Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 1/The Scoop From Someone Who Knows/Peer Review Two

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This article has been reviewed by: Ldomm002 (talk) 00:57, 12 June 2009 (UTC)

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Ldomm002 (talk) 03:18, 15 June 2009 (UTC)

Part 1 - Article Components

Learning Target(s)[edit]

Answer the following questions regarding the learning targets:

  • Is/are the stated learning targets actual learning targets i.e. they state what the reader should know or be able to do after reading the article? Yes
  • Is/are the learning target(s) specific? Yes
  • Is/are they appropriate and reasonable? (Are they too easy or too difficult for ECI 301 students?) First one and third are a little too easy, others are ok.
  • Is/are they observable? (You wouldn't have to look inside the readers head to know if they met this target.) Yes
  • Does the article provide adequate information for readers to achieve these targets? Yes.

Please make a comment about the learning target(s). If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve them.

Comment: I think they could be a little more difficult so readers would have to search within the content of the article.

Grammar and Mechanics Review[edit]

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Education as a Profession[edit]

The Scoop From Someone Who Knows

By Jill Newhart-Fortner

Learning Target

Students will be able to identify the definition of "profession".

Students will be able to identify examples of characteristics of education professionals.

Given the definition of an expert, the students will be able to recognize the qualification of the administrator.

Students should be able to compare the positive and negative views on education as a profession

Background of Topic

The term "profession" is defined in Webster's Dictionary as, "a calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation." (profession, 2009) Students understand that at the end of their college career the end goal will be their desired profession. If becoming an educator is that goal, there are characteristics that educators must possess. Many educators feel that teaching is a calling and there is a reason why they have the urge to teach. In a hearing before the United States House Committee on Education and Labor a teacher, Valdine McLean, from Lovelock, Nevada reiterated this point; “Aspiring teachers rarely go into teaching for the money.” (Representatives, 2007, p. 22)

In a lecture given by Professor Seth Lerer at Stanford University, he describes the exploration of education and literature and compares the view of some people in society when they describe teaching. Lerer gives many examples of characteristics that teachers should adapt in their profession using literature to describe teachers.
Dr. Lerer Lecture about Teaching.

Professor Lerer proposed that there are stereotypes of teachers. These stereotypes describe the adage that "those who can't teach." (Lerer, 2003) This quote actually is adapted by a film by Woodie Allen called Annie Hall in 1977. The quote was, "those who can't do teach, those who can't teach, teach gym." (Allen, 1977) This describes how some people in society view teachers and is the main reason why it is necessary for educators to be positive role models, continue to pursue further training, and use themselves as the examples that educators are professional.

Introduction of the Expert

Barbara Fortner is an experienced teacher and is currently a principal at Sparrow Road Intermediate in Chesapeake, VA. She completed her Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education from Longwood College (now University) in May, 1988. Barbara received an early contract to teach in Chesapeake through the career commitment program and began her employment with Chesapeake Public Schools in August, 1988. In May, 1994 she received her Master of Arts in Urban Education and Administration from Norfolk State University. After teaching for 11 years (3rd and 4th grades), Barbara was appointed to Assistant Principal of Deep Creek Central Elementary where she worked for 8 years. This is her 2nd year as Principal of Sparrow Road Intermediate. Based on her knowledge and educational experience, she would be considered an expert in education. Sparrow Road Intermediate Website


Give your thoughts why someone would discount education as a profession.

For as long as I can remember, education has always been given a bad rap. In the capitalistic world in which we live, money is viewed as the key to success and unfortunately those looking to get ahead financially look to higher paying jobs to climb that ladder. As a result, many do not enter the field of education. Ignorant people assume that because the salary is not enticing that those interested in the field must be lower achievers. Ironically, it is the educators that help mold and shape the individuals into the successful professionals that they are.

What do you think makes an educator more credible as a professional?

True teachers, like preachers, are called to the profession. They are teachers because they want to make a difference ~ shaping and preparing individuals ~ for the future! For the very same reason as I stated above, educators are not in the field for the money. They truly want to help students grow academically, socially and emotionally so that they may become productive citizens and lifelong learners. In this day and time, they are needed more than ever and represent more than just a student’s teacher. They are a counselor, nurse, police officer, friend, pseudo-parent, encourager, supporter just to name a few.

What has been your experience going from a teacher to an administrator? Has that changed your perspective on education?

As an administrator, I have become the instructional leader and manager of the school and have less direct personal contact with students. That is the hardest transition for me. I miss that connection with “my” students! I miss the impact that I made as a teacher but know that I am creating an instructional environment conducive for learning and I am helping 500 students rather than just 20 while leading 100 staff members to continue to strive for success while giving their best. Seeing the bigger picture from administration has changed my perspective on education a bit. The paperwork and politics can blur anyone’s vision; but watching the students learn and share their enlightenments reminds me every day of our purpose, educating all of the children of all of the people, and that keeps me focused.

How would you encourage future students to choose education as a profession?

As I stated earlier, education is a work of heart! Teachers are born, not made! It is my hope that we continue to hire exceptional teachers who will leave a mark not just on students’ minds but on their hearts. They will touch, figuratively speaking, students in such a way that they will want to be able to share those same experiences with the next generation. It is truly that simple. Thirty six years ago, one such teacher did just that and changed my life forever!


The expert has provided many insights that are in keeping with the idea that educators are not viewed or valued for the level of education they possess. It is important to note that Principal Fortner pointed out that academic preparation is a part of the characteristics that make educators professional. She described that there was an understanding that educators also needed to aid students emotionally and socially. The inclusive education that students receive in college understands that necessity to prepare students as a whole and not only academically. In the curriculum for teacher preparation it is required that a teacher receives instruction in child development to better understand the emotional and physical changes that are occurring in growing students. (College of Arts & Letters: Teacher Prep, 2009) ? Consequently, there must be the consideration that there are also environmental factors that contribute to the role of educators. Students that have the greatest need are often grouped together in areas of poverty and low-income. A teacher may continually have to deal with lack of parent participation, unstable home environments and other important factors that contribute to security and will have an effect on their students.

According to the No Child Left Behind Act, there are requirements for schools that have high percentages of low-income students that receive Federal assistance designated as Title I. The law ensures that all teachers in those schools are highly qualified, have to pass a rigorous State Assessment and must use some of the funds that they receive from the government to provide professional development to teachers, principals and other staff members. (Bush, 2006, p. 11) The expert has also pointed out the discrepancy in the pay for educators in comparison to other professionals have contributed to negative connotations about teaching. In that aspect it is difficult to understand why the academic preparation of a teacher could be any less rewarded than the academic preparation of an engineer.

The establishment of teaching as a profession relies heavily on the definition of academic preparation. Many schools are using the term (appostrophes)accreditation when describing their curriculum. According to an article in the Journal of Teacher Education, "Each accrediting body sets rigorous standards for its profession and holds the school it accredits accountable for meeting these rigorous standards." (Wise, 2005; vol 56:, p. 320) It is necessary to associate the "rigorous standards" to include the education and training that is given to educators. If educators must receive their education and training from an accredited school and meet the requirements adapted by that school to receive their degree, they have completed the rigorous training and are professional educators. Even though the degree has been earned, there are other factors that prevent educators from being viewed as professionals. The enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act (Bush, 2006)set forth new criteria for teachers. It not only required teachers to hold at least a bachelor's degree, it also required teachers to be licensed or certified by the State and pass a rigorous State test on subject knowledge and teaching skills. (Bush, 2006) (IN ALL OF THESE IN-PARAGRAPH CITATIONS THE PERIOD SHOULD GO LAST.)

Although there have been some negative connotations to the NCLB law, there has been positive reform when it comes to the recognition that teachers should meet stringent criteria. There was a requirement in the NCLB law that challenged each state to have all teachers meet the criteria by 2005-2006 school year. According to a hearing in U.S. House of Representatives in 2007, that deadline has been extended based on the failure of all states to meet the criteria. (Representatives, 2007, p. 2) States have guidelines for teacher licensure, as well as guidelines for licensure for other occupations. Professional licensure gives merit to the educational and testing requirements that are mandatory for many professions. Educational professionals can gain the acceptance and distinction of those professions by adhering to the standards of licensure set forth by their state.
State of Virginia Routes to Teacher Licensure.

Educators are professionals, they meet the definition in every way. The interview with the expert again referred to teaching as a calling, which was the term in the definition of profession. It takes extensive academic preparation and specialized knowledge to be a professional educator. Those standards are the reason that other professionals have received the foundations they have acquired to succeed in their fields. Public opinion needs to be re-evaluated to include the requirements that were enacted with NCLB. The more that society understands the intensive training and continued commitment to education that is demonstrated by teachers every day; the easier it will be for educators to be respected and viewed as professionals.

Multiple Choice Questions:

1- What is the definition of profession?

a. A specific duty, role or function

b. A position that anyone can hold

c. A calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation

d. A desire by an organization to fill a position

2- Identify some characteristics of a professional educator. (there may be more than one answer)

a. Parent

b. Continuing Education Training

c. Make a lot of money

d. Receive extensive training

e. Babysit

3- How can the interview with Principal Fortner be accepted as a view from an expert?

a. She has a bachelor’s degree

b. She has knowledge and years of experience in education

c. She volunteers at her child’s school

d. She likes children

4- Identify the word that would best describe how some members of society view educators as professionals.

a. Positively

b. Undecided

c. Negatively

d. Indifferent

Answer Key: 1-C, 2-B & D, 3-B, 4-C


Allen, W. (Director). (1977). Annie Hall [Motion Picture].

Bush, P. G. (2006, August 4). A quality teacher in every classroom [electronic resource]: improving teacher quality and enhancing the profession. Retrieved June 6, 2009 , from Catalog of US Government Publications:

College of Arts & Letters: Teacher Prep. (2009, June 6). Bachelor of Science Degree in Interdisciplinary Studies-Teacher Prep. Concentration. Retrieved June 6, 2009, from Old Dominion University:

Lerer, S. (2003). Is Teaching a Calling or a Profession:Teaching Litereature in an Uncertain Age. Retrieved June 6, 2009, from Stanford University:

profession. (2009, June 6). Retrieved June 6, 2009, from Merriam-Webster Dictionary:

Representatives, U. S. (2007). ESEA Reauthorization: Boosting Quality in the Teaching Profession. Hearing Before the Committee on Education and Labor (p. 85). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wise, A. E. (2005; vol 56:, September). Establishing Teaching as a Profession: The Essential Role of Professional Accreditation. Journal of Teacher Education , 318-331.

Nav Arrow Blue Right.gif Rate This! Nav Arrow Blue Left.gif


For each source listed in the "References" section of the article, name the type of source (scholarly or popular) and the perspective it provides (research, expert opinion from educator, popular news source, parent organization, personal contact, etc.)

  2. Government publication...publication for distribution in schools.
  3. Scholarly...ODU publication online.
  4. Popular...Standford University publication.
  5. Popular...Dictionary entry.
  6. Government publication...Committee Hearing document
  7. Scholarly...Journal

List the range of publication years for all sources, e.g. 1998-2006: 1977-2009

Answer the following questions about the sources used in the article:

  1. Did the author CITE at least 5 sources? Yes and use at least 2 scholarly sources? Yes
  2. Are the citations in APA format? Yes, in-paragraph citations need a little work.
    1. Here are two examples of citations in APA format, one for a paraphrase and one for a quotation:
      1. Constructing a title is both a science and an art, but on one fact all of the experts agree: the title must contain a colon (Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, & Starr, 2007).
      2. Unfortunately impoverished children are often attending “low-performing schools staffed by ill-equipped teachers” (Murnane, 2007, p. 34).
  3. Are all the sources listed in APA format in a Reference list labeled "References"? Yes
    1. Here is an example of a reference written in APA format:
      1. Bailey, J., & Barnum, P. (2001). The colon and its rise to prominence in the American circus. Journal of American Punctuation, 34(5), 2-3.
  4. Taken together do the 5 sources represent a good balance of potential references for this topic? Yes
  5. Does the author consider potential bias in the sources? Yes
  6. Are most of the sources current (less than 5 years old)? Yes

Please make a comment about the sources. If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve.


Multiple Choice Questions[edit]

  1. What does each question assess: knowledge or reasoning (application of knowledge)?
    1. Question 1 Knowledge
    2. Question 2 Knowledge
    3. Question 3 Reasoning
    4. Question 4 Knowledge

Answer the following questions about the multiple-choice questions.

  1. Are there 4 multiple-choice questions? Yes
  2. Do they each have four answer choices (A-D)? No
  3. Is there a single correct (not opinion-based) answer for each question? No
  4. Do the questions assess the learning target? Yes
  5. Are the questions appropriate and reasonable (not too easy and not too difficult)? Too easy
  6. Are the foils (the response options that are NOT the answer) reasonable i.e. they are not very obviously incorrect answers? Yes, I think they are obvious.
  7. Are the response options listed in alphabetical order? Yes
  8. Are correct answers provided and listed BELOW all the questions? Yes

Please make a comment about the multiple-choice questions. If you answered "No" to any of the questions above, please explain how the author can improve the question/s.

Comment: I thought the question and answer section was too easy. Question 2 has more than once answer. Question 3 is too easy. Question 4 isn't really reasoning, I think it is an opinion question. There are many ways society views educators as professionals.

Part 2 - Ratings

LIST and EXPLAIN your rating for each of the four criteria.

  • Importance:
    I rated this article 4 for importance because...The article has lots of good information retrieved from sources. Information was applicable to today's schools. Good overview and info.
  • Interest:
    I rated this article 3 on interest because...Visuals are plain, sidebars are both links. A picture or chart would have made it much more interesting to read. Interview section was really short.
  • Credibility:
    I rated this article 4 for credibility because...Sources are good but a few formatting errors. Variety of sources.
  • Writing skill:
    I rated this article 2 on writing because... Some spelling and gramatical errors. Learning objectives and multiple choices need work.


To do this: Highlight sections with the cursor and use the BOLD icon above OR type ''' (3 apostrophes) before and after the text you want to make bold

Wiki Article Rubric[edit]

criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How important was the information presented on this topic to you as a teacher education student?
  • Covers key ideas crucial for future teachers to know
  • Based on researched information.
  • Highly relevant to current educational practice (*this description may be less applicable for some topics such as history of education)
  • Provides an excellent overview of the topic including relevant research, educational practice, laws and litigation. Includes in-depth discussion of at least a few selected key issues.
  • Includes ideas relevant to future teachers
  • Mostly based on researched information.
  • Applicable to today’s schools
  • Provides a good general overview with relevant information and discussion of a few key ideas
  • A couple useful points; some irrelevant information
  • About half of the information is the author’s opinion.
  • Some out-dated information; may not reflect current practice
  • Good information is included but the paper yields a partial /incomplete understanding of the topic or key issues
  • One useful point
  • A few facts but mostly the author’s opinion.
  • Most of the information is irrelevant in today’s schools.
  • Focused on unimportant subtopics OR overly general with few specifics. Important information is missing.
  • Information is not relevant to future teachers.
  • Information is entirely the author’s opinion.
  • The information is obsolete.
  • Only irrelevant details or common knowledge. Lacks any substantive information.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How interesting was the article to read?
  • Sidebar includes new information that was motivating to read/view
  • Visuals (headings, colors, fonts, pictures, etc.) enhance the article by making it easier or more inviting to read
  • Multiple perspectives are considered and discussed
  • Mostly new information/ideas
  • Insightful interpretation & analysis are evident throughout the article; a clearly stated conclusion synthesizes all of the material presented.
  • Points are clearly made and elaborated on with compelling examples.
  • Sidebar includes new information that enhances understanding of the topic
  • Visuals add to the article
  • At least two perspectives were presented
  • About half of the information/ideas are new
  • Interpretation and analysis is provided for 3-4 points in the article; a reasonable conclusion based on this information is stated
  • Some good points are made and explained.
  • Sidebar includes new information related to the topic.
  • Visuals are included but have minimal effect
  • One interesting or new perspective is presented
  • A couple (2-3) new ideas or pieces of information
  • Interpretation/ analysis is included for a few (1-2) individual sections, but there is not a conclusion that synthesizes the information presented.
  • Points are made but may not always be adequately supported or explained.
  • Sidebar repeats what is already in the article
  • Visuals are somewhat distracting or not included
  • Only the “typical” view or one biased perspective is presented.
  • One new idea or bit of information
  • Information presented with minimal analysis or interpretation; no conclusion or the conclusion is not based on the information presented
  • At least one clear point is made and supported.
  • No side bar included.
  • Visuals are offensive and completely detract from the content
  • No perspective is acknowledged.
  • Nothing new.
  • No analysis or interpretation included
  • No clear points are made or points appear pasted from other sources without any explanation.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How credible do you think the information is?
  • Required sources are properly cited and included in a reference list in APA format.
  • Information from diverse sources representing multiple perspectives is included. Several reputable and current sources are cited. The author acknowledges potential bias in sources where appropriate.
  • Author clearly identifies his own ideas, biases and opinions
  • Required sources are included; a couple of formatting errors
  • Information from a variety of sources is included. Most sources are reasonably reputable; bias is acknowledged in others.
  • It is clear when the author is presenting his own opinion; he doesn’t try to pass if off as fact.
  • Required sources are included; APA format is not used or has many errors.
  • A variety of sources is listed but the information primarily reflects a single viewpoint. Sources are reasonable.
  • The author occasionally (1-2 times) states his own opinion as fact.
  • Only 4 sources are cited/listed in the references or only 1 scholarly source was used
  • Sources lack diversity OR information from divergent sources is only superficially mentioned. Some sources are untrustworthy or biased and not acknowledged as such.
  • Author routinely (3-4 times) states her opinion as fact, ignores own biases.
  • Missing two or more sources OR sources used but not cited or listed.
  • All sources and information reflect a single viewpoint. Most sources are untrustworthy or biased and not acknowledged as such.
  • The entire article is biased and opinion-based without acknowledgment of this perspective.
criteria 5 4 3 2 1
How well do you think this article was written?
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) align with the learning targets, assess key points, and are written according to guidelines (see R4)
  • Specific, appropriate and observable learning targets are stated; the content is clearly organized to help the reader achieve these goals
  • Captures and maintains attention throughout
  • All or almost all of the cited information is introduced, elaborated on and explained
  • Writing is organized, easy to read, and contains few to no mechanical errors.
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) align with the learning targets, and assess key points.
  • Specific and reasonable learning targets are stated; the content aligns with these goals
  • Captures attention initially and periodically throughout
  • Most of the cited information is discussed or explained.
  • The article flowed pretty well and there were just a few mechanical errors.
  • Multiple-choice questions (2 application & 2 knowledge) assess key points
  • Reasonable learning targets are stated; the content relates to these goals
  • Parts of the article capture attention
  • About half of the cited information is discussed
  • A few areas were hard to follow, confusing or oddly organized. There were a few distracting errors.
  • 4 multiple-choice questions are included.
  • Learning targets generally related to the content are stated
  • At least one part of the article is interesting
  • Information is “pasted” together with minimal explanation.
  • Organization was difficult to follow, sentences were awkward and/or there were several distracting errors.
  • Questions are missing or not multiple-choice.
  • Learning target is missing or unrelated to content or is/are not actual learning targets
  • Nothing in the article grabs the reader’s attention
  • Article is entirely “pasted” together from other sources.
  • Poor organization, sentence structure and/or grammatical errors made it very difficult to understand the content.

Part 3 - "2+2"

List TWO compliments and TWO suggestions about the article content

  • Hints:
    • Focus on the work, not the person
    • Describe "There is...", "I see.." rather than judge "You didn't..."


  1. Good information in article.
  2. Good sources.


  1. Longer interview
  2. Stronger learning objectives and multiple choice questions

You can make compliments and suggestions that relate to specific areas of the paper or to the paper in general. I suggest a mixture of both. Focus on what's most important. Of course, you can also include more than two suggestions and more than two compliments. The goal is to help the author improve his/her article.