Exercise as it relates to Disease/Measuring physical activity in obese prolonged sedentary older adults

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The research critique is about the study of 'Sedentary time in U.S. older adults associated with disability in activities of daily living independent of physical activity' by Dunlop, Song, Arntson, Semanik, Lee, Chang and Hootman.

Measuring physical activity in obese prolonged sedentary older adults

What is the background to this research?[edit]

Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors causing obesity and leave of absences in jobs. Approximately 40% of individuals around the world with chronic diseases were not meeting a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate intensity per week of physical activity and the percentage grew higher as the countries with high income raised also[1]. As of not only meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity, in 2014, this would see 30% of the world's population being obese or overweight[2].

The purpose of the study that makes this important is to get workers that are prolonged, sedentary throughout their waking hours and getting adults more physical activate throughout the day while their awake to decrease the potential risk of increasing the severity of obesity in adults where they're are sedentary for long periods of their waking day. In 2014, the UK’s Office for National Statistics emphasized that approximately 12% of the 131 million working days lost were from either stress, anxiety and/or depression which could of lead from how they see themselves or others see them[3]. The research on the adult population with desk or screen watching jobs are getting more obese and less activate[4].

Where is the research from?[edit]

Dunlop, Song, Arntson, Semanik, Lee, Chang and Hootman conducted the research in the United States of America by the National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys (NHANES). This research was conducted using cross-sectional study to see how the effect on health outcomes improve overtime by introducing less sedentary time (<1.5 metabolic equivalents)[5]. Even though the research was conducted in the USA, the findings are still applicable for Australia.

What did the research involve?[edit]

The participation of 2,286 adults, consisting of 1,159 males and 1,127 females aged 60 years or older, were being measured for seven consecutive days to measure their sedentary time and their amount of moderate-vigorous time throughout those seven days.

The NHANES collected and checked the data by an accelerometer monitor that the NHANES placed on the participants right hip. The accelerometer monitor was to be worn by the participants while they were awake and not doing any water activities such as showers or submerging the monitor underwater that would disturb or ruin the results in the monitor. The accelerometer monitor was placed on the right hip to allow the participants in the study to be able to do their regular daily living lifestyle with only a minimal disturbance to the participants.

Participants were excluded from the research if they did not have a valid amount of time of wearing the monitor of 10 or more hours throughout each day and also the participants were excluded if there was not four or more of the seven days not being valid of wearing the monitor 10 or more hours per day. The study with the accelerometer monitors on the participants was to observe the average time in hours and percentage each participant spent sedentary during the time the participants were wearing the monitor.

What were the basic results?[edit]

After the seven day period and when all the monitors were collected and analysed, the results found that out of the 2,286 participants aged 60 years and older, the average time the monitor was worn was 14 hours per day. Of that 14 hours, 63.4% of the participants registered to be sedentary for at least 9 or more hours per day.

Sample (n) Participant Population % Activity of Daily Living Disability (%) Average Daily Sedentary Hours Mean (SD) Average Percentage Daily Sedentary Time of Total Wear Hours Mean (SD) !
Age
60-69 1038 47.3 2.8 8.6 (1.8) 60.0 (10.4)
70-79 754 33.9 4.6 9.0 (1.8) 64.6 (10.6)
80+ 494 18.8 8.6 9.6 (2.1) 69.7 (10.9)
Met Physical Activity Guidelines
Yes 127 6.2 2.5 8.2 (1.5) 58.1 (9.3)
No 2159 93.8 4.6 8.9 (2.0) 63.8 (11.2)
Chronic Illnesses
Obesity 710 30.1 5.0 9.1 (2.0) 65.7 (10.9)

The researchers for the study found that the participants that were not meeting the physical activity guidelines and present a chronic illness was relevant to those participants having a higher sedentary behavior.

What conclusions can we take from this research?[edit]

The study that the researchers conducted was a valuable design that could continue to be used and/or add modifications to the study to decrease the amount of time older adults spend sedentary and in type to sedentary position such as lying at home or sitting at work and increase physical activity among the older adult population.

Interventions were implemented to improve health outcomes in older adults proving programs that encourage cutting sedentary behaviors by involving more moderate-vigorous activities that will affect the future public health positively.

Practical advice[edit]

Further research on a longer period of study to allow variance in the participants week to week schedules. Allowing devices that can measure upper body movements as the monitor was placed on the hip so it limits to detect upper body movements as well as activities such as water activities were not able to be measured if the participants went for a swim or aqua aerobics which could alter the results. Participants wearing the monitor could stimulate them to participate with others or themselves to overcome certain psychological obstacles and make the participates engage in physical activity to make themselves seem health to the researchers eyes.

Further information/resources[edit]

Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

Appropriate Physical Activity Intervention Strategies for Weight Loss and Prevention of Weight Regain for Adults

Objectively Measured Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Risk

Reducing Sedentary Behavior: Role in Modifying Physical Activity

Television Viewing Time is Associated with Overweight/Obesity Among Older Adults, Independent of Meeting Physical Activity and Health Guidelines

Physical activity of Canadian adults: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

References[edit]

  1. Buckley J, Hedge A, Yates T, Copeland R, Loosemore M, Hamer M et al. The sedentary office: an expert statement on the growing case for change towards better health and productivity. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;49(21):1357-1362.
  2. Nearly one-third of the world’s population is obese or overweight, new data show [Internet]. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. 2019 [cited 17 September 2019]. Available from: http://www.healthdata.org/news-release/nearly-one-third-world%E2%80%99s-population-obese-or-overweight-new-data-show
  3. Buckley J, Hedge A, Yates T, Copeland R, Loosemore M, Hamer M et al. The sedentary office: an expert statement on the growing case for change towards better health and productivity. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;49(21):1357-1362.
  4. [Internet]. People.uncw.edu. 2019 [cited 4 September 2019]. Available from: http://people.uncw.edu/imperialm/UNCW/PLS_505/NYTimes_Jobs_&_FatPeople_eval_article_5_25_11
  5. Matthews C, Chen K, Freedson P, Buchowski M, Beech B, Pate R et al. Amount of Time Spent in Sedentary Behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2008;167(7):875-881.