Exercise as it relates to Disease/The Benefits of Habitual Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis
This Wikibooks page is a fact sheet and analysis on the article "Habitual physical activity in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis" about how exercise is related to the disease Cystic Fibrosis.
Background of this research
The research was about the effects of taking part in exercise constantly or making it a habit in the population of children and teens that are severing from the genetic condition cystic Fibrosis.
What is Cystic Fibrosis
It is a genetic condition, affecting lungs and digestion. Unfortunately, there is no cure. The condition Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is mostly inherited in the white population with 1 in every 3300 live births being diagnosed with the condition.
Where is the research from ?
This research was based in the American Children’s hospital Pittsburgh in the CF centre. Volunteers for this research included siblings, friends and hospital employee’s children who did not have the condition. Two authors of this research work within the department as paediatrics and others have conducted research regarding children with CF. This included David Michael Orenstein who has many publications on CF. These authors have also conducted other research on children with CF with methods of exercise that can help combat the condition.
What kind of research was this?
This was a meta-analysis form of research; even though this kind of research is time consuming the results are valid and reliable. Other studies that have been done have very similar results, regarding the effects of physical activity and the benefits it has on children and adolescents with CF. For an example, a study that was conducted in Austria compared the effects of physical activity versus chest physiotherapy which is popular within the CF community. Two of the authors, David Michael and Patricia from the research article have conducted a study of “The prognostic value of exercise testing in patients with CF”. Also, the Journal of Paediatric Pulmonology had similar conclusions that through exercise there is an improvement in oxygen consumption and physical self-efficiency and appearance in patients. As well as, lots of positive changes in living conditions of the patients. Even though the research method used in these three studies differ, they all have very similar conclusions that exercise is beneficial for children with CF.
What did the research involve?
- 60 people in total 7–17 years of age
- 30 Patients with cystic fibrosis (18 male, 12 female)
- 30 people in the control not affected (17 male, 13 female )
The participants completed a Questionnaire about their activity levels. Children 12 years and older completed it with no help or little assistant. Children 12 years and under did it with a parent or guardian. When getting tested the children did 2 types of tests, a Pulmonary Function test, and an Exercise Test. The level of aerobic fitness was tested by the participant completing a progressive exercise test on a stationary electronic bike (cycle ergometer) using the Godfrey protocol. Oxygen uptake was measured using a cart that you breathed into and then It analysed the breath content. This was recorded during the last 15 seconds of each stage exercise
Pulmonary Function testing
Pulmonary function was tested before exercising. Children who have CF had limited experience in doing these tests as they did not have regular exposure to the test due to the condition. A spirometry was used to measure pulmonary lung function capacity. The aim of the test is to measure how much and how quickly an individual is able to move air out of their lungs” ( this is done by breathing into a mouth piece connected to a device that records the air and it called a spirometer.
Pros / Cons of this test
This study was very good for testing but there were disadvantages on the younger population in the study due to being short as they were unable to reach the pedals. Another limitation of the study is that focus was only on the effects of aerobic training and did not take into account the benefit of anaerobic or resistance training can have on an individual. Also, the Australian Cystic Fibrosis Council suggest that core strength is also an important component of helping with the clearance of mucus for patients
What were the basic results?
- The survival rate of living with Cystic Fibrosis is affected by the engagement of regulary physical Activity
- The oxygen consumption improves with exercise.
- Exercise helps with the removal of mucus
- Children with Cystic Fibrosis participate in less vigorous physical exercise and activities when compared with children not affected by CF
What conclusion can we take from this research ?
In conclusion, this research demonstrates that exercise does have benefit's for children living with CF as it increases the survival rate and increase life expectancy. I believe one thing that is important when trying to help treat children with CF is to treat them normally and allowing them to engage in the activity as their peers are doing, within reason.
Before trying to treat CF with exercise consult Doctors about the type of exercise and don’t push yourself too hard. Build up the intensity.
Further information/ Resources
Cystic Fibrosis Australia
Cystic Fibrosis Australia even suggests that exercise is an important component of treating cystic fibrosis as it help with clearing the airways and building core strength.
Web Page: http://www.cysticfibrosis.org.au
Cystic Fibrosis's National Ambassador Nathan Charles
Cystic Fibrosis's National Ambassador Nathan Charles an elite rugby union player playing a contact sport while living with the condition cystic fibrosis. Shows that it is possible to stay fit and achieve great success with cystic fibrosis.
Nathan Charles Web page http://nathancharles.com.au Playing Elite Rugby with CF: http://nathancharles.com.au/nutri-grain-unstoppable/
- Cystic Fibrosis [Internet]. Cysticfibrosis.org.au. 2016 [cited 24 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.cysticfibrosis.org.au/all/learn/
- Nixon P, Orenstein D, Kelsey S, Doershuk C. The prognostic value of exercise testing in patients with cystic fibrosis [Internet]. Saskatoon Public Library. 2010 [cited 15 September 2016]. Available from: http://saskatoonlibrary.ca/eds/item?dbid=edsgea&an=edsgcl.13305971
- M. Orenstein D, A. Nixon P, A. Washburn , F. Kelsey S. Measuring Physical Activity in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Comparison of Four Methods: Paediatric Exercise Science: Vol 5, No 2. Paediatric Exercise Science [Internet]. 2016 [cited 13 September 2016];5(2):125-133. Available from: http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/pdf/10.1123/pes.5.2.125
- Gulmans V, de Meer K, Brackel H, Faber J, Berger R, Helders P. Outpatient exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis: Physiological effects, perceived competence, and acceptability. Pediatric Pulmonology [Internet]. 1999 [cited 15 September 2016];28(1):39-46. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0496(199907)28:1%3C39::AID-PPUL7%3E3.0.CO;2-8/abstract
- NIXON P, ORENSTEIN D, KELSEY S. Habitual physical activity in children and adolescents with CF. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2 September 2016];33(1):30-35. Available from: http://zh9bf5sp6t.scholar.serialssolutions.com/?sid=google&auinit=PA&aulast=Nixon&atitle=Habitual+physical+activity+in+children+and+adolescents+with+cystic+fibrosis.&id=pmid:1119410
- Lung Function Tests [Internet]. WebMD. 2016 [cited 14 September 2016]. Available from: http://www.webmd.com/lung/lung-function-tests
- Charles N. NATIONAL AMBASSADOR FOR CYSTIC FIBROSIS AUSTRALIA [Internet]. Nathan Charles. 2015 [cited 25 September 2016]. Available from: http://nathancharles.com.au/bio/