Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 8/Chapter FAQ/Peer Review Two

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This article has been reviewed by: Adart001 (talk) 22:41, 7 June 2009 (UTC)

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Part 1 - Article Components

Learning Target(s)[edit]

Answer the following questions regarding the learning targets:

  • Is/are the stated learning targets actual learning targets i.e. they state what the reader should know or be able to do after reading the article? Yes
  • Is/are the learning target(s) specific? No
  • Is/are they appropriate and reasonable? (Are they too easy or too difficult for ECI 301 students?) Yes
  • Is/are they observable? (You wouldn't have to look inside the readers head to know if they met this target.) Yes
  • Does the article provide adequate information for readers to achieve these targets? Yes

Please make a comment about the learning target(s). If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve them.

Comment: The learning targets could be a bit more specific. The first learning target, The reader will be able to define all terms found within this article, is a little broad. It could be rewritten as The reader will be able to define terms about curriculum. The second learning target could also be changed or erased entirely since it is similar to the first learning target.

Grammar and Mechanics Review[edit]

  • Please either paste the entire body of the article here or any sections that you feel need to be revised.
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    • select "edit this page"
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  • Type your comments in ALL CAPITALS or in another color so the author can easily find them.

Learning Targets The reader will be able to define all terms found within this article. THE READER WILL BE ABLE TO DEFINE ALL TERMS ABOUT CURRICULUM.

The reader will be able to easily answer the review questions that accompany the content articles in this chapter. REMOVED CHARACTERS SINCE THEY WERE NOT SHOWING AS BULLETS.


FOR EACH QUESTION, REMOVED QUOTATION MARKS, NOT NEEDED. What are "The "Three R's" and how do they relate to teaching?

The "Three R's" were originally quoted as being "reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic"(American Heritage). Reading, writing, and arithmetic were thought to be the basis of all education. However, teaching has evolved to a point where these are core subjects, but so are many other equally important subjects.


These three hopeful additions are things that are necessary for one to become a well-rounded individual. MAY WANT TO REVISE THIS BECAUSE THE WORD "HOPEFUL" AND "NECESSARY" CONTRADICT EACH OTHER.

"What is "Formal Curriculum"? What is a "Hidden Curriculum"? How do they differ?" REWRITE AS: WHAT IS FORMAL CURRICULUM AND HIDDEN CURRICULUM? HOW DO THEY DIFFER?

A formal curriculum is the typical lesson plan that a teacher makes on any given day and covers all of the academic topics that will be covered in class. A "hidden curriculum", also referred to as informal curriculum or character education), is an implied curriculum which addresses character traits. Formal curriculum is explicit to the student because it's goals are made clear by the teacher before teaching begins. In contrast, hidden curriculum is considered implicit since it occurs beneath the surface of a lesson and is meant to subconsciously improve students' character (Bibbs, Jr, 2009).

How does hidden curriculum affect students? CURRICULUM SHOULD BE SPELLED AS CURRICULUM

Hidden curriculum allows teachers the ability to not only teach their chosen lesson, but also other life skills. It is often referred to as "character education" because of its lessons in life skills (Bibbs, Jr, 2009). Through this implicit instruction, teachers can impart important relationship, time management, and social responsibility skills unto their students.

"What is a standardized test" REWRITE AS: WHAT IS A "STANDARDIZED TEST"?

A standardized test is a "standard" test on specific subject matter that is given and graded in a uniform way (Jones, 2009). Examples of such tests are the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL's), the ERB, the PSAT, the SAT, the PRAXIS I and the PRAXIS II, and AP exams. These types of tests never differ no matter what school, city, or state they are administered in. WRITE OUT THE REST OF THE TESTS.

"What are the pros and cons about standardized testing?" REWRITE AS: WHAT ARE THE ADVAnTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STANDERIZED TESTING?

There are many arguments for and against standardized testing in the educational community. Advocates feel that the tests are "too standard" to truly assess students, while critics feel that all students need to be assessed the same manner. Supporters mainly argue for cooperation, not only at the teacher:student level, but at many other levels [MAY WANT TO LIST SOME MORE LEVELS](Jones, 2009). Those who oppose standardized testing is the view that schools narrow their curriculum to support the test (Jones, 2009).


What is the view of those who support standardized testing?

There are many who support standardized testing as the best method to assess students. Administrators spend a small amount of time to grade these tests, especially when using Scantron sheets which are read by a computer (Marcotte, 2009). Supporters also believe that standardized tests create the highest levels of accountability for teachers.

What is the view of those who oppose standardized testing?

There are also many who oppose standardized testing. The primary view is that a single test is not enough to assess the depth of students' knowledge (Marcotte, 2009). They feel that students who only experience standardized testing are denied access to a more diverse curriculum (Marcotte, 2009). Many people also feel that standardized testing has caused a "dumbing down" on the American education system (Kohn, 2000, p29).

What are AP and IB classes? How do they affect students and teachers?

AP classes, or Advanced Placement classes, are classes in which high school students complete college level work for the chance to receive college credit, based on a qualifying test score (Gauss, 2009). IB classes, or International Baccalaureate classes, are those in which the students study multiple topics and see how they relate with each other (Gauss, 2009). Both of these types of classes are at a much higher level than typical high school classes and require not only brighter students but better teachers as well.

What is College Preparatory education? Who are its main targets? REPLACE "WHO" WITH "WHAT"

College preparatory education is a course of study that prepares students for learning at a college level and sets them up to be successful in college (Lewis, 2009). Its main targets are low-income and minority students because these groups are least likely to attend college (Lewis, 2009). The goal of college preparatory programs is to help these, and all students succeed in college. Classes that are typical to the college preparatory course work would be Honors and AP classes. MIGHT WANT TO DEFINE WHAT HONORS IS.

"What is Vocational education? Who are its main targets?"

Vocational education teaches students skills that will help them attain careers in different workforces(Lewis, 2009). Also known as trade school, it is for students who will not be attending college immediately after high school or attending college at all (Lewis, 2009). Classes that are typical to the vocational education course work would be centered around "trades" such as Cosmetology, Nursing or Automobile classes.

What are advantages and disadvantages to college prep courses? SPELL OUT PREP.

The main advantage of college preparatory courses is that they truly prepare students for the difficulty and amount of work that they will encounter in college or higher education(Filson, 2009). Student who score well enough on their AP exam can receive college credit for that course. However, some students discover that they are still not prepared for college or higher education courses (Filson, 2009).

What are advantages and disadvantages of vocational education courses?

Vocational education is an ideal option for those students who are not interested in attending college, but still want to enter a career or workforce(Filson, 2009). The main disadvantage though, is that it often receives a negative connotation because students who chose this track often did not do as well in high school as their college-preparatory counterparts (Filson, 2009).


1. What is vocational education?

A. Education that prepares students for college.
B. Education that prepares students for a job. CHANGE JOB TO CAREER
C. Education typical to a private school.
D. Education typical to a public elementary school.

2. What are the "Fourth R's" as related to education?

A. Relationships, Rhythm, Art.
B. Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic.
C. Reduce, Replace, Refine.
D. Reading, 'Riting, Randomness.

3. If Michael, a high school student, is enrolled in AP Environmental Science, AP United States History, and Honor English Literature, he is most likely to be following what course of study?

A. Formal Curriculum.
B. Hidden Curriculum.
C. Character Education.
D. College Prep. SPELL OUT PREP.

4. Mrs. Davids is making a lesson plan that outlines exactly what her students will be covering in class the next day. It includes specifics about the topic that they have been studying for the past week. What type of curriculum is this lesson plan made up of?

A. Hidden Curriculum.
B. Formal Curriculum.
C. Specific Curriculum.
D. College prep Curriculum. SPELL OUT PREP.


For each source listed in the "References" section of the article, name the type of source (scholarly or popular) and the perspective it provides (research, expert opinion from educator, popular news source, parent organization, personal contact, etc.) 1. Popular, Popular news source 2. Scholarly, organization 3. Scholarly, organization 4. Scholarly, organization 5. Scholarly, expert opinion 6. Popular, research 7. Scholarly, research 8. Scholarly, research 9. Scholarly, research 10. Scholarly, research 11. Scholarly, research

List the range of publication years for all sources, e.g. 1998-2006: 1997 - 2009

Answer the following questions about the sources used in the article:

  1. Did the author CITE at least 5 sources? Yes and use at least 2 scholarly sources? Yes
  2. Are the citations in APA format? Yes
    1. Here are two examples of citations in APA format, one for a paraphrase and one for a quotation:
      1. Constructing a title is both a science and an art, but on one fact all of the experts agree: the title must contain a colon (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, & Starr, 2007).
      2. Unfortunately impoverished children are often attending “low-performing schools staffed by ill-equipped teachers” (Murnane, 2007, p. 34).
  3. Are all the sources listed in APA format in a Reference list labeled "References"? Yes
    1. Here is an example of a reference written in APA format:
      1. Bailey, J., & Barnum, P. (2001). The colon and its rise to prominence in the American circus. Journal of American Punctuation, 34(5), 2-3.
  4. Taken together do the 5 sources represent a good balance of potential references for this topic? Yes
  5. Does the author consider potential bias in the sources? Yes
  6. Are most of the sources current (less than 5 years old)? Yes

Please make a comment about the sources. If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve.

Comment: Sources are very recent, with the oldest being in 1997. also used a variety of scholarly and popular sources to have a balanced article. Could have some more popular sources to gain a better perspective.

Multiple Choice Questions[edit]

  1. What does each question assess: knowledge or reasoning (application of knowledge)?
    1. Question 1 Knowledge
    2. Question 2 Knowledge
    3. Question 3 Reasoning
    4. Question 4 Reasoning

Answer the following questions about the multiple-choice questions.

  1. Are there 4 multiple-choice questions? Yes
  2. Do they each have four answer choices (A-D)? Yes
  3. Is there a single correct (not opinion-based) answer for each question? Yes
  4. Do the questions assess the learning target? Yes
  5. Are the questions appropriate and reasonable (not too easy and not too difficult)? Yes
  6. Are the foils (the response options that are NOT the answer) reasonable i.e. they are not very obviously incorrect answers? No
  7. Are the response options listed in alphabetical order? Yes
  8. Are correct answers provided and listed BELOW all the questions? Yes

Please make a comment about the multiple-choice questions. If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve the question/s.

Comment: All of the options were the same length. But for question 2, option D is obvious with the word "Randomness".

Part 2 - Ratings

LIST and EXPLAIN your rating for each of the four criteria.

  • Importance:
    I rated this article 4 for importance because it is very important to know the different types of curriculum used in education. It is also important to understand both perspectives of standardized testing since it is a very controversial topic among teachers, students, parents, school administrators, and professionals.
  • Interest:
    I rated this article 4 on interest because many terms that I did not know or had misconceptions about were made clear, such as the difference between College Preparatory education and Vocational education. This article addressed how students perceive these types of education, which is informative since most of the time it is from a teacher's perspective.
  • Credibility:
    I rated this article 4 for credibility because the author did a lot of research; at least two perspectives were shown for different aspects and the sources used had strong credibility. The majority of sources were also very recent, as early as this year.
  • Writing skill:
    I rated this article 3 on writing because it had some spelling and mechanical errors, as well as some grammar errors. There was also some inconsistency with the placement of questions.


To do this: Highlight sections with the cursor and use the BOLD icon above OR type ''' (3 apostrophes) before and after the text you want to make bold

Wiki Article Rubric[edit]

criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How important was the information presented on this topic to you as a teacher education student?
  • Covers key ideas crucial for future teachers to know
  • Based on researched information.
  • Highly relevant to current educational practice (*this description may be less applicable for some topics such as history of education)
  • Provides an excellent overview of the topic including relevant research, educational practice, laws and litigation. Includes in-depth discussion of at least a few selected key issues.
  • Includes ideas relevant to future teachers
  • Mostly based on researched information.
  • Applicable to today’s schools
  • Provides a good general overview with relevant information and discussion of a few key ideas
  • A couple useful points; some irrelevant information
  • About half of the information is the author’s opinion.
  • Some out-dated information; may not reflect current practice
  • Good information is included but the paper yields a partial /incomplete understanding of the topic or key issues
  • One useful point
  • A few facts but mostly the author’s opinion.
  • Most of the information is irrelevant in today’s schools.
  • Focused on unimportant subtopics OR overly general with few specifics. Important information is missing.
  • Information is not relevant to future teachers.
  • Information is entirely the author’s opinion.
  • The information is obsolete.
  • Only irrelevant details or common knowledge. Lacks any substantive information.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How interesting was the article to read?
  • Sidebar includes new information that was motivating to read/view
  • Visuals (headings, colors, fonts, pictures, etc.) enhance the article by making it easier or more inviting to read
  • Multiple perspectives are considered and discussed
  • Mostly new information/ideas
  • Insightful interpretation & analysis are evident throughout the article; a clearly stated conclusion synthesizes all of the material presented.
  • Points are clearly made and elaborated on with compelling examples.
  • Sidebar includes new information that enhances understanding of the topic
  • Visuals add to the article
  • At least two perspectives were presented
  • About half of the information/ideas are new
  • Interpretation and analysis is provided for 3-4 points in the article; a reasonable conclusion based on this information is stated
  • Some good points are made and explained.
  • Sidebar includes new information related to the topic.
  • Visuals are included but have minimal effect
  • One interesting or new perspective is presented
  • A couple (2-3) new ideas or pieces of information
  • Interpretation/ analysis is included for a few (1-2) individual sections, but there is not a conclusion that synthesizes the information presented.
  • Points are made but may not always be adequately supported or explained.
  • Sidebar repeats what is already in the article
  • Visuals are somewhat distracting or not included
  • Only the “typical” view or one biased perspective is presented.
  • One new idea or bit of information
  • Information presented with minimal analysis or interpretation; no conclusion or the conclusion is not based on the information presented
  • At least one clear point is made and supported.
  • No side bar included.
  • Visuals are offensive and completely detract from the content
  • No perspective is acknowledged.
  • Nothing new.
  • No analysis or interpretation included
  • No clear points are made or points appear pasted from other sources without any explanation.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How credible do you think the information is?
  • Required sources are properly cited and included in a reference list in APA format.
  • Information from diverse sources representing multiple perspectives is included. Several reputable and current sources are cited. The author acknowledges potential bias in sources where appropriate.
  • Author clearly identifies his own ideas, biases and opinions
  • Required sources are included; a couple of formatting errors
  • Information from a variety of sources is included. Most sources are reasonably reputable; bias is acknowledged in others.
  • It is clear when the author is presenting his own opinion; he doesn’t try to pass if off as fact.
  • Required sources are included; APA format is not used or has many errors.
  • A variety of sources is listed but the information primarily reflects a single viewpoint. Sources are reasonable.
  • The author occasionally (1-2 times) states his own opinion as fact.
  • Only 4 sources are cited/listed in the references or only 1 scholarly source was used
  • Sources lack diversity OR information from divergent sources is only superficially mentioned. Some sources are untrustworthy or biased and not acknowledged as such.
  • Author routinely (3-4 times) states her opinion as fact, ignores own biases.
  • Missing two or more sources OR sources used but not cited or listed.
  • All sources and information reflect a single viewpoint. Most sources are untrustworthy or biased and not acknowledged as such.
  • The entire article is biased and opinion-based without acknowledgment of this perspective.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How well do you think this article was written?
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) align with the learning targets, assess key points, and are written according to guidelines (see R4)
  • Specific, appropriate and observable learning targets are stated; the content is clearly organized to help the reader achieve these goals
  • Captures and maintains attention throughout
  • All or almost all of the cited information is introduced, elaborated on and explained
  • Writing is organized, easy to read, and contains few to no mechanical errors.
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) align with the learning targets, and assess key points.
  • Specific and reasonable learning targets are stated; the content aligns with these goals
  • Captures attention initially and periodically throughout
  • Most of the cited information is discussed or explained.
  • The article flowed pretty well and there were just a few mechanical errors.
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) assess key points
  • Reasonable learning targets are stated; the content relates to these goals
  • Parts of the article capture attention
  • About half of the cited information is discussed
  • A few areas were hard to follow, confusing or oddly organized. There were a few distracting errors.
  • 4 multiple-choice questions are included.
  • Learning targets generally related to the content are stated
  • At least one part of the article is interesting
  • Information is “pasted” together with minimal explanation.
  • Organization was difficult to follow, sentences were awkward and/or there were several distracting errors.
  • Questions are missing or not multiple-choice.
  • Learning target is missing or unrelated to content or is/are not actual learning targets
  • Nothing in the article grabs the reader’s attention
  • Article is entirely “pasted” together from other sources.
  • Poor organization, sentence structure and/or grammatical errors made it very difficult to understand the content.

Part 3 - "2+2"

List TWO compliments and TWO suggestions about the article content

  • Hints:
    • Focus on the work, not the person
    • Describe "There is...", "I see.." rather than judge "You didn't..."


  1. . There are pros and cons on debatable issues, such as standardized testing, college preparatory courses and vocational education.
  2. . The article included the views of not only educators but of students as well.


  1. . There could be more information on the word Honors classes.
  2. . There could be another word for "job" in the Vocational section.

You can make compliments and suggestions that relate to specific areas of the paper or to the paper in general. I suggest a mixture of both. Focus on what's most important. Of course, you can also include more than two suggestions and more than two compliments. The goal is to help the author improve his/her article.