Golf is a game in which players use clubs to hit balls into holes. Eighteen holes are played during a regular round, with players usually starting on the first hole on the course and finishing on the eighteenth. The player who takes the fewest strokes, or swings of the club, to complete the course wins. The game is played on grass, and the grass around the hole is mown shorter and called the green.
The rules of golf allow for a maximum of 14 clubs. These include a Driver, wedges, putter, fairwaywood(s) and in some cases a hybrid. The governing body for the game of golf are the Royal and Ancient of St. Andrews Scotland and the United States Golf Association.
The were originally 13 "rules" for the game but there is also a decisions book covering what the rules do not cover. This one is nearly 600 pages thick! The most recent change to the rules is about anchoring the putter. You can read it here http://www.usga.org/news/2012/November/Proposed-Rules-Change-to-Prohibit-Anchoring/
There are basically two types of golfers, Amateurs and Professionals. On the Professional side there are also three types; 1. Club Professionals 2. Playing Professionals 3. Teaching Professionals. Club Professionals generally run the operations side of the golf course. Playing Professionals make their living by playing tournament golf for prize money and Teaching Professionals make their income from teaching others this game.