# Fundamental Specifications for Steel Construction/Tension

## Tensile Yielding

The limit state yielding on the gross cross section shall be considered to prevent uncontrolled elongation.

• ${\displaystyle P_{n}=F_{y}A_{g}}$

## Tensile Rupture

The limit state rupture on the net effective cross section shall be considered. Local yielding around net sections is allowed provided the resulting member elongations are not detrimental to the structure.

• ${\displaystyle P_{n}=F_{u}A_{e}}$

## Definitions

• ${\displaystyle F_{y}}$ = specified minimum yield stress (ksi, MPa)
• ${\displaystyle F_{u}}$ = specified minimum tensile strength (ksi, MPa)
• ${\displaystyle A_{g}}$ = gross area of cross section (in2, mm2)
• ${\displaystyle A_{e}}$ = effective net area of cross section, as reduced for holes and shear lag effects at connections (in2, mm2)