Handbook of Management Scales/Exposure to external turbulence

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Exposure to external turbulence[edit]


A new scale was developed to measure exposure to external turbulence. The items were based on the supply chain risk management literature.


Exposure to external turbulence was defined as an “organization’s actual exposure to upstream and downstream turbulence (i.e., on supplier and on customer markets)”.


Please rate the extent of fluctuations in your logistics organization’s environment:

  • Our environment is characterized by a high number of ongoing fluctuations (e.g. raw material prices).
  • Our customer demand is subject to very high fluctuations.
  • The supply of our (sub-)suppliers is subject to very high fluctuations.

Items were measured with a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “1 = not at all” to “7 = to a very great extent”.


  • Bühler/Wallenburg/Wieland (2016): Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 21, No. 6


The scale was used as a control. No reliability indicators were reported for this scale.