Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 5/Chapter Review

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Sociological Influences: Economics and Culture
Chapter Review
By Rachel Paige


This chapter portrayed how sociological influences can have a profound effect on the students and overall classroom environment. Classrooms are melting pots with varying economic levels and cultural backgrounds. Though a child may be smart he/she may experience problems at home or socially that can adversely effect their behavior in the classroom. The articles range in issues such as poverty, racial tension, bullying, violence, learned helplessness, peer pressure, sex, drugs, and student mobility. As teachers, it is important to become educated and knowledgeable about these issues so they're handled appropriately resulting in a healthier learning environment for all.

Learning Targets

The Reader should be able to:

1) Understand the United States government's definition of poverty.

2) Evaluate the potential academic disadvantages a child faces living in impoverished conditions.

3) Identify basic tenets of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002.

4) Understand what learned helplessness means for students.

5) Understand the traits related to learned helplessness.

6) Implement strategies to help with learned helplessness in the classroom.

7) Accurately recall the court case Brown vs Board of Education.

8) Accurately recall the court case Plessy vs Ferguson.

9) Accurately recall the Michigan court case.

10) Define abstinence-only sexual education.

11) Define comprehensive sexual education.

12) Define Title V of the Social Security Act.

13) Understand the controversy concerning sexual education.

14) Define Student Mobility.

15) Describe in detail the effects of Student Mobility on a student's productivity.

16) Identify common trends on Student Mobility.

17) Identify effective practices which can lower the adverse emotional effects on those students who are "mobile."

18) Have a clear understanding of what sex education implements in the school system.

19) Understand the targeted objective of the sex education course.

20) Identify the positive and negative influences that sex education has on students.

21) Define poverty.

22) Distinguish between bullying and media violence.

23) Identify positive and negative aspects of peer pressure.

24) Differentiate between sociological, economic, and culture influences in schools.

Multiple Choice Questions

1). How many people in the United States fall below the U.S. government's definition of the poverty line?

a) 10.8 million

b) 27.2 million

c) 32.5 million

d) 37.3 million

2). How many children (percentage) in the Commonwealth of Virginia fall below the U.S. government's definition of the poverty line?

a) 5 percent

b) 8 percent

c) 13 percent

d) 26 percent

3). Mary Swanson teaches 5th grade in rural northern Virginia. She maintains a very positive classroom and attempts to motivate each student to participate in class discussions. One of her students, Jeremy Butters, is from a very poor family. He seems to struggle with staying awake in class and completing his homework assignments on time. What disadvantages might Jeremy be facing as a poor student that might be limiting his ability to succeed in the classroom?

a) Adequate parental support

b) Inappropriate / inadequate study environment

c) Malnutrition

d) Both b) and c)

4). As an educator, how might you find pertinent information regarding the effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on your own school district?

a) Access the No Child Left Behind Act on the U.S. government's education website

b) Contact your local military recruiter

c) Contact your school administrator

d) Both a) and c)

5). Students with learned helplessness believe

a) Once they have help they can succeed

b) Other students can learn to help them

c) Teachers are great and always teach great lessons

d) They will continue to fail on future problems

6). Students with learned helplessness may exhibit all of the following EXCEPT:

a) Asking their peers for help

b) Giving up when you correct them

c) Preferring easy questions over hard

d) Sitting quietly and no response

7). Telling a student "€œI really like that you showed your long division work"€ is an example of:

a) Person criticism

b) Person praise

c) Process criticism

d) Process praise

8). To best create a test to avoid learned helplessness behaviors teachers can

a) Create special tests for these students

b) Place factual questions before conceptual questions

c) Read the test out loud

d) Use all multiple choice questions

9). What Reversed Plessy vs Ferguson?

a) Michigan Court Case

b) Plessy vs Ferguson

c) Brown vs Board of Education

d) 3/5ths Compromise

10). What established "separate but equal"?

a) Michigan Court Case

b) Plessy vs Ferguson

c) Brown vs Board of Education

d) 3/5ths Compromise

11). The year is 1930 and Martha is an African American young girl. She has a friend named Mary who is white. During this era, which facilities CAN they share TOGETHER?

a) schools

b) water fountains

c) bathrooms

d) none of the above

12). Jessica, who has the proper credentials, applies to Lakewood University. She is rejected, files a lawsuit against the school and wins. According to the Michigan Court Case, which of the following is the reason why she won?

a) Lakewood University probably used race as a factor within the admissions process.

b) Lakewood University probably used gender as a factor within the admissions process.

c) Lakewood University probably used sexual orientation as a factor within the admissions process.

d) Lakewood University probably used religion as a factor within the admissions process.

13). What Act provides federal funding to states for comprehensive sexual education programs?

a) SSA

b) NEA Act

c) REAL Act

d) All of the Above

14). A school that teaches about the proper use of condoms is using which type of sexual education program?

a) Abstinence-only Sexual Education

b) Comprehensive Sexual Education

c) Plus Education

d) Refrainment Sexual Education

15). Abstinence is?

a) Being sexually active with four or more partners

b) Opting out of a sex ed program

c) Refraining from marriage until your 18

d) Refraining from sex outside of marriage

16). A school nurse presents the risks and failure rates only, of various birth control methods. This is what type of sexual education?

a) Abstinence-only Sexual Education

b) Comprehensive Sexual Education

c) Obstetric Sexual Education

d) Sexuality-based Sex Education

17). What Does Student Mobility Refer to?

a) student movement from school to school

b) student movement from subject to subject

c) student progression through grade levels

d) student transportation to and from school

18). Maria is a student new to the 7th grade class. It does not seem as though she is close with any of her classmates, does not communicate well with others or the teacher, does not maintain regular and consistent attendance, nor does she do well on her assignments. Maria is a student that falls into which category?

a) foreign exchange

b) has a speech impediment

c) inclusion student

d) new student to the school or area

19). As a child who undergoes frequent mobility, I am likely to experience . . .

a) lower grades and test scores

b) lower peer relationship development

c) lower level of comprehension and retention of information

d) all of the above

20). Out of Eighth grade students ___% of students have moved schools more than twice excluding progression to middle/high school.

a) 14%

b) 26%

c) 31%

d) 87%

21). What was the initial reason for the implementation of sex education in school systems?

a) To reduce or eliminate masturbation and non marital intercourse

b) To prevent the development of sexual inquiry

c) To teach students about sexually transmitted diseases

d) To prevent pregnancy

22). In what year did the Government subsidize birth control to the poor?

a) 1990

b) 1965

c) 1972

d) 2002

23). If Jimmy is introduced to sex education at the age of 7, what would most likely be his sexual behavior after obtaining the knowledge?

a) Complete abstinence

b) Masturbation

c) Explore sexual activities

d) Have sex after marriage

24). If sex education is not considered the only cause for teen pregnancy, premarital sex and sexual activity among the youth of today, according to the first article what other factor are to be taken in consideration?

a) Friendship, culture and media

b) School based clinics, sex education and Socioeconomic status

c) Parental education, sex education and youth programs

d) Socioeconomic status, parental education and sex education

25). The term poverty is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary as

a) The state of one who gains an acceptable amount of money.

b) The state of one who loses an acceptable amount of material possessions.

c) The state of one who lacks an acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

d) The state of one who loses an acceptable amount of money due to a gambling problem.

26). What percentage of youths in grades 6-10 reported moderate to frequent involvement in bullying?

a) 22.3%

b) 29.9%

c) 29.4%

d) 27.6%

27). What technique could best be used to educate students on the negative effects of bullying?

a) Have them watch a video on the Columbine shootings

b) Watch an educational video on the effects of bullying and assign a written report

c) Bring in a guest who was a bully as a child and have him/her talk about their experiences

d) Bring in a guest who was bullied and have him/her talk about their experiences

28). Michael has been acting out in school and his mother learns he is hanging with the "wrong crowd." She is concerned because she found beer cans and cigarettes under his bed. She confronts him and he says he has been getting pressured to drink and smoke in order to hang with his "new" friends. What is the best advice to give Michael's mother.

a) Transfer Michael to a different school

b) Nothing can be done, Michael needs to learn on his own

c) Explain the effects of negative peer pressure and hope he starts making the right decisions

d) Use "tough love" and let Michael spend some time behind bars

29). A student’s family travels a lot; as a result that child goes to several different schools. This student is at a greater risk for dropping out of school because of ?

a) Drug abuse

b) Learned helplessness

c) New friends

d) Student mobility

30). Violence in schools is an important topic, the three three-level approach to prevention includes all but what?

a) Build a school wide foundation

b) Grade promotion

c) Intervene early

d) Provide Intensive interventions

31). When racism becomes “invisible,” individuals begin to think?

a) It is a controversial subject

b) It is a fly on the wall

c) It is individual’s belief that their race is inherently superior

d) It is merely a thing of the past

32). A student shows signs of low self-esteem, the cause is mostly likely?

a) Alcohol and drug abuse

b) Discipline problems

c) Learned helplessness

d) Student mobility

ANSWERS: (1)d, (2)c, (3)d, (4)d, (5)d, (6)d, (7)d, (8)b, (9)c, (10)b, (11)d, (12)a, (13)c, (14)b, (15)d, (16)a, (17)a, (18)d, (19)d, (20)c, (21)a, (22)b, (23)c, (24)d, (25)a, (26)b, (27)b, (28)c, (29)d, (30)b, (31)d, (32)a.

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