Handbook of Management Scales/Team psychological safety

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Team psychological safety (alpha = 0.701, CR = 0.714, AVE = 0.461)[edit]


The article examines three factors of intellectual capital: Worker expertise, information sharing quality, and team psychological safety.

The 5-point Likert-type scale for team psychological safety was developed from previous literature in order to assure content validity. It was based on items taken from Edmondson (1999).


Team psychological safety refers to team members feeling safe to discuss errors by openly seeking input from others who are needed to make required changes.


  • If an implementation team member made a mistake on this team, it was held against him/her. (reverse coded; dropped after confirmatory factor analysis)
  • Team members feared that bringing up problem/issues would have negative effects on their career prospects. (reverse coded; dropped after confirmatory factor analysis)
  • People on this team sometimes rejected other members. (reverse coded)
  • It was safe to take a risk on this team. (dropped after confirmatory factor analysis)
  • No one on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermined my efforts.
  • Each member of the implementation team felt they were valuable to the team.



The AVE value was below 0.5 and the factor loading of item three was below 0.6 and these values are, thus, too low.