Handbook of Management Scales/Total productive and preventive maintenance

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Total productive/preventive maintenance (alpha > 0.7; composite reliability = 0.77; average variance extracted = 0.45)[edit]


The research takes a step toward clarifying the concept of lean production and develops and validates a multi-dimensional measure of lean production. The 10 distinct dimensions of a lean system are continuous flow, customer involvement, employee involvement, JIT delivery by suppliers, pull, set up time reduction, statistical process control, supplier development, supplier feedback, and total productive/preventive maintenance.


Lean production is an integrated socio-technical system whose main objective is to eliminate waste by concurrently reducing or minimizing supplier, customer, and internal variability. This dimension of lean production is about addressing equipment downtime through total productive maintenance and thus achieve a high level of equipment availability.


Please indicate the extent of implementation of each of the following practices in your plant. (1) no implementation; (2) little implementation; (3) some implementation; (4) extensive implementation; (5) complete implementation.

  • We dedicate a portion of everyday to planned equipment maintenance related activities
  • We maintain all our equipment regularly
  • We maintain excellent records of all equipment maintenance related activities
  • We post equipment maintenance records on shop floor for active sharing with employees



Average variance extracted is too low. The last item might not measure the construct.