Fighting/Unarmed Combat

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Unarmed[edit]

The ability to successfully win an unarmed fight is as much a function of will, the specific situation, physical fitness, and size rather than skill. Skill can, however, give you an edge and the training required to build skills also builds your physical fitness and willpower. Even the most skilled fighter is at a significant disadvantage against an armed opponent or against multiple opponents.

Fighting should be your last resort and it is nearly always better to avoid the fight. Where it isn't possible - perhaps because you are cornered or need to protect other people - and a fight is inevitable you should always aim to strike first and win with a single strike. This concept is encapsulated in many traditional martial arts - for example as "one strike, one kill" in Karate.

The law varies between countries, but in most Common Law countries - including the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth and the United States - it is legal to strike first in self defence if a reasonable person would believe they were threatened by imminent danger.

To be fully effective, unarmed fighting skills need to cover a full range of techniques including striking, kicking, throwing, grappling, holds, locks and ground fighting techniques. However, it is better to be highly proficient in a small number of techniques than to be average at many. Knowing how to do 20 different types of hand strikes is no substitute for being able to deliver two or three fast, powerful well targeted strikes. In addition, while grappling and ground work are important in case you find yourself on the ground, this situation needs to be avoided at all costs unless you are good at being able to mount your opponent to sit astride of him and control him effectively. Staying on your feet is critical to your mobility and ability to mount effective attacks.

The basics[edit]

When fighting unarmed, there are several things to remember. First, your stance and balance. You should stand in a slight crouch, your dominant leg behind the other with your elbows at a slightly less than 90 degree angle; and always keep your hands in front of your face, allowing you to better guard your face. Keep your stomach tense, since you do not know when you'd be hit. You can attempt to predict strikes by looking at your opponent's chest. Have his shoulders and his hips in peripherals. Your hands should not be curled into tight fists. If you keep your fists tense, the whole arm is tense and you will be slower to react. The fist should be clenched right before the point of contact. Make sure your jaw is clenched and your chin tucked down. This makes it more difficult to cause severe damage to your jaw, mouth or teeth.

Second, let's discuss movement. When fighting, you should always maintain balance in motion. This means taking short steps, not crossing your feet, and maintaining a low center of balance.

Third, striking. The fastest way to end an unarmed fight is to knock an opponent out with one punch. However, this is more difficult to accomplish than to write. It takes a large amount of practice to be able to throw a fast and accurate strike. However, it is still an important part of any fight. When striking, hit at your opponents face. This serves several purposes. First, a good shot to the head will stun pretty much anyone, if only for a moment. Second, it forces your opponent to be defensive (as no one will just let you hit their face), allowing you to control the fight. Third, it can force your opponent off balance. Since the bones of the head are significantly more durable than the bones of the fingers, you may end up hurting yourself more than your opponent if you are not careful. A good way to avoid hurting the bones of the hand is to hit the nose. It is much softer than the cheekbone or jawbone and makes the enemy tear (obstructing his vision), as well as making him lose his balance (or even fall down). As a bonus, the natural reaction to a nose blow is to bring the hands to the nose (to stop the bleeding) and bend over, giving you the perfect time to finish the fight or to escape.

Fourth, defense. The best defense is a good offense. The best way to stop your opponent from hitting you is to hit them. Failing that, the best way to avoid being hit is to simply not be where the blow lands. Moving sideways tends to work best; moving backwards is more of a temporary solution. Retreat gives a false sense of security and can create more problems than it solves.

Finally, there are no rules in a self-defense situation. If you can gouge your opponents eyes, hit them with a brick, bite them...do it. Always seek to arm yourself in a fight, even if by grabbing a stick, chair, or rock to hit your opponent. You (generally) gain nothing by fighting fair. However, it is advisable to spare a thought to the potential implications of your actions; for example, harming another person, even in self-defense. In the event that the relevant authorities become involved, you will undoubtedly need to justify your actions before a court of law. The phrase "It is better to be tried by twelve than carried by six" could be seen as blatant machismo, but it rings true up to a certain point. As long as you do not overstep the boundaries of self-defense (and you can justify yourself), then by all means use anything at your disposal to ensure your survival. Keep in mind, however, that in certain situations (for example, being attacked by a much stronger person), attempting to wield a weapon you are not practiced in can dig your own grave.

Strikes[edit]

There are a variety of strikes that can be effectively used. Among the most common are these: the punch, the elbow, the knee, the backfist, and the kick (using the foot or the shin as a striking surface). These are your most natural weapons. Headbutts can be useful, but should only be used as a last resort, as they are potentially harmful to the user as well as the receiver. Remember, it can be a bad idea to try and fight with strikes alone, especially if you are untrained. If possible, incapacitate your opponent using a push or throw, and then run away.

Although the one-punch knockout is the fastest way to win a fight, there are several important considerations. First, to knock an opponent out requires a fast, powerful punch to the jaw. This is difficult even for a trained fighter. Untrained fighters will find themselves swinging wildly and missing the target. This is due to not having the appropriate skills, but also due to the presence of adrenaline in a real fight. In a real fight, the release of adrenaline increases strength but causes decreased fine motor skills. Professional fighters are used to this, but the typical person is not, and the adrenaline rush makes it more difficult for people to throw an accurate strike. A yell in the form of a short burst can increase your power, temporarily tensing all of the muscles in your body, if only a bit. Always punch with the same foot as the striking hand in the foreground. For example, if you punch with your left hand, your left foot should be slightly forward. You should never fight completely facing your opponent. The correct stance has already been mentioned; a boxing stance presents a larger target.

In addition, be aware that the human skull is extremely hard, especially from the eyebrows up. A hard punch with closed fist, if landed above the opponent's eyes, will usually break your hand. Boxers in a ring can throw wild punches only because their hands are protected by thick padding. In a real fight, throwing a powerful roundhouse punch may break your hand, hurting you more than the opponent. Such haymaking punches, although they may feel powerful, have very little true power. If you can manage it, always punch straight-on.

You should also keep in mind that, the more experienced your opponent is, the harder it will be to throw a knockout punch. They are not going to simply let themselves be hit.

When striking an opponent, you may want to try to set them up to knock them down, grab them, or throw them. Hit the face and sensitive regions of the body such as the eyes, throat, knees, solar plexus, groin and kidneys. The throat is only to be used in life-or-death situations as a strike to the throat has the potential to be a killing blow. Avoid flailing your fists around, but rather jab. One principle is to protect your center line and attack around the center line of the opponent.

Many schools of fighting teach you to fight with your weaker arm forward. This allows you to lean and rotate further into strikes with your stronger arm, resulting in more powerful blows. Most military schools of instruction further instruct you to hit primarily with your arms, keeping both feet on the ground. This is more stable, and generally safer. Similarly, you should only hit with your elbows and knees when you are extremely close to your opponent, in situations such as grappling.

Kicks can be used to deliver very powerful blows, but they should be used only if you are skilled, and even then with caution. A kick forces you to balance on a single foot, a very precarious position in a fight. To minimize risk, deliver fast, powerful kicks at low heights. This allows you to quickly retract your leg and return to a balanced position.

Kicks generally strike with the shin, the ball of the foot, the heel, or the top of the foot. Kicking your opponent's knees and groin is a particularly effective approach. Be aware that kicking barefoot using the ball of the foot or top of the foot can break your toes. High kicks especially should be delivered quickly, permitting you to return to a balanced stance as rapidly as possible.

When used properly, a kick can keep your opponent at bay, which is vitally important if they are armed. Learn to kick with good balance and technique, and in all directions. Gradually increase your speed and height and try hitting on punching bags with full power and accuracy. Kicking drills, although they take a lot of time, also burn more fat, making your more physically fit. Practice knee attacks and counters for very close range fighting. Kicks utilize the largest and most powerful muscles of our body; therefore, if delivered with proper speed and timing, they give good results. Many street thugs only use their hands, not utilizing kicks at all. This usually results in a complete lack of knowledge as to how to block kicks. We reiterate, practice this skill. It will doubtless become invaluable in middle-to-long range fighting.

In martial arts, it is foolish to argue as to whether kicks are better than hand techniques. You should learn to use all parts of your body to their fullest effect.

You should also remember that it is always better to run than fight. If you are not the aggressor, then your opponent will be more prepared than you are. When fleeing, always try to get to an area with many people, such as a square or park. You should never look back, as this will slow your speed.

Grappling[edit]

Grappling is an underrated and generally not well understood facet of fighting. Grappling choke holds, and joint locks can be extremely dangerous when done by an expert. In a fight, grappling is often combined with punching. Many fights turn into grappling contests, even if both combatants intend to only punch. An expert grappler will often use strikes to loosen up an opponent or set him up for a finishing hold.

Be aware that if you are not a trained grappler, it can be unwise to attempt to grapple with someone considerably larger or stronger than you. The stronger, heavier person will tend to dominate in a grappling contest.

A fast and effective way to end a fight is with a choke hold. The simplest way to do this when standing is to throw punches to the face, and then tackle the opponent. The take down is usually performed by shooting low on the opponent, wrapping your arms around the opponent's legs around the knee area, and pushing forward with your shoulder while pulling the knees forward.

As the opponent hits the ground, you must immediately attempt to mount the opponent. Also known as a "Schoolboy Pin" this is simply where you sit astride of an opponent in order to hold him down and control him by riding him. You can get on top of him in a low mount where you sit astride of his belly or groin area, you can also ride him in a high mount where you sit astride of his chest. You can achieve mount on him in a variety of ways. If you're kneeling by his side quickly cock your leg over him to straddle his waist or chest and then sit down on him. If you end up laying next to him then quickly cock your leg over the opponent from the side and pull yourself on top of him so that you are laying astride of his body. Draw your legs up either side of him so that you are now seated astride of him leaning forward onto him. If you haven't already, gain control over his arms. Quickly sit up so that your are now seated upright astride of him in a stable mount position. Sit up on him spreading your buttocks and legs widely across his body with your knees in his arm pits. To ensure effective contact and control your buttocks and perineum (skin from your anus to your genitals) should straddle him comfortably and be tightly applied to the top surface of his body; in other words sit on him don't hover above him. The whole point of sitting on top of him is so that you can dominate him. Having your opponent between your legs is a huge advantage. Your thighs have strong muscles which will grip his sides as he is held between them and your lower legs resting on the ground either side of him provide a stable base. It's important to use your legs effectively when riding him. Your ride should be dynamic and your legs should be used to help control his body; opening your legs wide across him or closing and gripping him between your legs in response to his movements. It's best not to constantly grip his body between your legs and thighs but keep them wide for stability. If you constantly grip and squeeze his body between your legs then you are likely tu get swept if he manages to roll beneath you. However, you may need to grip him between your legs now and again when executing certain moves or when you are leaning backward onto him. When leaning forward onto him you should open your legs wider astride of him to give you greater stability upon him. Your buttocks are heavy, powerful muscles and help to grip his body by straddling him. Your buttocks are therefore fundamental in holding him down and should be used effectively when sitting on him. Keep your buttocks on top of him at all times and keep sitting on him as you attack. If you rise up and lose body contact you may get swept. Tucking your feet underneath either side of him will also help to prevent him rolling beneath you. Ride him like a horse and if he bucks rise up with him and then as he lowers back to the ground follow his body to sit down on top of him again. Sitting astride of his belly is a good place to start from as you can wrestle with his arms and pin them to the ground. Once you're in control you can either just sit there until he gives in or slide your butt up his body until you are sitting astride of his chest close to his face. You can spread your legs wider across him and kneel on his arms as you sit up tall upon him. You can punch and strangle him from here. If you do choose to mount your opponent then you should stay seated fully astride of him until you can safely dismount him. You may also like to half squat or fully squat astride of him to finish him off if you want. Do this from mount by raising one or both legs up either side of him. Your buttocks should continue to fully straddle him and sit upright upon him pressing him down. These positions are useful if you are sitting on him and wish to pull his head towards your groin such as during a camel clutch. As you do not have your opponent fully held between your legs in these positions, you should only sit on him like this if you can keep control over his body. Your legs should be lowered back down to the ground to fully straddle him again if he tries to dismount you or you have finished executing the technique.

Not only is the mount physically dominant it is also psychologically dominant. Both yourself and your opponent are obviously aware that you are sitting astride of him. You both know that you have him in your intimate personal space; you have your legs open across his body; he is between your legs and thighs and underneath your buttocks. You both know that his body rests underneath and against your perineum, your anus and your genitals. The feeling of the opponent trapped within your intimate personal space gives you the feeling of being dominant. Your dominance over him is demonstrated as you sit on him and ride him like a horse; a powerful animal dominated and controlled by sitting astride of it. The opponent beneath you feels dominated by the presence of your buttocks, perineum, anus and genitals resting on top of his body as he is held between your feet, legs and thighs. Your genitals and anus may straddle and rest on top of his body only centimetres from his face. Mounting your opponent is basic human instinct and common sense. Kids play fighting or fighting will nearly always end up on the ground with one boy sitting astride of the other. The goal of both boys is usually to get the other boy down on the ground, get his leg over the other boy to straddle him and quickly sit astride on top of him. Each boy realises that this position enables him to hold the other boy firmly between his legs whilst sitting on him to pin him down. Once sitting astride of the other boy he knows that it will allow him to do anything on and to the boy beneath him. It is often the case that once the fight gets to the ground the audience will shout "sit on him", "get on top of him". The audience obviously appreciate and understand the advantages offered by being seated astride of the opponent and recognise it has a dominant, winning position. Most boys will straddle and sit on the other boy's belly and lean slightly forward onto him pinning his arms to the ground above his head. Some boys will sit upright astride of the other boy's chest close to his face kneeling onto his arms. Most boys will just stay sitting on top of the other boy looking dominantly down at him until the boy beneath him gives up. Some boys will take further advantage of being mounted on top and attack the boy beneath him. Some boys mount the other boy's chest, open their legs wide across him and kneel on his arms as they sit upright upon him. The boy sitting on top then raises his arms above his head in a victory pose astride the boy beneath him. He will often sit on the boy like this for a while looking proudly down at the boy struggling beneath him between his legs. The defeated opponent is claimed as property and continues to serve as a seat. This isn't taught it happens naturally, this is human nature.The boys Understand the dominance, advantages and significance of mounting the other boy at an early age. A crowd will usually cheer, smile and look at each other when one fighter manages to straddle and sit on his opponent.

Now that you have a stable and tight seat astride of him you can now set about finishing him.

If you are sat astride of his back, spread your legs wide as you learn forward onto him but keeping your buttocks sitting on top of him. Place your arm around his neck. You may continue to choke him like this as you continue to sit astride him leaning forward or you can sit up on him slightly pulling back on his throat. You may also lay astride of him if you wish. Slide an arm around his neck. The strongest choke hold from this position consists of your arm wrapped around your opponent's throat with the opponent's Adam's apple in the inside of your elbow, with the hand of the strangling arm clutching the inside of the elbow of your other arm. Keep your other hand an the back of your opponent's head, and use the strength from the extension of the arm in this position to apply pressure. If you are laying astride of him the choke hold is most effective if you wrap your legs around the opponent's waist for added leverage, and to prevent the opponent from dislodging you from this position.

Unconsciousness occurs because your bicep and forearm are squeezing the arteries in the sides of the opponent's neck, cutting off adequate blood flow to the brain.

Alternatively, if the opponent is face up on the ground and you have straddled and sat astride of his waist or upper chest you are now in an ideal position to punch him. Sitting upright upon him, start hitting his face. Wedge your feet into his sides, open your legs wide across him and sit up on your buttocks for stability and to hold him down. Press your buttocks deeply into his body for a deep seat. You may wish to kneel upon his arms to control them. Open palm strikes can be used to better slam an opponents head into the ground without risking damage to your hand, as you do with a closed fist (accidentally striking concrete with a punch can break your hand). If you keep your weight concentrated on the upper chest by sitting on it it is much more difficult for your opponent to get up.(If your opponent goes to ground, this would be your chance to run away.)

The opponent may try to punch back, but as you are sat up on top of him and punching down, your punches will land much harder than his. A man on his back cannot generate much power when punching.

As you rain punches down, the opponent will commonly turn over to get his face out of the way. This is the time to apply the choke from behind.

For more advanced grappling it is best to learn Shuai Chiao, Chin Na, judo, jujitsu (e.g.Brazilian) or wrestling, preferably American wrestling.

Another important point to remember is never to wrestle when you are facing multiple opponents. While you are on the ground with one, the rest will do their best to kick the crap out of you. However, the truth is that even in a striking contest, if you attempt to fight multiple opponents, the odds are grossly against you. This is true even if you've had some karate or martial arts training. Today's martial art training focuses much upon the sport aspect and therefore fighters tend to lose edge when faced with multiple opponents. Remember that most fights start at the range of only 18 inches from your body. So learn to use knee and elbow strikes very quickly and effectively. Once you gain a little distance then finish your opponent with powerful kicks. In a fight against multiple opponents always try to strike down an opponent who blocks your escape but do not place yourself in a vulnerable position to get him. You may get hit many times but try to keep on moving and striking until you can finally run away. This approach was once used by a renowned master of Southern Shaolin temple, named Lam Sai Wing. He was once surrounded by armed bandits in a courtyard from all sides and he was unarmed. He snatched weapons from the enemy and started moving around and striking with his weapon at a super fast pace. He eventually beat down many of his attackers and managed to escape without any serious injuries. Granted, this man had 50 years of training under his belt but his approach was very sound for self defense. This serves as exemplary feat and must be taught to all students with practical drills and demonstrations. If you want to learn how to strike down your opponents with only one or two hits to effectively immobilize them then I suggest that you should learn Russian Systema. This combat form teaches you most effective strikes, breathing techniques, defense in confined spaces, fighting against multiple opponents and most effective techniques for defense against guns and all kinds of blunt and sharp edged weapons. This combat form was developed for Russian Special forces and so it only teaches principles and techniques that are most effective in practical situations. Proficiency in this art form is the only criterion and no ranks or belts are awarded. You will most probably enjoy the training and gain considerable proficiency in self defense in a few months.

Defense[edit]

If your opponent manages to take you down, the best thing to do is to roll them over so that you are on top and mount them immediately If you can. If you are face up, grab the back of your opponents neck and pull it down to the side you intend to roll to, arch your back as much as possible, and roll. If you are face down, get your elbows on the ground and lift your upper body off of the ground. From there, shift back to your knees, rotate your body, and push into your opponent. If you are down and being kicked, roll away and get up. If you are in a choke hold, try to reach your opponents eyes and gouge them out with your thumb. Remember to keep calm in a choke hold. With healthy lungs and decent cardiovascular fitness, you should have around a minute of relatively unimpaired activity.

As soon as you are thrown down, always try to fall with knees bent and with both feet facing towards your opponent, thereby allowing you ability to kick him in a thrusting motion with both feet, if he jumps upon you. This also allows you to roll over and get up quickly. Refer to sites on Jujitsu or Judo to learn how to escape from a variety of catches and holds.