Flora of New York/Poaceae 1

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Cyperaceae 3
Flora of New York — Poaceae 1: Panicoideae
Poaceae 2
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


See Poales genus index

The Poales...

According to the New York Flora Atlas, the New York population of Poaceae (the true gasses) contains 111 genera and 381 taxa.

Subfamily Panicoideae[edit | edit source]

The Panicoideae A.Braun (1864) membership used here is based on:[1][2]

Tribe Paniceae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Paniceae R.Br. (1814) contains 1498 species in 84 genera in 7 subtribes: Anthephorinae, Dichantheliinae, Boivinellinae, Neurachninae, Melinidinae, Panicinae, Cenchrinae.[1]

Subtribe Anthephorinae[edit | edit source]

The Anthephorinae Benth. (1881).

Digitaria[edit | edit source]
Digitaria ischaemum

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Anthephorinae — Digitaria
Genus DigitariaHaller (1768) Crabgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Schult.) Pilg.

1824. Panicum cognatum Schult.
1906. Leptoloma cognata (Schult.) Chase
1931. Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilg.
Fall witchgrass ...
Fall crabgrass ...
Mountain hairgrass
Carolina crabgrass
Carolina cottontop
Diffuse crabgrass

Digitaire d'automne
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5
NYFA: 14 counties
iNat
2 counties

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 (L.) Koeler
var. filiformis

1753. Panicum filiforme L.
1802. Digitaria filiformis (L.) Koeler
1877. Paspalum filiforme (L.) Flüggé
1877. Paspalum furcatumvar. filiforme
1895. Syntherisma filiforme (L.) Nash
Slender crabgrass Native, CoC: 9,
Endangered,
S1

Annual,
Graminoid
8 counties
NYFA: 1
iNat

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 (L.) Scop.

1753. Panicum sanguinale L.
1771. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
1867. Syntherisma sanguinale (L.) Dulac
Northern crab grass,
Hairy crabgrass,
Large crabgrass,
Purple crabgrass
Digitaire sanguine,
Panic sanguin,
Digitaire commune,
Digitaire pourpre,
Panic pourpré,
Sanguinelle,
Sanguinette
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized

FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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(Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.

1804. Panicum ischaemum Schreb.
1805. Digitaria humifusa Pers.
1811. Panicum glabrum (Schrad.) Gaudin
1900. Syntherisma humifusum (Pers.) Rydb.
1817. D. ischaemum
(Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.
Smooth crabgrass,
Smooth crab grass,
Small crabgrass,
Smooth finger grass,
Smooth summer grass
Digitaire astringente,
Digitaire couchée,
Digitaire glabre,
Digitaire ischème
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Naturalized

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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 (Retz.) Koeler

1786. Panicum ciliare Retz.
1802. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
1806. Syntherisma ciliare (Retz.) Schrad.
1934. D. adscendens (Kunth) Henrard
Southern crabgrass,
Southern crab grass,
Tropical finger-grass
Introduced from
 Asia,
Naturalized

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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Subtribe Dichantheliinae[edit | edit source]

Subribe Dichantheliinae Zuloaga (2014) contains 66 species in 2 genera: Adenochloa, and Dichanthelium.[1]
Dichanthelium[edit | edit source]
Dichanthelium (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould is a New-World grass genus. Before its publication in 1974, it was treated as a subgenus of Panicum. The sections and sequence used here are primarily from Freckmann & Lelong (2007).[1] About 30 distinct Dichanthelium taxa are listed in New York State.[2]
Dichanthelium sect. Macrocarpa[edit | edit source]
Dichanthelium commutatum

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Macrocarpa
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Macrocarpa Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Schult.) Gould
ssp. ashei (T.G.Pearson ex Ashe)
Freckmann & Lelong

1898. Panicum ashei T.G.Pearson ex Ashe
1934. P. commutatumvar. ashei
2002. D. commutatumssp. ashei
 auct. P. commutatum Schult. (i)
Ashe's rosette grass,
Variable panicgrass,
Ashe's variable
  rosette-panicgrass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Schult.) Gould
ssp. commutatum

1824. Panicum commutatum Schult.
1974. D. commutatum Gould
Variable rosette-grass,
Variable witchgrass,
Variable panicgrass,
Variable rosette-panicgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports,
SH, G5-TNRO

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) Harvill

1753. Panicum latifolium L.
1794. Milium latifolium (L.) Moench
1818. P. macrocarpon LeConte ex Torr.
1977. Dichanthelium latifolium (L.) Harvill
1978. D. latifolium (L.) Gould & C.A.Clark
Broadleaf rosette grass,
Broadleaved panicgrass,
Broad-leaved witchgrass
Panic à larges feuilles
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 4

USDA-NN
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(A. Gray) Freckmann

Slender rosette grass Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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(Vasey) Freckmann

Leiberg's rosette grass Native, CoC: 5,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1

USDA-NN
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(Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark

Bosc's panicgrass
Panic de Bosc
Native, CoC: 9,
Unranked

NYFA: U

USDA-N0
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Dichanthelium sect. Clandestina[edit | edit source]
Dichanthelium clandestinum
deer-tongue rosette grass

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Clandestina
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Clandestina Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Gould

1753. Panicum clandestinum L.
1974. D. clandestinum (L.) Gould
Deer-tongue rosette grass,
Deer-tongue witchgrass
Panic Clandestin
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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(Lam.) Gould

1798. Panicum scoparium Lam.
1974. D. scoparium (Lam.) Gould
Velvet rosette grass,
Broom panic grass,
Velvet panicum
Native,
Endangered

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1

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Genus Dichantheliumsect. Clandestina
(excluded taxa)
Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark

    Panicum aculeatum
    Panicum scabriusculum Elliott
1979. D. scabriusculum
(Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark
Tall swamp panicgrass,
Woolly rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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Dichanthelium sect. Oligosantha[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Oligosantha
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Oligosantha Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Schult.) Gould
ssp. scribnerianum
(Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

1895. Panicum scribnerianum Nash
1934. P. oligosanthesvar. scribnerianum
1974. D. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould
1974. D. oligosanthesvar. scribnerianum
1981. D. oligosanthesvar. scribnerianum
2002. D. oligosanthesssp. scribnerianum
Scribner's rosette grass,
Scribner's panic grass,
Scribner's witchgrass,
Few-flowered
  rosette-panicgrass
Panic de Scribner
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Genus Dichantheliumsect. Oligosantha (excluded taxa) Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Schult.) Gould
ssp. oligosanthes

    P. oligosanthesvar. oligosanthes
    P. oligosanthesssp. oligosanthes
Heller's rosette grass,
Heller's witchgrass,
Few-flowered panicgrass,
Few-anther panicgrass
Panic à fleurs
  peu nombreuses
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

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Dichanthelium sect. Lanuginosa[edit | edit source]
Freckmann and Lelong (2003) treated most of the taxa in this section as subspecies of D. acuminatum and D. ovale. Thomas (2015) revised the section, treating most of the taxa as full species.[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Lanuginosa
Genus Dichantheliumsect. LanuginosaLong Ligule group Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Elliott) Gould

1816. Panicum lanuginosum Elliott
1824. P. dichotomumvar. fasciculatum
1934. P. lanuginosumvar. fasciculatum
1974. D. lanuginosum (Elliott) Gould
1981. D. acuminatumvar. fasciculatum
1981. P. acuminatumvar. fasciculatum
2002. D. acuminatumssp. fasciculatum
Slender-stemmed
  rosette grass,
Hairy panicgrass,
Tapered rosette grass,
Western panicgrass
Panic laineux
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Scribn.) Kerguélen

1898. Panicum implicatum Scribn.
1899. P. occidentale Scribn.
1901. P. unciphyllumvar. implicatum
1910. P. pacificum Hitchc. & Chase
1921. P. lindheimerivar. implicatum
1934. P. lanuginosumvar. implicatum
1978. D. acuminatumvar. implicatum
1979. D. implicatum (Scribn.) Kerguélen
1981. P. acuminatumvar. implicatum
2002. D. acuminatumssp. implicatum
Tangled rosette grass,
Matting rosette grass,
Matting panicgrass,
Matted panicgrass,
Mat panicgrass
Panic à touffe dense
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Nash) Gould

1897. Panicum lindheimeri Nash
1934. P. lanuginosumvar. lindheimeri
1974. Dichanthelium lindheimeri Gould
1977. D. lanuginosumvar. lindheimeri
1978. D. acuminatumvar. lindheimeri
1981. P. acuminatumvar. lindheimeri
2002. D. acuminatumssp. lindheimeri
Lindheimer's rosette grass,
Lindheimer's panicgrass
Panic de Lindheimer
Native, CoC: 8,
Unranked

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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(Schult.) Freckmann

1824. Panicum spretum Schult.
1898. Panicum eatonii Nash
1981. D. spretum Freckmann
2002. D. acuminatumssp. spretum
Spurned rosette grass,
Eaton's rosette grass,
Sand panicgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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(Scribn.) Freckmann

1898. Panicum wrightianum Scribn.
1978. D. acuminatumvar. wrightianum
1978. D. acuminatumvar. longiligulatum
1981. D. wrightianum
(Scribn.) Freckmann
Wright's rosette grass,
Wright's witchgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1-2

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Genus Dichantheliumsect. LanuginosaShort Ligule group Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Scribn.) Freckmann

1897. Panicum columbianum Scribn.
1898. Panicum tsugetorum Nash
1978. D. columbianum Freckmann
1978. D. sabulorumvar. thinium
1984. D. acuminatumvar. columbianum
2002. D. acuminatumssp. columbianum
District of Columbia
  rosette grass,
Columbia panicgrass,
Hemlock rosette grass
Panic du District
  de Columbia
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Ashe) Freckmann

1898. Panicum commonsianum Ashe
1978. D. ovalevar. addisonii
1978. D. commonsianum
(Ashe) Freckmann
1984. P. ovalevar. pseudopubescens
2002. D. ovalessp. pseudopubescens
 auct. P. pseudopubescens Nash (i)
Commons' rosette grass,
Egg-leaved witchgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable

FAC

Graminoid

NYFA: 3?

Images
(Nash) Freckmann

1896. Panicum villosissimum Nash
1978. D. villosissimum
(Nash) Freckmann
2002. D. ovalessp. villosissimum
White-haired rosette grass,
White-hair witchgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable

FAC

NYFA: 3?

NatureServe
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Genus Dichantheliumsect. Lanuginosa (excluded taxa) Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Nash) Freckmann
= Dichanthelium wrightianum

1899. Panicum longiligulatum Nash
1984. P. acuminatumvar. longiligulatum
1979. D. acuminatumvar. longiligulatum
1981. D. longiligulatum (Nash) Freckmann
2002. D. acuminatumssp. longiligulatum
Coastal plain panicgrass Native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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(Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark

    Panicum ovale Elliott
    D. ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A.Clark
    
Eggleaf rosette grass,
Stiff-leaved
  rosette-panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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D. columbianum × implicatum

Dichanthelium columbianum ×
Dichanthelium implicatum

    P. columbianum × implicatum
    
    
Hybrid of
 D.C. panicgrass &
 tangled rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
Dichanthelium sect. Dichanthelium[edit | edit source]
[1]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Dichanthelium
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Dichanthelium Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Gould
ssp. dichotomum

1753. Panicum dichotomum L.
1906. Panicum gravius Hitchc. & Chase
1974. D. dichotomum (L.) Gould
Cypress panicgrass,
Forked panicgrass
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Nash) Freckmann

1895. Panicum boreale Nash
1978. Dichanthelium boreale Freckmann
Northern witchgrass
Panic Boreal
Native, CoC: 5,
Vulnerable

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 3

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(Muhl. ex Elliott) Mohlenbr.

    Panicum nitidumvar. ramulosum
    D. dichotomumssp. microcarpon
    D. microcarpon Mohlenbr.
Small-fruited panicgrass Native, CoC: 7,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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(Ashe) Mohlenbr.

1898. Panicum mattamuskeetense Ashe
1899. P. clutei Ashe
1937. P. mattamuskeetensevar. clutei
1985. D. mattamuskeetense
(Ashe) Mohlenbr.
2002. D. dichotomum
ssp. mattamuskeetense
Mattamuskeet
  rosette grass,
Mattamuskeet
  panicgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

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(Ashe) LeBlond

1898. Panicum annulum Ashe
2001. D. annulum (Ashe) LeBlond
Ringed rosette grass Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

USDA-NN
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Note: [1]
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Dichanthelium (excluded taxa) Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Gould
ssp. roanokense
(Ashe) Freckmann & Lelong

    P. dichotomumssp. roanokense
    
    
Roanoke Witch Grass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
Dichanthelium sect. Sphaerocarpa[edit | edit source]
Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon
Round-fruited rosette grass.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Sphaerocarpa
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Sphaerocarpa Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Elliot) Gould

Round-fruited rosette grass ...
Round-fruited panic grass
Roundseed panicgrass ...
Round-fruited rosette-panic grass ...
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

NYFA: 4-5

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(Schult.) Mohlenbr.

1817. Panicum microcarpon Muhl.
1817. Panicum polyanthes Schult.
1894. P. microcarponvar. isophyllum
1978. D. sphaerocarponvar. isophyllum
1991. P. sphaerocarponvar. isophyllum
Many-flowered rosette grass ...
Roundseed panicgrass ...
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked,
SNR, G5-T5

FACU,
Graminoid
Queens (1909),
Richmond (1895, 1930),
Suffolk (1936)
NYFA: U

USDA-N0
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Dichanthelium sect. Linearifolia[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium sect. Linearifolia
Genus Dichantheliumsect. Linearifolia Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Scribn.) Gould

1898. Panicum linearifolium Scribn.
1898. P. werneri Scribn.
1921. P. linearifoliumvar. werneri
1928. P. strictumvar. linearifolium
1974. D. linearifolium (Scribn.) Gould
Linear-leaved rosette grass,
Slim-leaved witchgrass,
Slimleaf panicgrass,
Slim-leaf rosette grass,
Linear-leaved
  rosette-panicgrass,
Low white-haired panicgrass
Panic à feuilles linéaires
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Muhl.) Gould

1817. Panicum depauperatum Muhl.
1974. D. depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould
Poverty rosette grass,
Starved witchgrass,
Starved panicgrass
Native,
Secure

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Dichanthelium intersectional hybrids[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Dichantheliinae — Dichanthelium
Genus Dichanthelium (excluded taxa) Rosette grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
D. acuminatum × dichotomum

Dichanthelium acuminatum ×
Dichanthelium dichotomum

    P. acuminatum × dichotomum
    
    
Hybrid of
 tapered rosette grass &
 cypress panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. depauperatum × dichotomum

Dichanthelium depauperatum ×
Dichanthelium dichotomum

    P. depauperatum × dichotomum
    
    
Hybrid of
 starved panicgrass &
 cypress panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. dichotomum × oligosanthes

Dichanthelium dichotomum ×
Dichanthelium oligosanthes

    P. dichotomum × oligosanthes
    
    
Hybrid of
 cypress panicgrass &
 Heller's rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. columbianum × dichotomum

Dichanthelium columbianum ×
Dichanthelium dichotomum

    P. columbianum × dichotomum
    
    
Hybrid of
 D.C. panicgrass &
 cypress panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. dichotomum × latifolium

Dichanthelium dichotomum ×
Dichanthelium latifolium

    P. dichotomum × latifolium
    
    
Hybrid of
 cypress panicgrass &
 Heller's rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. columbianum × depauperatum

Dichanthelium columbianum ×
Dichanthelium depauperatum

    P. columbianum × depauperatum
    
    
Hybrid of
 D.C. panicgrass &
 starved panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. columbianum × microcarpon

Dichanthelium columbianum ×
Dichanthelium microcarpon

    P. columbianum × microcarpon
    
    
Hybrid of
 D.C. panicgrass &
 small-fruited panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. implicatum × linearifolium

Dichanthelium implicatum ×
Dichanthelium linearifolium

    P. implicatum × linearifolium
    
    
Hybrid of
 tangled rosette grass &
 linear-leaved rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. implicatum × microcarpon

Dichanthelium implicatum ×
Dichanthelium microcarpon

    P. implicatum × microcarpon
    
    
Hybrid of
 tangled rosette grass &
 small-fruited panicgrass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies
D. implicatum × oligosanthes

Dichanthelium implicatum ×
Dichanthelium oligosanthes

    P. implicatum × oligosanthes
    
    
Hybrid of
 tangled rosette grass &
 Heller's rosette grass
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies

Subtribe Boivinellinae[edit | edit source]

Echinochloa muricata
Subtribe Boivinellinae Pilg. (1940) worldwide contains 135 species in 15 genera: Acroceras, Alloteropsis, Amphicarpum, Cyphochlaena, Cyrtococcum, Echinochloa, Entolasia, Lasiacis, Mayariochloa, Morronea, Microcalamus, Oplismenus, Ottochloa, Parodiophyllochloa, Pseudechinolaena.[1]
Amphicarpum[edit | edit source]
Maidencane in New York is represented only by the endangered annual peanut grass (Amphicarpum amphicarpon), which is found only in Suffolk County.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Boivinellinae — Amphicarpum
Genus Amphicarpum Maidencane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Pursh) Nash (1894)

1813. Milium amphicarpon Pursh
1829. Amphicarpum purshii Kunth
1894. A. amphicarpon (Pursh) Nash
Annual peanut grass,
Blue maidencane,
Pursh's blue maidencane
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

USDA-N0
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Echinochloa[edit | edit source]
Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald - rough barnyard grass
Echinochloa or barnyard grass.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Boivinellinae — Echinochloa
Genus Echinochloa Cockspur grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (P. Beauv.) Fernald
var. muricata

1803. Panicum muricatum Michx.
1812. Setaria muricata P.Beauv.
1816. Panicum pungens Poir.
1829. Oplismenus muricatus Kunth
1915. E. muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald
Long-awned American
barnyard grass
Rough barnyard grass ...
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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 (P. Beauv.) Fernald
var. microstachya Wiegand

1855. Panicum scindens Nees ex Steud.
1921. E. muricata  var. microstachya  Wiegand
1921. E. muricata  var. multiflora  Wiegand
1931. E. microstachya (Wiegand) Rydb.
1935. E. pungens  var. microstachya  (Wiegand) Fernald & Griscom
1935. E. pungens  var. multiflora  (Wiegand) Fernald & Griscom
1949. E. pungens  var. wiegandii  Fassett
1954. E. crus-galli  var. microstachya  (Wiegand) Shinners
1976. E. wiegandii (Fassett) McNeill & Dore
1993. E. muricata  ssp. microstachya  (Wiegand) Jauzein
Short-awned American
barnyard grass
Rough barnyard grass ...
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Pursh) Heller

Walter's barnyard grass,
Coast cockspur grass,
Coast barnyard grass
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) P.Beauv.

Eurasian barnyard grass ...
Cockspur ...
Japanese millet ...
Watergrass ...
Large barnyard grass ...
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Naturalized

NYFA: Xn

USDA-XW
Images
Wikispecies
 (A. Braun) H. Scholz

    E. frumentacea misapplied
    E. esculenta (A.Braun) H.Scholz
Japanese millet
Japanese barnyard millet
Introduced,
Potentially weedy,
Naturalized

NYFA: Xn

USDA-X0
GBIF
Images
Wikispecies
Link

1827. Echinochloa frumentacea Link
1885. Panicum crus-galli  var. frumentaceum  (Roxb.) Trimen
1909. Echinochloa crus-galli  var. frumentacea  (Link) W. Wight
1920. Echinochloa crus-galli  var. edulis  Hitchc.
1930. Echinochloa crus-galli  ssp. edulis  (Hitchc.) Honda
White millet ...
Billion dollar grass ...
Indian barnyard millet
Sawa millet

Introduced from
 southeast Asia,
Not naturalized,
Cultivated

Annual,
Graminoid
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
Oplismenus[edit | edit source]
Oplismenus hirtellus
Wavyleaf basketgrass, a southeastern native, has not been reported to have naturalized north of Maryland, but it is listed in the New York non-native plant invasiveness assessment, which ranks it as highly invasive.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Boivinellinae — Oplismenus
Genus Oplismenus Basketgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (L.) P.Beauv.

1759. Panicum hirtellum L.
1791. Panicum setarium Lam.
1810. Oplismenus africanus P.Beauv.
1812. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv.
Basketgrass Introduced from
 southeast US,
Potentially invasive,
Not likely in NY
NYFA: 0 counties
NYFA: 0
iNat

USDA-M0
ARS-GRIN
BONAP
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(Ard.) Roem. & Schult.

1764. Panicum undulatifolium Ard.
1812. Oplismenus undulatifolius (Ard.) Roem. & Schult.
1981. Oplismenus hirtellus  ssp. undulatifolius  (Ard.) U.Scholz
Wavyleaf basketgrass ...

Introduced from
 southeast US,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 70%[1],
Not likely in NY,
Prohibited[2]
NYFA: 0 counties
NYFA: 0
iNat

USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentOplismenus hirtellus ssp. undulatifolius: High (70). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
  2. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species

Subtribe Melinidinae[edit | edit source]

The Melinidinae Pilg. (1940).

Eriochloa[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Melinidinae — Eriochloa
Genus Eriochloa Cup grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (J. Presl) Kunth
var. acuminata

1830. Piptatherum acuminatum J. Presl
1833. Eriochloa acuminata (J.Presl) Kunth
1840. Helopus acuminatus (J.Presl) Steud.
1933. E. gracilis (E.Fourn.) Hitchc.
1950. E. lemmoniivar. gracilis
Southwestern cup grass,
Tapertip cupgrass
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent

FACW-FAC

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xm

USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
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Genus Eriochloa (excluded taxa) Cup grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Hitchc.

1861. Helopus mollis Müll. Hal.
1928. Eriochloa contracta Hitchc
    
Prairie cupgrass N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NX
ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies

Subtribe Panicinae[edit | edit source]

The Panicinae Fr. (1835).

Panicum[edit | edit source]
Panicum sect. Panicum[edit | edit source]
Panicum capillare
common witch grass

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Panicinae — Panicum sect. Panicum
Genus Panicumsect. Panicum Panic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. capillare

1753. Panicum capillare L.
1895. P. capillarevar. occidentale
1900. P. barbipulvinatum Nash
Common witch grass,
Old witch panic-grass
Panic capillaire
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies
Bernh. ex Trin.
ssp. philadelphicum

1826. P. philadelphicum
Bernh. ex Trin.
    
    
Philadelphia witch grass,
Philadelphia witchgrass,
Philadelphia panic grass,
Wood witchgrass
Panic de Philadelphie
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Bernh. ex Trin.
ssp. gattingeri
(Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

1903. Panicum gattingeri Nash
2002. P. philadelphicumssp. gattingeri
1887. P. capillarevar. campestre
Gattinger's witch grass,
Gattinger panic grass
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FAC

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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 Fernald

1919. Panicum tuckermanii Fernald
1939. P. philadelphicum
var. tuckermanii
Tuckerman's witch grass,
Tuckerman's panicgrass
Native, CoC: 5,
Unranked

FAC

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

USDA-N
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Wiry panicgrass,
Stiff witchgrass
Native,
Rare

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 3

USDA-NN
ITIS
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Wikispecies
 L.
ssp. miliaceum

Proso millet,
Hog millet,
Broom millet,
Broomcorn millet,
Panic millet
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [2]

NYFA: Xm

USDA-XX
GBIF
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Panicum sect. Dichotomiflora[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Panicinae — Panicum sect. Dichotomiflora
Genus Panicumsect. Dichotomiflora Panic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. dichotomiflorum

1803. Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.
1936. P. dichotomiflorumvar. geniculatum
    
Smooth panicgrass,
Fall panicgrass,
Fall panicum,
Western witchgrass
Panic d'automne,
Panic à fleurs dichotomes,
Panic d'automne dressé
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

FACW

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

USDA-NX
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 Michx.
var. puritanorum Svenson

1920. P. dichotomiflorumvar. puritanorum
2002. P. dichotomiflorumssp. puritanorum
Shoreline panic grass,
Spreading panic-grass,
Puritan panicgrass,
Fall panicum
Panic des Puritains
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked

FACW

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: U

USDA-NX
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Panicum sect. Virgata[edit | edit source]
Panicum virgatum
The New York population of section Virgata consists primarily of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) along with some dune panicgrass (Panicum amarum) near the Atlantic coast.

Switchgrass is a warm-season native of eastern and central North America. It is available in many different agricultural, horticultural, and conservation cultivars, not all of which are appropriate for New York State conditions. An example of an appropriate cultivar for conservation purposes in New York is 'Shelter' switchgrass, which is a northeastern ecotype from West Virginia, released in 1978 from the USDA's Big Flats site.[1]

Before European settlement, northeastern switchgrass was restricted to a narrow coastal band. Recent studies have found that adjacent inland switchgrass populations contain a significant majority of individuals from outside the Northeast.[2]

The range of dune panicgrass or bitter panicgrass lies mostly on the Atlantic coast from southern New England to Mexico. It is primarily used for erosion control on coastal dunes. Both the New York native var. amarum and the more southern var. amrulum are planted for erosion control in New York.


Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Panicinae — Panicum sect. Virgata
Genus Panicumsect. Virgata Panic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Panicum virgatum L.
1866. Panicum virgatumvar. cubense
1871. Panicum virgatumvar. obtusum
1922. Panicum virgatumvar. spissum
Switchgrass,
Switch grass,
Switch panicgrass,
Old switch panic grass,
Wand panicgrass
Panic raide,
Panic dressé,
Panic érigé,
Panic vierge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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 Elliott
var. amarum

1816. Panicum amarum Elliott
    
    
Dune panicgrass,
Bitter panicgrass,
Smaller seabeach grass
Native, CoC: 8,
Vulnerable

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 3

USDA-N0
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 Elliott
var. amarulum

1910. Panicum amarulum Hitchc. & Chase
1975. Panicum amarumvar. amarulum
2002. Panicum amarumssp. amarulum
Tall dune panic grass,
Coastal panicgrass,
Taller seabeach grass
Introduced,
N. America native

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Kellochloa[edit | edit source]
Kellochloa verrucosa
Kellochloa Lizarazu, M.V.Nicola & Scataglini was published in 2015, replacing Panicum sect. Verrucosa Hitchc. & Chase ex C.C.Hsu.

Warty panic grass (Kellochloa verrucosa) is the only one of the two Kellochloa species found in New York, and it has only been found on Long Island and New York City.

The other species of this genus (Kellochloa brachyantha, prairie panic grass) is limited to the southern US.


Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Panicinae — Kellochloa
Genus Kellochloa Panic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Muhl.) Lizarazu, Nicola & Scataglini

1816. Panicum debile Elliott
1817. Panicum verrucosum Muhl.
1824. Panicum umbraculum Bosc ex Spreng.
2015. Kellochloa verrucosa (Muhl.) in…
Warty panicgrass Native, CoC: 10,
Secure,
S5

FACW

Annual,
Graminoid
Kings (1898),
Nassau (1898-1921),
Queens (1936),
Richmond,
Suffolk (1987-93)
NYFA: 5
iNat

USDA-N0
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Subtribe Cenchrinae[edit | edit source]

The Cenchrinae Dumort (1829).

Cenchrus[edit | edit source]
Cenchrus longispinus

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Cenchrinae — Cenchrus
Genus Cenchrus Sand bur N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Hack.) Fernald

1788. Cenchrus carolinianus Walter
1903. C. echinatusfo. longispina Hack.
1915. Nastus carolinianus (Walter) Lunell
1943. Cenchrus longispinus Fernald
1949. Cenchrus pauciflorus
var. longispinus Jansen & Wacht.
Long-spine sandbur,
Mat sandbur
Native,
Secure
~32 counties
NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Cenchrus tribuloides L.
1824. C. echinatusvar. tribuloides Torr.
1877. C. tribuloidesvar. macrocephalus Döll
1899. C. macrocephalus (Döll) Scribn.
Dune sandbur,
Sanddune sandbur,
Long-spine sandbur
Native,
Threatened
8 counties
NYFA: 2

USDA-N0
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 (L.) Thunb.

1753. Alopecurus hordeiformis L.
1753. Panicum alopecuroides L.
1794. Cenchrus alopecuroides (L.) Thunb.
1794. Cenchrus purpurascens Thunb.
1810. Pennisetum compressum R.Br.
1821. Pennisetum japonicum Trin. ex Spreng.
1824. Pennisetum alopecuroides Spreng.
1824. Pennisetum hordeiforme (Thunb.) Spreng.
1830. Cenchrus alopecuroides J.Presl*
1826. Penicillaria alopecuroides Sweet
2010. Cenchrus compressus Morrone
Foxtail fountain grass
Chinese fountaingrass
Chinese millet grass
Chinese pennisetum ...
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS Tier: Buffer,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [3],
Naturalized
Nassau (1931)
Suffolk (1999)
NYFA: X
iNat

USDA-X0
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 Roxb.

    Cenchrus barbatus Schumach.
    Cenchrus catharticus Delile
India sandburr
Indian sandburr
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized,
SNA
Westchester (1898)
NYFA: Xm

USDA-X0
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Wikispecies
Cav.

    Cenchrus spinifex Cav.
    Cenchrus incertus M.A. Curtis.
Coastal sandbur

Introduced,
Not naturalized,
SNA
Bronx (1899, 1901)
NYFA: X

Images
Wikispecies
Genus Cenchrus (excluded taxa) Sand bur N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Morrone

1753. Panicum americanum L.
1753. Panicum glaucum L.
1810. Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
1812. Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv.
1907. Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke
2010. Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone
American fountaingrass,
Pearl millet
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
[1]
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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 L.

    Cenchrus ciliaris L
    Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link
Buffelgrass,
Buffel-grass
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

USDA-XX
Images
Wikispecies
  1. According to the New York Flora Atlas, specimens of Cenchrus americanus were probably Setaria pumila.
Setaria[edit | edit source]
Setaria parviflora
Although the vulnerable native grass Setaria parviflora is present in southern parts of the state, several common weedy species of introduced Setaria species are present throughout New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paniceae — Cenchrinae — Setaria
Genus SetariaP.Beauv. (1812) Foxtail / bristle grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Poir.) Kerguélen

1798. Panicum geniculatum Poir.
1987. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen
 auct. S. geniculatanon (Wild.) P.Beauv.
Knotroot foxtail ...
Knotroot bristlegrass ...
Marsh bristlegrass ...
Bristly foxtail
Native, CoC: 8,
Unranked,
(Vulnerable?),
SNR, G5

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 3?
NYFA: 12 counties
iNat
Suffolk (2020-21)

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R.A.W.Herrm.

1910. Setaria faberi R.A.W.Herrm.
    
    
Giant foxtail,
Japanese bristlegrass
Introduced,
Widespread weed

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn
iNat

USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
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Wikispecies
 (L.) P.Beauv.
 var. viridis

Green foxtail,
Green bristle grass,
Green bristlegrass
Introduced,
Widespread weed

Annual,
Graminoid
54 counties
NYFA: Xn
iNat

USDA-XX
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 (L.) P.Beauv.
 var. major Gray

    
    
    
Giant green foxtail Introduced,
Unk. naturalization,
Graminoid
Albany (1948)
NYFA: Xun
iNat

USDA-X0
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 (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
 ssp. pumila

1782. Panicum helvolum L.f.
1816. Panicum pumilum Poir.
1817. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
1817. Setaria helvola (L.f.) Roem. & Schult.
Yellow bristlegrass Introduced,
Widespread weed

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

USDA-XX
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Foxtail millet,
Italian foxtail
Introduced,
Naturalized

FACU

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

USDA-Xw
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 (L.) P. Beauv.

    
1812. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv.
    
Bristly bristle grass,
Bristly foxtail
Introduced,
Graminoid

NYFA: Xn

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 Dumort.

1827. Setaria verticilliformis Dunart.
Barbed bristlegrass Introduced

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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Tribe Paspaleae[edit | edit source]

The Paspaleae J.Presl (1830)

Subtribe Paspalinae[edit | edit source]

The Paspalinae Griseb. (1846)

Paspalum[edit | edit source]
Paspalum setaceum

Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paspaleae — Paspalinae — Paspalum
Genus Paspalum Crown grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. muhlenbergii

    P. pubescens Muhl. ex Willd.
    P. muhlenbergii Nash
    P. ciliatifoliumvar. muhlenbergii
    P. pubescensvar. muhlenbergii
Hurrah bead grass ...
Thin paspalum
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure,
S5

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid
22 counties
NYFA: 5

USDA-NN[1]
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 Michx.
var. setaceum

    P. debile Michx.
    P. dissectum Walter
    P. dolichopus Trin. ex Steud.
    P. dubium DC.
Thin beadgrass ...
Slender beadgrass
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
S2, G5-T5

FACU,
Graminoid
Bronx, Nassau, Richmond, Suffolk (1938, 1991), Westchester
NYFA: 2

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 Michx.
var. psammophilum

    P. psammophilum Nash ex Hitchc.
    P. prostratum Nash
Sand bead grass ...
Lens grass
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G5-T4?,
Graminoid
Bronx, Nassau (1907), Queens, Richmond, Suffolk (1886-1929), Westchester
NYFA: 1

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 Michx.

1803. Paspalum laeve Michx.
    Paspalum circulare Nash
    Paspalum laeve  var. circulare  (Nash) Fernald
    Paspalum laeve  var. pilosum  Scribn.
    Paspalum longipilum Nash
    Paspalum plenipilum Nash
Field bead grass ...
Field paspalum
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S2, G4-5

FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 1

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Genus Paspalum (excluded taxa) Crown grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.
var. stramineum

    P. separatum Shinners
    P. bushii Nash
    P. stramineum Nash
Thin paspalum N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Michx.
var. ciliatifolium (Michx.) Vasey

    
1892. P. setaceumvar. ciliatifolium
    
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies

    
    
    
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Subtribe Arthropogoninae[edit | edit source]

Coleataenia[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Paspaleae — Arthropogoninae — Coleataenia
Genus Coleataenia Panic grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Nash) LeBlond

1814. Panicum elongatum Pursh
1901. Panicum stipitatum Nash
1984. Panicum rigidulumvar. elongatum
2010. Sorengia longifoliassp. elongata
2010. C. longifoliassp. elongata
2011. Coleataenia stipitata LeBlond
Redtop panicum,
Red-topped panicgrass
Native,
Endangered,
No recent reports

NYFA: Z

USDA-N0
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 (Michx.) Soreng
ssp. anceps

1803. Panicum anceps Michx.
1809. Panicum rostratum Muhl. ex Willd.
1810. Agrostis nutans Poir.
2010. Sorengia ancepsssp. anceps superfl.
2010. Coleataenia ancepsssp. anceps
Beaked panic grass,
Panic grass
Native,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z

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 (Torr.) Soreng
ssp. longifolia

1889. Panicum ancepsvar. pubescens
1934. P. longifoliumvar. pubescens
1984. P. rigidulumvar. pubescens
2002. P. rigidulumssp. pubescens
2010. Sorengia longifoliassp. longifolia
2010. Coleataenia longifoliassp. longifolia
Longleaf panicgrass,
Redtop panicum,
Red-topped panicgrass
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U

Images
Wikispecies
(Bosc ex Nees) LeBlond
ssp. rigidula

1829. Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees
2010. Sorengia longifolia
ssp. rigidula Zuloaga & Morrone
2010. C. longifoliassp. rigidula Soreng
2011. C. rigidula (Bosc ex Nees) LeBlond
[1]
Red-topped panic grass,
Redtop panicgrass
Native, CoC: 7,
Unranked

NYFA: U

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  1. LeBlond (2011) in Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5(2): 448 treats the former Panicum rigidulum as Coleataenia rigidula. The other sources used here have not accepted that placement.

Tribe Andropogoneae[edit | edit source]

The Andropogoneae (sorghum tribe) contains the widely-cultivated non-native cereal crops, corn and sorghum. It also contains the native bluestems, Indiangrass, and gama grass, as well as a few alien invasive grasses, such as Chinese silvergrass (eulalia) and Japanese stiltgrass.

Subtribe Arthraxoninae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Arthraxoninae Benth. (1881) contains about 27 species of carpetgrass worldwide in the single genus Arthraxon.[1][2]
Arthraxon[edit | edit source]
Arthraxon hispidus
Small carpetgrass is a widespread invasive grass in the southeastern U.S., but in New York State, it has been found mainly in the vicinity of New York City and lower Hudson.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Andropogoninae — Arthraxon
Genus Arthraxon Carpetgrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Thunb.) Makino
var. hispidus

1784. Phalaris hispida Thunb.
1812. Arthraxon ciliaris P.Beauv.
1889. A. ciliarisvar. cryptatherus
1912. A. hispidus (Thunb.) Makino
1925. A. hispidusvar. cryptatherus
1930. A. hispidusvar. ciliaris
Small carpetgrass,
Small carpet grass,
Small carp grass,
Jointhead,
Jointhead grass,
Hairy-joint grass
Introduced from
 Asia,
 Australia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 76%[1],
Prohibited[2],
NE-4[3]

FACW-FAC

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
NYFA: 3 counties
Greene (2020)

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Subtribe Tripsacinae[edit | edit source]

Tripsacum dactyloides
Subtribe Tripsacinae Dumort. (1829) contains the genera Tripsacum and Zea.[1]
Tripsacum[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Tripsacinae — Tripsacum
Genus Tripsacum Gama grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.
var. dactyloides

1753. Coix dactyloides L.
1759. Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.
1883. T. dactyloidesvar. genuinum
1898. Dactylodes dactylodes (L.) Kuntze
1906. T. dactyloidesssp. dactyloides
Eastern gama grass,
Northern gama grass,
Fakahatchee Grass
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 2

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Zea[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Tripsacinae — Zea
Genus Zea Corn N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 L.
ssp. mays

    
    
    
Corn,
Maize
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Rottboelliinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Rottboelliinae J. Presl (1830) [syn. Coicinae Clayton & Renvoize (1981)] worldwide contains about 13 species of Asian and Australian grasses in the genera Chasmopodium, Coix, and Rottboellia.[1][2]
Coix[edit | edit source]
Coix lacryma-jobi
No Coix species are known to naturalize in New York State, but Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi) specimens have been collected from the Bronx.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Coicinae
Genus Coix Job's-tears N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

    
    
    
Job's-tears Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not Naturalized

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Apludinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Apludinae Hook.f. (1896) contains the seven genera Apluda, Asthenochloa, Eulalia, Homozeugos, Polytrias, Sorghastrum, and Trachypogon, with a total of about 68 species.[1] Its only New York genus, Sorghastrum, was previously included in the subtribe Sorghinae.
Sorghastrum[edit | edit source]
Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash
yellow Indiangrass spikelets
The approximately 20 Sorghastrum species are native to various parts of North America, South America, and Africa. Of these, only Sorghastrum nutans (Yellow Indiangrass) is native to New York. No non-native Sorghastrum species have been known to naturalize in New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Apludinae — Sorghastrum
Genus Sorghastrum Indian grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Nash

1753. Andropogon nutans L.
1803. Andropogon avenaceus Michx.
1848. Sorghum nutans (L.) A. Gray
1901. Sorghastrum avenaceum (Michx.) Nash
1903. Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash
Indiangrass,
Yellow Indiangrass
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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Subtribe Sorghinae[edit | edit source]

Spikelets of Sorghastrum nutans (left) and Sorghum halepense (right)
Subtribe Sorghinae Bluff, Nees & Schauer ex Clayton & Renvoize (1986), which contains genera Cleistachne, Lasiorhachis, Sarga, and Sorghum, which in New York contains the naturalized Eurasian Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). This subtribe previously conatined the native yellow Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), which has been transferred to subtribe Apludinae.[1]
Sorghum[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Sorghinae — Sorghum
Genus Sorghumsect. Sorghum Sorghum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Pers.

1753. Holcus halepensis L.
1805. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
1916. Holcus sorghumvar. exiguus
Johnsongrass,
Johnson grass,
Aleppo grass
Sorgho d'Alep,
Herbe d'Alep
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
 Asia,
Moderately invasive,
Naturalized

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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(L.) Moench
ssp. bicolor

1753. Holcus sorghum L.
1771. Holcus bicolor L.
1794. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
1805. Sorghum vulgare Pers.
Sorghum,
Broomcorn,
Broom-corn,
Grain sorghum,
Chicken corn,
Shattercane,
Wild cane
Introduced from
 Africa,
Potentially invasive,
Not naturalized

UPL

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X

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(L.) Moench
ssp. drummondii
(Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse

1903. Sorghum drummondiiin…
1916. Sorghum vulgare  var. sudanense  (Piper) Hitchc.
1917. Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf
1933. Sorghum vulgare  var. drummondii  (Steud.) Hitchc.
1973. Sorghum bicolor  var. drummondii  (Steud.) Mohlenbr.
1993. Sorghum bicolor  ssp. drummondii  (Steud.) de Wet ex Davidse
Sudan grass ...

Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: 4 counties
xx counties

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Subtribe Andropogoninae[edit | edit source]

Andropogoninae J. Presl (1830) worldwide contains Anadelphia , Andropogon (syn. Hypogynium), Bhidea, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Elymandra, Exotheca , Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium and Schizachyrium.[1][2]
Andropogon[edit | edit source]
Andropogon gerardii Vitman
big bluestem
Andropogon contains several bluestem grasses that are native to New York. The most prevalent is Andropogon gerardii, or big bluestem, which is a key component of North America's tallgrass prairies.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Andropogoninae — Andropogon
Genus Andropogon Bluestem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Vitman

1785. A. provincialis Lam. (i)
1792. A. gerardi Vitman
1806. A. furcatus Muhl. ex Willd.
Big bluestem,
Tall bluestem,
Bluejoint,
Turkeyfoot
Barbon de Gérard,
Barbon à épis digités,
Barbon fourchu
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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L.
var. virginicus

    
    
    
Broomsedge bluestem ...
Broom sedge bluestem ...
Yellow bluestem ...

Barbon de Virginie ...
Native, CoC: 4,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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(Walter) Britton et al.
var. glomeratus

1788. Cinna glomerata Walter
1888. A. glomeratus (Walter) Britton et al.
Bushy bluestem ...
Bushy beard grass ...

Native, CoC: 8,
Threatened

NYFA: 2?

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Genus Andropogon (excluded taxa) Bluestem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Hack.

1884. A. hallii Hack.
1884. A. halliivar. incanescens
1901. A. paucipilus Nash
1943. A. gerardivar. chrysocomus
1943. A. gerardivar. paucipilus
1967. A. gerardivar. incanescens
1997. A. gerardissp. hallii
Sand bluestem,
Turkeyfoot
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Schizachyrium[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Andropogoninae — Schizachyrium
Genus Schizachyrium Bluestems N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Nash
var. scoparium

1803. Andropogon scoparius Michx.
1898. A. neomexicanus Nash
1903. S. scoparium Nash
Little bluestem,
Small bluestem,
Broom bluestem,
Broom beardgrass
Barbon à balais,
Schizachyrium à balais
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 5

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(Nash) E.P.Bicknell

1901. Andropogon littoralis Nash
1906. A. scopariusvar. littoralis
1908. S. littorale (Nash) E.P.Bicknell
1935. A. scopariusvar. ducis
1967. S. scopariumvar. littorale
1996. S. scopariumssp. littorale
Dune bluestem,
Shore bluestem,
Shore little bluestem,
Seaside bluestem
Barbon des rivages
Native, CoC: 8,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3?

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Subtribe Saccharinae[edit | edit source]

Members of the Saccharinae have some of the largest known biomass productivity levels and are relatively drought resistent.[1]
Microstegium[edit | edit source]
Microstegium vimineum
Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) is listed as very highly invasive in New York State.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Saccharinae — Microstegium
Genus Microstegium Browntop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Trin.) A.Camus

1834. Andropogon vimineus Trin.
1855. Pollinia imberbis Nees ex Steud.
1891. Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze
1891. Eulalia vimineavar. imberbis
1891. Eulalia vimineavar. variabilis
1921. M. vimineum (Trin.) A.Camus
1930. M. vimineumvar. imberbe
1961. M. imberbe (Nees ex Steud.) Tzvelev
Japanese stiltgrass,
Japanese stilt-grass,
Nepalese browntop
Introduced from
 Asia,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 85%[1],
CP-2[2] NE-1[3]

FAC

Annual,
Graminoid

NYFA: X
iNat

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentMicrostegium vimineum: Very highly invasive (85%).
  2. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Miscanthus[edit | edit source]
Miscanthus sinensis
Chinese silvergrass
Miscanthus (silvergrass) includes two ornamental Asian grasses that are found in New York. Of these, Miscanthus sinensis is listed as highly invasive in the state.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Saccharinae — Miscanthus
Genus Miscanthus Silvergrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Andersson

1794. Saccharum japonicum Thunb.
1812. Erianthus japonicus P.Beauv.
1820. Ripidium japonicum Trin.
1832. Eulalia japonica Trin.
1855. Miscanthus japonicus Andersson
1856. Miscanthus sinensis Andersson
Eulalia ...
Chinese silvergrass ...
Miscanthus ...
Eulalia grass
Zebra grass
Japanese pampas grass

Miscanthus de Chine ...
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 78%[1],
CP-5[2]

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Graminoid
Bronx, Nassau,
Otsego (2010),
Queens (1921),
Richmond, Rockland,
Suffolk (1989, 2005),
Tompkins (2010)
NYFA: X

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(Maxim.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch.

1859. Imperata sacchariflora Maxim.
1881. Miscanthus saccharifer Benth., inval.
1884. Miscanthus saccariflorus Hack.
Japanese silver grass,
Amur silver-grass,
Silver plume grass,
Silver banner grass
Miscanthus commun
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS Tier: Untiered,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [4],
Naturalized
Oneida,
St. Lawrence (2008)
NYFA: X

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Tripidium [edit | edit source]
Tripidium ravennae
Ravenna grass has been observed outside of cultivation on Randall's Island[1] and Port Jefferson Station.[2]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Saccharinae — Tripidium
Genus Tripidium Sugar cane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) H.Scholz

1763. Andropogon ravennae L.
1774. Saccharum ravennae (L.) L.
2006. Tripidium ravennae (L.) H.Scholz
Ravenna grass ...

Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [5]

NYFA: Not listed
2 counties

GBIF
POWO
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Saccharum[edit | edit source]
Saccharum giganteum in Texas
Saccharum giganteum has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas, but Tripidium ravennae (above) has previously been placed in Saccharum and has been recently been observed in in southeastern New York.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Saccharinae — Saccharum
Genus Saccharum Sugar cane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) Pers.

1788. Anthoxanthum giganteum Walter
1805. Saccharum giganteum (Walter) Pers.
1812. Erianthus giganteus (Walter) P.Beauv.
1895. Erianthus compactus Nash
1950. Erianthus giganteus  var. compactus  (Nash) Fernald & B.G.Schub.
Sugarcane plumegrass Introduced from
 southern US,
US South native,
Excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Imperata[edit | edit source]
Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv.
Cogongrass
Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) has not been confirmed as having naturalized in New York, but it has caused a major economic and environmental impact in the Southeast.[1] It is included here because the New York non-native plant invasiveness assessment shows that it may be able to naturalize on Long Island based on the conditions there.[2] The New York Flora Atlas does not list Imperata cylindrica. NRCS and BONAP both show it no farther north than Virginia in the East, but it is shown in northern Oregon in the West.
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Saccharinae — Imperata
Genus ImperataCirillo (1792) Cogongrass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Raeusch.

1759. Lagurus cylindricus L.
1785. Saccharum cylindricum (L.) Lam.
1788. Saccharum koenigii Retz.
1792. Imperata arundinacea Cirillo
1797. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.
1812. Imperata cylindrica (L.) P.Beauv.
1812. Imperata koenigii P.Beauv.
Cogongrass
Blady grass
Cotton-wool grass
Japanese blood grass
Alang-alang ...

Impérate
Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
Not listed in NY,
NYIS: 79%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 0
iNat

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Subtribe Anthistiriinae[edit | edit source]

Bothriochloa[edit | edit source]
Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Andropogoneae — Anthistiriinae — Bothriochloa
Genus Bothriochloa Beard grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Keng
var. ischaemum

1753. Andropogon ischaemum L.
1936. Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng
Broom sedge ...
Yellow bluestem ...
Turkestan bluestem ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Tribe Chasmanthieae[edit | edit source]

Chasmanthium[edit | edit source]

Chasmanthium latifolium
Woodoats (genus Chasmanthium) contains about five North American species (C. latifolium, C. laxum, C. nitidum, C. ornithorhynchum, and C. sessiliflorum). Of these, only Chasmanthium laxum (slender spikegrass) is listed as native to New York State. However, it is listed as Endangered in New York, where it has been collected only from Nassau, Richmond, and Suffolk counties.[1]

Chasmanthium latifolium (northern wood-oats) is not considered native north of Pennsylvania, but it is commonly sold by native plant vendors in New York.


Poales — Poaceae — Panicoideae — Chasmanthieae — Chasmanthium
Genus Chasmanthium Wood oats N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) H.O.Yates

1753. Holcus laxus L.
1803. Uniola gracilis Michx.
1808. Uniola sessiliflora Poir.
1827. Chasmanthium gracile (Michx.) Link
1888. Uniola laxa (L.) Britton, Sterns & Pog.
1966. Chasmanthium laxum (L.) H.O.Yates
Slender woodoats,
Slender spikegrass
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

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Wikispecies
(Michx.) H.O.Yates

1803. Uniola latifolia Michx.
1966. Chasmanthium latifolium H.O.Yates
Indian woodoats,
Broadleaf chasmanthium,
Broadleaf uniola,
Creek oats,
Wild oats,
Northern sea oats
Introduced from
 PA-FL-TX-KS,
US South native,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Graminoid

NYFA: 0

USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP
IPN
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Wikispecies