Esperanto/Appendix/English-Esperanto word list (1889)

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

What follows is the original lexicon of Esperanto words as it appeared in Dr. Esperanto's International Language published in 1889. It is from this original stock of approximately 600 words that the language grew. The pamphlet contained the following note about Esperanto word-building:

Everything written in the international language can be translated by means of this vocabulary. If several words are required to express one idea they must be written in one, but separated by [apostrophes]; e.g., frat'in'o, though one idea, is yet composed of three words, which must be looked for separately in the vocabulary.

The requirement for internal punctuation of a word was dropped from the language not long after this work was published. It is now vanishingly rare to find it in use except in the most rudimentary of primers. Esperanto is a living language and, like all living languages, the meanings of words drift over time. Herein are the original definitions as they are found in Zamenhof's pamphlet.


A[edit]

a

expresses an adjective, e.g., hom'—man, hom'a—human

acid'

sour, acid

aĉet'

to buy

ad'

indicates the duration of an action; e.g., ir'—go; ir'ad'—to walk; danc'—a dance, danc'ad'—dancing

adiaŭ

adieu, good-bye

aer'

the air

afer'

affair, business

agl'

the eagle

agrabl'

agreeable

aĝ'

the age

ajn

…ever; e.g., kiu—who, kiu ajn— whoever

aĵ'

indicates a thing having some quality or peculiarity, or made of some particular thing; e.g., mal'nov'—old, mal'nov'aĵ'—old things; frukt'—fruit, frukt'aĵ'—made of fruits

akompan'

to accompany

akr'

sharp

akv'

water

al

to; e.g., al li—to him (indicates also the dative)

ali'

other

almenaŭ

at least

alt'

high, tall

alumet'

a match

am'

to love, like

amas'

a crowd, mass

amik'

friend

an'

a member, an inhabitant, an adherent; e.g., regn'—state, kingdom, empire, regn'an'—inhabitant of an empire, etc. Paris'an'—a Parisian

angul'

an angle, a corner

anĝel'

an angel

anim'

the soul

ankaŭ

also, too

ankoraŭ

still, yet

anstataŭ

instead of

ant'

indicates the present participle (active)

antaŭ

before

apart'

separate

aparten'

to belong

apenaŭ

scarcely, hardly

apud

near, nigh to

ar'

indicates a collection of objects; e.g., arb'—a tree, ar'bar'—a forest; ŝtup'—step, stair, ŝtup'ar'—staircase, stairs, ladder

arb'

a tree

arĝent'

silver

as

indicates the present in verbs

at'

indicates the present participle (passive)

atend'

to wait for, expect

or, either

aŭd'

to hear

aŭskult'

listen to

aŭtun'

autumn

av'

grandfather

avar'

avaricious

azen'

an ass, a donkey


B[edit]

babil'

to prate, to chatter, to prattle

bak'

to bake

bala'

to sweep

balanc'

to nod, swing, sway

baldaŭ

soon

ban'

to bathe

bapt'

baptize

bar'

to bar (a door), to stop (a passage)

barb'

the beard

barel'

barrel, cask

baston'

stick

bat'

to beat, to flog

batal'

to fight, to struggle

bedaŭr'

to pity, to regret, to repent

bel'

beautiful, handsome

ben'

to bless, consecrate, hallow

benk'

a bench

best'

an animal, a beast

bezon'

to want

bier'

beer

bind'

to bind

bird'

a bird

blank'

white

blov'

to blow

blu'

blue

bo'

relation by marriage (own or other people’s); e.g., patr'—father, bo'patr'—father-in-law; frat'—brother, bo'frat'—brother-in-law

boj'

to bark

bol'

to boil

bon'

good

bord'

the shore (of the sea), the bank or side (of a river)

bot'

a boot

botel'

a bottle

bov'

an ox

branĉ'

a branch

brand'

brandy

bril'

to shine, to sparkle, to glitter

bros'

a brush

bru'

to make a noise, to bawl

brul'

to burn one’s self

brust'

the breast, bosom

brut'

brute

buŝ'

the mouth

buter'

butter

buton'

a button


C[edit]

cel'

to aim

cent

a hundred

cert'

certain, sure, known

ceter'

the remainder, the following, rest

cigar'

a cigar

cigared'

a cigarette

citron'

a lemon, citron


Ĉ[edit]

ĉagren'

to grieve, to vex

ĉambr'

a chamber, a room

ĉap'

a cap, a bonnet

ĉapel'

a hat

ĉar

because

ĉe

near, by, at, beside

ĉemiz'

a shirt, a chemise

ĉen'

a chain

ĉeriz'

a cherry

ĉerk'

a coffin

ĉes'

to cease, to leave off

ĉeval'

a horse

ĉi

the nearest (person, thing, etc.); e.g., tiu—that one, tiu ĉi, this one; tie—there, tie ĉi, here

ĉia

every

ĉiam

always, ever

ĉie

everywhere

ĉiel'

heaven, heavens, sky

ĉio

all, everything

ĉirkaŭ

around, round about

ĉiu

every one

ĉj'

added to the first 2–5 letters of a masculine proper name makes it a diminutive, caressing; e.g., Miĥael'Mi'ĉj'; Aleksandr'Ale'ĉj'

ĉu

or, if; is employed in questions, e.g., mi ne sci'as, ĉu vi am'as—I don’t know, if you love


D[edit]

da

supplies the genitive (after words, expressing measure, weight, etc.); e.g., kilogram'o da viand'o—a kilo of meat; glas'o da te'o— a cup of tea

danc'

to dance

danĝer'

danger

dank'

to thank

daŭr'

to endure, to last

de

from, of; supplies also the genitive

decid'

to decide

defend'

to defend

dek

ten

dekstr'

right (adj.)

demand'

to ask

dens'

dense, thick

dent'

a tooth

detru'

to demolish, to destroy, to ruin

dev'

must, ought, to be obliged

dezert'

a desert, a wilderness

dezir'

to desire

Di'

God

dik'

big, thick, stout

diligent'

diligence, assiduity

dimanĉ'

Sunday

dir'

to tell, to say

dis'

dis-, asunder, into parts, e.g., ŝir'—to pull, dis'ŝir'—to pull asunder

disput'

to contend for, to quarrel, to dispute

divid'

to divide

dolĉ'

sweet

dolor'

ache, pain, affliction

dom'

house

don'

to give

donac'

to make a present of

dorm'

to sleep

dors'

the back

du

two

dum

while, whilst


E[edit]

e

the ending of adverbs; e.g., bon'e—well

eben'

even, smooth

ebl'

possible

ec'

indicates abstract ideas; e.g., bon'—good, bon'ec'—goodness; infan'—child, infan'ec'—childhood

even (adv.) also

eduk'

to educate

edz'

the husband

efektiv'

real, effective

eg'

indicates enlargement or intensity of degree; e.g., man'—hand, man'eg'—paw; varm'—warm, varm'eg'—hot

egal'

equal, like

ej'

indicates the place of an action etc.; e.g., kuir'—to cook, kuir'ej'—kitchen; preĝ'—to pray, preĝ'ej'—the church

ek'

indicates the beginning or the short duration of an action etc.; e.g., kant'—to sing; ek'kant'—to begin to sing; kri'—to cry, ek'kri'—to cry out, to exclaim

eks'

formerly; placed before an official or professional designation, shows that a person has given up his office or profession

ekster

on the outside of, outwardly, without, out of

ekzempl'

example

el

from, out of

elekt'

to choose, to elect

em'

inclined, disposed, accustomed

en

in

enu'

to be weary, annoyed

envi'

to envy

er'

indicates a thing, taken as a separate unity; e.g., sabl'—sand, sabl'er'—a grain of sand

erar'

to err, to be wrong, to be mistaken

escept'

to exclude, to except

esper'

to hope

esprim'

to express, to declare by words

est'

to be

estim'

to esteem, to prize

esting'

to extinguish

estr'

the chief, the superior

et'

indicates diminution or decrease; e.g., rid'—to laugh, rid'et'—to smile; mur'—a wall, mur'et'—a little wall, chamber wall

etaĝ'

a floor, a story

etern'

eternal


F[edit]

facil'

light, easy

faden'

thread

fajf'

to pipe, to whistle

fajr'

fire

fal'

to fall

fald'

to fold

famili'

family

far'

to do, to make, to act; far'iĝ'—to become, to turn, to grow

fart'

to live, to be (well or ill)

feliĉ'

happy

fend'

to split, to chop

fenestr'

window

fer'

iron

ferm'

to shut

fest'

to feast, to hold a feast

fianĉ'

one who is betrothed, the bridegroom

fidel'

faithful, true

fier'

proud, haughty

fil'

a son

fin'

to finish

fingr'

a finger

firm'

firm, solid

fiŝ'

a fish

flank'

side, flank

flar'

to smell

flav'

yellow

flor'

flower

flu'

to flow

flug'

to fly

fluid'

liquid, fluid

foj'

times (e.g., “four times”)

fojn'

hay

foli'

a leaf (of a tree), a sheet (of paper etc.)

fond'

to found, establish

font'

a fountain

for

away

forges'

to forget

forĝ'

to forge

fork'

a fork

forn'

a stove

fort'

strong, vigorous

fos'

to dig

frap'

to hit, to beat

frat'

brother

fraŭl'

bachelor, single man

freŝ'

fresh

fromaĝ'

cheese

frost'

frost, coldness

frot'

to rub

fru'

early

frukt'

fruit

frunt'

forehead

fulm'

lightning

fum'

the smoke

fund'

the bottom


G[edit]

gaj'

gay

gajn'

to win, to gain

gant'

a glove

gard'

to guard, to keep

gast'

guest

ge

of both sexes; e.g., patr'—father, ge'patr'o'j—parents; mastr'—master, ge'mastr'o'j—both the master and the mistress of the house

genu'

knee

glaci'

ice

glas'

a glass, cup

glat'

smooth, even

glav'

sword

glit'

to slide, to glide along (on ice)

glor'

to glorify

glut'

to swallow

gorĝ'

throat

grand'

great

gras'

fat, grease

grat'

scratch

gratul'

to congratulate

grav'

grave, important

griz'

gray

gust'

the taste

gut'

to drop; gut'o—a drop


Ĝ[edit]

ĝarden'

a garden

ĝem'

to groan

ĝentil'

genteel

ĝi

it

ĝis

to, till, up to

ĝoj'

to rejoice, to be glad


H[edit]

ha!

ha! ah!

hajl'

the hail

haladz'

bad exhalation

halt'

to stop, to make a stay

har'

a hair

haring'

a herring

haŭt'

skin, hide

hav'

to have

hejt'

to heat, to make a fire

help'

to help, to aid

herb'

herb, grass

hered'

to inherit

hieraŭ

yesterday

ho!

oh!

hodiaŭ

today

hom'

man (human beings in general)

honest'

honest

hont'

shame

hor'

an hour

horloĝ'

a clock

hotel'

inn, hotel

humil'

humble

hund'

dog


I[edit]

i

indicates the infinitive in verbs; e.g., laŭd'i—to praise

ia

some

ial

by whatever cause

iam

sometime

id'

child, descendant; e.g., bov'—ox, bov'id'—calf

ie

somewhere

iel

in some manner

ies

someone’s

ig'

to cause anything to be in a certain state; e.g., pur'—pure, clean, pur'ig'—to purify, to cleanse; brul'—to burn one’s self, brul'ig'—to burn some one (some thing); sid'—to sit, sid'ig'—to seat

iĝ'

to become, to turn, to compel one’s self, e.g., pal'—pale, pal'iĝ'—to turn pale; sid'—to sit, sid'iĝ'—to seat one’s self

il'

an instrument for a given purpose; e.g., tond'—to shear, tond'il'—scissors; paf'—to shoot, paf'il'—a gun, a musket, a firelock

ili

they

in'

indicates the feminine; e.g., patr'—father, patr'in'—mother; kok'—cock, kok'in'—a hen

ind'

worthy

infan'

child

ing'

a thing into which something else is put, a holder; e.g., kandel'—a taper, a candle, kandel'ing'—a candlestick

ink'

ink

instru'

to teach

insul'

island

insult'

to insult, to outrage

int'

indicates the past participle (active)

intenc'

to intend

inter

between

intern'

inwardly, internally

invit'

to invite

io

somewhat, something

iom

any, some

ir'

to go

is

indicates the past (in verbs)

ist'

occupied with…, e.g. bot'—boot, shoe, bot'ist'—shoemaker; mar'—sea, mar'ist'—a seaman, a sailor

it'

indicates the past participle (passive)

iu

someone


J[edit]

j

indicates the plural

ja

however, nevertheless

jam

already

jar'

year

je

may be translated by various prepositions; its signification depends on the general sense of the phrase

jen

there, here

jes

yes

ju—des

the—the

juĝ'

to judge

jun'

young

just'

just, equitable


Ĵ[edit]

ĵaŭd'

Thursday

ĵet'

to throw, to cast

ĵur'

to swear


K[edit]

kaf'

coffee

kaj

and

kajer'

stitched book of writing paper, a copy book (in schools)

kaldron'

kettle, caldron

kaleŝ'

cab, a light carriage

kalkul'

to count, to reckon

kamen'

chimney, fireplace

kamp'

a field

kanap'

a sofa

kandel'

a candle

kant'

to sing

kap'

head

kapt'

to seize, to catch

kar'

dear

karb'

coal

kares'

to caress

kaŝ'

to hide, to conceal

kat'

a cat

kaŭz'

to cause, to occasion

ke

that (conj.)

kelk'

some, certain

kest'

box, chest

kia

what; e.g., kia hom'o—what man; kia tag'o—what day

kial

why, wherefore

kiam

when

kie

where

kiel

how

kies

whose; e.g., kies libr'o—whose book?

kio

what, that which

kiom

how much, how many

kis'

to kiss

kiu

who

klar'

clear

knab'

boy, lad

kok'

cock

kol'

neck

koleg'

a colleague

kolekt'

to collect, to gather

koler'

to be angry

kolon'

column, pillar

kolor'

a colour

komb'

to comb

komenc'

to begin

komerc'

to trade, to traffic

kompat'

to compassionate, to bear with

kompren'

to understand, to conceive

kon'

to know

kondiĉ'

condition

konduk'

to conduct, to lead

konfes'

to avow, confess

konsent'

to consent

konserv'

to preserve, to keep

konsil'

to counsel, to advise

konsol'

to console, to comfort

konstant'

constant, steadfast

konstru'

to construct, to build

kontent'

content, satisfied

kontraŭ

against

konven'

to suit, to agree

kor'

the heart

korn'

a horn

korp'

the body

kort'

the court, courtyard

kost'

to cost

kovr'

to cover

kraĉ'

to spit

krajon'

a pencil, a crayon

kravat'

a cravat, neckcloth

kre'

to create

kred'

to believe

kresk'

to grow, to wax

kret'

chalk

kri'

to cry

kron'

a crown, a garland

kruc'

a cross

kudr'

to sew

kuir'

to cook

kuler'

a spoon

kulp'

culpable, guilty

kun

with; kun'e—together

kupr'

copper

kur'

to run

kurac'

to cure, heal

kuraĝ'

courageous, resolute, bold

kurten'

curtain

kusen'

a cushion

kuŝ'

to lie (e.g. in bed)

kutim'

to accustom one’s self to

kuz'

a cousin

kvankam

though, although

kvar

four

kvin

five


L[edit]

l'

the

la

the

labor'

to labour, to work

lac'

weary, tired

lakt'

milk

lam'

lame

lamp'

lamp

land'

land, country

lang'

the tongue

lantern'

a lantern

larĝ'

large, broad

larm'

a tear

las'

to let, to permit, to allow, to leave

last'

last, latest

laŭ

in conformity with, conformably, according to

laŭd'

to praise, to commend

laŭt'

aloud, loudly

lav'

to wash

lecion'

a lesson

leg'

to read

leĝ'

law

leon'

a lion

lern'

to learn

lert'

dexterous, skilful

leter'

letter, epistle

lev'

to lift (up), to raise

li

he

liber'

free

libr'

book

lig'

to bind

lign'

wood

lingv'

speech, language, tongue

lip'

lip

lit'

bed

liter'

a letter (of the Alphabet), a type

loĝ'

to dwell, to lodge

lok'

place, spot

long'

long

lud'

to play

lum'

to light, to shine

lun'

the moon

lund'

Monday


M[edit]

maĉ'

to chew

magazen'

store, a shop

makul'

a spot, a speck

mal'

indicates opposites, e.g., bon'—good; mal'bon'—bad; estim'—to esteem; mal'estim'—to despise, to disdain

malgraŭ

in spite of, notwithstanding

man'

hand

manĝ'

to eat

mar'

the sea

mard'

Tuesday

mastr'

master

maten'

the morning

matur'

ripe, mature

mem

self

memor'

to remember, to keep in mind

merit'

to merit, to deserve

merkred'

Wednesday

met'

to put

mez'

the middle

mezur'

to measure

mi

I

miks'

to mix, to mingle

mil

thousand

milit'

war

mir'

to be astonished, to wonder

mizer'

misery, poverty, wretchedness

moder'

moderate, temperate

modest'

modest

mol'

soft, tender

mon'

money

monat'

month

mond'

world

mont'

mountain

montr'

to show

mord'

to bite

morgaŭ

tomorrow

mort'

to die

moŝt'

highness, majesty, etc. (is generally added to titles) e.g. Vi'a reĝ'a moŝt'o— Your (Royal) Majesty; Vi'a general'a moŝt'o; vi'a episkop'a moŝt'o etc.

mov'

to move, to stir (up)

mult'

much

mur'

wall

murmur'

to murmur

muŝ'

a fly


N[edit]

n

indicates the objective (accusative) case; also direction; e.g. mi ir'as dom'o'n—I am going home

naĝ'

to swim

najbar'

neighbour

nask'

to bear a child, to bring forth, to give birth to

naŭ

nine

naz'

nose

ne

no, not

nebul'

mist, fog

neces'

indispensable, necessary

neĝ'

snow

nek—nek

neither—nor

nenia

not any

neniam

never

nenie

nowhere

neniel

by no means, in no wise

nenies

nobody’s

nenio

nothing

neniu

nobody, no one

nep'

grandchild

nev'

a nephew

ni

we

nigr'

black

nj'

added to the first 2–5 letters of a feminine proper name makes it a diminutive, caressing; e.g., Mari'Ma'nj'; Emili'Emi'nj'

nobl'

noble

nokt'

night

nom'

name

nombr'

number

nov'

new

nub'

cloud

nud'

naked

nuks'

nut

nun

now

nur

only

nutr'

to nourish, to nurse (a child)


O[edit]

o

indicates a substantive (noun)

obe'

to obey

objekt'

an object

obl'

indicates a numeral in multiplicative form; e.g., du—two, du'obl'—twofold, double, of two different sorts

obstin'

obstinate, stubborn

odor'

to exhale fragrance, to smell

ofend'

to offend, to wrong

ofer'

to offer

oft'

often

ok

eight

okaz'

to happen

okul'

eye

okup'

to occupy

ol

than, as

ole'

oil

ombr'

shadow, shade

ombrel'

parasol, umbrella

on'

makes fractions out of numerals; e.g., kvar—four; kvar'on'—fourth part

ond'

the wave

oni

(pron. indef. plur.) one, they, people, man

onkl'

uncle

ont'

indicates the future participle (active)

op'

indicates collective numerals; e.g., du—two, du'op'—two together

oportun'

opportune, convenient

or'

gold

ord'

order

ordinar'

ordinary, common, usual

ordon'

to order, to command

orel'

the ear

os

indicates the future

ost'

a bone

ot'

indicates the future participle (passive)

ov'

an egg


P[edit]

pac'

peace

paf'

to shoot

pag'

to pay

paĝ'

a page

pajl'

straw

pal'

pale

palac'

a palace

palp'

to feel, to handle gently

palpebr'

eyelid

pan'

bread

pantalon'

trousers

paper'

paper

pardon'

to pardon, to forgive

parenc'

relation

parker'

by heart, by memory

parol'

to speak, to talk

part'

part, portion, share

pas'

to pass, to go by

pastr'

priest, clergyman

paŝ'

to step, to stride

patr'

father; patr'uj'—fatherland

pec'

a morsel

pel'

to pursue, to chase

pen'

to endeavour, to do one’s best

pend'

to hang

pens'

to think

pentr'

to draw

per

through, by, by means of

perd'

to lose

permes'

to permit, to allow

pes'

to weigh (someone or something)(vb. act.)

pet'

to pray, to beg

pez'

weigh (some number of pounds) (vb. neut.)

pi'

pious

pied'

foot

pik'

to prick, to sting

pilk'

a ball (to play with)

pingl'

a pin

pir'

a pear

plac'

a place, a square

plaĉ'

to please

plafon'

ceiling

plank'

floor (of a room)

plej

most (adv.)

plen'

full

plend'

to complain

plezur'

pleasure

pli

more

plor'

to weep, to shed tears

plum'

pen; feather

pluv'

rain

po

forms distributive numerals; e.g., kvin—five; po kvin— five apiece

polv'

dust

pom'

apple

pont'

a bridge

popol'

people, nation

por

for

pord'

door

pork'

swine, pig, hog

port'

to carry, to wear

post

after (prep.)

postul'

to require, to call for

poŝ'

a pocket

poŝt'

post, post-office

pot'

a pot

pov'

to be able, can

prav'

being right

preĝ'

to pray, to say prayers

prem'

to press, to oppress

pren'

to take

prepar'

to prepare

pres'

to print

preskaŭ

almost, nearly

pret'

ready

prezent'

to present, to represent, to introduce

pri

concerning, on, of, about

printemp'

the spring

pro

for the sake of

profund'

deep, profound

proksim'

(adj.) near, nigh

promen'

to walk, to take a walk

promes'

to promise

propon'

to propose

propr'

one’s own

prov'

to try, to essay

prudent'

prudent, reasonable

prunt'

to borrow, to lend

pulv'

gun-powder

pulvor'

powder

pun'

to punish

pup'

a doll

pur'

pure, clean

puŝ'

to push

putr'

to rot, to putrify, to grow putrid


R[edit]

rad'

a wheel

radi'

a ray, a beam, a spoke of a wheel

radik'

root

rakont'

to relate, to tell

ramp'

to creep, to crawl

rand'

the bank, shore, edge, border

rapid'

rapid, swift

raz'

to shave

re'

again, back, re-

reg'

to reign, to govern

regn'

kingdom, realm

regul'

a rule

reĝ'

a king

rekt'

straight

rekompenc'

to recompense, to reward

renkont'

to meet (with)

renvers'

to overthrow, to pull down

respond'

to answer

rest'

to remain

ricev'

to receive

riĉ'

rich

rid'

to laugh

rigard'

to look at, regard

ring'

a ring

ripet'

to repeat

ripoz'

to repose, to take rest

river'

a river

romp'

to break

rond'

circle

rost'

to fry, to roast

roz'

a rose

ruĝ'

red


S[edit]

sabat'

Saturday

sabl'

sand

saĝ'

wise, sage

sak'

a sack, a bag

sal'

salt

salt'

to spring, to jump

salut'

to salute, to hail

sam'

same

san'

sound, sane, healthy

sang'

blood

sankt'

holy, sacred

sap'

soap

sat'

satiate, full

sav'

to save

sci'

to know

se

if

sed

but

seĝ'

a chair, a seat

sek'

dry

sem'

to sow

semajn'

a week

sen

without

senc'

sense, meaning

send'

to send

sent'

to feel, perceive

sep

seven

serĉ'

to look for, to search

serpent'

serpent, snake

serur'

to lock

serv'

to serve

ses

six

sever'

severe, sharp

si

one’s self, himself, themselves, etc.

sid'

to sit

sigel'

to seal

sign'

a sign

signif'

to signify, to mean

silent'

to be silent

simil'

resembling, similar, like

simpl'

simple, common

sinjor'

lord, master

skrib'

write

sku'

to shake, to jog

sobr'

sober

societ'

society

soif'

to be thirsty

sol'

sole, only, unique

somer'

summer

son'

to sound

sonĝ'

to dream

sonor'

to buzz, to hum

sort'

lot, chance, destiny, fate

sovaĝ'

savage, wild

spec'

a species, kind

spegul'

mirror, looking-glass

spir'

to respire, to breathe

sprit'

witty

stal'

stable, stall

star'

to stand

stel'

star

stomak'

stomach

strat'

a street

sub

under, beneath

subit'

sudden

suĉ'

to suck

sufer'

to suffer

sufiĉ'

sufficiently, enough

suk'

the juice

suker'

sugar

sun'

sun

sup'

soup

super

above (prep.)

supr'

above (adv.), at the top

sur

on, upon

surd'

deaf (adj.)

surtut'

coat


Ŝ[edit]

ŝajn'

to seem, appear

ŝancel'

to totter, to stagger

ŝanĝ'

to change

ŝaŭm'

foam, scum

ŝel'

shell

ŝerc'

to jest, joke

ŝi

she

ŝip'

ship

ŝir'

to tear

ŝlos'

lock

ŝmir'

to smear, to spread

ŝpruc'

to spout, to sprinkle

ŝnur'

a rope, a string, a cord

ŝpar'

to spare

ŝrank'

cupboard, clothespress

ŝtal'

steel

ŝtel'

to steal

ŝtof'

stuff

ŝton'

stone

ŝtop'

to stop, to cork

ŝtrump'

stocking

ŝtup'

step; ŝtup'ar'—staircase, stairs, ladder

ŝu'

shoe

ŝuld'

to owe, to be indebted

ŝut'

to empty out (corn, etc.)

ŝvel'

to swell

ŝvit'

to sweat


T[edit]

tabl'

table

tabul'

a board

tag'

day

tajlor'

tailor

tamen

yet, however

tapiŝ'

carpet

taŭg'

to be of use, to be fit for

te'

tea

tegment'

roof

teler'

plate

temp'

time

ten'

to hold

tent'

to tempt

ter'

earth

terur'

terror

tia

such

tial

therefore, for this reason

tiam

then, at that time

tie

there

tiel

so, in such a manner

tim'

to fear

tio

it, this, that

tiom

so, as much or many

tir'

to draw, to pull

tiu

that

tol'

linen

tomb'

a grave, a tomb

tond'

to shear, to cut the hair

tondr'

to thunder

tra

through

traduk'

translate

tranĉ'

to cut

trankvil'

tranquil, quiet

trans

over, across

tre

very greatly, exceedingly

trem'

to tremble, to shake, to shiver

tren'

to draw, to drag, to trail

tri

three

trink'

to drink

tro

too

tromp'

to deceive

trov'

to find

tru'

a hole

tuj

immediately

tuk'

a handkerchief

tur'

a tower

turment'

to torment

turn'

to turn

tus'

to cough

tuŝ'

to touch, to lay one’s hand on

tut'

whole, total, complete


U[edit]

u

indicates the imperative (in verbs)

uj'

bearing, containing (i.e., a thing, containing or bearing something, as a tree bearing fruits, a country with inhabitants); e.g., cigar'—a cigar, cigar'uj'—a cigar-box; pom'—an apple, pom'uj'—apple-tree; Turk'—a Turk, Turk'uj'—Turkey.

ul'

a man, possessing some quality; e.g., riĉ'—rich, riĉ'ul'—a rich man

um

an affix without definite meaning; it may be translated by various words

ung'

nail

unu

one

urb'

town, city

urs'

a bear

us

indicates the conditional (subjunctive)

util'

useful

uz'

to make use of


V[edit]

vaks'

wax

van'

vain, fruitless

vang'

cheek

vapor'

vapour

varm'

warm

vast'

vast, spacious

vaz'

vessel

vek'

to awake

velk'

to fade, to wither

ven'

to come

vend'

to sell

vendred'

Friday

venen'

poison, venom

venĝ'

to revenge, to avenge

venk'

to vanquish

vent'

wind

ventr'

belly

ver'

truth, verity

verd'

green

verk'

to write, to invent, to make (as an author)

verm'

worm

verŝ'

to pour

vesper'

evening

vest'

to clothe; vest'o—clothes

veter'

the weather

vetur'

to journey (in a carriage, in a ship, etc.)

vi

you, thou

viand'

meat, flesh

vid'

to see

vilaĝ'

village

vin'

wine

vintr'

winter

violon'

violin

vir'

a man, a male

viŝ'

to wipe

vitr'

glass

viv'

to live

vizaĝ'

face, visage

voĉ'

voice

voj'

way

vok'

to call

vol'

to wish

vort'

a word

vost'

a tail

vund'

to wound


Z[edit]

zorg'

to take care of, to provide for, to be solicitous.