General Anatomy/Digestive System

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The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the orifice through which an animal takes in food and water.

Chewing is the first step in digestion:

  • Lips
  • Teeth (Incisors, Canines, Molars,Premolars etc.)
  • Jaw (Mandible)(Maxilary)
  • Hard Palate/ Soft Palate
  • Saliva (contains the enzymes salivary amylase, lysozyme, and lingual lypase)
  • Pharynx

Most animals have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostome and deuterostome. In arthropods, they are external modified legs; in gnathostomata vertebrates they are internal.


Made of three different types of muscle in its external longitudinal layer: (i).Its superior third is composed of voluntary striated muscle tissue, (ii).Its inferior third is composed of smooth muscle tissue, (iii).Its middle third is composed of a mixture of the aforementioned two.


  • Cardiac region
  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Pylorus
  • Cardiac Sphincter
  • Pyloric Sphincter

Small Intestine[edit]

It is the convoluted structure of digestive system that aids in digestion and maximum absorption takes place in intestine


  • Produces bile by hepatocytes

Hepatocytes will then secrete the bile to the canaliculi of the liver. The flow of bile will continue to the right and left hepatic ducts which will meet at the common hepatic duct -> cystic duct -> gallbladder for storage. Then when bile is needed for digestion of fats, bile will empty from the gallbladder through the cystic duct -> common bile duct -> sphincter of oddi -> duodenum Bile helps in the digestion of fatty acids in food

Gall Bladder[edit]

  • Stores bile which is made by the liver. Patients who undergo cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder) will have normal digestive function as bile drains through the common bile duct into the duodenum.


Located near the duodenum to empty pancreatic enzymes, and bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid from the antrum.


Islets of Langerhan have alpha and beta cells that are responsible for maintaining the glucose concentration in the plasma. Alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin. These hormones are involved in the endocrine system.

Acinar cells will secrete enzymes that will help with digestion. These enzymes are released in an inactive form.

Large Intestine[edit]

  • Cecum
  • Verminform appendix
  • Colon

Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoidal Also contains epiploic appendanges and taenia coli - bands of muscles Note the haustra - individual pouches formed by the taenia coli

  • Rectum
  • Anus


It is the last portion of digestive system. Disposes solid wastes.