Handbook of Management Scales/Process formalization

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Process formalization[edit]


A previously multi-item 7-point scale was used. It was further pretested with six logistics researchers and six executive managers of logistics service providers to ensure face validity.


Process formalization is defined as spelling out detailed tasks, activities, schedules and operating procedures to govern the cooperation (Murray & Kotabe, 2005).


In our cooperation we have…

  • …written documents (e.g., handbooks) that spell out detailed tasks, activities and schedules for the cooperation.
  • …detailed standard operating procedures (e.g., rules, policies, forms, etc.) for the processes of the cooperation.



Only two items were used. It is recommended to add at least one additional item when re-using this scale.