Flora of New York/Poaceae 2

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Poaceae 1
Flora of New York — Poaceae 2
Poaceae 3
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Poales genus index

Subfamily Danthonioideae[edit | edit source]

Subfam. Danthonioideae H.P. Linder & N.P. Baker (2001) (sister to Chloridoideae) contains the tribe Danthonieae.[1]

Tribe Danthonieae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Danthonieae Zotov (1963) contains the genera Austroderia, Capeochloa, Chaetobromus, Chimaerochloa, Chionochloa, Cortaderia, Danthonia, Geochloa, Merxmuellera, Notochloe, Pentameris, Plinthanthesis, Pseudopentameris, Rytidosperma, Schismus, Tenaxia, and Tribolium.[1]

Danthonia[edit | edit source]

Danthonia spicata
Two species of oat grass (Danthonia spp.) are native to New York: poverty grass (D. spicata) and northern oat grass (D. compressa).
Poales — Poaceae — Danthonioideae — Danthonieae — Danthonia

Genus Danthonia Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem.& Schult.

1753. Avena spicata L.
1817. Danthonia spicata (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem.& Schult.
1913. Pentameris spicata (L.) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr.
Poverty grass,
Poverty oatgrass,
Poverty oat grass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Austin

1869. Danthonia compressa Austin
1871. D. spicatavar. compressa
1909. Merathrepta compressa (Austin) A. Heller
1913. Pentameris compressa (Austin) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.
Northern oat grass,
Flattened oatgrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Genus Danthonia (excluded taxa) Oat grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1818. Danthonia sericea Nutt.
1901. Danthonia epilis Scribn.
Downy oat grass,
Downy danthonia
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Danthonia compressa ×
Danthonia spicata

Hybrid of
 northern oat grass &
 poverty grass
Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Cortaderia[edit | edit source]

Cortaderia selloana in Hawaii

Poales — Poaceae — Danthonioideae — Danthonieae — Cortaderia
Genus Cortaderia Pampas grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
(Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.

1827. Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult.f.
1900. Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch. & Graebn.
Uruguayan pampas grass
Selloa pampas grass
Introduced,
Highly invasive

NYFA: 0 counties
0 counties

GBIF
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Subfamily Chloridoideae[edit | edit source]

Subfam. Chloridoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. (1833) (sister to Danthonioideae) contains the tribes Centropodieae, Triraphideae, Eragrostideae, Zoysieae, and Cynodonteae.[1]

Tribe Eragrostideae[edit | edit source]


Subtribe Eragrostidinae[edit | edit source]


Eragrostis[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Eragrostideae — Eragrostidinae — Eragrostis
Genus Eragrostis Lovegrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Nees

Lace grass,
Tiny love-grass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 C.A.Mey. ex Steud.

Frank's love-grass,
Sandbar lovegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Teal love grass Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Purple lovegrass Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Michx.) Nees ex Steud.
var. pectinacea

Tufted lovegrass,
Spreading lovegrass,
Purple lovegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Michx.) Nees ex Steud.
var. miserrima (Fourn.) J.Reeder

Desert lovegrass Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 (Nutt.) Alph. Wood

Sand lovegrass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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 (L.) P.Beauv.
var. pilosa

1753. Poa pilosa L.
1812. Eragrostis pilosa P.Beauv.
India love-grass,
Hairy love-grass,
Soft love-grass,
Jersey love-grass
Pâturin poilu
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 (All.) Vign. ex Janchen

    E. major Host
    E. megastachya (Koeler) Link
    Poa cilianensis All.
Stinkgrass,
Candygrass
Introduced,
Potentially invasive

NYFA: X

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 Host

Little lovegrass Introduced

NYFA: X

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 (Schrad.) Nees

    E. chloromelas Steud.
    E. robusta Stent
Weeping lovegrass,
Boer love grass
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 57%[1],
Invasive

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Unioliinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Unioliinae Clayton (1982) contains 11 species in 5 genera: Entoplocamia, Fingerhuthia, Tetrachaete, Tetrachne, and Uniola.[1]
Uniola[edit | edit source]
Uniola paniculata
Sea oats (Uniola paniculata) are native to the southeastern coastal United States, Mexico, Bahamas and Cuba. They are not known to have naturalized any farther north than Delaware. Sea oats produce few seeds and spread primarily by rhizomes. This plant is no longer considered to be a close relative of Chasmanthium latifolium (Indian woodoats) which was once placed in this genus as Uniola latifolia and is sometimes known as "northern sea oats".
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Eragrostideae — Uniolinae — Uniola
Genus Uniola Uniola N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Uniola paniculata L.
Seaoats,
Sea oats,
Seaside oats,
North American sea-oats
Araña,
Arroz de costa
Introduced,
N. America native

FACU

NYFA: Not listed

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Tribe Zoysieae[edit | edit source]


Subtribe Sporobolinae[edit | edit source]


Sporobolus[edit | edit source]
The subgeneric classification used here for Sporobolus (Dropseed) is from Peterson et. al. (2014), which includes the genera Calamovilfa, Crypsis, Spartina,

and Thellungia (most of Sporobolinae) within Sporobolus to make it monophyletic.[1]


Sporobolus sect. Clandestini[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Clandestini
Genus Sporobolussect. Clandestini Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nash

1895. Sporobolus neglectus Nash
1901. Sporobolus vaginiflorus
var. neglectus Scribn.
1954. Sporobolus vaginiflorus
var. neglectus Shinners [isonym]
Small dropseed,
Puffsheath dropseed
Sporobole négligé
Native,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 (Torr. ex A. Gray) Alph. Wood
var. vaginiflorus

Sheathed dropseed,
Poverty dropseed
Native,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 (Poir.) Merr.
var. compositus

1803. Agrostis aspera Michx. [illeg.]
1823. Agrostis longifolia Torr.
1829. Sporobolus asper (P.Beauv.) Kunth
1901. Sporobolus compositus (Poir.) Merr.
Composite dropseed,
Tall dropseed,
Rough dropseed,
Rushgrass
Sporobole rude
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4-5

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 (Biehler) Hitchc.

1807. Agrostis clandestina Biehler
1861. Sporobolus longifolius Alph.Wood
1901. Sporobolus canovirens Nash
1908. Sporobolus clandestinus Hitchc.
1954. S. aspervar. canovirens Shinners
1954. S. aspervar. clandestinus Shinners
1995. S. compositusvar. clandestinus
Rough dropseed,
Hidden dropseed
Native,
Endangered

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1

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Sporobolus sect. Calamovilfa[edit | edit source]
Because the genus Calamovilfa (sandreed) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Calamovilfa species to a subsection within Sporobolus.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Calamovilfa
Genus Sporobolussubsect. Floridani Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (A.Gray) A.Gray

1835. Vilfa heterolepis A.Gray
1848. Sporobolus heterolepisin…
Northern dropseed,
Prairie dropseed
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 2

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Genus Sporobolussubsect. Calamovilfa Sandreed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Buckley) P.M.Peterson
var. magnus P.M.Peterson

1901. Calamovilfa longifolia
var. magna Scribn.& Merr.
2014. Sporobolus rigidus
var. magnus P.M.Peterson
Prairie sandreed,
Sand reed-grass
Introduced,
N. America native,
Likely extirpated in NY

NYFA: XZm

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Sporobolus sect. Pyramidati[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Pyramidati
Genus Sporobolussect. Pyramidatisubsect. Pyramidati Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Lam.) Hitchc.

Whorled dropseed Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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 Hitchc.

1882. S. cryptandrusvar. strictus
1901. S. strictus (Scribn.) Merr. (i)
1915. S. contractus Hitchc.
Narrow-spiked dropseed,
Spike dropseed
Introduced from
 western U.S.A.,
 northern Mexico,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

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Sporobolus sect. Cryptandri[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Cryptandri
Genus Sporobolussect. Cryptandri Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Torr.) A.Gray

1824. Agrostis cryptandra Torr.
1840. Vilfa cryptandra (Torr.) Trin.
1848. Sporobolus cryptandrus A.Gray
1870. Sporobolus subinclusus Phil.
Sand dropseed,
Prairie grass
Sporobole à fleurs cacnées
Native,
Unranked

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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Sporobolus sect. Sporobolus[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Sporobolus
Genus Sporobolussect. Sporobolus Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Blackseed,
Smut grass
Introduced

NYFA: Xm

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Sporobolus sect. Airoides[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Airoides
Genus Sporobolussect. Airoides Dropseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Torr.) Torr.

1824. Agrostis airoides Torr.
1841. Vilfa airoides Trin. ex Steud.
1854. Vilfa airoides Trin. ex Steud. hom?
1856. Sporobolus airoides Torr.
Alkali sacaton Introduced from
 western N.A.,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Sporobolus sect. Spartina[edit | edit source]
Sporobolus michauxianus
prairie cordgrass
Because the genus Spartina (Cordgrass) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Spartina species to a section within Sporobolus.[1][2]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Spartina
Genus Sporobolussect. Spartinasubsect. Spartina Cordgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Hitchc.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1803. Trachynotia cynosuroides Michx.
1820. Spartina pectinata Link
1908. Spartina michauxiana Hitchc.
2014. Sporobolus michauxianus P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus pectinatus Hack.
Fresh water cordgrass,
Prairie cordgrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Roth) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1789. Dactylis patens Aiton
1806. Spartina pumila Roth
1817. Spartina patens Muhl.
2014. Sporobolus pumilus P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus patens Swallen
Saltmeadow cordgrass,
Marshhay cordgrass,
Marsh grass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1753. Dactylis cynosuroides L.
1803. Trachynotia cynosuroides Michx.
1804. Paspalum cynosuroides Brot.
1806. Spartina cynosuroides Roth
1812. Spartina polystachya
(Michx.) P. Beauv.
1825. Cynodon cynosuroides Raspail
Salt reedgrass,
Big cordgrass
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 P.M.Peterson & Saarela

Sporobolus michauxianus ×
Sporobolus pumilus

1898. Spartina × caespitosa
A.A.Eaton
1906. Spartina patens
var. caespitosa Hitchc.
2014. Sporobolus × eatonianus P.M.Peterson & Saarela
 non Sporobolus caespitosus Kunth
Marsh cordgrass hybrid,
Hybrid of
 Freshwater cordgrass &
 Saltmeadow cordgrass
Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2?

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Genus Sporobolussect. Spartinasubsect. Alterniflori Cordgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Loisel.) P.M.Peterson & Saarela

1803. Spartina alterniflora Loisel.
1815. Trachynotia alterniflora DC.
2014. Sporobolus alterniflorus P.M.Peterson & Saarela
Saltwater cordgrass,
Smooth cordgrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Sporobolus sect. Crypsis[edit | edit source]
Sporobolus schoenoides
Because the genus Crypsis (Picklegrass) has been found to be embedded within a paraphyletic Sporobolus genus, Peterson et. al. (2014) recommended the transfer of the Crypsis species to a subsection within Sporobolus.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Zoysieae — Sporobolinae — Sporobolus sect. Crypsis
Genus Sporobolussect. Crypsis Prickle grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.M.Peterson

1753. Phleum schoenoides L.
1791. Crypsis schoenoides (L.) Lam.
1801. Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host
2014. Sporobolus schoenoides (L.) P.M.Peterson
Swamp pricklegrass,
Swamp timothy,
Rush-like timothy
Crypside faux-choin,
Crypsis faux-choin
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized

OBL-FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Tribe Cynodonteae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Gouiniinae[edit | edit source]

Triplasis[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Gouiniinae
Genus Triplasis Sand grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Chapm.
var. purpurea

1788. Aira purpurea Walter
1860. Triplasis purpurea Chapm.
Purple sandgrass Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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Subtribe Eleusininae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Eleusininae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Acrachne, Afrotrichloris, Apochiton, Astrebla, Austrochloris, Chloris, Chrysochloa, Coelachyrum, Cynodon, Daknopholis, Dinebra, Diplachne, Disakisperma, Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eustachys, Harpochloa, Leptochloa, Lepturus, Lintonia, Microachne, Microchloa, Oxychloris, Pommereulla, Rendlia, Rheochloa, Saugetia, Schoenefeldia, Sclerodactylon, Stapfochloa, and Tetrapogon.[1] Those in bold type contain species found in New York. Of those, only Diplachne contains a species that is considered to be native.
Diplachne[edit | edit source]
Diplachne fusca
bearded sprangletop
Bearded sprangletop (Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) P.M. Peterson & N. Snow) is the only Diplachne species known to grow in the wild in New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Diplachne
Genus Diplachne Sprangle top N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.
ssp. fascicularis

    Diplachne maritima E.P.Bicknell
    Diplachne acuminata Nash
    Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) P.Beauv.
    Leptochloa fusca  ssp. fascicularis
    Diplachne fusca  ssp. fascicularis
Bearded sprangletop,
Salt-meadow grass,
Saltpond grass
Native, CoC: 7,
Endangered

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1

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Stapfochloa[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Stapfochloa
Genus Stapfochloa Windmill grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Fringed windmill grass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Chloris[edit | edit source]
Chloris virgata

Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Chloris
Genus Chloris Windmill grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1835. Chloris verticillata Nutt.
Tumble windmill grass ...
Windmill grass ...
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: 2 counties
iNat
2 counties

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 Sw.

1797. Chloris virgata Sw.
1816. Chloris elegans Kunth
Feather finger grass ...
Feather windmill grass ...
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: 2 counties
iNat
no observations

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Leptochloa[edit | edit source]
Leptochloa crinita
false rhodes grass
Sprangletop (Leptochloa[1], syn. Trichloris) species are not native to nor known to be naturalized in New York State, but an apparent waif of false rhodes grass (Leptochloa crinita) was collected in Westchester County in 1898.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Leptochloa
Genus Leptochloa Sprangletop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Lag.) P.M.Peterson & N.Snow

1805. Chloris crinita Lag.
1947. Trichloris crinita (Lag.) Parodi
2012. Leptochloa crinitain…
False rhodes grass Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: X

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Cynodon[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Cynodon
Genus Cynodon Bermuda grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Pers.
var. dactylon

1753. Panicum dactylon L.
1805. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
1806. Digitaria stolonifera Schrad.
1891. Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze
Bermudagrass,
Bermuda grass
Introduced

NYFA: Xn

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Eleusine[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Eleusine
Genus EleusineGaertn. Goose grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Cynosurus indicus L.
1788. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
1854. Eleusine japonica Steud.
Goose grass,
India goosegrass,
Indian goosegrass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Asia,
Naturalized

FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Genus EleusineGaertn. (excluded taxa) Goose grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) Lam.

1786. Cynosurus tristachyos Lam.
1792. Eleusine tristachya (Lam.) Lam.
    
American crowfoot grass Introduced from
 South American,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Eustachys[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Eustachys
Genus Eustachys Finger grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Lag.) Kunth

Argentine fingergrass Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: X

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Dactyloctenium[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Eleusininae — Dactyloctenium
Genus Dactyloctenium Crowfoot-grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Willd. (1809)

Crowfoot grass,
Egyptian grass,
Finger grass
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Pappophorinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Pappophorinae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Neesiochloa, Pappophorum, and Tridens (excl. Tridentopsis}.[1] Those in bold type contain species found in New York. Of those, only Tridens contains a species that is considered to be native.
Tridens[edit | edit source]
Tridens flavus
Native purpletop (Tridens flavus) is the only species of Tridens found in New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Pappophorinae
Genus Tridens tridens N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Hitchc.
var. flavus

1753. Poa flava L.
1894. Sieglingia sesleroides (Michx.) Scribn.
1906. Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc.
1913. Triodia flava (L.) Smyth
Purpletop tridens,
Tall purple-topped fluffgrass,
Purpletop,
Redtop,
Tall Red Top
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Perennial

NYFA: 5

USDA-NX
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Pappophorum[edit | edit source]
Pappophorum vaginatum
Pappus grass
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Pappophorinae
Genus Pappophorum Pappus grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Buckley

Whiplash pappusgrass Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

USDA-N0
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Wikispecies
(Lam.) Kuntze

    Pappophorum pappiferumin…
Limestone pappus grass ...
Limestone pappusgrass ...
Introduced from
 Puerto Rico,
 Virgin Islands,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm

USDA-XX
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Wikispecies
Genus Pappophorum (excluded taxa) Pappus grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Fourn.

Pink pappusgrass Introduced,
US South native,
Excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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Subtribe Traginae[edit | edit source]

Tragus[edit | edit source]
Tragus racemosus
Burr grass does not appear to naturalize in New York State, but these two Eurasian species were collected in 1889 in New York and Westchester Counties.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Traginae
Genus Tragus Burr grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Schult.

Spiked burr grass,
Spiked bur grass,
Texas bur,
African bur grass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Asia,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
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 (L.) All.

Spiked burr grass,
Stalked bur grass,
Texas bur,
European bur grass
Introduced from
 Africa,
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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Subtribe Monanthochloinae[edit | edit source]

Distichlis[edit | edit source]
Distichlis spicata
Saltgrass is found in salt marshes and brackish marshes, occasionally in dense stands in southeastern New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Monanthochloinae
Genus Distichlis Salt grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Greene

Saltgrass,
Salt grass,
Inland saltgrass
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
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Subtribe Boutelouinae[edit | edit source]

Bouteloua[edit | edit source]
Bouteloua curtipendula
Bouteloua has about 20 species that are native to North America. The two that have been found in New York, sideoats grama and blue grama were both major components of the shortgrass prairie of the Great Plains.[1] Sideoats grama is still common in the west, but has become rare in the east and in listed as endangered in New York. Blue grama is not considered to be native to the Northeast, and is a rare introduction to New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Boutelouinae — Bouteloua
Genus Boutelouasubg. Bouteloua Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Torr.
var. curtipendula

1803. Chloris curtipendula Michx.
1853. Bouteloua curtipendula Torr.
Sideoats grama,
Side-oats grama,
Tall grama grass
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

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Genus Boutelouasubg. Chondrosum Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths

    
Blue grama,
Blue gramma,
Eyelash grass
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xnn

USDA-NN
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Lag.
var. hirsuta

1805. Bouteloua hirsuta Lag.
    
    
Hairy grama Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: U

ARS-GRIN
BONAP
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Genus Boutelouasubg. Buchloe Grama N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Nutt.) J.T.Columbus

    
    
    
Buffalograss,
Buffalo-grass
Introduced from
 central N. America,
N. America native

NYFA: U

USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
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Subtribe Muhlenbergiinae[edit | edit source]

Muhlenbergia[edit | edit source]
Muhlenbergia frondosa

Poales — Poaceae — Chloridoideae — Cynodonteae — Muhlenbergiinae — Muhlenbergia
Genus Muhlenbergia Muhly N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Poir.) Fernald

1803. Agrostis lateriflora Michx.
1810. Agrostis frondosa Poir.
1833. M. lateriflora Trin. ex Kunth (i)
1907. M. mexicanassp. commutata Scribn.
1943. M. frondosa (Poir.) Fernald
Wirestem muhly,
Wire-stemmed muhly
Muhlenbergie feuillée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

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 (Willd.) Trin.

 auct. M. racemosanon BSP
Spike muhly,
Spiked muhly,
Bog muhly,
Marsh muhly
Muhlenbergie agglomérée,
Muhlenbergia agglomérée
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

OBL-FACW

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
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 (L.) Trin.

    Agrostis mexicana
    M. ambigua
    M. foliosa
    M. mexicanavar. filiformis
Mexican muhly,
Wire-stemmed muhly
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
 J.F.Gmel.

Nimblewill,
Nimblewill muhly,
Schreber muhly
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
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 (Muhl. ex Willd.) Trin.

Cliff muhly Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
 (Torr.) Torr. ex A. Gray

Woodland muhly,
Forest muhly
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
 (Willd.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Slender muhly Native, CoC: 8,
Secure,
S5, G5

FACU,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
 (Muhl.) Fernald

Fall dropseed muhly,
Bog muhly
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4
iNat

USDA-NN
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 (Lam.) Trin.

Hairawn muhly Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z
iNat

USDA-NN
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Wikispecies
 (Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Parodi

Alkali muhly,
Scratchgrass
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X
iNat

USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
Genus Muhlenbergia (excluded taxa) Muhly N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Schult.) Hitchc.

    M. torreyana (Schult.) Hitchc.
    
    
New Jersey muhly N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded
iNat

USDA-N0
Images
Wikispecies
(Michx.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

    M. racemosa (Michx.)
Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
    
    
Marsh muhly N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded
iNat

USDA-NN
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Wikispecies

Subfamily Aristidoideae[edit | edit source]

Subfamily Aristidoideae Caro (1982) contains 364 species in 3 genera in one tribe: Aristideae.[1]

Tribe Aristideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Aristideae C.E. Hubb. (1960) contains 364 species in 3 genera: Aristida,, Sartidia, and Stipagrostis.[1]

Aristida[edit | edit source]

Aristida dichotoma
Three awn (Aristida)
Poales — Poaceae — Aristidoideae — Aristida
Genus Aristida Threeawn N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. dichotoma

Churchmouse threeawn,
Shinners three-awned grass
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FACU

Annual,
Graminioid

NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-NX
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 Poir.
var. purpurascens

Arrow-feather threeawn ...
Arrow feather threeawn ...
Arrowfeather threeawn ...
Native, CoC: 5,
Unranked

NYFA: NU
iNat

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 Nutt.

Seaside threeawn ...
Native, CoC: 7,
Unranked

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 3
iNat

USDA-N0
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 Engelm. ex Vasey

Forked threeawn,
Forked three-awned grass,
Branching needle-grass
Native, CoC: 0,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1S2[1]

NYFA: U
iNat

USDA-NN
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 Raf.

1816. Aristida gracilis Elliott
1817. Aristida geniculata Raf.
1901. Aristida intermedia Scribn. & C.R.Ball
1933. Aristida longespica  var. geniculata  (Raf.) Fernald
1954. Aristida necopina Shinners
Kearney’s threeawn Native, CoC: 5,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1[2]

NYFA: 1
iNat

USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
 Poir.

Slimspike threeawn,
Slim-spiked threeawn
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered,
NYNHP: S1[3]

NYFA: H
iNat

USDA-NN
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 L.

    Aristida fasciculata Torr.
Sixweeks threeawn,
Six-weeks three-awn grass
Introduced,
Waif

NYFA: X
iNat

USDA-N0
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 Michx.

Prairie three-awn grass Introduced

NYFA: X
iNat

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Subfamily Arundinoideae[edit | edit source]

Subfamily Arundinoideae Kunth ex Beilschm. (1833) contains 40 species in 16 genera in 2 tribes: Arundineae and Molinieae.[1]

Tribe Molinieae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Molinieae Jirásek (1966) contains 24 species in 13 genera: Crinipes, Dichaetaria, Dregeochloa, Elytrophorus, Hakonechloa, Leptagrostis, Molinia, Moliniopsis, Nematopoa, Phragmites, Piptophyllum, Styppeiochloa, and Zenkeria.[1]

Phragmites[edit | edit source]

Phragmites australis
The vast majority of Phragmites (common reed) in New York today is of the introduced Eurasian lineage (haplotype M) Phragmites australis subsp. australis. The native lineage (haplotype E) P. australis subsp. americanus is only known to be present in the vicinity of Montezuma Swamp in Cayuga County, although it is likely to have been present, and may still be present elsewhere in the state.

Although the native and non-native Phragmites strains normally share habitats (until the natives are replaced by the non-natives), hybrids of the two were not discovered in the field until 2014, when a hybrid clone was discovered at the Montezuma site.[1]


Poales — Poaceae — Arundinoideae — Molinieae — Phragmites
Genus Phragmites Reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Saltonst., P.M.Peterson & Soreng)
A.Haines

2004. Phragmites australis
ssp. americanus[1]
2010. P. americanus (Saltonst.,
P.M.Peterson & Soreng) A.Haines[2]
 auct. P. communisssp. berlandieri
 auct. P. communisvar. berlandieri
American reed,
American common reed,
American reedgrass
Roseau d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 7,
Rare,
S3, G5-T4

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid
Cayuga (2004), Madison (2016), Monroe (2019), Oswego (2019), St.Lawrence (2008-19)
NYFA: 3

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 (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

1753. Arundo phragmites L.
1799. Arundo australis Cav.
1820. P. communis Trin.
1841. P. australis Trin. ex Steud.
1881. P. phragmites (L.) Karst.
Common reed,
Phragmites,
European reed,
European reedgrass,
Phragmites
Roseau commun
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 92%[3],
Naturalized,
CP-2[4],
SP, G5-T5

FACW

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Phragmites australis ×
Phragmites americanus[5]

P. australis ssp. americanus ×
P. australis ssp. australis

Hybrid of
 American reed &
 Common reed
Introduced,
Unranked,
Naturalized

NYFA: U

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Genus Phragmites (excluded species) Reed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
E.Fourn.

1877. P. berlandieri E.Fourn.
1932. P. communisvar. berlandieri
1954. P. communisssp. berlandieri
1987. P. australisvar. berlandieri
2007. P. australisssp. berlandieri
Subtropical common reed N. America native,
Excuded
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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Molinia[edit | edit source]

Molinia caerulea
Moorgrass (Molinia)
Poales — Poaceae — Arundinoideae — Molinia
Genus Molinia Moor grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench

1753. Aira caerulea L.
1771. Melica caerulea L.
1794. Molinia caerulea Moench
Purple moorgrass,
Purple moor grass
Molinie bleue
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Tribe Arundineae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Arundineae

Arundo[edit | edit source]

Arundo donax

Poales — Poaceae — Arundinoideae — Arundineae — Arundo
Genus Arundo Giant cane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Arundo donax L.
Giant reed ...
Giant cane
Elephant grass
Spanish-reed ...

Introduced,
Highly invasive

NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: no counties
iNat
Nassau (2020)

GBIF
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily Oryzoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Oryzeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Oryzinae[edit | edit source]

Leersia[edit | edit source]
Leersia oryzoides
The genus Leersia contains the two common native cutrgrasses L. oryzoides (rice cut grass) and L. virginica (white cut grass).
Poales — Poaceae — Oryzoideae — Oryzeae — Oryzinae
Genus Leersia Cut grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Sw.

Rice cutgrass,
Ricegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Willd. (1797)

Virginia cutgrass,
Whitegrass
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Subtribe Zizaniinae[edit | edit source]

Zizania[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Oryzoideae — Oryzeae — Zizaniinae
Genus Zizania Wildrice N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. aquatica

1753. Zizania aquatica L.
1967. Zizania aquaticavar. subbrevis
    
Annual wildrice,
Eastern wild rice,
Indian rice
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.
var. palustris

1771. Zizania palustris L.
1906. Zizania aquaticavar. angustifolia
1971. Zizania aquaticassp. angustifolia
Northern wildrice,
Northern wild rice
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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Luziola[edit | edit source]
Tropical American watergrass was not known to be present in the United States until it was discovered to have invaded Lake Okeechobee, in southern Florida around 2008. As of 2014, it was not known to occur in USDA plant hardiness zones of 9 or lower (the highest zone in New York is 7).[1] Despite its unlikely hardiness in the Northeast, Luziola subintegra is being tracked by iMapInvasives in Florida, New York, New Jersey, and Vermont.[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Oryzoideae — Oryzeae — Zizaniinae — Luziola
Genus Luziola Watergrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Swallen

1943. Luziola subintegra Swallen
Tropical American watergrass
Large watergrass ...
Introduced from
 Mexico,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 GRIIS-US: Invaisve,
Regulated

NYFA: Not listed
Florida only

GBIF
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Wikispecies

Tribe Ehrharteae[edit | edit source]

Ehrharta[edit | edit source]

Ehrharta erecta, NSW, Australia
In North America, Ehrharta erecta (panic veldtgrass) is primarily present in California and the west coast of Mexico.
Poales — Poaceae — Oryzoideae — Ehrharteae — Ehrharta

Genus Ehrharta Veldtgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Lam.

1786. Ehrharta erecta Lam.
1855. Ehrharta abyssinica Hochst.
Panic veldtgrass

Introduced from
 Eritrea to South Africa,
 Réunion,
 Arabian Peninsula,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS Tier: 1b,
 Invasive.org: [1],
 GRIIS-US: invasive (category D2)

NYFA: Not listed
No observations

GBIF
POWO
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Subfamily Bambusoideae[edit | edit source]

The bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae Luerss. (1893). Synonyms: Olyroideae Pilg. (1956), Parianoideae Butzin (1965).

Tribe Arundinarieae[edit | edit source]

The Arundinarieae contains about 500 temperate woody bamboo species. Most are native to Asia, with only three native to the Western Hemisphere. However, all bamboo species that are known to have naturalized in New York are considered to be invasive or potentially invasive.

Subtribe Arundinariinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Arundinariinae Nees ex Lindl. (1836) contains Acidosasa, Ampelocalamus, Arundinaria, Bashania, Bergbambos, Chimonobambusa, Chimonocalamus, Drepanostachyum, Fargesia, Ferrocalamus, Gaoligonshania, Gelidocalamus, Himalayacalamus, Indocalamus, Indosasa, Kuruna, Oldeania, Oligostachyum, Phyllostachys, Pleioblastus, Pseudosasa, Sarocalamus, Sasa, Sasaella, Sasamorpha, Semiarundinaria, Shibataea, Sinobambusa, Thamnocalamus, Vietnamocalamus, Yushania.[1]
Arundinaria[edit | edit source]
Arundinaria gigantea
The three North American bamboo or cane species comprise the genus Arundinaria and are from the southeastern United States.[1] [2] Although listed in New York's Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment as moderately invasive,[3] both of these species have been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.
Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinariinae — Arundinaria
Genus Arundinaria Cane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Muhl.

1788. Arundo tecta Walter
1813. Arundinaria tecta Muhl.
1871. A. macrospermavar. tecta Alph.Wood
1893. A. giganteavar. tecta Scribn
1973. A. giganteassp. tecta McClure
Switch cane Introduced from
 southern US,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 60%[1],
Excluded
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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 (Walter) Muhl.

1788. Arundo gigantea Walter
1803. Arundinaria macrosperma Michx.
1813. Arundinaria gigantea Muhl.
1818. Miegia gigantea Nutt.
1973. A. giganteassp. macrosperma McClure
Giant cane,
River cane,
Canebreak bamboo
Introduced from
 southern US,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: 60%[1],
Excluded
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
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Phyllostachys[edit | edit source]
Phyllostachys aurea
The two Asian bamboo (Phyllostachys) species P. aureosulcata and P. aurea are listed as highly invasive if they are found to naturalize in New York.[1]

Confirmed presence records in iMapInvasives for unknown Phyllostachys species include:

In addition there have been well over 20 confirmed records from Long Island and Staten Island.[2]


Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinariinae — Phyllostachys
Genus Phyllostachys Bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 McClure

1945. Phyllostachys aureosulcata McClure
1980. P. aureosulcata f. spectabilis
Yellow-groove bamboo Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: 71%[1],
 NYIS Tier: Untiered,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive

NYFA: 0
NYFA: not listed
iNat
5 counties

USDA-X0
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ARS-GRIN
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 Carrière ex Rivière & C.Rivière

1878. Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & al.
Golden bamboo,
Fish-pole bamboo
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: 71%[1],
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [3],
Not listed in NY Flora Atlas

NYFA: 0
NYFA: Not listed
iNat
Ulster (2020)

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McClure

1945. Phyllostachys dulcis McClure
Sweetshoot bamboo ...

白哺鸡竹 bai bu ji zhu ...
Introduced from
 China,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS Tier: 1a,
 Invasive.org: [4],
 GRIIS-US: Alien, Present,
Not listed in NY Flora Atlas

NYFA: 0
NYFA: 0 counties
iNat
0 counties

GBIF
Images
Wikispecies
McClure

1945. Phyllostachys nuda McClure
Nude sheath bamboo

Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS Tier: buffer,
 Invasive.org: [5],
Not listed in NY Flora Atlas

NYFA: 0
NYFA: Not listed
iNat
0 counties

GBIF
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
Pseudosasa[edit | edit source]

Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinariinae — Pseudosasa
Genus Pseudosasa Arrow bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (McClure) Keng f. ex S.L.Chen et al.

1931. Arundinaria amabilis McClure
1957. Pseudosasa amabilis Keng f. nom. inval.
1996. Pseudosasa amabilis S.L.Chen et al.
Arrow bamboo,
Tea-stick bamboo,
Tonkin cane
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive

NYFA: 0

USDA-00
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 (Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai

1854. Arundinaria japonica Siebold & al.
1912. Sasa japonica Makino
1920. Pseudosasa japonica Makino nom. inval.
1925. Pseudosasa japonica Nakai
Arrow bamboo Introduced from
 Japan, Korea,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: 55%[1]

NYFA: 0

USDA-X0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
Sasa[edit | edit source]
Sasa palmata
Broad-leaved bamboo (Sasa palmata) is on the iMapInvasives New York species list, which indicates that the species is being tracked in New York, Oregon, and New Jersey.[1] No plants of this genus are currently listed in the New York Flora Atlas.[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinariinae — Sasa
Genus Sasa Broad-leaved bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Burb.) E.G.Camus

1890. Bambusa palmata Burb.
1913. Sasa palmata (Burb.) E.G.Camus
Broad-leaved bamboo ...

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives

NYFA: Not Listed
iNat
no observations

GBIF
Images
Wikispecies
Pleioblastus[edit | edit source]
Pleioblastus pygmaeus
Pygmy bamboo (Pleioblastus distichus) was collected at Central Park, Arsenal and Zoo, Red Panda enclosure, between 63rd and 64th Streets and between 5th and 6th Avenues in 2016.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Bambusoideae — Arundinarieae — Arundinariinae — Pleioblastus
Genus Pleioblastus Pygmy bamboo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Mitford) Nakai

    Pleioblastus distichus
Pygmy bamboo

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives

NYFA: xx counties
iNat
xx counties

GBIF
Images
Wikispecies

    Pleioblastus
Pygmy bamboo

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: Orange (1995)
iNat
no observations

GBIF
Images
Wikispecies