- 1 Verbs
- 1.1 Two present tense forms of to be
- 1.2 Past tense
- 1.3 Passive
- 1.4 Progressive
- 1.5 Infinite
- 1.6 Future tense
- 1.7 Modal Auxilary Verbs
- 1.8 Imperative
- 1.9 Conjunktive I
- 1.10 Conjunktive II
- 1.11 Causative / Intensive
Two present tense forms of to be
Folksprak-Verbs do not change according to person and number. The only exception is to be, which has two present tense forms: is for singular and er for plural.
- De hus is grot. (EN The house is big.)
- De husen er grot. (EN The houses are big.)
Simplifying, you may use the stem form wes.
- De hus wes grot. (EN The house is big.) [Basic FS]
- De husen wes grot. (EN The houses are big.) [Basic FS]
Neben der Gegenwartsform haben Folksprak-Verben noch eine Vergangenheitsform. Die meisten Folksprak-Verben lassen sich bei der Bildung der Vergangenheitsform in zwei Kategorien einteilen: starke und schwache Verben. Starke Verben bilden die Vergangenheitsform durch Ablautung der Gegenwartsform, d. h. der Stammvokal der Gegenwartsform wird verändert. Welcher Ablaut entsteht, ist dem Wortschatz zu entnehmen.
Besides the present tense form there is a past tense form of a Folksprak verb. Most Folksprak verbs can be divided into two categories: strong and weak verbs. Strong verbs have their past tense form by an ablautung of the present tense stem vowel, i. e. the stem vowel is mutated. You will see in the vocabulary section what kind of ablautung is supposed to happen.
- De kild seh de hund. (EN The child sees the dog.)
- De kild sah de hund. (EN The child saw the dog.)
The past tense form of many strong verbs is already a nominalization.
- De kild sprak en fremmed sprak. (EN The child spoke a foreign language.)
On the other hand, weak verb have their past tense form with the suffix -ed added to their present tense form.
- De mannen segg „god dag“. (EN The men say „good afternoon“.)
- De mannen segged „god dag“. (EN The men said „good afternoon“.)
A particularly class of verbs are the so called mixed verbs. They are somehow both strong and weak, as they suffer ablautung but have the past tense suffix -ed.
- De fyr brenn. (EN The fire burns.)
- De fyr branned. (EN the fire burned.)
Simplifying, you may treat all verbs as if they were weak.
- De mannen sehed de hund. (EN The men saw the dog.) [Basic FS]
- De fyr brenned. (EN The fire burned.) [Basic FS]
In order to build the passive form, you have to distinguish between strong and weak verbs again. Strong verbs have their passive form with the suffix -en and in addition, possibly, they suffer ablautung.
- de sehen hund (EN the seen dog)
Weak verbs, on the other hand, have their passive form with the suffix -et.
- de segget word (EN the spoken word)
Mixed verbs have again both ablautung and the weak-verb-like suffix -et.
- brannet kild (EN burnt child)
In combination with the verb werde the passive mode is made.
- De dir werd sehen. (EN The animal is being seen.)
- De word werd segget. (EN The word is being spoken.)
In combination with the verb have the present perfect tense is made.
- De kild hav sehen de hund. (EN The child has seen the dog.)
- De mannen hav segget „god dag“. (EN The men have said „good afternoon“.)
The passive stem of many strong verbs is a nominalization, too.
- sprok (EN spell)
Simplifying, you can treat all verbs as if they were weak.
- De mannen hav sehet de hund. (EN The men have seen the dog.) [Basic FS]
- De fyr hav brennet. (EN The fire has burnt.) [Basic FS]
The progressive form has the suffix -end.
- de swimmend skip (EN the swimming ship)
The infinite has the suffix -e.
- swimme (EN to swim)
In combination with the (weak) verb skalle the future tense is made.
- De kild skall sehe de hund. (EN The child will see the dog.)
- De mannen skall segge „god dag“. (EN The men will say „good afternoon“.)
As you can see, skalle is combined directly, without preposition, with the infinite form. Therefore it's an auxiliary verb.
Modal Auxilary Verbs
Modal auxiliary verbs appear directly combined, i. e. without preposition, with an infinite form.
- Hun mag doe het. (EN She may do it.)
Modal auxiliary verbs have the aspect of mixed verbs (i. e. weak werbs with ablautung). The infinite form of modal auxiliary forms has the stem vowel ø.
- møge (mag), moged, moget (EN may, might)
- kønne (kann), konned, konnet (EN can, could)
- møte (mot), moted, motet (EN must, must)
- tørfe (tarf), torfed, torfet (EN to be allowed to)
- wølle (will), wolled, wollet (EN want, wanted)
- skøle (skul), skoled, skolet (EN to be supposed to)
Simplifying, you can treat also modal auxiliary verbs as if they were weak.
- Hun skall mote doe het. (EN She will have to do it.) [Basic FS]
The imperative form is like the infinite without -e.
- Ga! (EN Go!)
The conjunctive I mode is like the infinite form. The conjunctive I mode does not imply neither truth nor doubt in the eyes of the narrator.
- De mannen segg, de kild have segget „god dag“. (EN The men say, the child has said „good afternoon“.)
Simplifying, you may use the present tense instead, even though this always implies truth in the eyes of the narrator.
- De mannen segg, de kild hav segget „god dag“. (EN The men say, the child has said „good afternoon“.) [Basic FS]
The conjunctive II mode is like the past tense of a verb with the suffix -e. In Fůlkspræk the stem vowel suffers modern Germanic i-mutation, which does not influence Folksprak, though. The conjunctive II mode implies untruth or impossibility in the eyes of the narrator.
- Die mannen sagt, die kindern hat sagt „god dag“. (EN Die Männer sagen, das Kind hätte „guten Tag“ gesagt.)
Symplifying, you may use the past tense instead, even though this might cause confusion.
- De mannen segg, de kild haved segget „god dag“. (EN Die Männer sagen, das Kind *hatte „guten Tag“ gesagt.) [Basic FS]
Causative / Intensive
Strong verbs with the stem vowel i have their causative form as a weak verb with stem vowel e.
- sinke (EN to sink)
- senke (EN to make sink)
Causative / Intensive with nasal stem ending
A strong verb with nasal stem ending (i. e. a verb stem ending in -n, -ng or -nd) have their causative form as a mixed verb (i. e. the past tense form and the passive form suffer ablautung, whereas they have the suffixes -ed and -et respectively).
- rinne, rann, ronnen (EN to run, ran, run)
- renne, ranned, rannet (EN (intensive) to run, ran, run)
Causative / Intensive shortening the stem vowel
Another way of forming intensive forms is to shorten the stem vowel, i. e. doubling the consonantic stem ending.
- skyte (EN to shoot)
- skytte (EN to guard)
Das Stammende ist hierbei immer stimmlos. So werden g und ng zu kk
- byge (EN to bow)
- bykke (EN to kneel)
- nige (EN to nigh)
- nikke (EN to nod)