Estonian/Plural

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In this lesson we'll learn about the Plural quantity, the Null subject and impersonal verbs.

Plural[edit]

English Nominative s. Genitive s. Accusative s. Nominative pl. Genitive pl. Accusative pl.
this see selle seda need nende neid
cat kass kassi .kassi kassid kasside .kasse
.kassisid
dog koer koera .koera koerad koerade
koerte
.koeri
.koerasid
newspaper ajaleht ajalehe aja.lehte ajalehed aja.lehtede aja.lehti
aja.lehtesid
cup tass tassi .tassi tassid tasside .tasse
.tassisid
mug kruus kruusi .kruusi kruusid kruuside .kruuse
.kruusisid
Adjectives
big suur suure suurt suured suurte .suuri
.suuresid
small väike väikse
väikese
väikest
väikset
väikesed
väiksed
väikeste
väiksete
väikseid
väikeseid
heavy
difficult
raske raske rasket rasked raskete raskeid
light
easy
kerge kerge kerget kerged kergete kergeid
enough
sufficient
.piisav .piisava .piisavat .piisavad .piisavate .piisavaid

Plural direct object[edit]

In Partitive we learned that there are some verbs that distinguish between partial and whole direct objects like "võtma" - to take. In the whole case, these verbs took the Genitive instead of the Accusative. With plural direct objects, they will instead take the Nominative:

  • Verb with distinction: Whole: ta võtab kruusi - ta võtab kruusid. Partitive: ta võtab .kruuse
  • Verb without distinction: Whole: ta tahab seda - ta tahab neid. Partitive: ta tahab neid

Nouns[edit]

  • raha (uncountable) - money
  • töö - job, work

Adverbs[edit]

  • ka - also, as well
  • samuti - synonym of ka
  • väga - very
  • .liiga - too, excessively
  • palju - many
  • vähe - little, too little
  • pisut - little
  • veidi - synonym of pisut
  • .liiga vähe - too little
  • .liiga pisut - synonym of liiga vähe, but adopted from western European languages and might sound slightly foreign
  • .piisavalt/.piisavasti - enough-adverbial. This is available in the two common adverb endings -lt and -sti

Verbs[edit]

  • hoidma - hoia - to hold
  • leidma - leia - to find
  • üles leidma/leidma üles - üles leia/leia üles - whole of "leidma". "Üles" here is similar to "ära" in Partitive
  • otsima - otsi - to look for/to search
  • andma - anna - to give

Phrases[edit]

Ta otsib .kruuse

Translation

He is looking for mugs

Siin on .liiga palju koeri

Translation

There are too many dogs here

Ta annab piisavalt raha

Translation

He gives enough money

Sa teed seda liiga vähe

Translation

You do this too little

Ma tean, et see ajaleht on väga suur

Translation

I know that this newspaper is very big

Ka tema koer on liiga väike

Translation

His/Her dog is too small too
Even his/her dog is too small

Ma pean iga tassi üles leidma

Translation

I must find every cup

Kas seda on piisavalt?

Translation

Is there enough of this?

Ta teeb väga kerget tööd

Translation

He does a very simple job