Exercise as it relates to Disease/Is Fasting The Key To Pre Exercise Fat Loss?

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Focus Article[edit | edit source]

Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise: https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-014-0054-7 [1]

What Is The Background To This Research?[edit | edit source]

For many years people for various reasons have desired to improve anaerobic performance, lose weight, consume more calories and exercise more efficiently[2]. Through the many various diets, a common occurring trend of the modern day athlete is to exercise whilst within a fasted state[3]. Fasting before exercise, for a certain period of time or even for extended days, are just a number of diet tactics commonly practiced. Pervious research has suggested that fasting before completing specific exercise tasks will focus energy consumption to be utilised from stored adipose tissue instead of the calories from previously consumed food sources[4]. Even with the amount of complicated data, confronting facts, and lack of solid evidence, these diet practices are often implemented throughout society.

Where Is The Research From?[edit | edit source]

This research was conducted at the University of Chicago with participants found through on campus advertisement. Data collection was recorded at home with regular tests taken at the university by a qualified practitioner. The project was predominantly supported and funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The finalised study was published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18 November 2014.

What Kind Of Research Was This?[edit | edit source]

The Internal study was a short term randomised clinical trial of overweight yet healthy females aged between 18 & 35. The trial aimed to determine the benefits of a popular fat loss strategy, fasting before exercise with the desire of increasing the amount of fat loss. This research has questioned many beliefs within the sports science community. The study was supported by a number of donators and assisting researchers. This research provides valuable insight into potentially beneficial exercise tactics that could possibly assist within enhancing the living quality of people around the world. The importance of maintaining a healthy body weight is as important as ever and with supported evidence, this research could encourage the needed encouragement.

What Did The Research Involve?[edit | edit source]

The trial focused on the two randomised groups, one controlled and one intervention group. One group fasted before exercise and the other group consumed an allocated meal directly before exercise. Both of these groups consumed calories based upon the individual energy requirements of each participant. The control group was instructed to consume calories as per their regular diet. The trial lasted four weeks. The intervention group completed their diet for the entirety of this time and continued to focus on maintaining the progress months following the study. Both groups were working towards maintaining a chloric deficit throughout the study. This was to help induce the added effects of fat loss. Pre exercise, the first group would consume a meal replacement shake on all training days. This was taken to aid in fuelling the workout and preparing the body for exercise. The remainder of the participants diet within both groups were within their own decision. Exercise bouts consisted of hour-long aerobic training on a treadmill at 60% of the participants calculated V02 max. After the conclusion of the period, participants would again be anthropometrically assessed within the University.

What Were The Basic Results?[edit | edit source]

The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups both before and after the four-week study. Participants were measured on body mass, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage and fat mass.

How Did The Researchers Interpret The Results?[edit | edit source]

The results were interpreted as not being significant enough to support the hypothesis. The results suggested minimal support to the concepts of fasting encouraging the body to use fat as an energy substrate rather than recently consumed nutrients. The background of the researchers suggests extensive knowledge working within health, nutrition and sports science. The underlying interpretation was focused on a caloric restriction with added aerobic exercise, does and will decrease stored body fat over a prolonged period of time. Although with the multiple implications, supportive documentation suggests multiple faucets to this hypothesis.

What Conclusions Should Be Taken Away From This Research?[edit | edit source]

Intervening and applying concepts of various diet types are more beneficial than having a non-productive approach to dieting and exercise. There was no strong evidence to suggest that fasting was more beneficial than maintaining a daily calorie deficient. The most effective approach is having consistency and finding an exercise program that works best for each individual[5]. We have long known that consuming nutrients before any training session has a beneficial response to each session[6]. If the benefits of this energy consumption will induce greater aerobic output than that will enhance the greater effects, while still encouraging and maintaining an adequate diet. The underlying conclusion suggests that extended work should be done within this area of topic under covering a deeper understanding. As previously mentioned, there has been trending momentum behind fasting within exercise and enhancing fat loss, this knowledge has been substantial for years. Further research and analysis will provide more insight than what the authors of this study were able to find with their recourses available.

What Are The Implications Of This Research?[edit | edit source]

The population size, length of the study and reliability of participants were all key identifiable limitations to the study. However quite sound, with further application of time and an increasingly strict meal allowance, greater effort could potentially sway the results. This research had a number of various limitations. There was considerable trust within the participants with reporting their diets. There was no mention of when the food was to be consumed post exercise or the quantities of food or remainder fasting periods throughout the day. Another vital component in addition to study length was the room for error with participants under or over reporting their daily meal calculations. With the elimination of these aspects, a further more assessment could be taken to find more reliable and sound results.

Further reading[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Brad Jon Schoenfeldm, et. al. (2014). Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Found: https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-014-0054-7
  2. John F. Trepanowski, PhD., Et.al: (2017). Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardio protection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults. Found: http://www.healthyliving.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/jamainternal_Trepanowski_2017_oi_170022.pdf
  3. Gillen JB et al (2013) . Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women. 21 (11): 2249-2255. 10.1002/oby.20379.
  4. American Physiological Society (APS). (2017). To eat or not to eat (before exercising): That is the question. ScienceDaily. Fro:m www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/04/170406152651.htm
  5. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. (2017) Vol. 313 no. 1, E84-E93 DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00006.2017
  6. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardio protection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults. John F. Trepanowski, PhD., Et.al: (2017). Found: http://www.healthyliving.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/jamainternal_Trepanowski_2017_oi_170022.pdf