History of Western Theatre: 17th Century to Now/Early Italian 18th
The most important comic dramatist of early 18th century Italian theatre is Carlo Goldoni (1707-1793), for "I due gemelli veneziani" (The two Venetian twins, 1745), "Il servitore di due padroni" (The servant of two masters, 1746), and "La putta onorata" (The honorable maiden, 1749).
"The two Venetian twins"
Time: 1740s. Place: Verona, Italy.
Zanetto is engaged to be married to Rosaura, daughter to Balanzoni, but his abrupt manner offends her. Zanetto's twin brother, Tonino, is engaged to Beatrice. As she walks in the company of Tonino friend's, Florindo, a quarrelsome youth, Florio, liking her looks, challenges him to a sword-fight, but he is defended by Tonino, who beats Florio off. Though rescued by his friend, Florindo pretends he has not seen Beatrice, because he would like to marry her himself. Seeking vengeance on Tonino, Lelio attacks Zanetto by mistake, but is defended by Florindo, who also mistakes him for Tonino. In addition to Zanetto, Rosaura is loved by Pancrazio, who advises Zanetto not to marry, citing the inherent dangers of that condition, which the credulous Zanetto accepts. Meanwhile, Zanetto's servant, Arlecchino, mistakes Tonino for his master, handing over jewels and money that belong to him. Balanzoni, also mistaking him for Zanetto, invites him inside his house to see his daughter, which astounds Tonino, considering him as no less than a pander to his daughter, but nevertheless is tempted by her charms, as she by his. Seeing this, Pancrazio, also mistaking him for his brother, is saddened he did not follow his advice against marriage. While Tonino entrusts Pancrazio with the jewels, Zanetto accuses Arlecchino of robbing him. Their contention is interrupted by Beatrice, who mistakes Zanetto for Tonino, confused as to why her lover seems to ignore her. Florindo and Lelio quarrel again, each wishing to escort Beatrice, spotted at last by Tonino, who carries her away. Pancrazio has the jewels appraised by an expert, who confirms their high value and gives him a substance to make them shine more brightly, warning him it is a violent poison. When Zanetto sees Pancrazio with his jewels, he accuses him of robbery, to the latter's astonishment. An officer intervenes to confiscate the jewels at the chancery. Frightened at the loss of his reputation and confused at to why he denied giving him the jewels, Pancrazio encourages Tonino to defend him. Tonino points to Arlecchino as the man who gave him the treasure and throws the money at the servant's feet. Zanetto returns to Rosaura, expressing all his love of her, to the astonishment of Beatrice, who again mistakes him for her lover, with the result that both women becomes incensed at his faithlessness. As Zanetto leaves, his brother arrives, the theme of both women's continued accusations. To rid himself of his rival, Pancrazio poisons the still credulous Zanetto, who, led to believe he is consuming a love-filter, dies forthwith. While Zanetto's corpse is carried inside an inn, Tonino enters, to everyone's astonishment. "He's half-dead and half-alive!" exclaims Arlecchino. Tonino discovers his brother dead, as well as Rosaura's true identity, not Balanzoni's daughter as she thought but his sister. Desperate to prove his innocence concerning Zanetto's death, Pancrazio voluntarily drinks the potion and dies. Tonino re-affirms his intention to marry Beatrice, while Rosaura accepts Florindo as her husband.
"The servant of two masters"
Time: 1740s. Place: Venice, Italy.
Pantalone had promised Federico his daughter's hand in marriage, but after hearing a rumor about his death, agrees to marry Clarice to Silvio. He then learns that Federico is alive. In reality, Federico is dead after all, but his shape is assumed by his sister, Beatrice, disguised as her dead brother in quest of Florindo, her lover but also the man who murdered him. To supplement his meager income, Arlecchino, servant to Beatrice but unaware she is a woman, agrees to serve Florindo as a second master without knowing who he is. He conveys letters for both masters but mixes them up, by means of which Florindo learns of Beatrice's presence in Venice. To finalize a financial transaction with Beatrice, Pantalone gives Arlecchino 100 ducats, but he gives them to the wrong master, Florindo. Taking pity on Clarice's sorrow, Beatrice reveals her true identity to her. Angry at Pantalone for taking back his promise to marry Clarice, Silvio threatens him with his sword, but the old man is defended by Beatrice. She humiliates Silvio by besting him in the sword-fight. In the aftermath, Silvio blames Clarice for consorting with Beatrice and shows indifference to her threat of suicide. Arlecchino succeeds at last in giving the 100 ducats in the right hands and, famished for a good while, of eating, though between mouthfuls he must serve food to both of his masters at the same time, in some confusion, serving soup after meat to one and splitting the meatball order to both. When Beatrice discovers her servant has opened one of her letters, she beats him, after which Florindo beats him as well for letting himself be beaten by a stranger. In spite of these beatings, Arlecchino stoically and dutifully airs out Florindo's clothing, but mixes up their contents. As a result, Florindo is led to believe Beatrice has died and Beatrice is led to believe Florindo has died. Despairing, both rush outside simultaneously with knives to cut their own throats, but then joyfully recognize each other, so that no hindrance is left to their marriage as well as Clarice's with Silvio.
"The honorable maiden"
Time: 1740s. Place. Venice, Italy.
Ottavio, marquis of Ripa Verde, intends to seduce Bettina, the ward of Pantalone, a merchant, by acquiring her services as a servant. He learns that she is in love with Pasqualino, son of Menego, his gondelier. Pasqualino asks Bettina's sister, Catte, for her hand in marriage. She answers "perhaps", but to her sister she points out the interest in accepting the marquis' love. Instead Bettina informs Pantalone of her love of Pasqualino, but he considers that a poor match, insinuating that he prefers having her as his own wife. She recoils. She also recoils when Ottavio arrives to offer her earrings, money, and a dowry to marry Pasqualino. She even refuses to drink coffee with him and is scolded for it by Arlecchino, Catte's husband. To counter her resistance, Ottavio engages Pasqualino in his service as a secretary so that he can marry Bettina and have both of them live in his house. When Pasqualino asks Pantalone for her hand, he refuses. The marquis commands his secretary to marry her despite the old man's view and hires Lelio, a self-styled vagabond and son of Pantalone brought up for many years at Livorno, to strike his father (whom he does not recognize) four blows with a stick. Lelio accepts but desists after finding out who he is. When Pasqualino comes to take Bettina away as his wife, she informs him of the marquis' attempt to seduce her. He wants her to follow him to another place, but she declines. Menego interrupts their talk and sends his son away, then begins to woo the maiden for himself, but achieves less than nothing. Observing Pasqualino's tears, Catte helps him place a ring on her sister's finger in betrothal, but when Pantalone arrives, he jumps out the window to avoid him. Pantalone notices the turquoise on his ward's finger. Catte pretends that the ring is her husband's gift to her. "He must have assassinated somebody, for he never works," comments Pantalone. Nevertheless, he pays Catte the price of the ring so that Bettina may keep it. He then recommends that they all go to his sister's house in case the marquis aims at abducting Bettina. They cross the marquis by chance in their gondolas, so that his men abduct Bettina and Catte while Pantalone helplessly wails ashore. Lelio pretends not to know his own father and runs away. In the marquis' house, his wife, Beatrice, discovers Bettina before he can get to her and takes her away to the theatre. Meanwhile, Catte is lost at night in the streets of Venice until Lelio offers his arm to escort her, but he runs off again on seeing Pantalone who rails against his son while walking out ahead. By chance, Catte crosses Bettina and Beatrice on their way to the play and follows them. At the theatre, both masked, Beatrice makes Bettina change into her clothes and changes hers into Catte's to fool her husband on the lookout for Bettina. She has also sent away Catte but sent instead for Pasqualino. Ottavio and his men discover the two women, and, thinking she is Bettina, go off with Beatrice. Now Pasqualino thinks Bettina is the marquis' wife, who, as a modestly honorable maiden distrusting him, refuses to be escorted. Meanwhile, Menego defends Lelio from being arrested by the police at his father's request, while his wife, Pasqua, a nurse, prevents his being shipped away at sea by Pantalone. She reveals that Lelio is not his son, but theirs, whom she substituted in the of Pasqualino's place so that her son could enjoy Pantalone's riches. But Lelio prefers to become a gondolier, like his true father. Out of mischief, Beatrice locks Bettina in a dark room with Pasqualino. Yet, as usual, she comes off as the honorable maiden. Now that he knows Pasqualino is rich, Pantalone embraces him as Bettina's husband.
The most notable figure in tragic works of the period is Francesco Scipione Maffei (1675–1755), principally for "Merope" (1714), based on Greek mythology. Even more so than Corneille and Racine, Scipione draws a model close to Greek tragedies, especially in the use of the chorus as well as a continuous flow of action uninterrupted by changes in scenery.
Time: Antiquity. Place: Stenyclaros, capital of Messenia.
Twenty years ago, the ruler of Messenia, Cresphontes, was murdered by his friend and present ruler, Polyphontes, who seeks to wed his widow, Merope, to forestall rumors of a possible revolt led by her exiled son, Aepytus. Despite Polyphontes' promise of declaring Aepytus heir to the throne, she refuses to marry him. Aepytus returns in secret while announcing to Polyphontes his death. Thinking Aepytus dead indeed, Merope's servant, Arcas, announces to her that the recently arrived stranger is her son's murderer. She picks up an axe and creeps towards Aepytus' sleeping figure. Thinking of her murdered son, she says: "While the good sleep, the wicked watch and work, the workers have the day," then stepping closer, she says: "There you lie now, my hapless child, stretched among briars and stones, the slow, black gore oozing through your soaked hunting-shirt, with limbs yet stark from the death-struggle, tight-clenched hands, and eyeballs staring for revenge in vain." But Arcas, now better informed, arrives in time to prevent her fatal error. Aepytus awakes and discloses his intention to kill Polyphontes. Although his mother considers at first the course too dangerous, mostly because of the Dorian lords long having served Polyphontes, he dismisses her arguments. "O honored father," he exclaims, "hide in your grave as deep as you can, for here no succor comes, since what revenge can one expect from faithful subjects when your widow fails?" At last, Aepytus, with the help of Merope's brother, Laias, convinces her of the necessity of murder. Polyphontes comes back to propose marriage to Merope a second time, but is denied again. While Polyphontes leads the sacrifice in honor of Aepytus' memory, the supposed dead man slays him in view of the people, who defend him along with his uncle against the Dorian lords, so that Aepytus becomes the rightful ruler.