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The Gothic language has three kinds of verb-endings:




Apart from that, Gothic is the only Germanic language which retained reduplicative verbs, these are verbs in which in the preterite (past) form, the first part is repeated, if the first part has more consonants after reach other, e.g. slaipan, with s+l, the last consonant isn't repeated. The 3rd person preterite of slaipan (to sleep) would be in English: he slept. In English it would be: he/she slept.

In Gothic it is: saislop.

As you can see, the l is not reduplicated, but the s is.

We'll learn more about these kinds of verbs later.

Gothic has 7 verb classes. Of these 7 are strong, 4 of them are of weak verbs.

We'll start with the weak verbs.

-jan verbs[edit]

Let's look at verb class 1, the -jan verbs.

We'll use nasjan (to save) to show how to conjugate (use different forms) this verb. You learned what the different personal pronouns are, let's repeat them:

1 sing, ik - I

2 sing, þu - you (sing)

3 sing, is/si = he/she

1 plur, weis - we (plural)

1 dual, wit - dual (dual, 2)

2 plur, jus - you (plural)

2 dual, jut - you (dual, 2)

3 plur, eis (m)/ija (f) - they

The indicative is the same as the normal present form in English. So I save is the 1st person singular indicative of to save in English.

You can form the indicative of nasjan and some other -jan verbs by removing -jan and replacing it with:

1 sing, -ja

2 sing, -jis

3 sing, -jiþ

1 plur, -jam

1 dual, -jos

2 plur, -jiþ

2 dual, -jats

3 plur, -jand

The past form is called the preterite. The 1st person singular is nasida, in English this would be I saved. The 2nd sing form is nasides. The other forms can be made by replacing the j from the indicative form with -ided and turning the a into u. The 3rd plur form is an exception here and has the ending -idedun.

1 sing, -ida

2 sing, -ides

3 sing, -ida

1 plur, -idedum

1 dual, -idedos

2 plur, -ideduþ

3 plur, -idedun

The past participle is the same as English saved. For the past participle it's necessary to look at the demonstrative pronoun. The strong form is declined as the dem. Pronoun.

The basic form is: nasiþs

By removing the final -s and replacimg it withbthe endings of the dem. Pron., the strong form can be declined. The weak form is declined in the same way as that of adjectives and is always accompaniee by a definite article, just like the weak adjective.

The medio-passive is a form like English to be + past participle. It signifies an action still in the process of being done or getting done, where as it is already done in the past participle form.

I am saved = (ik nasjada)

I am saved = (ik nasjada)The medio-passive isn't hard to apply. The medio-passive for all -jan verbs is:

1st sing, -jada

2nd sing, -jaza

3rd sing, -jada

all plural, -janda