Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 10/Chapter FAQ

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Chapter FAQ
By: Sandra Ciaston

Learning Targets [edit]

The reader will:
be able to describe the difference between direct instruction and discovery learning.
be able to describe cooperative learning in a classroom.
be able to describe the difference between the Golem and Galatea effects.

What makes an effective teacher and how do I become one? [edit]

"The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires." ~William A. Ward

What makes an effective teacher? Teachers, parents, and administrators alike have been asking that question for many years and the truth of the matter, is that there is no one answer. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) has issued a report entitled "What Makes a Teacher Effective?" . NCATE found evidence that well-prepared teachers are not only more knowledgeable and more likely to remain in teaching but that they also produce higher student achievement. California State University at Northridge's article "Teachers for a New Era", 2006, lists 8 tenets of an effective teacher and a list of 14 practices and skills that effective teachers utilize.

How do I become an effective teacher? That's a really good question! There are two thought provoking articles entitled "Are Teachers Born or Made?" in this chapter. Interestingly, how a teacher received their certification has little relationship to how effective they were in raising student's scores according to a study of 10,000 New York City teachers after six years of test results. (Keller, 2006).

To learn more about what makes an effective teacher, visit the following links:

What is the difference between Direct Instruction and Discovery Learning? [edit]

Direct Instruction "is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks." (National Institute for Direct Instruction, 2009). Direct instruction is the most common way to teach using lectures, textbooks and presentations to provide information directly to the student. The teacher has a specific purpose and the lesson is planned out.

Discovery Learning, according to Rezak, (2009) is a "powerful instructional approach that guides and motivates learners to explore information and concepts in order to construct new ideas, identify new relationships, and create new models of thinking and behavior". Examples of discovery learning include interactive and hands on experiences such as planting and growing seeds into plants.

To learn more about direct instruction and discovery learning, visit the following links:

What is differentiated instruction and why is it important? [edit]

Differentiated Instruction is defined as recognizing that students come into the classroom with varying degrees of background knowledge, readiness, language, learning preferences, interests and abilities. Methods of differentiated instruction include whole class discussion, group, pair and individual work. (Hall, 2007). Differentiated instruction is important because it is a proactive teaching approach that seeks to meet the individual needs of students and maximize their learning success. The flexible teacher seeks to adjust the curriculum and presentation of material to the differing learners rather than expecting the learners to adjust themselves to the curriculum. Per Ellis and Worthington, 1994, differentiated instruction practices have been validated in teaching research conducted from the mid 1980's to the present.

To learn more about differentiated instruction, click on the link to Hall's article.

Why is cooperative learning important in a classroom? [edit]

Children reading 1940.jpg

Cooperative Learning is defined as "the collaboration on a task by a small group of students who resolve differences of opinion, share responsibility, consider one another's ideas, and work toward common goals". (Berk, 2008) By creating groups of students in a classroom with varying abilities, knowledge and background, students typically strengthen their classmate's weaknesses and work together toward a common goal. Cooperative learning is important in the classroom for several reasons. Students are forced to talk openly with each other. Students must depend on each other. Each member of a group is held accountable for a portion of the assignment. Interpersonal skills are developed and members reflect on how well they worked with each other. (A Guide to Cooperative Learning, 2008). Some examples of cooperative learning have been developed by Dr. Spenser Kagan called Kagan Structures. (Kagan, 2008) One of these includes RoundRobin, where each learner takes a turn orally presenting the material that they have learned. Jigsaw, developed by Elliot Aronson, Professor Emeritus at the University of California in Santa Cruz, places students into groups with various social and ethnic differences each with the same goal to succeed, and so the hostility becomes muted as the students are forced to work together to achieve success.

To learn more about cooperative learning, visit the following links:

Should I have high expectations for my students in my classroom? [edit]

The Pygmalion effect or self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a student performs how their teacher expects them to perform. This theory can have a far-reaching effect on every student's learning achievement. Rosenthal and Jacobson published a study in 1968 that took place in a public elementary school. They gave the students an intelliegence test at the beginning of the school year and told the teachers that several students had been identified as being able to make rapid, above-average intellectual progress in the coming year. In actuality, Rosenthal and Jacobson randomly picked these student's names and any differences between these children and the rest of the class existed only in the teachers' heads. (Newman and Smith, 1999). A second intelligence test was administered at the end of the year. The students who had been predicted to make accelerated progress showed, on the average, an increase of more than 12 points on their IQ scores, compared to an increase of 8 points among the rest of the students The teachers' subjective assessments, also indicated that these "special" students were better behaved, more curious, had greater chances for future success, and were friendlier than their counterparts. Rosenthal and Jacobson concluded that a self-fulfilling prophecy was at work. Their teachers had unconsciously encouraged the performance they expected to see. They spent more time with these students and were more enthusiastic about teaching them and unintentionally showed more warmth to them. (Newman and Smith, 1999).

There are two major effects of the self-fulfilling prophecy, the Golem Effect and the Galatea Effect and describes how teacher prejudices can affect a student's performance. (Rubie-Davies, et al.) The Golem effect is the negative impact on student's performance that results from low teacher expectations towards them. Simply put, low teacher expectations lead to low student achievement (Rubie-Davies, et al.) The Galatea effect is the positive impact on a student's performance that results when a teacher expects great things from a student and the student rises to meet these expectations. (Rubie-Davies, et al.) To learn more about the Golem and Galatea effects in the classroom and how they can affect student's performance, visit articles 10.6.1 and 10.6.2 entitled "High Expectations for All Students".

To learn more about high expectations for all students, visit the following links:

"Treat a man as he is, he will remain so. Treat a man the way he can be and ought to be, and he will become as he can be and should be." ~Goethe


(2006). Teachers for a New Era. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from

What Makes a Teacher Effective? National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Retrieved June 5, 2006, from

Keller, B. (2006,). Path to Classroom Not Linked to Teacher's Success. Education Week, Volume 25, Number 28, Page 10.

What is Direct Instruction (DI)? National Institute for Direct Instruction. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from

Rezak, C. (2009) Improving Corporate Training Results with Discovery Learning Methodology. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from

Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from

Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A. (1994). Research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators. University of Oregon: Technical Report No. 5 National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from

Berk, Laura E. (2008). Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Infants, Children, and Adolescents . 6th. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

A Guide to Cooperative Learning (2009). Welcome to the Electronic Learning Community. Prince George's County Public Schools. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from <

Kagan, Dr. S. (2003) A Brief History of Kagan Structures. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from <

Aronson, Dr. E. Overview of the Technique. Jigsaw Classroom. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from <

Rosenthal, R., Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the Classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Newman, D., Smith, R. (1999). Building Reality: The Social Construction of Knowledge. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from

Rubie-Davies, C., Hattie, J., Hamilton, R. (2006,). Expecting the Best for Students: Teacher Expectations and Academic Outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 76, (Number 3), pp 429–444. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from ERIC database

Test Your Knowledge[edit]

1.What are the two major effects of the self-fulfilling prophecy?

A. Golem and Galatea Effects
B. Golem and Pygmalion Effects
C. Pymgalion and Galatea Effects
D. Rosenthal and Jacobson Effects

2. What are three tools used in Direct Instruction?

A. demonstrations, text books, and interactive games
B. hands-on activities, interactive games, and lectures
C. lectures, labs, and group discussions
D. lectures, text books, and presentations

3. Mrs. Henry's class is learning about the life cycle of plants. Each student grows a plant from seed and discusses with the class how he did so. What is this student demonstrating?

A. Direct Instruction
B. Discovery Learning
C. Explicit Learning
D. Guided Instruction

4.What would be an effective way of incorporating cooperative learning into a classroom?

A. Assigning each small group member part of a presentation to complete.
B. Assigning each student a book report to write.
C. Leading the whole class in a lab to grow a plant from seed.
D. Lecturing to the whole class at one time.

Answers: 1. A; 2. D; 3. B; 4.A

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