Esperanto: A Complete and Comprehensive Grammar/Adjectives

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Adjectives[edit]

In Esperanto, all singular adjectives end in "-a," regardless of gender.

Adjectives agree in number and case with the nouns they modify; thus, all plural adjectives end in "-aj" and accusative plural adjectives end in "-ajn."

For example:

Esperanto (cardinal) English (cardinal) Esperanto (ordinal) English (ordinal)
Unu One Unua First
Du Two Dua Second
Tri Three Tria Third
Kvar Four Kvara Fourth
Kvin Five Kvina Fifth
Ses Six Sesa Sixth
Sep Seven Sepa Seventh
Ok Eight Oka Eighth
Naŭ Nine Naŭa Ninth
Dek Ten Deka Tenth

Ordinal numbers are the adjective form of a number, and as so, adding the "-a" suffix is sufficient to change the word.