Healthy eating habits/Dairy for Health & Performance in Sub-elite Female Cyclists

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Dairy for Health & Performance[edit]

Jersey calf

Low fat dairy foods including milk and yoghurt are valuable, protective and abundant sources of energy and nutrition for female health and sporting performance. The interaction and roles between nutrients assist in performing a variety of essential functions within our body. These include, energy production, growth of lean muscle tissue and repair, bone and teeth structure, neural transmission and electrolyte balance. [1] Dairy products contain less than 4% fat per serve and promote gut health and immunity.[2]With over 10 essential nutrients including major macronutrients Protein and Carbohydrate; minerals including; Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Phosphorous and Zinc, and three essential vitamins Riboflavin, Vitamin B 12 and Vitamin A, dairy is a great choice.

Primary roles of Calcium[edit]

Adequate calcium intake is essential in maintaining skeletal bone structure and blood calcium levels.[3] The regulation of blood calcium is important for heart and muscle contractions, nerve impulses, hormone secretions and blood pressure control. [4][5]

Disease prevention: Osteoporosis[edit]

Blausen 0686 Osteoporosis 01

Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by weak and brittle bones. Women are more susceptible to developing this disease, especially following menopause with the associated decrease in oestrogen production.[6] Therefore ensuring adequate calcium is consumed during adolescence when bone mass triples and following menopause is crucial to maintain strong bones.[7]

What else can I do to maintain my bone strength?[edit]

Maintaining bone density requires adequate Vitamin D intake, which increases the absorption of calcium in the small intestine and kidneys. [8] Adequate dietary energy intake is also very important to prevent the loss of bone.[9]. Female cyclists can also benefit from weight bearing or plyometric training, helping to increase the density of bones.[10]

Proteins within Dairy[edit]

Whey and Casein[edit]

A number of beneficial health properties can be obtained from whey, including increased iron absorption, protection against harmful bacteria and infections and protection of tooth enamel.[11] Whey also contains 3 essential branched-chain amino acids, called leucine, isoleucine and valine. These are used by the muscle and play a significant role in muscle growth and repair. Therefore, whey has a role in increasing lean muscle mass and reducing fat mass, very important for cycling performance and body composition goals. [12]

Casein plays a role in lowering blood pressure and helps protect teeth by binding to dental plaque. [13]

Carbohydrates within Dairy[edit]

Lactose[edit]

The main carbohydrate found in milk is called Lactose. Lactose is a great source of energy, assists calcium absorption and promotes healthy gut bacteria, protecting us from infections.[14]

Lactose is beneficial in replenishing muscle glycogen stores and is therefore a very valuable training, or recovery snack.[15]

Electrolytes within Dairy[edit]

Bicep tricep


Calcium, potassium, phosphorous and magnesium are important electrolytes that assist with heart and muscle contractions, nerve transmission and rehydration.[16] Therefore, consuming dairy can be very beneficial in assisting the athlete in maintaining performance and recovery.[17]



Dairy, how much?[edit]

Recommended Dietary Intake[edit]

  • Adolescent females (14-18yr): 1300mg/day= 3.5 serves
  • Adult women (19-30yr): 1000mg/day= 2.5 serves
  • Older women (70+): 1300mg/day= 3.5 serves

[18]

What is one serve?[edit]

  • 40g (2 slices) of cheese
  • 250ml of milk
  • 200g tub of yoghurt

[19]

Why is this necessary?[edit]

Adolescent females experience a significant period of rapid skeletal growth and development, compared to adult women who are in a stage of maintenance.[20] The increased requirement for older women reflects decreased oestrogen production following menopause, and calcium lost in the urine and bones.[21]

There are currently no additional recommendations for female athletes regarding increased calcium requirements, unless they are experiencing a condition called amenorrhea, which Burke & Deakin recommend 1500mg/day.[22]

Post- training or Racing Smart Snacks[edit]

For maximal lean muscle development and recovery, aim for 15-25g of high quality protein within 30minutes of exercise and 30-60g of carbohydrate. [23] [24][25]

Chocolate milkshake


Low Fat Dairy[edit]

Sources providing approximately 15-20g protein & 50g carbohydrate:

  • 600ml flavoured milkshake or smoothie
  • 70g of cereal with 250ml of milk
  • Chobani yoghurt, No fat (180g tub) + banana and honey on 1 slice of toast
Muesli


Non-Dairy[edit]

For athletes unable to tolerate Dairy, the following options provide good sources of high quality protein, carbohydrate and calcium:

  • 70g of cereal with 250ml of calcium fortified soy milk
  • 100g of sardines/salmon with edible bones on 2 slices of wholegrain toast
  • 2 large eggs, with green leafy vegetables on wholegrain bread
  • 80g of chicken & spinach salad sandwich







Other sources of Calcium[edit]

Almonds


  • Soy milk, labelled with calcium
  • Lactose free milk- ZYMIL
  • Sardines & Salmon with edible bones
  • Cereals, labelled with calcium
  • Dried figs
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Chia
  • Almonds

[26]

Interested in learning more?[edit]

Explore and learn more about the benefits of Dairy & Sports Nutrition from the following websites:


Remember: It's always best to seek dietary advice from a Registered Practising Dietitian:

Find a Dietitian!


References[edit]

  1. Sports Dietitians Australia. (2014). Fact sheets for the general public. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/
  2. Dairy Australia. (2014). Dairy Nutrients. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.legendairy.com.au/~/media/Legendairy/Documents/Health/Fact%20sheets/Good%20Health%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20%20Dairy%20Nutrients%202010.pdf
  3. Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, D & Walsh, A. (2011). Understanding Nutrition. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning
  4. Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, D & Walsh, A. (2011). Understanding Nutrition. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning
  5. Australia Medical & Scientific Advisory Committee. (2014). Risk Factors. Retrieved October 20th, from http://www.osteoporosis.org.au/risk-factors
  6. Osteoporosis Australia Medical & Scientific Advisory Committee. (2014). Risk Factors. Retrieved October 20th, from http://www.osteoporosis.org.au/risk-factors
  7. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Nutrient Reference Values. Retrieved October 16th, 2014, from http://www.nrv.gov.au/
  8. . Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, D & Walsh, A. (2011). Understanding Nutrition. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning
  9. Burke, L & Deakin, V. (2010). Clinical Sports Nutrition (4th ed.). North Ryde: McGraw-Hill
  10. Burke, L & Deakin, V. (2010). Clinical Sports Nutrition (4th ed.). North Ryde: McGraw-Hill
  11. Dairy Australia. (2014). Dairy Nutrients. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.legendairy.com.au/~/media/Legendairy/Documents/Health/Fact%20sheets/Good%20Health%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20%20Dairy%20Nutrients%202010.pdf
  12. Sports Dietitians Australia. (2014). Fact sheets for the general public. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/
  13. Dairy Australia. (2014). Dairy Nutrients. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.legendairy.com.au/~/media/Legendairy/Documents/Health/Fact%20sheets/Good%20Health%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20%20Dairy%20Nutrients%202010.pdf
  14. Dairy Australia. (2014). Dairy Nutrients. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.legendairy.com.au/~/media/Legendairy/Documents/Health/Fact%20sheets/Good%20Health%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20%20Dairy%20Nutrients%202010.pdf
  15. Sports Dietitians Australia. (2014). Fact sheets for the general public. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/
  16. Whitney, E., Rolfes, S.R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, D & Walsh, A. (2011). Understanding Nutrition. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning
  17. 1. Sports Dietitians Australia. (2014). Fact sheets for the general public. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/
  18. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Nutrient Reference Values. Retrieved October 16th, 2014, from http://www.nrv.gov.au/
  19. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Eat for Health, Educator Guide, Australian Dietary Guidelines. Retrieved October 14th, from http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au/
  20. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Nutrient Reference Values. Retrieved October 16th, 2014, from http://www.nrv.gov.au/
  21. Burke, L & Deakin, V. (2010). Clinical Sports Nutrition (4th ed.). North Ryde: McGraw-Hill
  22. Burke, L & Deakin, V. (2010). Clinical Sports Nutrition (4th ed.). North Ryde: McGraw-Hill
  23. 1. Sports Dietitians Australia. (2014). Fact sheets for the general public. Retrieved September 30th, from http://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/
  24. Australian Institute of Sport. (2014). Carbohydrate- The Facts. Retrieved October 15th, from http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/basics/carbohydrate__how_much
  25. Australian Institute of Sport. (2014). Protein. Retrieved October 15th, from http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/factsheets/basics/protein_-_how_much/
  26. Kouris-Blazos, A. (2011). Food sources of nutrients: A ready reckoner of macronutrients, micronutrients and phytonutrients.