Miss Richland, knowing about Honeywood's presence at the inn, leads William to that place, where he informs Croaker of Olivia's true identity as the daughter of a knight and his friend, which reconciles Croaker to the marriage between his son and her. Honeywood then informs Miss Richland of his departure from England, leaving Lofty as master of the place he should have occupied, but yet Lofty again unwittingly reveals himself as a false pretender of her affairs, so that the way is clear at last for Honeywood to marry her.

John O'Keeffe[edit]

John O'Keeffe showed how one may sow one's wild oats and achieve happiness. Portrait of the author by Thomas Lawranson (?-?) or his son, William Lawranson (1742-1783)

Also of interest is "Wild oats" (1791), a comedy by another Irishman, John O'Keeffe (1747-1833).

"Wild oats"[edit]

Time: 1790s. Place: England.

Text at https://archive.org/details/wildoats00okee

Having paid to enlist three escaped sailors, Sir George Thunder is now looking for them. He also wants to see his son, Harry, and so sends his servant, John, to fetch him from the Naval Academy in Portsmouth. He encounters his niece, Amaranth, a Quaker and a wealthy heiress and so a fine choice as a wife to his son. Harry left the academy to pursue a career in acting in the theater but now wants to return home and so says goodbye to his fellow actor and friend, Jack Rover. On his way to an engagement, Jack receives shelter in the rain from Banks, previously a clergyman but now without benefice and living in poverty with his sister, Amelia. Banks has no money to pay a debt to Gammon, a farmer who threatens him with jail until the former clergyman pays part of the sum, the rest being promised by Amaranth who seeks to make life easier for the poor in the village. Jack next reaches an inn, where he meets Gammon again, looking for the actors to whom he promised to lend his barn as a temporary playhouse. In preparation to his travels in a stage-coach, Jack gives to the landlord his family name: Thunder. When John reads the list of the passengers, he mistakes Jack for Harry. Jack pretends to be Sir George's son to follow John in Amaranth's carriage, having fallen in love with her. Since Jack promised the actors to play with them, Amaranth gives them permission to entertain her wealthy neighbors at her housewarming, the proceeds meant for charity. By chance, Sir George meets Harry at the same inn and informs him of his intention to marry him to Amaranth. To his surprise, Harry also finds Jack, who tells him he is pretending to be Harry to follow Amaranth, though without hope, his modest station making him unworthy of her. To continue the jest, Harry invents a tale whereby he has turned into an adventurer to obtain Amaranth's love with the help of George, an associate pretending to be his father. In addition, Harry introduces himself as an actor to Amaranth and warns her that George intends to disinherit his son and so pretends he is an impostor, all this carried to good effect when Jack encounters George. At her house, Amaranth learns that her steward has turned Banks and Amelia out of their cottage but promises to care for them. Amelia tells her that long ago she married a sea officer who abandoned her while thinking she had been hoodwinked by a false clergyman to perform the ceremony when actually the clergyman was her brother and in orders at the time. She also lost a son during times of distress. Meanwhile, George insults Jack, who challenges him to a duel as the three escaped sailors show up. Knowing he is out looking for them, one of them takes the pistol away from George and prepares to shoot him when Jack rescues him and pursues all three. However, he is arrested when the three ruffians convince the country people that he robbed them. George now prepares to rescue his rescuer when he encounters Amelia and is told by Banks that he is truly married to her. When he comes forth to examine two of Jack's accusers as a magistrate, they recognize him and take off. On questioning Jack further, he discovers to his joy that the man is his son long lost by Amelia.

Thomas Holcroft[edit]

Thomas Holcroft showed how a gambler is on the road to ruin. Portrait of the author by John Opie (1761–1807)

"The road to ruin" (1792) is a particularly successful comedy rendered by Thomas Holcroft (1745-1809).

"The road to ruin"[edit]

Time: 1790s. Place: London, England.

Text at https://archive.org/details/roadtoruincomedy00holc

Hearing about the debts incurred by his son and junior partner of his business, Harry, from a newspaper article, Dornton worries about the credit of the firm. Harry arrives with his friend, Milford, the latter afraid that Dornton is about to arrest him. "He has threatened to strike my name out of the firm and disinherit me a thousand times," Harry casually affirms. But this time his father indeed strikes out his name and prevents him from entering the house. Milford learns from Sulky, an executor, that the long-lost will of his dead father has been discovered in France and sent over to Sulky but has not yet been received. The next day, Sulky visits the widow, Mrs Warren, to plead on behalf of Milford, though only the bastard son of her late husband. She refuses to help. When Harry arrives to the house, he encounters her daughter from a previous marriage, Sophia, with whom he flirts on the subject of valentines, telling her of secret ways they may be delivered such as inside a plum-cake. Another gamer, Goldfinch, arrives to see the widow. He and Harry flirt with the widow to get money from her, but, out of caprice, she refuses to see either. When Milford announces a tennis-match, all three rush out to place large bets on the game, but Milford is arrested there for debts. When he sends someone to convey the news to Harry, he refuses to come. Later, Goldfinch learns from a money-dealer, Silky, that Warren's will worth the considerable sum of 150,000 pounds was sent by mistake to him instead of Sulky, their names differing by only one letter. Silky proposes that they take advantage of the error by obtaining a written promise of marriage from the widow, at which Goldfinch agrees. After learning of Milford's arrest, Silky makes business arrangements to take advantage of that situation. Moreover, he informs Widow Warren that he possesses her late husband's will. "I have talked the matter over with my friend, Mr Goldfinch, and he thinks it but reasonable, that for a secret of so much importance, which would almost sweep the whole away, I should receive one-third," he declares. "You are a very shocking old miser, Mr Silky, a very repulsive sort of a person, what heart you had is turned to stone," she answers. "You are insensible of the power of a pair of fine eyes. But I have made a conquest that places me beyond your reach. I mean to marry Mr Dornton." When Goldfinch asks for her hand in marriage, she refuses without excluding any hope in the future. Meanwhile, Dornton is submerged by Harry's creditors. Incensed, he cries out to his son: "How dare you introduce this swarm of locusts?" "Despair, sir, is a dauntless hero," Harry answers. But his nonchalant tone alters after understanding at last the consequences of his debts on his father's finances, and that they are on the road to ruin. On his way out, Dornton notices Harry's looks of wild grief. "Hear me, Harry. I am very happy," he pathetically cries out. But Harry rushes out to request a loan from Silky, who refuses him and then arranges to take advantage of Dornton's troubles. To help his father out, Harry now feels he has no choice but to propose marriage to the widow. Their conversation is interrupted by Sophia, who hands over a valentine to him in exchange for the one received in the plum-cake. Her mother rudely sends her away. To help Harry out in desperate straits for money, she loans him 6,000 pounds. But on learning of Milford's arrest, Harry uses the money to pay off Milford's debts instead of paying his own. When Dornton learns from Sulky that his son received the loan and proposed marriage to the widow, he goes over to pay her back. In his grey garments, the widow takes him for a parson and insults him. When Harry arrives, he informs his father that his business is saved thanks to Sulky, heir to a great fortune left by his uncle. Meanwhile, Goldfinch informs Milford that the widow is his provided he pay Silky 50,000 pounds. When Milford tells Sulky this, he concludes that Silky must possess the will. They rush off to prevent the deal, but in their attempt to spy on the cheaters, are locked inside a closet by the suspicious Silky, ready to burn the will once the widow signs her promise to marry Goldfinch. However, Sulky and Milford knock violently on the closet-door at the same moment that the Dorntons knock on the main door, causing Silky's scheme to fail.

George Colman the Elder[edit]

George Colman the Elder described ravages brought about by female jealousy. Portrait of the author by Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792)

"The jealous wife" (1761) by George Colman the Elder (1732-1794) also ranks high among the comedies of the period.

"The jealous wife"[edit]

Time: 1760s. Place: London, England.

Text at https://archive.org/details/wifecomed00colmjealousrich

Oakley’s jealous wife discovers a letter in which Henry Russet accuses her innocent husband of eloping with his daughter, Harriet, and harasses her husband for this. Before his brother, a major in the army, Oakley in turn accuses Charles, their nephew, for this, but he, too, is innocent. Charles discovers that Harriet escaped from her father’s house to avoid marrying Sir Harry Beagle and suspects that she is hiding at the house of her aunt, Lady Freelove. As he goes to find her, Oakley proposes that the young couple stay under their protection. “What, make me your convenient woman!” Mrs Oakley exclaims in another jealous rage, considering the suggestion as her husband’s excuse for obtaining a mistress’ favors. Lady Freelove indeed keeps Harriet inside her house, but yet, despite the girl’s aversion, she also intends to marry her off, not to Harry but to her friend: Lord Trinket. When the lady receives word of Harry’s arrival along with some town gossips, she deliberately leaves Harriet in the company of the aspiring Lord Trinket, who, angry at his unsuccessful courtship, struggles with her as Charles enters. Seeing the commotion, he draws his sword. They fight while the girl escapes. A distraught Lady Freelove reenters to separate them and orders her nephew out. Harry is disappointed that the stubborn girl has run away at the moment when she was found at last. To rid himself of Harriet’s father and suitor, Lord Trinket requests Captain O’Cutter to press them by force in her majesty’s service. He also requests him to deliver a challenge to Charles. The captain heartily agrees to both injunctions. For her part, Lady Freelove informs Mrs Oakley that Harriet is gone and insinuates that Oakley may be her secret lover. Having no other place to go, Harriet desperately requests Oakley for shelter, but he, worried about his wife’s jealous humors, feels forced to refuse. In her distress, she begs him to let her stay. “I am ruined forever,” she weeps, all which, overhearing their conversation, Mrs Oakley entirely misconstrues, harassing her husband all the more. When her father appears, Harriet swoons in distress. Oakley’s wife and Henry accuse Oakley of trying to seduce Harriet until interrupted by a drunk Charles. In view of his condition, a downcast Harriet follows her father instead of her unlucky suitor. In the presence of the major, O’Cutter delivers the challenge to Charles, but hands him the wrong letter, one from Lord Trinket to Lady Freelove revealing Harriet’s whereabouts at an inn, where Harry at last has his chance to ask her hand in marriage. She refuses. When Charles shows up, she refuses to follow him because of his drunken behavior. But when Lord Trinket shows up, she is forced to do so. To win Harriet’s father to the marriage, Lady Freelove proposes that Lord Trinket release him and Harry from their confinement by O’Cutter’s accomplices. Henry and Harry rejoin their daughter at Oakley’s house together with Lord Trinket. Henry becomes distraught on learning that Harry, discouraged by Harriet’s negative attitude, traded away the rights to her to Lord Trinket for a horse. Henry dismisses Lord Trinket when Charles shows him his letter to Lady Freelove delivered to his own person by mistake. And so Henry accepts Charles as Harriet’s husband. When Mrs Oakley learns of the intended marriage, she reconciles herself to her husband and promises to correct her jealous feelings.

Hannah Cowley[edit]

Hannah Cowley showed how a belle devises a successful plot by appearing timid and stupid

"The belle's stratagem" (1780) is Hannah Cowley's (1743-1809) best comedy, based on "La fausse Agnès” (1759) by Philippe Néricault Destouches (1680-1754) and an echo of Farquhar's "The beaux' stratagem" (1707).

"The belle's stratagem"[edit]

Portrait of a 1780s belle by Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788)

Time: 1780s. Place: England.

Text at https://archive.org/details/britishdramaaco03unkngoog https://archive.org/details/bellesstratagemc00cowlrich http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/47604 http://fadedpage.com/showbook.php?pid=20141207

After having recently met Letitia prior to marrying her as arranged by their parents, Doricourt is unimpressed, taking her for a typically dull English girl. His friend, Saville, is surprised at this view. "She should have spirit! Fire! L'air enjoué!" Doricourt cries out. "That something, that nothing, which everybody feels and which nobody can describe, in the resistless charmers of Italy and France." On her side, Letitia is equally frustrated. "A husband of fifteen months could not have examined me with more cutting indifference," she declares to her friend, Caroline Racket. To the surprise of her father, Mr Hardy, Letitia devises a stratagem to appear timid and stupid and thereby determine whether her lover can truly learn to love. Doricourt visits Sir George Touchwood, recently married to Lady Frances. In a jealous fit, George prevents his friend from seeing her. Caroline and her friend, Miss Ogle, wish Frances to go along with them. "Come, you shall go with us to drop a few cards, then to an auction room, then we'll drive to Kensington; we shall be at home by five to dress and in the evening I'll attend you to the masquerade," Caroline suggests. George is against such plans and becomes dispirited on seeing his hesitant wife go out with the two women. Exactly as planned, on next seeing her intended, Letitia appears timid and stupid. Doricourt is all the more discouraged, but yet intends to be present at Lady Brilliant's masquerade ball. Meanwhile, Saville's friend, Courtall, intends to woo Frances there. Having once considered her his love, Saville is disgusted at this plan. Courtall orders his servant to find out which costume George will wear so that he may don the same one, but Saville intercepts his servant, learns of the plan, and arranges for a whore to dress in the same costume as Frances. At the masquerade ball, Doricourt is struck by the appearance and wit of a masked woman, not knowing it is Letitia. Caroline decides the two should marry this very night. "Feign yourself seriously ill," she suggests to her father, "send for Doricourt, and tell him you cannot go out of the world in peace unless you first see the ceremony performed." Just as Courtall successfully sequesters whom he believes to be Frances and boasts of his conquest to his friends, he discovers she is a whore and is shamed into leaving the country. To get out of the marriage, Doricourt pretends to have turned insane, but this plan is discovered by Saville, who reveals it to Caroline and others. But when Doricourt is presented before Hardy's death-bed, he does not have the heart to repudiate his daughter. Instead, he despondently prepares to meet his marriage doom until he discovers Letitia as the masked woman he was so struck by, at which point Hardy appears as healthy as ever to congratulate the couple to be married.

Thomas Morton[edit]

Thomas Morton introduced the character of Mrs Grundy, the epitome of correct behavior. Portrait of of the author by John Raphael Smith (1752–1812)

A melodrama of note is "Speed the plow" (1798) by Thomas Morton (1764–1838).

"Speed the plow"[edit]

Mrs Grundy is the social conscience of the parish as imagined by an anonymous draftsperson

Time: 1790s. Place: England.

Text at http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/19407 http://archive.org/details/speedtheplough19407gut

After being absent for twenty years, Sir Philip Blandford returns to marry his only daughter, Emma, to Robert, son to Abel Handy, baronet. Abel has married Nelly, former servant in the house of farmer Thomas Ashfield and his wife. To impress Thomas, Robert purposes to show him how to cudgel, but the farmer knocks him down with one blow. Robert then learns that Thomas is the father of the woman he loves: Susan. When Lady Nelly Handy arrives, she draws back at the uncouth behaviors of the Ashfields and is offended on hearing Robert's overly familiar speech. As the Ashfields watch Susan weeping after reading a letter from Robert, they open her private box to read it, but then Thomas is ashamed of such furtive behavior and asks her about it instead, who reveals she was lead to believe he loved her but this is not so apparent now. Despite Abel's hopes of his new invention, a special plough, a ploughing contest is won not by Robert but by Henry, a bastard bred up at the Ashfield farm, who receives a medal from Emma and the opportunity to visit her father's castle. But when Philip beholds the victor, he recognizes by his features who his father is and orders him away at once. He explains to his daughter that before marrying, he had almost lost his entire fortune at the gambling table to a man named Morrington. The day after the marriage ceremony, his wife received by mail a large sum of money from an anonymous source. He also received help from a second source. "Abel Handy proposed to unite our families by marriage and in consideration of what he termed the honor of our alliance, agreed to pay off every encumbrance on my estates and settle them as a portion on you and his son," he explains further. Yet no claim was ever made on his property by Morrington and his agents. However, he does not reveal why he left the country for twenty years. "I will be all you wish," Emma promises. To push Henry farther away, Philip proposes to forget Thomas' monetary debt to him in exchange for turning the boy out, but he refuses. Meanwhile, to his surprise, Abel learns that Nelly was first married to a servant at the castle who went abroad and died. When Thomas reveals what Philip proposed, his wife offers to sell her silk gowns. "I'll go to church in a stuff one," she adds, "and let Mrs Grundy turn up her nose as much as she pleases," referring to her rival and the moral standard of the parish. Help arrives in the form of Morrington, who, on learning of Philip's threat, gives Henry Philip's bond that will discharge the farmer's debt and prevent his ruin. When Henry presents the bond to Philip, he tells him of Morrington's plea to refuse giving away his daughter to a man she dislikes. An angry Philip informs Henry that Morrington is a cheater, at which he tears up the bond. Oppressed with guilt, Philip reveals Henry's origin to Robert as the offspring of a woman he was about to marry and who died in childbirth after sleeping with his brother whom he murdered in a fit of jealousy. Though burdened by such secrets, Robert proposes to marry Susan, who accepts with her parents' consent. "I say, Tummas, what will Mrs Grundy say then?" Mrs Ashfield asks triumphantly. Abel is surprised on learning this development, which upsets his plans in regard to Philip. He is even more surprised but readily accepts a proposal from Morrington's agent, Gerald, to be rid of a wife he no longer loves in exchange for a large sum of money. When Nelly arrives, she is stunned on seeing her supposedly dead husband still alive, almost as elated as Abel is. Later, still intent on inventing, he accidently sets fire to a room in the castle, with Emma saved thanks to Henry's efforts, who discovers a knife with a bloody cloth. Still oppressed with guilt, Philip reveals he murdered his father. In mortal conflict, Henry does not know what to do at the moment Morrington discloses himself as Philip's brother, who did not die but, to atone for his betrayal, saved him from sharpers.