History of Western Theatre: 17th Century to Now/Early Scandinavian 18th
The major figure in Scandinavian theatre of the early 18th century was Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754), born in Norway but spending most of his life in Denmark, where he wrote the following Danish comedies: "Den Politiske Kandestøber" (The political tinker, 1722), "Jeppe paa Bjerget eller den forvandlede Bonde" (Jeppe of the hill, 1722), reminiscent of the prologue to Shakespeare's "The taming of the shrew", "Den Stundesløse" (Scatterbrains, The fidget, more precisely The busybody, 1723), and "Hexerie eller Blind Allarm" (Witchcraft or false alarm, 1723). Even more than Marivaux, Holberg's model is Molière, who ridicules the protagonist's failings and weaknesses. In particular, the first three Holberg plays resemble Molière's "The bourgeois gentleman" (1670) in that the protagonist tries to become somebody he is not.
"The political tinker"
Time: 1720s. Place: Denmark.
Antony wishes to marry Herman von Bremen's daughter, but the latter refuses him because of his lack of interest in politics. Herman no longer tends to his business of making metal dishes and plates, preferring instead to discuss politics with his cronies. Geske, his wife, is exasperated about this mania of his and fearful for their future. During a meeting of the "Collegium Politicum" where he presides, when European politics and economy are argued exhaustively, though the participants must consult a map to find out whether Paris has a coast-line, the exasperated Geske hits him. He does not retaliate. Two members of the Hamburg council hear of these meetings and are annoyed at them. They seek to trick Herman by making him believe he has been elected burgomaster and a member of the council. Herman believes them and starts reorganizing his household in keeping with his new exalted position. In particular, he wishes to be addressed as "Master Burgomaster von Bremenfeld". To support the new magistrate, his wife entertains two of the councillors' wives by keeping a dog on her lap and serving molasses in their coffee, which she considers fashionable. After drinking some of it, the ladies escape hurriedly. While in function, Master Burgomaster von Bremenfeld is assailed by a multitude of tasks he is unable to cope with: understanding lawyers' Latin, solving legal problems, and handling a huge pile of citizen complaints. At his wit's end, he finds a rope behind the oven and prepares to hang himself until rescued by Antony. As a result of his experiences, Herman promises to return to his old position and accepts Antony as his son-in-law.
"Jeppe of the hill"
Time: 1720s. Place: Denmark.
"I cannot believe that in the entire canton there is a lazier knave than my husband; I can barely wake him when I pull him from his bed by the hair," his wife, Nille, declares. When she asks him to buy two pounds-worth of black soap, he unfortunately gets drunk along the way. Baron Nilus spots him sleeping on the ground and decides to follow his servant's suggestion of playing a trick on the lazy good-for-nothing. The drunken Jeppe is carried by footmen to the baron's best bed and served on his awakening as if he were the baron. Jeppe is so naive that he is fooled by the baron and his servants into believing he is a nobleman with a loss in memory, reality being better than any dream. As a baron, Jeppe is convinced his servants rob him, and so he decides that half of them should hang, starting with the steward. As a result of these news, the steward's wife rushes in to plead for her husband's life. Acting as he imagines all nobleman do, Jeppe immediately says: "You are pretty. Will you sleep with me tonight?" But before he has a chance to, he gets drunk again to the point of lying in a stupor, and the baron orders him back to his dunghill, where he recognizes everything as before, including his "cuckold's hat". When Nille arrives, he protests having spent his time in paradise. As a result, she beats him and promises that he will spend two entire days without eating or drinking. Before this can happen, officials enter the house to take him to a tribunal for impersonating a baron. Despite his protests, Jeppe is condemned to swallow poison and to be hanged on the gallows. Instead he swallows a narcotic and wakes up hanged below the arms. Believing her husband to be dead, Nille repents her cruelties, when, to her astonishment, the dead man begins to speak. Outraged because he wants to get drunk again, she whips him until the judge in the case chases her away and frees Jeppe, because "the tribunal that condemns to die can also condemn to live". Jeppe returns to the tavern, where a stranger laughingly describes Jeppe's story without knowing he is speaking to the one concerned. The butt of the joke sadly walks back home.
Time: 1720s. Place: Denmark.
Shrill refuses to accept Leander as his son-in-law because he wishes his daughter, Leonora, to wed a bookkeeper, Peter Erichsen, more liable to help him in his affairs, requiring four secretaries. Magdalen, an aging servant, also wishes to marry, but Shrill is unable to find time for her, even to finish being shaved or eating a complete meal in his effort to keep track of household accounts, write letters, and feed chickens. Pernilla, a young servant, always helpful to her master, seeks to arrange matters so that the two couples may marry. She asks Oldfux, friend to Leander, to impersonate others to confound the master, to which he agrees. He tricks Shrill into believing Leander is Peter the bookkeeper. In turn, Pernille tricks Peter into believing Magdalen is Leonora. Oldfux next disguises himself as a lawyer, promising to help Shrill in response to a letter written by Leander, who threatens him with court proceedings for misleading him on false marriage promises. Instead of helping him, Oldfux confuses Shrill with jargon. Next, Oldfux accosts Shrill as a highly educated German, ostensibly to help him but in reality harassing him in different ways. The wedding preparations take shape: unknown to Shrill and Peter, the notary writes down marriage contracts in favor of Leander with Leonora and Peter with Magdalen. The worn-out father eventually discovers the trick played on him, but at last accepts his new son-in-law, who, to please him, promises to study bookkeeping. At first, Peter refuses the mere servant Magdalen as a wife, but changes his mind on finding out that she possesses the considerable dowry of 3,000 riksdales.
"Witchcraft or false alarm"
Time: 1720s. Place: Denmark.
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Leander is an actor with a heavy dept of 50 riksdales hanging over him. While he rehearses a tragic role alone, a superstitious man overhears him and becomes convinced that he is conjuring devils. Fearfully, the man mentions this to a woman, who in turn reveals this information to another man, each exaggerating what they hear every time until many people hear of it. A crowd gathers to take Leander into custody, but the people are scared away, first by Leander's pistol shot, then by the appearance of his fellow actor, Heinrich, as a conjurer. Leander next gets offers of money for conducting sorcery: to blind the eye of a robbing servant and to bewitch a man uninterested in a woman's love. A servant then asks him to discover who stole his mistress' ewer and spoons. Leander promises to discover the culprit. A young girl then shows up to see whether it is possible for her "to get her virginity back again", followed by a man who wishes his wife to become more amiable, then by a boy who wishes to become a doctor. All these people imagine that they are receiving help, while Leander merely talks and pockets the money. The woman having lost her household stuff accosts Leander along with her servants. Leander commands the servants to kneel, to lift their right hand, then the left, then to cross hands. "Has everyone crossed their hands?" he asks. "Yes," they answer in unison. "Even the one who stole the ewer?" "Yes," answers one man's voice. Thus, the culprit is discovered. The authorities, alarmed at rumors of sorcery in their midst, take Leander to a tribunal, where the judge accuses him of sorcery and writing a pact with the devil, but Leander misunderstands his meaning, thinking he is referring to the debt of 50 riksdales. To make matters worse, two of Leander's fellow actors are threatened with torture for being suspected to be in league with Leander. In his defense, Leander interrogates the man who first accused him as a sorcerer. It becomes clear, to the judge's disappointment, that the man mistook words in a play for real life.