## Parts list and theory

Voltage = potential between two charges. Defined as the derivative of the flux linkage:

${\displaystyle V(t)={\frac {d(Ni(t))}{dt}}}$

Current = flow of electrons Defined as the rate of change of the charge:

${\displaystyle I(t)={\frac {dQ(t)}{dt}}}$

There are 3 parameters in an electrical circuit:

Resistance =

${\displaystyle R={\frac {V}{I}}}$

In a resistor voltage and current are in sync.

${\displaystyle V(t)=Ri(t)}$

In capacitors voltage leads current. Capacitors are good as a low pass filter.

${\displaystyle V(t)={\frac {1}{C}}\int i(t)dt}$

In inductors current leads voltage. Current equals the negative derivative of the voltage. Inductors are good as a high pass filter.

${\displaystyle V(t)=L{\frac {di(t)}{dt}}}$

relationship between voltage and current

${\displaystyle P=VI}$

in a circuit

in series voltage drops and current stays constant in parallel voltage stays constant and current divides according to the resistance

voltage stays constant in parallel and current drops in p

pizoelectric = a crystal under compression creates current

transformers

vacuum tube = electron emitter in a vacuum

integrated circuit a semiconductor doped with impurities

group 4 elements doped with group 3 and 5

electrons and holes

ground

## applications

Resistors in series (Christmas lights, stove)

computer

3.5, 5, 12 Volts

lamp

monitor

power distribution (three phase power)

modem

speaker

bandgap

cmos

flip flop

computer parts

leakage current