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Lesson 5.4: Injuries to the Head and Spine
By the end of this lesson, the EMT-Basic should be able to:
- State the components of the nervous system.
- List the functions of the central nervous system.
- Define the structure of the skeletal system as it relates to the nervous system.
- Relate mechanism of injury to potential injuries of the head and spine.
- Describe the implications of not properly caring for potential spine injuries.
- State the signs and symptoms of potential spine injury.
- Describe the method of determining if a responsive patient may have a spine injury.
- Relate the techniques airway management to suspected spinal injuries.
- Describe how to stabilize the cervical spine.
- Discuss indications for sizing and using a cervical spine immobilization device.
- Establish the relationship between airway management and the patient with head and spine injuries.
- Describe a method for sizing a cervical spine immobilization device.
- Describe how to log roll a patient with a suspected spine injury.
- Describe how to secure a patient to a long spine board.
- List instances when a short spine board should be used.
- Describe how to immobilize a patient using a short spine board.
- Describe the indications for use of rapid extrication.
- List the steps in performing rapid extrication.
- State the circumstances when a helmet should be left on the patient.
- Discuss the circumstances when a helmet should be removed.
- Identify different types of helmets.
- Describe the unique characteristics of sports helmets.
- Explain the preferred methods to remove a helmet.
- Discuss alternative methods for removal of a helmet.
- Describe how the patient's head is stabilized to remove the helmet.
- Differentiate how the head is stabilized with a helmet compared to without a helmet.
- Explain the rationale for immobilization of the entire spine when a cervical spine injury is suspected.
- Explain the rationale for utilizing immobilization methods apart from the straps on the cots.
- Explain the rationale for utilizing a short spine immobilization device when moving a patient from the sitting to the supine position.
- Explain the rationale for utilizing the rapid extrication approaches only when they will make the difference between life and death.
- Defend the reasons for leaving a helmet in place for transport of a patient.
- Defend the reasons for removal of a helmet prior to transport of a patient.
- Demonstrate opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
- Demonstrate evaluating a responsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.
- Demonstrate stabilization of the cervical spine.
- Demonstrate the four person log roll for a patient with a suspected spinal injury.
- Demonstrate how to log roll a patient with a suspected spinal cord injury using two people.
- Demonstrate securing a patient to a long spine board.
- Demonstrate using the short board immobilization technique.
- Demonstrate the procedure for rapid extrication.
- Demonstrate preferred methods for stabilization of a helmet.
- Demonstrate helmet removal techniques.
- Demonstrate alternative methods for stabilization of a helmet.
- Demonstrate completing a prehospital care report for patients with head and spinal injuries.