Elementary Spanish/Unit2 NYCsitesGrammar

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  • Introduce language used to discuss NYC places and activities
  • Begin Present Tense Irregular Verb
  • Advance production with irregular verbs.


For this unit, we will focus on activities and places in New York City.

Warm Up Activity

Español Inglés
A Vamos al museo. 1 There's music in Central Park tonight.
B Tengo un billete al basketball game. 2 Let's go to the museum.
C Hay música en Central Park este noche. 3 I have a ticket to the basketball game.

Part 1: Adjectives

In Part 1 we will discuss adjectives. One difference between adjectives in English and
Spanish is the verb distinction used in Spanish to identify permanent and non-permentant descriptions.
We will continue that conversation in Part 2, as we compare the verbs ser and estar
For now, well categorize adjective types into physical/personal descriptions and mental states.

Part 1: Adjective Charts

Physical Adjectives
English Spanish
tall alto / alta
short bajo / baja
thin delgada / delgado
fat gordo / gorda
big grande
small pequeña / pequeño
studious estudioso / estudiosa
intelligent intelegente/ listo / lista
good bueno / buena
bad malo / mala
Mental State Adjectives
English Spanish
happy feliz
sad triste
worried ocupado / ocupada
mad enojado / enojada
confused confundido / confundida
excited emocionado / emocionada
Add more information here about what this section covers
Articles in Spanish are classified in two sets of categories.
These two sections, gender and number, determine how nouns are treated within a sentence.
Article Description Feminine: Number Spanish English Example
Singular La The La casa es roja.
Singular Una A Tengo una amiga.
Plural Las The Las niñas juegan.
Plural Unas * (slang for some) A (plural) * Some* Unas casas son rojas, otras son verdes.
Article Description Masculine: Number Spanish English Example
Singular El The El apartamento es grande.
Singular Un A Tengo un amigo.
Plural Los The Los niños hablan.
Plural Unos A *(slang for some) Unos apartamentos son grandes, otros pequeños.
These are nouns that relate to our topic of Family Traditions.
Here, we include words that relate to parties, holidays and events, as well as different types of celebrations.
General Vocabulary
Español Inglés
comida food
familia family
amigo friend
cena dinner
casa house
apartamento apartment
hogar home
restaurante restaurant
fiesta party
Holiday Types
Español Inglés
Navidad Christmas
Kwanzaa Kwanzaa
Hanukkah Hanukkah
Día de los Muertos Day of the Dead
Solsticio de Invierno Winter Solstice
Diwali (Festival de las luces) Diwali (Festival of lights)
Pascua Easter
Año Nuevo New Years
Día de Independencia Independence Day

Student Activity Check Point Part 1

Teacher Activity Guide Part 1


Part 2: Subject Pronouns and Infinitive Verbs

In Part 2, we will gain familiarity with subject pronouns.
In this section, we will gain a solid familiarity of pronouns and infinitive verbs separately
before we combine these ideas to begin work on creating short sentences.

Part 2: Lesson

Subject Pronouns[edit]

Classes of gender and number also exist within subject pronouns.
These two sections, gender and number, determine how nouns are treated within a sentence.
In Spanish, it is common for subject pronouns to be omitted, as they are incorporated as part of a verb conjugation.
We will begin verb conjugations next.

Persona Person
Español Inglés
Yo I
Él He
Ella She
Nosotros We
Ellos They
Ellas They (females)

Infinitive Verbs: Family Tradition[edit]

There are three broad categories of verb-types in Spanish:
Verbs that end in ...

  • -AR*
  • -ER*
  • -IR*

Infinitive Verb List

Regular Verbs
Español Inglés
preparar to prepare
invitar to invite
cocinar to cook
viajar to travel
celebrar to celebrate
decorar to decorate
deber should
comer to eat
vivir to live
escribir to write
leer to read
Irregular Verbs
Español Inglés
ir to go
venir to come
tener to have
salir to go out / to leave
querer to want
ser to be (permanent)
estar to be (temporary)

Student Check Point Part 2

Teacher Activity Guide Part 2

Part 3: Verb Conjugations

In this section we will learn about how subject pronouns are associated with particular verb endings in Spanish
Here, we will begin making short phrases by combining subjects and verbs in a single word.

Part 3: Lesson

The general formula for creating verb conjugations is to replace the infinitive verb ending (-ar/-er/-ir) with the appropriate ending of the subject.

Although there are three verb-ending categories, -er and -ir verbs tend to share most of the conjugation endings.

Conjugated Verbs:Present Tense[edit]

Subject - Verb Ending Conjugations

In Spanish, verbs are conjugated depending on the subject they are associated with, as well as the tense.
For now, we will focus on Present Simple Tense
Each subject pronoun is associated with a particular verb-ending type.

Persona Verb ends in:
Español Inglés
Yo : I -o
Tú : You -as / -es
Él : He -a / -e
Ella: She -a / -e
Nosotros: We -amos / -emos
Ellos / Ellas: They -an / -en
Description of Tables under here

Regular Verbs: Present Tense

These tables show how verbs change based on the subject pronouns used in the sentence. The ending of the verb is typically dropped, and the corresponding subject pronoun ending is added.

-Ar Verbs Table

-AR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -o celebrar celebro Yo celebro a la fiesta. I celebrate at the party.
-as invitar invitas Tú invitas a tú amigo. You invite your friend.
Él -a preparar prepara Él prepara la comida. He prepares the food.
Ella -a cocinar cocina Ella cocina la cena. She cooks the dinner.
Nosotros -amos viajar viajamos Viajamos a Florida cada Navidad. We travel to Florida every Christmas.
Ellos / Ellas -an decorar decoran Ellos no decoran el árbol. They don't decorate the tree.

ER/IR Verbs Table

-ER / -IR Verbs
Subject Pronoun Verb Ending Infinitive Verb Conjugated Verb Example - Spanish Example - Translation
Yo -o comer como Yo como la cena. I eat the dinner.
-es escribir escribes Tú escribes una carta. You write a card.
Él -e leer lee Él lee la carta. He reads the card.
Ella -e vivir vive Ella vive en Nueva York. She lives in New York.
Nosotros -imos / -emos comer comemos Comemos juntos a la fiesta del Día de Independenia. We eat together at the Independence Day party.
Nosotros -imos / -emos vivir vivimos Nostoros vivimos en Mexico. We live in Mexico.
Ellos -en deber deben Ellos deben cocinar. They should cook.

Student Check Point Part 3

Teacher Activity Guide Part 3