Dreamer

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Dreamer Grammar Supplement

A comprehensive book of explanations and exercises to support your everyday English learning.

This book is a derivative work based on The Open Source Textbook Project – Dreaming in English The Grammar Supplements and Wikibook for English B2 students powered by Wikimedia foundation.

The Open Source Textbook Project is a group of language teachers who have chosen to combine their efforts and create a series of English language learning textbooks. These books are licensed under Creative Commons, which allows for royalty-free distribution of all materials. This means that the books themselves are free to share, use, edit, and redistribute, as long as the Open Source Textbook Project (or the other fine contributors to this great project) receives credit.

The Grammar Supplement is aimed at Pre-Intermediate to Advanced learners who need a consolidated reference and revision guide as an adjunct to their language learning. It uses examples, counter-examples, timelines, and exercises to provide learners with a basic understanding of each grammar point.

For students: the purpose of this book is to serve as a supplement to your current language learning. There is no need to complete all of the exercises in the book. Use the timelines, the charts, the descriptions, and the exercises all together, to help yourself completely understand the grammar point as written.

Tenses Present Continuous (I’m doing) Usage For things that we are doing at the moment we are speaking. Things happening now, right this second.

The teacher is talking. 
Dave is speaking with Mary. 

For things happening in the world during this time, but not permanently. Schools are improving.

 The world is changing.  

For actions planned for the future. I am flying to Miami next week. I’m having a party on my birthday.

   For complaints:
                 You are always smoking near my office!         

Complete the exercise with the present continuous form of the verb in parentheses. Don’t forget the auxiliary verb! The first one is done for you. 1. Please turn down the music. I ___am trying______ (try) to study. 2. Why don’t we play outside?. It _________________ (not rain) anymore. 3. Can you turn off the computer?. I ________________________ (not listen) it. 4. My sister called from Beijing. She ________________ (have) lots of fun! 5. I ________________________ (get) frustrated. I need a break.

Complete the exercise with the present continuous form of the verb in parentheses. Don’t forget the auxiliary verb! 1. ___________ they ___________over for lunch? (come) 2. The dog ______________________________ on our sofa. (not sleep) 3. The CEO ______________________________ this week. (visit) 4. I ______________________________ breakfast at the moment. (have) 5. My cousin ______________________________ German. (learn) 6. I _____________________________ on vacation until January. (not go) 7. We ___________________ dinner at a French restaurant tonight. (have). 8. Jamie______________________________her birthday today. (celebrate) 9. They ______________________________ an online bookstore. (browse) 10. My cat is ______________________________ in her bed. (sleep)







Present Simple (I do) Usage For statements of fact that never change. My name is Rena. The sun rises in the East. For conditions that happen repeatedly. (for example, habits) We take a shower every morning. Dad doesn’t work weekends. For schedules: Our train arrives at 5.00. tomorrow.

Complete the exercise with the present tense form of the verb in parentheses. Then rewrite the sentence in the negative, and as a question. 1. My favorite restaurant ________ this. (be) 2. I _________ computer games. (play) 3. She _____________ to the USA every year. (travel) 4. They ____________ swimming. (love) 5. Our dog __________ all day. (sleep)

Complete the exercise with the present tense form of the verb in parentheses. Then, rewrite the sentence in the negative, and as a question. 1. Jason, please __________ here. (come) 2. The dog ____________ on the sofa. (sleep) 3. The CEO ________________ every year. (visit) 4. I __________________ time on Saturday. (have) 5. My cousin ________________ German in school. (learn) 6. I ___________________ Mexican on Fridays. (eat) 7. My mom still ______________ letters by hand. (write) 8. Americans __________________ Independence Day on July 4. (celebrate) 9. People ______________ milk at the pharmacy. (buy) 10. My cat ____________________ in my bed. (sleep)

Define why we are using Present Simple in each sentence. 1. He washes his teeth every morning. 2. I prefer green tea to black tea. 3. Our teacher always comes on time. 4. Out lesson begins at 8.00. 5. Do you smoke after lunch? 6. The meeting finishes after 12.00.











Present Continuous and Present simple 1 Differences in Usage We use Present Continuous for actions that are continuing right now. They are not finished. It is raining outside. It is not raining outside. We use Present Simple for actions done at present or those that happen habitually. It rains in the morning in the Amazon rain-forest everyday. (repeated) It does not rain in this region during summer. (repeated) ________________________________________________ We use Present Continuous for actions that are temporary. He is living with us until he finds a flat. We use Present Simple for actions that are permanent. I live with my parents near Chilanzar. _______________________________________________ We use Present Continuous for plans and personal arrangements We are leaving next week. We use Present Simple for schedules. The plane leaves after 3 hours. ____________________________________________________

These words and phrases are often used with Present Simple: always, usually, often, frequently, sometimes, from time to time, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, never, each, everybody

These words and phrases require Present Continuous: now, at the moment, Look! , Listen!, currently, nowadays, these days Use either the present or present continuous form to complete the sentence. Use the words found in the parentheses. 1. Jasmine __________________ her friends at the moment. (call) 2. Jasmine __________________ her friends every Saturday. (call) 3. Mike _______________ editorial cartoons for the weekly paper. (make) 4. Mike _________________ an editorial cartoon presently. (make) 5. The guards ________________ turns in guarding the post. (take)

Use either the present or present continuous form to complete the sentence. Use the words found in the parentheses. 1. The bird usually______________________ on a branch. (settle) 2. The bird ______________________ on a branch at the moment. (settle) 3. Jack and Cris ______________________ hide and seek right now. (play) 4. Jack and Cris ________ hide and seek each time they come here. (play) 5. Ava ______________________ every night. (pray) 6. Ava ______________________ is in her room now. (pray) 7. Ethan __________________ cartoon characters in his free time. (draw) 8. Ethan _______________ his favorite cartoon character presently. (draw) 9. Currently, Lisa ______________________ her clothes. (wash) 10. Lisa ______________________ her clothes during weekends. (wash)


Present Continuous and Present simple 2 Usage There are some action words that are not usually used in present continuous form. We use Present Simple with them even if the action is happening right now. Right now, I love to listen to that artist’s songs. I don’t know what he is up to currently. This kind of verbs are called non-continuous verbs. Non-continuous verbs don't refer to an action, but they refer to a state.

Common non-continuous verbs: agree be believe belong consist cost depend fit forget hate hear know like love need own prefer realise recognise remember seem understand want wish And some verbs can be both continuous and non-continuous depending on their meaning. continuous non-continuous have Do, make I'm having dinner. own I have a car. look Observe, watch He's looking at me. Have appearance He looks good. see meet I'm seeing him today. Be able to watch I see you. smell Try the smell I'm smelling soup. Have a smell Soup smells good. taste Try the taste I'm tasting soup. Have a taste Soup tastes good.

think Make brain effort What are you thinking about? consider I think we can win. be Behave unusually He is being rude today. exist He is not a rude boy. weigh Measure weight I'm weighing potatoes. Have weight Potatoes weigh 5 kilos. Use either the present or present continuous form to complete the sentence. Use the words found in the parentheses. 1. I want to go home. I ________ not ______________________ well. (feel) 2. Don’t eat that! It ______________________ funny. (smell) 3. She ______________________ pretty sick. (look) 4. I ______________________ our lessons perfectly. (understand) 5. Are you ________ alright? We can go to the doctor if you want to. (feel)

Use either the present or present continuous form to complete the sentence. Use the words found in the parentheses. 1. Why do you act that way? You _________________ disrespectful! (be) 2. Yes, she ______________________ what is going on. (understand) 3. I ______________________ really healthy and fit! (feel) 4. I ____ you want to leave that place after what had happened. (suppose) 5. Why don’t you appreciate what Ana is doing? She ______________________ nice girl. (be) 6. We ______________________ in what he says. (believe) 7. The boys ______________________ a sound from distance. (hear) 8. Move faster! I _____________ hungrier and hungrier every second! (get) 9. The class _______________ a population of thirty kids in a class. (reach) 10. The children _________________ for their dreams as we speak.

Complete the following sentences using the present simple or present continuous: 1. Look at that bad man! He ________ (smoke) a cigarette on the bus. 2. I _________ (study) for my exam at the moment. 3. Do you have any children? Yes, I __________ (have) two sons. 4. What are you doing tomorrow evening? I ___ (meet) my wife for dinner. 5. Are you busy? Yes, I ________ (take) a shower.

Past Simple (I did)

We must use Verb 2 form in Past Simple. Verb 2 is created in 2 ways: -regular Regular way is adding -ed to basic verb form. (check-checked, listen -listened) -irregular There is no rule for irregular verb forming. You just have to learn by heart 2nd forms of irregular verbs. (run-ran, hear-heard) Usage Past form is used for actions done in the past. I loved to listen to that artist’s songs back in the day. Caleb finished his work yesterday. Emma ran around the track earlier today. The bird flew back to its nest.

Signal words: last yesterday ago /Signal words are the words or phrases that require a certain tense/


Change the verb in the parentheses in its past form to complete the sentence. 1. My little brother accidentally ______________________ the vase two days ago. (break) 2. I ______________________ a movie by myself. (watch) 3. The last time we had baseball practice, Tim ______________________ the ball forcefully. (hit) 4. Mom ______________________ for the entire family last Thanksgiving. (cook) 5. Logan ______________________ you from yesterday’s show. (recognize)


Change the verb in the parentheses in its past form to complete the sentence. 1. Dad ____________ Mom when they were still in Senior High. (meet) 2. James already _________________ the bills. (pay) 3. Olivia _________________ in yesterday’s concert. (sing) 4. We _________________ so much money for our trip last May. (spend) 5. Lee _________________ me a letter two months ago. (write) 6. Isabella ____________ a cute, pink dress for last night’s party. (wear) 7. He ___________ some unpleasant words that made Sheila cry. (say) 8. Noah _________________ that book last year. (read) 9. The phone _________________ a couple of minutes ago. (ring) 10. Pym ___________ Hank so they became friends again. (forgive)

Past Continuous (I was doing) Usage Past continuous form is used for actions that are on-going sometime in the past or at the time another action happened. He was studying when I entered his room. Dan was watching TV when I arrived. You were sleeping at 5.00. yesterday.





Join the two sentences using the past continuous form. The first one is done for you. 1. The girls were practicing the dance. I entered the gym. The girls were practicing the dance when I entered the gym.______ 2. Dad was fixing the car. I called him. __________________________________________________________________ 3. Jaden was answering his assignment. I arrived home. __________________________________________________________________ 4. The children were playing in the backyard. Mom picked us up. __________________________________________________________________ 5. Mr. Sanders was cleaning the porch. I handed him a flyer.




Change the given words in the parentheses to complete the sentence. The first one is done for you. 1. _________________ when I entered his room. (Tim , read a book) 2. _________________ when I found her by the stairs. (My little sister, cry) 3. _________________ when I felt hungry. (We, drive through the freeway) 4. _________________ when I reached him through his phone. (Sam, pay the bills) 5. _________________ when I arrived home. (My older sister, cook) 6. ____ when we asked about their admission routine. (They, still accept enrollees) 7. _________________ when Mom requested me to prepare the table for dinner. (I, finish my project) 8. _________________ when we made a surprise visit. (Aunt Iris, clean her house) 9. _________________ when we reached home. (The kids, sleep) 10. _________________ when the teacher finally caught him. (Shane, copy answers from his seatmate).


Present Perfect (I have done) Usage For actions that continue from the past until now Michelle is so hungry. She has not eaten since this morning! The students have studied since last week just to prepare for this test. Just to show if the action has happened or not (the time of the action is not important, what is important is whether it happened or not ) I have been to the USA 2 times. Have you done your homework? I have not understood you. To tell news Brazil have won the championship! Sorry, you have not passed the test. To use with today, this week, this year, etc. if these are not yet finished at the time of speaking Tim has changed a lot this year. The kids have received so many treats tonight. For actions that have happened for the (first, second, third,etc.) time This is the fifth time that Mike has visited India. It is the first time that we have met celebrities in the flesh.

For actions that happened in the past but have connection with the present or have result at present I have lost my passport. I am searching it everywhere. She has fallen. She has a bruise ankle. Special case: have been vs. have gone have been – went somewhere and have returned have gone – went somewhere and still there - Why do you look so tired? - I have been to the cow market. - Where is he? - He has gone to the cow market. I hope he will come back soon.

Complete the following sentences using the present perfect tense of the verb in the parentheses. 1. My sister __________________ for that book since last year. (wait) 2. That is the sixth time that the audience _________________________ the artist a standing ovation. (give) 3. Isabel _________________________ so many awards this year. (win) 4. I ___________________________ several calls today. (receive) 5. This is the first time that the government ___________________________ that kind of announcement. (make)

Complete the following sentences using the present perfect tense of the verb in the parentheses. 1. This is the third time that we _______________ the President. (meet) 2. The girl __________________________ sick since this morning. (feel) 3. He ___________________________________ to his parents so many times. That is why they don’t trust him so much. (lie) 4. Mom and I ________across the country a dozen times this year. (travel) 5. Camille is so popular. She ___________________________________ so many letters from her admirers this week. (receive) 6. Cory ___________________ to London two or three times before. (go) 7. Dennis has to be careful. This is the first time that he ___________________________________ the car alone. (drive) 8. The new graduate __________ multiple invitations for job interviews today. (get) 9. Bob ___________________ that movie several times this week. (watch) 10. They ____________ the project three times already. (research)


Present Perfect Continuous Usage For actions that have stopped very recently The ground is wet. It has been raining. There you are! I have been looking all over for you. What have you been doing? The room is a total mess! For actions that began in the past tense and are still in progress I have been watching TV since you left. (I'm still watching.) You have been telling me the same thing for 20 minutes. (You're still telling) The manager has been holding a series of meetings today. We have been traveling across the country this year.



Put the verb into its correct Present perfect continuous form. The first one is done for you. 1. Brent has been studying for the test since last week. (Brent/study) 2. _________________________ you the whole afternoon. (Someone/call) 3. ___________ for the announcement for over an hour now. (Everyone/wait) 4. ___________________ all day because my beloved pet puppy died. (I/cry) 5. ___________________________________________ everywhere to find the perfect dress for the first school day. (She/look)

Put the verb into its correct Present perfect continuous form. 1. Since he found out that he has been chosen as the winner, ________________________ up and down for about an hour now. (James/jump) 2. ________________________ to speak Mandarin since he was little. (John/learn) 3. The _________________________ a different variety of the crop. (farmer/grow) 4. The __________________________________________ his wife for the entire duration of his post in Baghdad. (soldier/write) 5. My ________________________ the same car for over six years now. (Dad/drive) 6. _____________________________ that song since yesterday. (Ralph, sing) 7. The bone now lies in pieces. The _________________________________________ on it nonstop. (dog/chew) 8. The ___________________________________________ about Egyptian history for over a decade. (famous archaeologist/study) 9. Lester looks strong and healthy. _______________________________ a lot of fruits and vegetables lately. (He/eat) 10. I want to go home. _______________________ sick all day. (I/feel)


Present Perfect Continuous and Present Perfect Simple Usage Use Present Perfect Continuous form if the focus is on the activity. Use Simple Present Perfect form if the focus is on the result.

Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple I have been cleaning the room since this morning. (The act of cleaning is emphasized.) I have cleaned this room already. (A clean room is emphasized.) She has been writing reports all day. (The act of writing reports is emphasized.) She has written that report. (A finished report is emphasized.)

Use Present Perfect Continuous form to show how long an action has been happening. Use Simple Present Perfect form to show how many, how many times, or how much.

Present Perfect and Continuous Present Perfect Simple How long have you been practicing that routine? (duration of the action is emphasized) How many times have you practiced that routine? (quantity of the action is emphasized) They have been travelling all week-end long. They have invited more young people to join the dance troupe.

Use Present Perfect Continuous if the activity is still ongoing. Use Present Perfect Simple form if action has been done.

Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple The pupil has been studying for the test all day long. (still studying) The pupil has studied for the test. (completed the action) The baby has been sleeping the whole afternoon. (still sleeping) The baby has slept for two hours this afternoon. (completed the action)

Present Perfect Continuous form is not applicable to Non-continuous verbs. Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple Not I have been knowing I have known about the news since this morning. Not I have been believing I have believed his side of the story even before the evidence came out.

Ask a suitable question using either the Present Perfect Continuous form or the Simple Present Perfect form to elicit such response. The first two are done for you. 1. “I have been training to be a martial arts expert for over a decade now.” How long have you been training? 2. “Tina has watched that movie seven times.” How many times has Tina watched that movie? 3. “I have been running errands all day long.” ____________________________________________________ 4. “I have been waiting for you for over an hour.” ____________________________________________________ 5. “Yes, I have just finished studying.” ____________________________________________________

Rewrite the verb in the parentheses into a more suitable form for the given sentence. Decide whether to use Present Perfect Form Continuous or Simple Present Perfect form. 1. I _______________ my hands nonstop since the show started. (clap) 2. I ___________________ only once since the show started. (clap) 3. She_________________________________letters many times to the Editor so that her work would get published. (send) 4. She_________________________________letters all day. 5. The expensive vase is broken! What _____you__________? (do) 6. Your room is as messy as I left it this morning. What ___________ you __________ that prevented you from cleaning your room? (do) 7. Shawn______________________ all his assignments so he can have more free time later in the day. (make) 8. Shawn___________ his assignments for over an hour now. (make) 9. Dad_______________________________ my bike but it still remains broken. We might bring it to the shop tomorrow. (repair) 10. Our teachers____________________________ about Mary’s predicament even before she told them what it was. (know)


Answer the following questions by using either the Simple Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous form appropriately. The first one is done for you. 1. You’ve been to Panama, haven’t you? - Yes, I have been to Panama. 2. The cake design is intricate. You spent so much time preparing it, right? - Oh, yes. I _____________________ since early this morning. 3. I ‘m sorry for being late. How long have you been waiting for me? - It’s alright. I think I only __________________ for you for about fifteen minutes. 4. There’s a regional contest for athletes this May. Do you think that school will participate? - I’m not sure. They ______________ not ______________ any contest for years! 5. Your parents are inseparable! They’ve been married for ages, haven’t they? - Yes. They _______________________ for 15 years now.


Put a check (√) if the underlined sentence structure is correct. Write the correct statement if the structure is wrong. 1. The little girl is crying. She has been waiting for her Mom to pick her up. 2. Mrs. Johns has not yet deciding where to hold her party. 3. Cate has been living in Hawaii since 2008. 4. Simon has been lived in Thailand back in the day. 5. I have learned to paint for months now but I still can’t get it right. 6. My Mom has not been liking the way I spend so much time online. 7. Ms. Williams has not been driving before. 8. I have met you before but I just don’t remember when or where. 9. Henry has been telling stories to his younger siblings all evening long. 10. You don’t look surprised. Have you already known about the news?


Present Perfect Signal Words

already, yet, so far, up to now, recently, lately, in the last (past)…, ever, never, since, for

For and Since Construction and Usage Use for to show period of time or duration I have been waiting for you for three straight hours. My family has been going back and forth states for a couple of months now. Use since to show the start of an action I have been waiting for you since this morning. My family has been going back and forth states since last year.


Complete the sentence by writing for or since on the space provided. 1. The strong wind has been blowing ______________ hours now. 2. The assigned pupils have been waiting for their turn to report ______________ this morning. 3. The baby has been sleeping ______________ noon time. 4. She has been studying for the test ______________ a week now. 5. The Principal has been making announcements ______________ yesterday.

Complete the sentence by writing for or since on the space provided. 1. The store manager has been talking the employees regarding policy changes ______________ last week. 2. The doctor has been making his rounds ______________ 8:00 in the morning. 3. Universities have been giving free orientations for first year students ______________ the beginning of the school year. 4. The government has changed ______________ the new administration began. 5. Ross has been learning how to speak fluent French ______________ over three years now. 6. That artist has been singing songs ______________ as long as she can remember. 7. The entertained audience has been applauding tirelessly ______________ over an hour now. 8. This movie has been running ______________ about three hours already. 9. The disaster victims have been asking for more support ______________ the tragic calamity destroyed their homes. 10. Danny has been playing baseball ______________ years. That explains why he’s that good.


Simple Present Perfect versus Simple Past Usage Use Simple Present Perfect form to show what has happened now. Use Simple Past form to show what happened in the past. Simple Present Perfect Simple Past I have gone to the store. I’ll be back immediately. (I’m not at home now.) I went to the store earlier but now I’m back. (Not have gone) Caitlin has found her long-lost diary. (She found it now) Caitling found her long-lost diary two days ago. (Not has found)

Use Simple Present Perfect form for the newest things. Use Simple Past for those that are not new. Simple Present Perfect Simple Past Have you tried the newest version of Ubuntu? Ubuntu was started in 2004. The child has begun to eat vegetables and fruits. My child ate vegetables and fruits when I was out.

Never use I have done for finished time. Use I did. I did my work yesterday. (Yesterday is finished time so do not use I have done.) She has sung that song today. (Today is connected to now so do not use sang.)

Use Simple Present Perfect for actions that have connection with Present Time. Use Simple Past for actions that don't have connection with Present time . Simple Present Perfect Simple Past I have lost my passport. I am searching it everywhere. I lost my passport yesterday, but fortunately I found it in the morning. Derek has broken his leg. It is under plaster now. Derek broke his leg last match, but he has fully recovered.

Use Simple Present Perfect to show whether something happened or not. Use Simple Past form to show when something happened. (The time is important) Simple Present Perfect Simple Past I have been to Latin America 3 times so far. I was in Latin America in 2003,2004 and 2010. Have you finished your task? When did you finish your task?

Use Simple Present Perfect for actions that may continue.

Use Simple Past form for actions that may not continue.

Simple Present Perfect Simple Past I have lived in my present house for 2 years. I lived in my previous house for 2 years. My brother is a famous writer. He has written more than 20 novels. Mark Twain wrote a lot of novels.


Circle the verb or verb phrase in the parentheses that will best complete the sentence. 1. My father ( has driven , drove ) that car last night. 2. I ( have auditioned , auditioned ) for a new role in a Broadway play yesterday. 3. We ( have tried , tried ) to eat in the newest restaurant in town. 4. Sasha ( has left , left ) the building but she will be back. 5. Amelia Earhart ( has flown , flew ) across the Atlantic in 1928.

Complete the sentence by putting the verb in the parentheses either in Simple Present Perfect form or Simple Past form. 1. Patricia _________________ (sing) that song two nights ago. 2. The Robinsons ______________ (throw) a grand party last night. 3. The girls ___________(go) to the newly-opened boutique at Soho. 4. Uncle Pat ________________________ (lose) the map so we do not know which way to go. 5. Today is the sixth time that I ___________________ (hear) that song in the radio. 6. The honest cab driver _______________________ (return) the wallet to the owner yesterday. 7. I ________________(visit) my grandparents two weeks ago. 8. Camille ________________________ (change) a lot since she arrived from her trip. 9. Mom _________ (give) me a golden locket for my 13th birthday. 10. The company president ____________________ (speak) to the employees in last night’s convention.

Complete the following sentences using the present perfect or past simple: 1. Have you ever eaten / Did you ever eat curry? 2. Last year I went / have been to Poland. 3. No, I have never seen / never have seen The Lord of the Rings. 4. My brother says that he haven't eaten / hasn't eaten curry. 5. Did you go on vacation last summer? Yes, I have been / went to Croatia.


Past Perfect Usage Use Past Perfect for actions or states of being that have been completed in the past before past actions or states of being I was so lucky. I had gone out before the building collapsed. She had been sick when classes started last September. Simply saying, Past Simple is something happened in the Past, Past Perfect happened before Past Simple.

Fill in the sentence with either the past form or past perfect form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. Jessica _________________________________ (sing) the National Anthem in last night’s ball game. 2. Jessica _________________________________ (sing) the song before the lights went out. 3. Dad _________________________________ (leave) by the time I arrived. 4. Dad _________________________________ (leave) about an hour ago. 5. We _________________________________ (finish) the whole tube of ice cream when she asked for more.

Fill in the sentence with either the past form or past perfect form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. The pilot ________________________ (land) the plane safely. 2. The pilot ________________________ (land) the plane even before the passengers found out that something was wrong. 3. All the players ________ (cheer) in delight after winning the game. 4. All the players _________________________________ (cheer) for their injured teammate before they left the dug-out. 5. They ________________________ (go) away when we came. They were out. 6. They ________________ (go) away about fifteen minutes ago. 7. The bell _________ (ring) loudly. It signaled the end of lunch time. 8. The bell ________________ (ring) before we left the building. 9. She ____________________ (send) the letter before I discovered the secret message. 10. She ______________ (send) the letter two days ago.

Complete the following sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form: 1. The burglars ______ (escape) before the police ________ (arrive). 2. When she __________ (arrive), the party ____________ (finish). They came too late. 3. By the time they _____(get) to the hospital, she ______ (give) birth. 4. Before we __________ (come) to London, we __________ (live) in 10 different cities. 5. He __________ (be) on a plane, so he __________ (be) tired.


Past Perfect Continuous Usage Use Past Perfect Continuous form for actions or states of being had been happening in the past before something else I had been studying in my room when my little sister barged in. The celebrity had been making donations to charities before the media caught wind of it. Past Perfect Continuous (had been happening before something else) Present Perfect Continuous (has been happening before now) I had been feeling sick before I was rushed to the hospital. (Felt sick before going to the hospital) I am now in the hospital. I have been feeling sick. (before now) The kids’ eyes were red. They had been crying. (take note of the verb were) The kids’ eyes are red. They have been crying. (take note of the verb are)

Fill in the sentence with either the Past Perfect Continuous Form or the Present Perfect Continuous form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. The class was quiet. The teacher ________ (tell) a thrilling story. 2. The class is quiet. The teacher _____________________________ (tell) a thrilling story. 3. They ________________________________________ (board up) their doors and windows ever since they heard the news about the super typhoon. 4. It’s a good thing that _____________________________ (board up) their doors and windows before I arrived to tell them about the super typhoon. 5. The boy ________________________________________ (read) a book when his Dad came to pick him up.


Fill in the sentence with either the Past Perfect Continuous Form or the Present Perfect Continuous form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. The children __________(play) outside before I walked in the door. 2. The children ______ ________ (play) outside since this morning. 3. Her voice is hoarse. She __________________ (talk) for hours. 4. Her voice was hoarse. She ______ __________ (talk) for hours. 5. Dad ________________ (cut) the grass for hours now. 6. Dad _______ _ (cut) before the gardener came to finish the work. 7. I _________ ___ (save) for the wedding even before you asked. 8. I _______________ _______________ (save) for that concert. 9. She hopes her Mom arrives soon. She ___________ _ (wait) for well over thirty minutes now. 10. She ___________________________(wait) for well over thirty minutes before her Mom arrived.


Have got and Have Construction and Usage Have got and have are used to show possession or relationships among others. There is not much distinction between the two of them. If you say “I’ve got a new tablet”, you can also say “I have a new tablet”. If you say “Mark has got a younger sister”, you can also say “Mark has a younger sister”.

Question form Negative form (with got) Negative form (without got) Accepted form but rarely used Has Trisha got what Louise asked for? Trisha hasn’t got what Louise asked for. Trisha doesn’t have what Louise asked for. Trisha hasn’t what Louise asked for. Do you have any food to eat? I haven’t got any food to eat. I don’t have any food to eat. I haven’t any food to eat.

Pair each negative statement with another negative statement. Make sure the pair that you will give has has or have. Use the phrases in the parentheses as your clue. Be careful with your tenses. Can’t is for present actions. Couldn’t is for past actions. The first two are done for you. 1. I can’t drive. (a car) I don’t have a car.__ 2. She couldn’t remember. ( a good memory) She didn’t have good memory. 3. My uncle can’t swim. (training) _____________________________________ 4. I can’t stay long. (meeting) _________________________________________ 5. Mom can’t come. (a conference) _____________________________________

Write sentences using the words in the parentheses. Make sure that each of your sentences has has/have or has/have got. The first one is done for you. (a car) 1. I don’t have a car. (a computer) 2. (friends) 3. (a cousin) 4. (a new book) 5. (a phone) 6. (any questions) 7. (any ideas) 8. (a shiny ring) 9. (a plan) 10.


Used to Usage For actions that were usual in the past but do not happen anymore I used to dance a lot before. Megan used to attend voice lessons but not anymore.


Used to and be used to doing mean two very different things. Never interchange them. I used to jog here every morning. (Speaker jogged here a lot every morning but not anymore.) I am used to doing three full jog turns in this track. (Speaker is in the habit of doing three full jog turns in the track because he has been accustomed to do so for quite a time.)

Complete the following sentences with used to and a suitable verb. The first one is done for you. 1. After his operation, Dad quit smoking. He ____used to smoke______ about two packs a day. That was how bad it got. 2. I _____________________ a boy scout but after the injury, I had to quit. 3. This is a great place for army drill. There was a group of soldiers that ___________________ drills here but they don’t come here anymore. 4. There ______________________________ a majestic tree that grew here until the tornadoes came and toppled it down with the other trees. 5. There was a time that I read so many books. I ____________________ a lot but I don’t have time to do so now. Complete the following sentences with used to and a suitable verb. 1. Farmers ______________________ a variety of crops here until the quakes destroyed the field. It is a pitiful sight, isn’t it? 2. Grandma Rose’s grandkids __________________________her a lot when she was still alive. She would sit by the porch and watch them play by the driveway. 3. I play the tuba because my uncle also ______________________________ the tuba professionally. He was the one who taught me. 4. Elaine plays the piano well because she __________________ __ classical training in a Music School. 5. There was a time when books were enough for us on a rainy day. Reading ____________ ____________ the favorite past time of kids of past years. 6. My aunt ______________________________ me to that amusement park every weekend when I was little. 7. Mom ______________________________at home all the time until she found a job that took her out of town three times a week. 8. What happened to that artist? I ______ __ a fan of hers. 9. There was time that Lily ate whatever she wanted. She ______________________________ sweets every meal time until she was diagnosed to be a borderline diabetic. 10. Because of my work, I don’t jog as often as you would like. I ______________________________ four or five times a week. That’s a luxury I cannot afford anymore.





Complete the following sentences using used to, usually or no longer: 1. Do you play football? I ______ play but now I have no free time. 2. Every weekend I meet my friends and we ______ go to the cinema. 3. I _____ live in Germany. I love living in Spain. 4. What do you ______ do at the weekend? 5. I'm sad because I ______ have the time to meet my friends for a drink.

Present Tenses for the Future (I’m doing/I do) Usage Use Present Continuous for actions that have already been set. I am leaving for Panama next month. Are you still playing basketball this weekend? Use Present Continuous for personal arrangements. I’m meeting Daisy at the park next week. What time are you getting together with the folks? Use Simple Present for schedules (transportation, programmes, etc.) The bus leaves at 8:15 am tomorrow. The movie ends at 9 in the evening.


Make a suitable question for each answer using either Present Continuous or Simple Present for the future. The first one is done for you. The train leaves at 11:15 a.m. today. 1. What time does the train leave today? The concert ends at 10 in the evening. 2. I am meeting her later at 4. 3. Yes, we are going bowling later. 4. They are arriving at dawn on Tuesday. 5.




Give a suitable answer for every question. Use Present Continuous or Simple Present for the future. The first one is done for you. What are you doing later? 1. I am going to go to a party later. Are you going to that concert tonight? 2. What time does the plane leave? 3. What time does the movie start? 4. What time does the bus arrive tomorrow? 5. What time are you meeting your doctor? 6. Are you visiting your uncle this month? 7. Are your parents watching the show later? 8. What are you doing tomorrow night? 9. What time does the show end? 10.


Will / Shall Usage Use will for actions that are to be carried out at the time of speaking It’s cold outside. I’ll go get a jacket. We don’t have food anymore. I’ll call for some take out. Use will when one offers to do something; agrees to do something; promises to do something; or asks to do something I’ll help you carry that box if you want. (offering) Can you help me carry this box? Sure, I’ll help you carry that box. (accepting) Just leave that box there. I’ll carry it for you. It’ll be in your room when you come back. (promising) Will you carry that box for me? (asking to do something) Use shall in questions that ask a person’s opinion especially when one offers or suggests to do something Shall I carry that box? (Do you want me to carry the box?) Shall we call for help? (Do you want us to call for help?)

Shall I carry that box? (Do you want me to carry the box?) Will you carry that box? (I want you to carry that box.) Shall we ask for help? (Do you want us to ask for help) Will you call for help? (I want you to call for help.)


Write a suitable question for each statement. Use will or shall. The first one is done for you. 1. Yes, I will help you with that. Will you help me with this? 2. When will you come back? 3. Shall we go to the homecoming dance? 4. Shall I open the door? 5. Shall we watch the movie?

Write a suitable answer for each question. Use will or shall. The first one is done for you. Will you help me with this? 1. Yes, I will help you with that. When will you come back? 2. Shall we go to the homecoming dance? 3. Shall I open the door? 4. Shall we watch the movie? 5. Will you close the windows for me? 6. Will you take the test next week? 7. Shall we dance? 8.


Will and Going to Use Will for decisions that are made at the time of speaking Use to be going to for plans that have been made before the conversation - I am tired. - OK, I will help you. I can't go to your wedding, because I am going to visit my uncle tomorrow. Oh, no!Our car has broken down. - Now, we will walk, won't we? - What are your plans for the evening? - I am going to have a walk.

Usually, when the question has the present continuous form of the verb, answer it with going to if suitable. Are you watching the game later? Yes, I’m going to watch it. Is Ana coming tomorrow? No, she is not going to come. When is Michelle leaving? She is going to leave next Monday. We prefer to use Will after such phrases as: I think, Maybe, Perhaps, I am sure, Probably, I hope I think he will come tomorrow. Maybe he will come tomorrow.

Write a suitable answer to each of the questions. Use will or going to. The first one is done for you. Are you wearing a tie to the dinner? 1. Yes, I’m going to wear a tie. Will Mark attend the service? 2. Can you call Martha, please? 3. When is Michael arriving tomorrow? 4. Is the police officer arresting the fugitive? 5. Fill in the blanks with the words in the parentheses. Add will or going to. The first one is done for you. 1. It’s raining right now. I am going to get an umbrella. (I/get) 2. ___________________________ for Paris. (She/leave) 3. ___________________________ me carry the bag? (you/help) 4. It’s snowing outside. _______________ a snowman! (We/make) 5. _________________________ the movie tonight. (Tom/watch) 6. _____________________ in the next Spielberg movie. (She/star) 7. I’m thirsty. ___________________________ water. (I/drink) 8. Today is Monday. __________________ the lesson. (We/attend) 9. Ms. Martin is here. She ______________ Math. (She/teach)


Complete the following sentences using the correct future form: 1. I've just been to the travel agents, on Saturday I'll go / I'm going to London. 2. According to the timetable, the next bus will arrive / arrives at 10:05. 3. I think that Arsenal will win / are going to win the match. 4. It's getting very cold. Will you / Are you going to close the window? 5. On Sunday I will visit / am going to visit my grandmother.

Will be doing and Will have done Usage Use future continuous for actions that will be in progress at a certain time in the future. At this time next week, I will be soaking up the sun in Malibu. Also you may use future continuous for plans Will you be leaving tomorrow? Use future perfect for actions that will be completed before something else in the future. By the time you go home later, she will have gone. I will have sent the letter by the time you arrive.


Complete the following sentences with either future continuous form or future perfect form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. This time next year, I ________________ (travel) across Asia. 2. Francis __________ (go) to the park by the time you get home. 3. At 8 tonight, you will find her in the office. She ______ (work) late. 4. See me at 3 this afternoon. I _ ________ (get) home by then. 5. Don’t go there later! You __________ _ (put) yourself in danger.

Complete the following sentences with either future continuous form or future perfect form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. At the rate that he is going, he _______________________ _ (reach) the top of the corporate ladder before he turns 30. 2. My Dad ___________ ___ (arrive) from his business trip by 3:30. 3. Call her after 8pm. She _____ (return) to the office before that time. 4. Don’t come after dinner. I ______ __________ (do) homework. 5. By the time you fly to Australia, your sister _________________ (fly) back to Boston. 6. You will have to leave already. She ______ ________ (leave) by the time you reach the restaurant. 7. My family and I __________________________ (visit) our sick grandmother later today. 8. It’s useless! Carol _________________________ __ (finish) eating by the time you invite her to eat out. 9. You will have to come early. Mom _______________________ (drive) to work by the time you get here. 10. This time next month, James _ __________ (study) in a different school.

When and If Usage Use “when” for actions that are SURE to happen. Use “if” for actions that MIGHT happen. We will leave when your aunt arrives. (The aunt will surely arrive.) We will leave if your aunt arrives. (The aunt might arrive.) May I use your pen when you’ve finished with it? (Person spoken to will surely finish using the pen.) May I use your pen if you’ve finished with it? (Person spoken to might finish using the pen.) I’ll cry when you leave. (Person spoken is surely leaving.) I’ll cry if you leave. (Person spoken to might leave.) Note: We don't use future tense forms after if and when even when we are talking about the future. Instead we use present alternatives.

Finish the following sentences. 1. The kid will stop crying if __________________________________________. 2. Mom will be happy when __________________________________________. 3. Paolo will study if __________________________________________. 4. Emma will be angry when __________________________________________. 5. Mr. Williams will give us a prize if___________________.

Use the following words in the parentheses in sentences with when and if. The first one is done for you. a. I/ play for the team/ I/ receive a scholarship. 1. I will play for the team when I receive a scholarship. 2. I will play for the team if I receive a scholarship. b. She/ dance/ someone/ plays good music 3. __________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________ c. People/applaud/ actors/ perform well 5. __________________________________________ 6. __________________________________________ d. Vincent/ feel hungry/ he/ sees this picture 7. __________________________________________ 8. __________________________________________ e. Mom/ scold me/ she/ finds out 9. __________________________________________ 10. ________________________________________


















Modal Verbs


Can, could, and be able to Usage Use can for one’s ability to do something. Negative form is cannot (can’t). Past tense is could. I can sing. I can’t sing. I could sing before. She can read an entire book in a day. She can’t read an entire book in a day. She could read an entire book in a day. Use be able to if can cannot be used (since can has only two forms: present (can) and past (could). Luis might be able to dance in tomorrow’s show. I’ve been able to travel across the Asian continent. Use was able to or managed to for specific actions done in the past. When the accident happened, I was able to find help. (not could) Ben managed to get some sleep last night even if he had so much work to finish. (not could)

Using the words in the parentheses, create sentences that reflect the guidelines above. The first one is done for you. (Cathy/ can) 1. Cathy can drive five hours straight without resting. (Dad/managed to) 2. (pupils/could) 3. (kids/can’t) 4. (Tom/was able to) 5.

Complete the following sentences. 1. Ria is sad because she can’t _______________________________________. 2. It was a good thing that there firefighters were able to ______________________________________________. 3. Don’t worry! I could _____________________________________________. 4. I did not know that you could ______________________________________. 5. Martin is such a show off! He wants everyone to know that he can _______________________________________________. 6. This hi-tech gadget can ____________________________________________. 7. My favorite superhero is _________________ because he/she can ___________________________________. 8. My little sister was so angry yesterday because she couldn’t ______________________________________________. 9. Her friends managed to ___________________________________________. 10. I have a classmate who is so talented. She can ________________________________________________


Have to and Must Usage Have to and must connote obligation. We have to go to the art exhibit. We promised him we would. We must go to the art exhibit. We promised him we would. (Usually must shows personal duty based on opinion, have to shows obligation out of circumstances, but often they are interchangeable) While the two are similar, their negative forms are significantly different. We must not go to that place. I’ve heard bad things about it. (obligatory) We don’t have to eat outside unless you really want to. (not obligatory) We must not miss the meeting on Monday. (obligatory) We don’t have to be in that event but our friends might look for us. (not obligatory)


Complete the following sentences with has to, have to, or had to. 1. The show is at eight in the morning. We _____________________ prepare early if we want to catch it. 2. I was so sick last week that I _______________ miss classes for a couple of days. 3. Michelle sings and acts very well. She ____________ audition for the main part! 4. I didn’t remember if I locked the door so I _____________ double check. 5. The principal will be here any time now. We ___________be very quiet.



Complete the sentences with mustn’t or doesn’t/don’t have to. 1. This information is highly confidential. You _____________ tell anyone. 2. You ______________________ come if you don’t have the time to do so. 3. That is one of the best films ever! You ______________________ miss it! 4. We ____________________________________ go there now. We can do so tomorrow since we still have time. 5. I ____________________________________ scare my little sister. She screams really loud when she’s scared. 6. Eric ____________________________________ lose tomorrow if he wants it to make it to the Finals. 7. Tony ______________sing tomorrow but it’ll be great if he could. 8. The ladies __________________________ wear formal clothes unless they want to dress up. 9. I’ve been up all night just to catch this late night show. I ______ fall asleep! 10. The auditorium management closes the doors five minutes after a show starts so we _____________________ be late.

Complete the following sentences using the correct modal verb: 1. I'm very sorry but you mustn't / don't have to smoke here. 2. Sir, you have to / must leave your passport at the reception. 3. My doctor says that I shouldn't / should smoke. 4. The bus was canceled so we had to / must take a taxi. 5. I mustn't / don't have to go to work on Saturday because the office is closed.

Could (do) and could have (done) Usage Could has other uses aside from being the past tense of can. Read on. Use could for actions that can be possibly done now or in the future (just like might or may). We could go watch the show if you want to. You could stay with us in case you decide to visit here next year. Use could for actions that are unrealistic. Terrence is so hungry he could eat a horse. I’m swamped with work. I could use a holiday. Negative form of could is could not (couldn’t). We couldn’t watch the movie even if we wanted to.

I couldn’t bring myself to like mayonnaise. 

Use could have (could’ve) for actions in the past. Could have means - had ability, but didn't do it. We could’ve rented a cabin but decided against it. Mitch could’ve called us when he was in the neighborhood. Negative form of could have is could not have (couldn’t have). It means – didn't have ability, and even didn't try. He couldn’t have done that. He was with me the whole time! You couldn’t have seen her because she was in her room the whole time.


Put a “√” before the number if the sentence structure is correct. Put an “X” if not. 1. I’m so sleepy I could sleep for a hundred years and never wake up! 2. The woman couldn’t have gone inside because the doors were locked. 3. She could have sing if you ask her to. 4. The kids could played in the back yard as soon as Mom arrives. 5. That was the best party ever! We couldn’t ask for more!

A hyperbole is figurative language that shows exaggerated meaning. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate hyperbole. Be creative! The first one is done for you. 1. I am so thirsty I could drink the whole river.__________________________. 2. I am so happy I could _____________________________________________. 3. I am so angry I could ______________________________________________. 4. I am so hungry I could _____________________________________________. 5. I am so sad I could _______________________________________________. 6. I am so bored I could ______________________________________________. 7. I am so excited I could _____________________________________________. 8. I am so tired I could ______________________________________________. 9. I am so scared I could _____________________________________________. 10. I am so energized I could __________________________________________.


Must and can’t Usage Use must for actions that need to happen. We must go and help her. She needs us. I really want to pass this test so I must study seriously. Must is used for things one believes are definite. You haven’t slept yet. You must be really sleepy. She is about to meet her favorite actor. She must get very excited when she sees him! Use can’t for actions that are not possible. You can’t be that scared. That’s just a movie! It’s not real. It can’t be all that bad. Trust me. I’ve seen worse. Past tense for each are must have and can’t have respectively. Couldn’t have can also be used instead of can’t have. Couldn't have means wouldn’t have done even if he or she had wanted. Dave must have put this here. He was the only one in the room. My cousin can’t have eaten the cake. She was already full. The children couldn’t have left this mess. They have never been in this room.

Fill the sentences with must or can’t. 1. There’s your best friend. You __________ be happy to see her. 2. I heard the great news! She _________________ be ecstatic. 3. Sorry, I _________________ go to the party. I’ll be out of town. 4. Always persevere. You _________________ give up. 5. I love that actress! I _________________ watch her new film! Complete the following statements using the words in the parentheses. Use must have or can’t have. The first one is done for you. 1. The ground is wet. (It/rain) It must have rained all night. 2. I saw a kid crying. (He/lose his toy)

3. The lights of the house were all on. (Mom/go home early)


4. My little brother was fast asleep. (He/laugh out loud)

5. I didn’t remember the story. (I/read the book)

6. Melissa had no memory of meeting you there. (You/ meet her)

7. Tim had gone there. (He/miss it)

8. Rita’s phone kept on ringing. (She/fall asleep)

9. Donnie’s parents were so mad. (He/do something wrong)

10. The girls were so excited. (They/win a prize)


May and might Usage May/Might connotes possibility. We may go to the States this summer. (not certain if the trip will push through) The kids might play later if they wish to. (not certain if they will play) Negative form is may not or might not. I may not be able to attend because I have a prior engagement. He might not make it because of work. For past actions, use may have/might have. (It means maybe it happened, maybe not. The speaker isn't sure.) He looked familiar. I may have met him before. The room looked messy! The kids might have used it as their playroom.

Rewrite each sentence using may or might. The first one is done for you. 1. Maybe I’ll watch a movie later. I might watch a movie later.________________________________ 2. Maybe I’ll travel more next year. ___________________________________________________ 3. Maybe I’ll see you at the concert. _________________________________________________ 4. Maybe I’ll eat out later. ______________________________________________ 5. Maybe I’ll transfer to another school next semester. __________________________________________________

Complete the following sentences using the verb in the parentheses. Use may have or might have. 1. I lost my keys. I ________________________ them somewhere. (drop) 2. Jim spoke in front of a huge audience. __________ really nervous. (feel) 3. Shawn thought that story was familiar. He _____ it somewhere. (hear) 4. Mom was so cranky yesterday. She _____________________________ up on the wrong side of the bed. (wake) 5. Darla looked really nervous. She ___________ up to something. (be) 6. I wondered what __________ if we joined the event yesterday. (happen) 7. Dad looked so tired. He __________________________ all day. (work) 8. Tanya looked pleased. She ____________________________________ good marks this semester. (receive) 9. Dan is so mad at Cristy. She _____________ something really bad. (do) 10. Gary came really early. He__________ excited for the event. (get)


Must, Mustn’t, Needn’t Usage Use must for actions that have to be done. We must leave now if we want to catch that flight. I must study. I need to pass that exam. Use mustn’t for actions that should not be done. You mustn’t go there. It’s a dangerous place to be in. He mustn’t leave. I need to tell him something first. Use “needn’t” for actions that do not need to be done but one can still do if he/she really wants to. It is similar to “don't have to”. We needn’t go since there are already so many who volunteered. Miriam needn’t sing, but if she wants to, we can give her a spot in the program. One can also use doesn’t need to/ don’t need to instead of needn’t. We don’t need to go since there are already so many who volunteered for the project. Miriam doesn’t need to sing but if she wants to, we can give her a spot in the program. For past actions, one can use needn’t have + past participle of the verb. It means one did something, but it turned out to be useless. If I only had not known that this would happen! I needn’t have come. I thought it would snow so I wore jacket. It didn’t snow so I needn’t have worn a jacket after all.


Complete the sentences with must or mustn’t. 1. Your voice is hoarse so you ____________ talk so much so you can give it a rest. 2. It is Independence Day. We _______________________ show appreciation to those who sacrificed their lives so we can be free. 3. Bullying is hurtful so we _________________ resort to such a negative practice. 4. Our teacher assigned us so many things to read. We _______________________ start reading now if we want to finish on time. 5. My little sister has to listen to a story before she can sleep so I _____________ prepare a story for her tonight.

Make sentences for each given setting. Examples are given. In your community (MUST): 1. I must plant more trees. It is one way that I can protest global warming. 2. ________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________

At home (MUSTN’T): 5. I mustn’t waste electricity by leaving the lights on without anyone using them. 6. ________________________________________________ 7. ________________________________________________

In school (NEEDN’T): 8. I needn’t audition for the part because my drama teacher already told me that I got the part. 9. ________________________________________________ Should Usage Use should when giving advice. You should rest. You have a big day tomorrow. He should be more responsible instead of being too carefree. He’s not getting any younger. One can also use ought to instead of should. You ought to rest. You have a big day tomorrow. He ought to be more responsible instead of being too carefree. He’s not getting any younger. Use should for things that are not right or are not expected. Why isn’t she here? She should be since it’s her duty time. Mom told me she’d be off work by this time. She should be home. Use should have (done) for actions that were not done but were necessary. The finance officer should have been in her office since it was a payday. The principal should have called for the kids’ parents before the issue got blown out of proportion. Use should not have (done) for action that were done but weren't necessary. You shouldn’t have treated her that way. She feels really insulted. The boys shouldn’t have shouted like that. They sounded so disrespectful. Use should after a series of verbs particularly propose, insist, recommend, suggest and demand. (Sometime you can omit should and leave just verb. ) I insist that you should go. What do you recommend I should do? I suggest that you go see her. I demand that you should bring me to your manager!

Give an appropriate advice for each of the following concerns. I have been feeling sick all day. 1. I want to get a high score in tomorrow’s exams. 2. I found a wallet on that bench. 3. I want to make my Mom happy. 4. Oh no! A hurricane’s going to hit us in the next 48 hours! 5.

Complete the sentences using should or should have + verbs in the parentheses. Make sure they are structurally correct. The first two are done for you. 1. I think we should create (create) a tribute of thanks for our teacher, Ms. Anne. 2. All the players should have been (be) more serious during their practices. 3. The bell ________________ (ring) at this precise moment. 4. You’re off early. You ________________ (go) home and rest. 5. Father has already left the office. He ______ (arrive) any time now. 6. Beth insists that the class ___________________________ (donate) something for the victims of the earthquake. 7. Cora ____________ (master) the coding before she went on developer's competition. 8. My grandparents _______ (see) me perform in last night’s play. 9. There has been a string of theft in the campus. We _____________ (take) care of our things more vigilantly. 10. The farmers ____________________________ (plant) more crops when the weather was still good.


Had better and It’s time Usage Use had better for actions that are advisable to do. Negative form is had better not. I’d better leave or else I’ll get caught in traffic. Melissa had better study. I heard she want to pass the test really badly. Had better is similar to should but the first is used for specific situations while the latter is used for general ones. Example: I’d better study for tomorrow’s test. (specific situation) I should study more. (general situation) Use It’s time for (subject) to... It’s time for Trina to exercise. She’s getting heavier everyday. It’s time for that dishonest official to answer all the allegations against him. Use It’s time for actions that the subject should do as soon as possibe. It’s time we prepared for the strong hurricane. It’s time she promised to turn her life around. Use “It’s about time” or “It's hight time” for stronger emphasis. I heard she went into rehab. It’s about time she became more responsible for her actions. It’s high time you visited us. You always promised me before but all these promises never worked!

Write your answers on the spaces provided. What time is it? It’s time to… 1. I have gained so much weight. It’s time to ____________________________________________ 2. My camera got busted. We’re about to leave for Spain and I don’t have a single camera _________________________________ 3. I have to leave for France this weekend. ____________________ 4. I feel sick and nauseated almost everyday _________________ 5. My favorite show is now on the Fox Channel._________________

Complete each sentence appropriately. The first one is done for you. 1. My brother is still in the hospital. I’d better go visit him.. 2. This issue is getting out of hand. I’d better ___________________________. 3. I have such a long research paper to finish. I’d better __________________. 4. Mom is about to see if I cleaned my room. I’d better ___________________. 5. The test is already next week. I’d better ______________________________. 6. My cousin will visit me later. I’d better ______________________________. 7. My little sister needs help in doing her assignment. I’d better _____________________________. 8. My best friend just won the contest. I’d better ____________-. 9. Charles is not in a good mood. I’d better _____________________________. 10. I’ve been invited to a party. I’d better _____________________________.

Would Usage For things that are being imagined It would be nice to live in a mansion but we can’t afford to build one. I would love to see the North Pole one day. Use would have done for unreal actions in the past. She would have loved it if she had seen this view. Mary would have come earlier if she had known Mr. Gomez had already left. Negative form is would not (wouldn’t).It means refusal in the past. Fritz tried to stop him but she wouldn’t listen to him. I pushed the slab really hard but it wouldn’t move. Sometimes, would is used as past tense for will/won’t. Henry said that he would vote for you if you ran for office. Marty told me that he wouldn’t be able to pick you up. One can also use would to speak of something done regularly in the past. When we were kids, we would constantly play in that garden. Whenever my little sister felt scared, she would hide under the bed.


Complete the following sentences appropriately. The first one is done for you. 1. It would be nice to swim in the Caribbean__________________. 2. It would be great to __________________________________________. 3. I would love to ___________________________________________. 4. I would be thrilled to ____________________________________. 5. I would be privileged to ____________________________________________.

Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in the parentheses. 1. I would rather _______________________ (stay) indoors than play outside where it’s cold. 2. I would love to _______________________ (meet) the Queen of England in person. 3. My little brother would have _______________________ (throw) a tantrum if he had seen his broken toy. 4. Shirley would have __________________ (give) a ride if she hadn't been busy. 5. Tim would have _______________________ (lend) Sam some money if Tim had had something to share. 6. You have to believe in me. I wouldn’t ____________________ (lie) to you. 7. We tried to calm him but he wouldn’t __________________ (stop) crying. 8. We used to climb up the hill. We would ______________ (sit) under that apple tree and read books. 9. Ram would have _______________________ (go) out if I hadn't stopped him from doing so. 10. I would have __________________ (be) here if I hadn't had a prior engagement.


Can, Could, Would You? Usage Can and could are used for requesting things. Can you get me a glass of water? Could you pass the salt, please? Can and could are used for asking people to do something. Can you show me the way? Could you close the door, please? Can and would are used to offer something. Can I get you anything, ma’am? Would you like anything, ma’am? Would you is used for inviting. Would you like to come over and have lunch with us? Would it please you if you join us for dinner later?

Create appropriate sentences for each request (italicized). Use can you or could you. The first one is done for you. 1. Ask someone to close the door. Can you please close the door? 2. Ask for a cup of coffee. ____________________________________________ 3. Ask for help. ___________________________________ 4. Ask for a pack of candies. _______________________________________ 5. Ask someone to carry the box. ________________________________________

Complete the following sentences with Can you, Could you, or Would you. 1. __________________________________ like a mug of hot chocolate? 2. __________________________________ please come here? 3. __________________________________ need a ride? 4. ___________________________ get me a piece of cake please? 5. __________________________________ like to come with me? 6. _____________________ sing a line or two from your new single? 7. __________________________________ call me later? 8. __________________________________ answer that on your own. 9. __________________________________ want me to visit later. 10. _______________ want to go sight-seeing with the family?



















Conditionals

If I do and If I did Construction and Usage Use if I do for something is most likely to happen. If I do my best, I’ll succeed. If Melissa sees this, she’ll be so happy. Use If I did for things that are just being imagined. If I saw him, I would’ve said hello. If I went to the party, I wouldn’t be feeling better. If…would or If…wouldn’t can be used but not in the if- part. If I called you, I know you wouldn’t pick up. If I sang in the auditorium, people would leave.

Complete the following sentences appropriately. The first one is done for you. 1. If I found a wallet, I would pass it on to the authorities, 2. If I won a million dollars, ___________________________________________ 3. If I traveled around the world,_______________________________________ 4. If I saw my favorite artist, __________________________________________ 5. If I got trapped in an elevator, _______________________________________


Complete the following sentences with If I + Present or If I + Past form of the verb found in the parentheses. 1. ________________________________ (become) a president of a country, I’d work tirelessly for the needy. 2. ________________________________ (reach) eleventh grade, I’ll learn culinary arts. 3. ________________________________ (transform) into a lion, I’d scare all the bad guys away. 4. __________________________ (eat) a cup of rice, I’ll gain more calories. 5. ________________________________ (has) superpowers, I’d protect my community from criminals. 6. ________________________________ (write) a letter now, Mom would be able to read it later. 7. ______________________ (stay) at home, I’ll feel bored. 8. ___________________ (sleep) early, I’d wake up early as well. 9. ________________________________ (meet) Michael Jackson, I’d ask him to teach me his legendary moon walk. 10. ________________________________ (take) a bite of chocolate, I’ll get sugar rush.

Complete the following sentences using the correct conditional form: 1. If I were very rich, I _______________ in 5 star hotels (stay). 2. If I _______________ (go out) on Saturday, I will eat sushi. 3. If I don't wake up early this morning, I ____ about conditionals (not learn). 4. If I could choose any wife, I _______________ her (choose). 5. I _______________ (buy) a new DVD if I get paid this week.

If I knew and I wish I knew

Usage Use if + past for imagining situations like these: I wouldn’t do this if I didn’t have time. (but I have time) If Rob didn’t want to travel with us, he wouldn’t go. (but he wants to) Use I wish I knew when something is not we would like it to be. I wish I found out earlier. I could have come in the morning. I wish I didn’t have to leave tomorrow. I like to stay here. If I were and If I was can be used either way. If I were there, I wouldn’t be here or If I wasn’t there, I wouldn’t be here. If Time were here, this wouldn’t happen or If Tim was here, this wouldn’t happen.


Complete the following sentences appropriately. The first one is done for you. 1. If I were the president, I would work tirelessly for the needy. 2. If I were a superhero, I would__________________________. 3. If I were a brilliant scientist, I would______________________. 4. If I were a billionaire, I would___________________________. 5. If I were King/Queen, I would__________________________.


Fill in the sentences with the words found in the parentheses. The first one is done for you. 1. I ___wish___ you ___were___ here. (were, wish) 2. Paul ___________ come ___________ it ___________ raining. (if, would, weren’t) 3. Mitch ___________ he ___________ so he could talk to you. (wishes, came) 4. ___________ Lisa ___________ this book, she ___________ love it. (read, if, would) 5. ___________ Dad ___________ there, he ___________ get lost. (was, would, if) 6. Danny ___________ visit ___________ he ___________ at work. (if, weren’t, would) 7. They ___________ they ___________ the cake. (tried, wish) 8. Roma ___________ get a high score ___________ she ___________ distracted. (wasn’t, if, would) 9. ___________ I ___________ a scientist, I ___________ create a time machine. (would, if, were) 10. ___________ Mia ___________ bad, she ___________ tell us. (felt, would, if)


If I had known and I wish I had known Usage Use if + had+VERB 3 to talk about the past. If I had talked to you, I wouldn’t have made that decision. If I had seen you, I would have said hello. Use “I wish I had done” to wish for something that had happened (it didn't happen actually) I wish I had talked to you before making that decision. I wish I had seen you before you left. Never use would in the if-part. Don’t say If I would have seen you. Say If I had seen you. Don’t say If I would have talked to you. Say If I had talked to you.


Complete the following sentences appropriately. Make sure you start with the past participle of the verb. The first one is done for you. 1. If I had seen you, I would have given you a ride home.__________________ 2. If I’d known it was your birthday, I would have________________________ 3. If I’d learned of your visit, I would have_______________________________ 4. If I’d known you were sick, I would have______________________________ 5. If I’d won that contest, I would have__________________________________

Read the different situations. Create if I had known and I wish I had known sentences that would be appropriate for each situation.

Mike fell ill. 1. If I had known that Mike fell ill, I would have visited him._______ 2. I wish I had visited him.______________________________ Cara was in town yesterday. 3. If I had known that Cara was in town yesterday, I would have_____. 4. I wish I had_______________________________________. There was beautiful play staged in the town hall. 5. If I had known there was a beautiful play staged in the town hall, I would have _____________________________________. 6. I wish I had______________________________________. Free food was given at the cafeteria. 7. If I had known that free food was given at the cafeteria, I would have__________________________________________. 8. I wish I had_______________________________________. Ms. Torres gave a quiz. 9. If I had known that Ms. Torres was going to give a quiz, I would have________. 10. I wish I had___________________________________.


Wish Construction and Usage Use wish to wish somebody something. I wish you guys a wonderful marriage! I met Sheena earlier and I wished her a happy birthday. Use wish to regret something is not as one would like it. I wish I knew the solution of this word problem. I wish my cousins didn’t have to leave so soon. Use wish to regret something that one can’t do. I wish I could stay but I really can’t. I wish I could attend the party but I have a prior engagement. Use wish to wish one will do something. I wish you would come. I wish Mom would buy me a new dress. [It is unnatural to say I wish I would - I wish I would help you. - (Just go and help him instead of wishing)]


Create wishes for each setting. The first one is done for you. For your life 1. I wish I were a successful lawyer someday._______________ For your family (parents, brothers, sisters, relatives) 2. ________________________________________________ For your friends 3. ________________________________________________ For those who are in need (the poor, the hungry, the sick) 4. ____________________________________________ For the world 5. ______________________________________

Make wishes for each situation. Use “I wish”. The first one is done for you. 1. You have to go early. I wish I could stay longer but I really have to go. 2. Wish your friend a happy holiday. ___________________________________ 3. You can’t go to the concert. _________________________________________ 4. You wish you can help. ____________________________________________ 5. Wish someone a good health and safety. ______________________________ 6. Wish that it would stop raining. _____________________________________ 7. Wish for a great day today. _________________________________________ 8. Wish to win the contest. ___________________________________________ 9. You want to go to the movies but you can’t. ____________________________ 10. You want to attend the meeting but you can’t. _____________________________________________ What we use in Wish structure Present or Future Past simple Past Past Perfect Asking to do or to happen Would + Verb1 What we use in Wish structure Present or Future I wish I were tall. (He is not tall) Past He wishes he hadn't come to the party yesterday. (But he came) Asking to do or to happen I wish you would stop making noise. Conditionals chart

Real Unreal Present If – Present , Present If Past Simple, would + Verb 1 Future If -Present, Future If Past Simple, would + Verb 1 Past If – Past Simple, past Simple (rarely used) If – Past Perfect, would have + Verb 3

Real Unreal Present If you feel cold, you shiver. If you felt cold, you would shiver. Future If you meet him, you will be amazed. If you met him, you would be amazed. Past If he came late, the teacher punished him. (Sometimes he came late.) If he had come late, the teacher would have punished him. (But he didn't come late.) Passive Passive 1 – is done/was done Construction Subject + is/was/will be + past participle of the verb

Usage Use Passive form if the focus is on what happens to the subject. This house was built in the 1940s. I am not allowed to go there. We will be admitted to university next year. Use is + past participle form to state a fact or for actions done regularly. The wallet is stolen. The store is filled with people every Saturday. Use was + past participle form for past actions. The bank has stricter security because it was robbed last month. The construction project was completed last week. Use will be + past participle form for future actions. We are preparing hard as we will be examined tomorrow. The construction project will be completed next week.

Complete the sentences to show passive form. Use the verbs in the parentheses. 1. This bridge ___________________ (build) in the 20th century. 2. My bedroom __________________________ (clean) everyday. 3. Don't worry! That noise _______________ (make) by my gadget. 4. This artifact ________________ (display) in the museum two weeks ago. 5. The book __________________________ (read) by kids all over the world.

Complete the sentences to show passive form. Use the verbs in the parentheses. 1. The urban legend __________________________ (believe) by a lot of people up to this very day. 2. This article ___________________ (write) a decade ago. 3. The school __________________________ (build) in 1894. 4. The structure _____________________ (complete) in the 1930s. 5. The test _______________________ (construct) based on certain criteria. 6. This movie ___________ (direct) by Filipino director, Erik Matti. 7. The accident __________________________ (cause) by a drunk driver behind that truck’s wheel. 8. The call __________________________ (make) two days ago. 9. How __________ this word __________________________ (pronounce)? 10. How ___________ the problem ____________ (solve)?

Passive 2: be done/been done/being done Construction INFINITIVE : (to) be + past participle form of the verb PERFECT INFINITIVE: (to) have been + past participle form of the verb PRESENT PERFECT : has/have been + past participle form of the verb PAST PERFECT : had been + past participle form of the verb (passive) PAST PERFECT : had + past participle form of the verb (active) PRESENT CONTINUOUS  : am/is/are + being + past participle form of the verb

Usage Infinitive Can you speak louder? Your voice can’t be heard. A new apartment is to be built across our home. Perfect infinitive That’s not the answer. You might have been confused. They had problems before. Everything seems to have been solved. Present perfect The house looks clean. It has been cleaned. The chairs are good as new. They have been repaired. Past perfect The piece of bread is burnt. It had been toasted too long. I had waited for him before I left. Present continuous I am being called to the Principal’s office. The kids are being informed about the activity tomorrow.

Put “√” if the statement is structurally correct. Write X if not. ___________1. The room was cleaned tomorrow. ___________2. You should have go there. ___________3. He is fixing the room as we speak. ___________4. Have you heard of this band? ___________5. The gift was being wrapped when I arrived?

Write the correct form of the verb in the parentheses. Write your answers on the spaces provided. 1. If I were here, my wallet wouldn’t have been ____________________________. (steal) 2. The car is ____________________________ repaired as we speak. (be) 3. The painting is to be ____________________________ today. (sell) 4. Lee was _____________________ when I entered his room. (study) 5. This letter is being _____________________ for today’s show. (write) 6. This figurine has been ____________________________ in China. (make) 7. The artifact had been ___________________ out of a cavern. (dig) 8. The door should have been_____________________ an hour ago. (close) 9. Dad must have ____________________________ already. (leave) 10. Rob will be ______________________ food to the hospital. (bring)

Passive 3 Construction Subject + was/were + past participle form of ask, offer, pay, show, teach, tell

Usage When we use this format, we usually put the person first. I was offered a job. Mel was asked to play the part. The kids were taught first aid. We were told the news. The employees were paid for their work. The man was showed the way to the diner.


Arrange words in the parentheses to create a sentence in passive form. Make sure the person comes first.

1. ( Mila, asked, stage, was, on, stand, to) _______________________________________ 2. ( the, in, movie, Jim, offered, was, role, a) _________________________________________________ 3. (taught, was, ballet, basics, Eve) ____________________________________________________ 4. ( William news the told was ) ____________________________________________________ 5. ( paid, for, was, the, work, Owen, weekend’s ) ____________________________________________________

Arrange words in the parentheses to create a sentence in passive form. Make sure the person comes first. 1. ( asked, He, was, come, to, here ) ____________________________________________________ 2. ( offered, was, Abbie, job, a, out of town ) __________________________________________________ 3. ( Hank, handsomely, was, paid ) _________________________________________________ 4. ( taught, was, Sam, the rudiments, of kung-fu ) ___________________________________________________ 5. ( it, about, was, told, I ) ____________________________________________________ 6. ( asked, Theo, the, car, drive, was, to ) __________________________________________________ 7. ( boys, The, were, offered, for lunch, pizza ) ___________________________________________________ 8. ( friends, The, paid, were, their, for, efforts ) ____________________________________________________ 9. ( was, showed, I, apartment, the legendary ) ____________________________________________________ 10. ( taught, were, We, to, Spanish, speak ) ___________________________________________________


It is said that/ He is said to/ He is supposed to Construction and Usage “It is said that”/ “He is said to” can be used to show what many believe to be true. It is said that Thomas Edison used to stay in this house when he tried to perfect the light bulb. He is said to be very moody when he carried out his experiments. In lieu of it is said that/ he is said to, one can use the following verbs: understood, reported, thought, alleged, considered, believed, known, expected, or understood It is understood that he is one of the greatest inventors of all time. He is reported to be quite moody especially when he is in the middle of carrying out his experiments. It is thought that the light bulb is man’s first brush with technology. He is alleged to have done 1000 experiments before perfecting the light bulb. It is believed that a large European company tried to buy his experiment. He is known to be a fine, young man. He is supposed to be used to point out what many believe. He is supposed to be one of the greatest inventors of all time. It is supposed to be man’s first brush with technology.

Complete the following sentences appropriately. 1. Tim is in his last year in High School. He is expected to graduate in June._______ 2. That house is over a hundred years old. ________________________________ 3. The storm is coming. ______________________________________________ 4. The police officers are chasing after a man. __________________________ 5. The room is designed for me. _____________________________________

Complete the following sentences appropriately. 1. I want to eat in that restaurant. It’s supposed to be ________________________________________________ 2. Why are you here? Aren’t you supposed ________________________________ 3. He’s late! He was supposed to ________________________________________ 4. Grandfather is sick. He is said to ________________________________ 5. That tree has been there for centuries. It is considered to be ________________________________________________ 6. Don’t be fooled by how young she looks. She is reported to be ________________________________________________ 7. The Incan temples are truly breathtaking. They are known to be ________________________________________________ 8. Lemuel is supposed to _____________________________________________ 9. Why are you still at work?___________________________________________ 10. Why are you still at work? Isn’t today supposed to be ___________________________________________?


Have/Had something done Construction Have/Had + object + past participle form of the verb

Usage Use this to have something done. Where did you have your nails done? Mom had her nails done. Use this to say something happened to somebody or their belongings. In this kind of context, the outcome is usually bad. Eric had his arm broken due to the fall. We had our wallet stolen the last time we visited there. In these kinds of sentences we define the tense by “have”. The verb is always past participle.




Arrange these phrases correctly to create a coherent sentence. 1. Margaret had, painted yesterday, the room _____________________________ 2. your room, cleaned?, Did you have _________________________________ 3. Paolo had, when he fell, had his knee broken ____________________________ 4. dyed last week, Tim had, his hair ____________________________________ 5. their car wrecked, They had, due to an accident _________________________________________________

Arrange these phrases correctly to create a coherent sentence. 1. Dad had, built for me, a room ________________________________________ 2. composed for her, She had, a song _____________________________________ 3. a bouquet, made for his wife, He had ___________________________________ 4. his biography, The artist had, written for him ___________________________________________________ 5. bought for my eldest brother, a car, My parents had ____________________________________________________ 6. My sister had, sent to me, a letter ____________________________________ 7. a case, filed against them, Our lawyer had ____________________________ 8. ruined after the fight, The boys had, their room _______________________________________________ 9. My cousins had, stolen last week, their money ________________________________________________ 10. attend to our needs?, a store clerk, Did the manager have


















Reported speech

Reported Speech basic sentences Reporting verbs – say, tell

Direct quote : Tim said, “Mom is happy with the surprise party.” Reported Speech : Tim said that his Mom was happy with the party. Tim said his Mom was happy with the surprise party. Usage To relay to another what has been said without directly quoting the original source. Verbs are usually in the past tense. The tense is moved backwards when making Reported Speech. I said, “I will be there.” I said that I would be there or I said I would be there. If I’m not mistaken, he said, “Rose can’t come.” If I’m not mistaken, he said that Rose couldn’t come or If I’m not mistaken, he said Rose couldn’t come. The children said, “We are excited for the trip!” The children said that they were excited for the trip or The children said they were excited for the trip.

Note! If verbs say or tell are in present tense, the original tense isn't changed. He says: “We are coming”.- He says that they are coming.


Exercise. Change each direct quotation into reported speech. The President said, “We extend our help to you.” 1. Our boss said, “All of us need to cut cost.” 2. Our teacher said, “This project is important.” 3. The reporter said, “The damage here is overwhelming.” 4. My little sister said, “I love it here.” 5.

Change each direct quotation into reported speech. Carlos said, “I am here.” 1. The children said, “We love it!” 2. My parents said, “Sheena’s room is clean.” 3. Mary said, “I have a headache.” 4. My friends said, “We will visit later.” 5. Kristen said, “I can dance for the show.” 6. Matt said, “Lou is here to visit us.” 7. Aunt Mae said, “We will go to the mall at four.” 8. Jack said, “Dad is in Taiwan for a business trip.” 9. The girls said, “We are hungry.” 10.


Reported Questions Reporting verbs – ask, wonder, want to know Construction Direct quote : Tim said, “Where is Mom?.” Reported Speech : Tim asked where Mom was.

! Pay attention to the structure change: Question is becoming a simple sentence.

If there is no question word we us if or whether to connect parts of the sentence. He asked: 'Is Mom here?' He asked if Mom was there.

Exercise. Make reported. a) Is she a teacher? b) How did you get here? c) Were you in the class yesterday? d) How many times have you been to New York up to now? e) Who did you meet?


Reported orders

Reporting verbs – ask, tell, order Construction Subject + reporting verb + (not) to Verb1 Direct quote : Tim said, “Call Mom?.” Reported Speech : Tim asked to call Mom.

  Exercise. Make reported.

a) Call Jack. b) Don't call Jack. c) Wait me until I come. d) Don't wait me if I don't come until midnight. e) Say 'Hello'.























Question

Questions Construction SIMPLE : Auxiliary verb + subject + verb QUESTION WORDS : Question word + Auxiliary verb + Subject + verb QUESTION SUBJECT : Question word + verb NEGATIVE : Auxiliary verb + not + subject + Verb

Usage Simple Will you come here? Did the car break down? Will he live here? Do they live here? Question words What food will be offered later? Which of these two do you like? How was it made? What does fish eat? Question subject Who came? Who is coming for the party? What eats fish? Negative Isn’t that insect still moving? Didn’t you close the door? Haven’t you taken the test? Create a question using question words that would go well with the situations given. The first one is done for you. You are looking for Emma. 1. You want to know why Liam is sick. 2. You want to know who looked for your parents yesterday. 3. You want to know how to bake a cake. 4. You want to know when Tim’s birthday is. 5.

Begin your question with the given words. Write two questions for each word. Who 1. 2. Does 3. 4. Did 5. 6. Didn’t you 7. 8. Haven’t you 9. 10.


Questions 2: Do you know where? He asked me where?

Construction and Usage When we join question sentence to another sentence it takes the form of normal sentence, i.e. we don't put auxiliary verb before the subject. Where is John? Do you know where John is? (person first before the verb)

He asked me where John is. (person first before the verb) Where does John live? Do you where John lives? (drop does)

Mike asked me where John lives. (drop does) Where do the kids play? Do you know where the kids play? (drop do)

Ms. May asked me where the kids play. (drop do) If no question word, use if or whether: Did they come? Do you know if they came? (past tense because of did)

She asked me whether they came. (past tense because of did)


Change each question into a longer one using “Do you know” or “He asked me”. Just complete the sentence below each given question. Where is Ana? 1. Do you know Why is Lee here? 2. He asked me Did he clean his room? 3. Do you know What did she say? 4. Anna asked me Did the kids bring snacks? 5. Do you know

Change each question into a longer one using “Do you know” or “He asked me”. Just complete the sentence below each given question. Did Mark come by? 1. Do you know if 2. Do you know whether Does Liam feel sick? 3. Do you know if 4. Do you know whether What’s his name? 5. Do you know 6. Mary asked me Where is the hospital? 7. Do you know 8. The lady asked me When is Mia’s birthday 9. Do you know Tim asked me


Auxiliary Verbs Construction Auxiliary verbs are helping verbs. They go before the main verbs in sentences. The words in bold letters are auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verb don't mean anything by themselves, they just help to build a structure. I can dance. The house was built in the 18th century. She will come later.

Usage If one does not want to repeat something Did you close the door? Yes, I did. Have you gone to the hospital? Yes , I have. If one wants to deny something Did you get the cookie from the cookie jar? No, I didn’t. Have you seen him lately? No, I haven’t. Show interest Rita joined American Idol! Oh, did she? Mark was rushed to the hospital! Was he? I hope he’s okay now. With so and neither My stomach feels queasy. So does mine. I didn’t make my assignment. Neither did I.


Circle the most appropriate answer to each of the statements. 1. Marco is feeling ill. a. Oh, did you? b. Oh, did he? c. Oh, is he? 2. Rita has no car. a. Either has May. b. Neither hasn’t May. c. Neither has May. 3. Have you fixed your things for school? a. Yes, I have. b. Yes, I do. c. Yes, I does. 4. Does this gadget work? a. No, it didn’t. b. No, it don’t. c. No, it doesn’t. 5. Did Mark finish his work? a. No, he didn’t. b. No, he did. c. No, he haven’t.



Write the most suitable answer to each of the statements. 1. Did you close the door? ____________________________________________. 2. Have you seen a polar bear? ________________________________________. 3. Can you come here later? ___________________________________________. 4. Does a penguin fly? _______________________________________________. 5. Do children love to play? ___________________________________________. 6. Does Trisha live in Europe? _________________________________________. 7. Has Mindy gone to Disneyland? ____________________________________. 8. Can you lend me hand? ____________________________________________. 9. I don’t have a credit card. __________________________________________. 10. Will Martha arrive today? __________________________________________.


Question tags Construction and Usage Question tags are short questions that we usually put at the end of a sentence. Auxiliary verbs are utilized in these tags. General rule: Use negative tag after a positive statement. Use a positive tag after a negative statement. He is coming, isn’t he? (negative tag after a positive statement) He is not coming, is he? (positive tag after a negative statement) She never did it, did she? Use do/does/did for present and past simple. Daisy sings well, doesn’t she? These kids sing well, don’t they? Henry sang well, didn’t he? Exceptional: Let's go, shall we? Come on time, will you? I am a student, aren't I?

Circle the correct question tag that goes with each statement. 1. Mandy is sick, ________________? a. is she? b. wasn’t she? c. isn’t she?

2. Baby Gabriel already walks, __________________? a. doesn’t he? b. does he? c. do he?

3. Our teachers were in the room, _________________? a. weren’t we? b. were they? c. weren’t they?

4. I am here, _________________? a. isn’t I? b. doesn’t I? c. aren’t I?

5. The kids haven’t finished their school work, ___________________? a. have they? b. haven’t they? c. does they?

Complete the sentence by writing the correct question tag on the space provided in each sentence. 1. You have gone to Europe, _________________________________________? 2. The girls love that restaurant, ________________________________________? 3. You can’t live without technology, __________________________________? 4. I am sick, ________________________________________? 5. Tim wrote a letter to Mary, ________________________________________? 6. The children are playing in the backyard, ____________________________? 7. He is not late for the program, ______________________________________? 8. She has read the book, _____________________________________________? 9. My little sister isn’t afraid of snakes, _________________________________? 10. My grandfather drives a car, _______________________________________?



Reply questions We use reply question to show excitement, interest, surprise or another kind of reaction to other people's information. Its structure is the exact opposite of tag question. He is a doctor. - Is he? He isn't a doctor. - Isn't he?

Complete the sentence by writing the correct question reply on the space provided in each sentence. 1. You have gone to Europe. - __________________________? 2. The girls love that restaurant. - _______________? 3. You can’t live without technology. - _______________? 4. I am sick. ______________________? 5. Tim wrote a letter to Mary. -_____________________? 6. The children are playing in the backyard. -___________? 7. He is not late for the program. - ________________________? 8. She has read the book. - _________________? 9. My little sister isn’t afraid of snakes. - ____________? 10. My grandfather drives a car. - __________________?









Non-finite

Verb + -ing Construction and Usage The –ing form of verbs usually follow the following: enjoy, suggest, mind, stop, postpone, admit, avoid, imagine, finish, consider, deny, risk, and fancy. I enjoy swimming in the lake. Ethan admitted lying about the incident. Sometimes, I imagine not having to work so hard and sleeping all day. The –ing form of verbs also follow after keep/keep on, give up, put off, or go on/carry on. Keep on smiling and brighten your day. I told Dad to give up smoking. Add having + past participle for actions that have already been done. Shane admitted having lied to the teacher. (You can also say: Shane admitted lying to the teacher.) Josiah enjoyed having introduced new friends. (You can also say: Josiah enjoyed introducing new friends.)

Complete the following sentences by adding –ing form of verbs. 1. I enjoy __________________________________________. 2. I stopped _____________________________________________. 3. I finished ____________________________________________. 4. I admit ________________________________________. 5. I suggested __________________________________________. Complete the following sentences by adding –ing form of verbs. 1. Let us not give up ____________________________. 2. Keep on ___________________________________. 3. Carry on ___________________________________. 4. Never put off ________________________________. 5. Go on _____________________________________.

Add having + past participle or being+past participle of the verb in the parentheses to complete the sentence. 6. Jaden admitted _________________ the answers of his seatmate. (copy) 7. The girls finished _________________ for a part in the squad (audition). 8. Rue enjoyed ________________________ the whole afternoon. (rest) 9. Lise avoided __________________ with her disastrous haircut. (see) 10. Tim admitted ________________________ his little brother. (hurt)


Verb+ to Construction and Usage One can use this format (infinitive) after words such as: offer, agree, refuse, hope, fail, manage, arrange, decide, plan, promise, learn, threaten, deserve, afford, forget, seem, appear, tend, pretend, and claim. They seem to enjoy the party a lot. I pretended to like what I was eating but I really didn’t. I can’t manage to come early since I have so much to do.

One can also use the continuous infinitive (verb + to + be + -ing form of the verb or perfect infinitive to + have + past participle form of the verb). They seem to be having fun at this moment. Dean pretended to have left early.


Complete the following sentences appropriately. 1. For the party, I’ve decided to _______________________________________. 2. Oh no! I forgot to _________________________________________. 3. I promised my Mom to _________________________________________. 4. I can’t afford to ___________________________________________. 5. I learned to ______________________________________________.

Complete the following sentences by using the right form of the verb that will best complete the sentence. 1. The girl appeared to be _________________ fun at the party. (have) 2. You seem to have __________________ confidence in yourself. (lose) 3. Kris tends to __________________ when he’s nervous. (stammer) 4. Mom hates it when we forget to ________________ the door. (close) 5. That country seems to have __________________________ out of its way to be of help to other countries that need aid. (go) 6. The school appears to have __________________________ solid reputation in the community. (build) 7. Mia plans to __________________ for the upcoming play. (audition) 8. Avery seems to have ________________ a great friend in you. (find) 9. Wyatt managed to have __________________________ his time effectively. (divide) 10. That man claims to have __________________________ the infamous Yeti in the Alps. (see)


Verb + object + to Construction and Usage This format can be used with verbs like: want, expect, ask, beg, help, mean, would like, would prefer, tell, order, remind, warn, force, invite, encourage, teach, enable, order, warn, invite, persuade, or get. I would like you to leave. Please teach us to speak that language. We can contrast this format with verb + -ing form of the verb. See below: (stop, remember, go on, forget, try) REGRET I regret saying those unpleasant words. (I did something that I regret so I’m saying sorry.) I regret to inform you that we have chosen someone else for the job. (notice of rejection usually in formal letters) GO ON She went on singing. (continue doing so) After discussing about climate change, he went on to talk about ways to avert it. (proceeded to another) FORGET I forgot to want you. (I didn't warn. I should shave warned.) I forgot warning you. (I don't remember whether I warned or not.) STOP I stopped to have a bite. (I stopped in order to eat.) Seeing you I lost my appetite and stopped eating. (I discontinued eating) With these words, you can use either verb + ing format or verb + object + to: begin, bother, start, intend, or continue. I continued kicking until I broke free. I continued to kick until I broke free. Ross intends visiting soon. Ross intends to visit soon. One never doubles up on –ing format. It’s wrong to say: I’m intending staying.


Put “√” if the sentence structure is correct. Put X if otherwise. ________1. Liam is beginning seeing the bigger picture. ________2. Liam begins seeing the bigger picture. ________3. I regret to tell you this but your request was refused. ________4. I regret coming here at all. ________5. Earl invited Ana to skiing in the snow-capped hills.


Complete the sentences by using the words found in the parentheses. 1. Elizabeth _________________ to _________ there today. (me, be, expects) 2. Grace __________________ __________________ to __________________ out for bullies. (her sister, watch, warned) 3. Harper _______ ________ to _______ the play with her. (asked, see, her friends) 4. Landon and Jace ___________________ to ______________ them go on the class field trip. (their parents, let, begged) 5. Ms. Summers ______________________ to __________ in love with learning new things. (fall, us, encouraged) 6. I __________________ __________________ to ______________ in a different group. (be, would prefer, her) 7. Don’t __________________ __________________ to __________________ the team. (anyone, force, join) 8. __________ the __________ to _________ down the plank. (ball, roll, get) 9. She was the one who ___________________________ to __________________. (me, inspired, dance) 10. The King __________________ __________________ to __________________ his bidding. (his subjects, do, orders)

Complete the following sentences using the correct modal verb: 1. When I am older I would like to live / living in the USA. 2. Have you decided what to buy / buying / buy yet? 3. It's a secret. You mustn't to tell / telling / tell anybody! 4. I suggest to go / going / go to the seaside at the weekend. 5. Please don't forget to close / closing / close the window before you leave.


Prefer and would rather Construction and Usage Use would prefer to find out what one wants in a specific situation. Would you prefer to take the plane or the boat? Would prefer tea or coffee? Use I prefer to show choice. I prefer to take the plane. Sean prefers tea. Rather connotes alternative. Would you rather drive than walk? Would you rather sing than act? Combine rather with prefer to show choice over an alternative. I’d prefer to drive rather than walk. I’d prefer to sing rather than act.

Create a sentence for each situation. 1. Watch a movie or play: Would you _____________________________________? 2. Sing or dance: Would you ____________________________________________? 3. Get and iPad or Samsung tablet: Would you _____________________________? 4. Leave now or later: _______________________________________________? 5. Take the train or bus: _______________________________________________?

Fill in the blanks. Make sure they are appropriate for given category. FOOD 1. I’d prefer to eat ____________________ rather than ______________. 2. I’d prefer to drink ___________________ rather than ________________. TRAVEL 3. I’d prefer to go to ___________________ rather than _____________________. 4. I’d prefer to take the ______________ rather than the ____________________. MUSIC 5. I’d prefer to listen to ________________ rather than _____________________. 6. I’d prefer to watch the ___________ concert rather than __________________. SPORTS 7. I’d prefer to play ________________ rather than ________________________. 8. I’d prefer to watch ______________ rather than ________________________. FASHION 9. I’d prefer to wear _______________ rather than _______________________. 10. I’d prefer ___________ clothes rather than _____________________________.

Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing Construction and Usage The most basic principle is that verbs that follow prepositions are usually in –ing form. Are you interested in reading this series? I’m generally not good at singing. Thanks for being there for us. The to preposition can be a little tricky. Make sure you can distinguish the to preposition from to (do). I prefer curling up in bed to going around. (not to go around) I prefer to go around. (to do)


Change the verbs in the parentheses to suit the sentence. 1. We appreciate you for ___________________ our cause. (support) 2. I’m not good at ___________________________ to be nice to a person I’m not comfortable with. (pretend) 3. How about __________________ another chair for the living room? (get) 4. What are your reasons of _____________________ in this school? (enroll) 5. I’m not great at ___________________________ about feelings. (talk)


Change the verbs in the parentheses to suit the sentence. 1. How about ___________________________ up later for lunch? (meet) 2. Sam is wonderful at _________________ video presentations. (create) 3. I’m fed up with ___________________ with you constantly. (fight) 4. Mark thinks of ___________________________ for another job. (look) 5. Thank you for ___________________________ me for who I am. (accept) 6. Let’s head out instead of ___________________________ here. (stay) 7. Tim still read his little brother a story in spite of _________________ tired. (feel) 8. Since we forgot the key, we got in by ___________________________ a window. (break) 9. Before ___________________________, I made sure all doors were securely locked. (leave) 10. After ___________________________ our project, we waited for our teacher’s evaluation. (present)

Non-finite summary

Verbs that take -ing after them admit appreciate avoid can't help can't stand delay deny dislike enjoy finish imagine involve keep mention mind miss postpone practice quit recall resist risk suggest understand

Verbs that take -to + verb 1 agree ask appear choose claim decide demand deserve expect fail happen hesitate hope intend learn manage offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem tend threaten wait want would like wish

Verbs that take bare verb let make help

Gerund rules 1) After certain vers I fancy going. 2) After Prepositions He is keen on learning. 3) As a subject Seeing is important. 4) After these expressions look forward to worth have fun have difficulty (trouble,problem) spend/waste (time,money,etc) 5) go+activity We went shopping. 6) To show the reason Being ill I couldn't come. 7) As an adjective Look at that flying bird. 8) As an adverb Coming on the way I met Tom. 9) After Possessive They were happy about my coming. 10) after “busy” He was busy knitting.

To infinitive rules 1) After certain verbs I want to go. 2) After adjectives It is easy to learn English. 3) If these verbs are followed by object: recommend advise allow encourage permit He advised me to go. (He advised going.) 4) Showing the purpose I came to see you. 5) After question words I don't know how to fix this machine. 6) Inside some expressions have+object+to do I have homework to do now. She has a baby to look after. get+somebody+ to do The boss got workers to work on Sunday. (have+somebody+do) He had Tom wash his car. 7) After the Passive voice He is encouraged to win.

Bare infinitive rules 1) After certain verbs (let, make, help) He let me go. 2) After Modals

(Expressions – have to, need to, dare to, ought to)

I must go. 3) After some expressions would rather would sooner why not let's 4) As orders Go on! 5) after prepositions but, than, except He did nothing but lie all day.












Nouns Countable and uncountable Construction and Usage Since countable nouns are readily counted, we can show if these are singular or plural. I ate a banana. (one banana) I ate a couple of bananas. (more than one) With uncountable nouns, we usually use counters to show exact quantity. I bought a kilo of sugar. I ate a cup of rice. We can use a/an for countable nouns only. Mom put an apple in my lunch box. One does not say: I want a bread. One says: I want a loaf of coffee.


Put “√” if sentence structure is correct. Put X if not. ______1. I removed a sand in my shoes. ______2. Aiden read a book on the Greek mythology. ______3. Olivia drank soda earlier today. ______4. Emma wrote a couple of article for the paper. ______5. It’s great to drink a water everyday.


Fill in with the correct counter for each uncountable noun. a great deal bowl bags variety lots pieces pinch rolls bit cube 1. We studied about _____________________________ of electricity. 2. It’s great to have _________________________ of hot soup on a cold, rainy day. 3. Mom bought several ____________________ of furniture to put up in her office. 4. The chef had several _____________________ of aluminum to keep the leftovers. 5. One can always rely on ______________________ of knowledge to get by. 6. A construction of that magnitude requires thousands of ___________ of cement. 7. Let me give you _____________________________ of advice. 8. Just put in a _____________________________ of salt. 9. I just dropped one _____________________________ of sugar. 10. They offered a wide _____________________________ of tea.


Possessive We put apostrophe before “s” when the word ends with this letter. News' importance Girls' room (Room for girls) We put apostrophe after “s” when the word ends with another letter. Children's books The girl's room (Room of one paritcular girl)

Wemay leave the noun after 's if we mean home or store. Let's go to grandmother's. I went to baker's.

We don't use 's if there is no possession. A book shop meat salad

Number phrases There are 2 ways to make number phrases. a 2-year job or 2 years' job If there are 3 words, there is only one way: A 5-year-old girl a 2-metre-high wall


Exercise. Put the apostrophe where necessary. Hes got a cow. The cows very beautiful. Its milk is tasty. Cows calf is rather young. He also has 4 sheep. Sheep are all fat. Sheeps prices range form one million sooms to two million sooms.The cheapest of them is one-year-old sheep. Three are also two 1,5-million-expensive sheep. He goes to his uncles every Sunday to feed his animals. Theres also a butchers near his farm so he can have them slaughtered easily.

Exercise. Decide if true or false. a) 5-meters' wall b) 5-meter’s wall c) a 5-meter-high wall d) 5 meters' wall e) 5 meter's wall f) 5-meter's-high wall


Subject - Verb Agreement Singular subject – singular verb Plural subject – plural verb He is coming. They are coming. Linking words or/ nor – look at the second noun as well as/ along with – look at the first noun and – always plural

They or he is here. - He or they are here. He, as well as they is here. - They, as well as he are here. He and they are here. - They and he are here.

Measurement words take singular.. Twenty metres is a short distance. Two thousand dollars is his salary.

Words that indicate part : Look at the noun, not the part 20 percent of sugar has been sold. 20 percent of books have been sold.

Collective nouns can be both plural and singular (staff, team, government, family). The staff is returning. The staff are returning. When there is a pronoun showing them, these pronouns decide whether we take plural or singular. The staff is returning. It is on the way. The staff are returning. They are on the way.

A number of – many, plural The number of – the amount of, singular A number of students have gathered. The number of students has reached 3 thousand.

These pronouns are singular Everyone Everybody Everything Everywhere

No one Nobody Nothing Nowhere

Someone Somebody Something Somewhere

Anyone Anybody Anything Anywhere Adjectives with “The” have plural meaning. The rich are getting richer.


Exercise. Choose the correct one. a) Our family consist/consists of 4 people. It is/are not so big. b) The word 'Mafia', which refers to criminal groups, is/are an Italian word. c) The government is/are trying to fight against corruption and they is/are making some progress. d) The elderly is/are under state protection. e) Thomas have/has a lot of cars. f) Much was/were necessary to carry on the deal. g) All people came, but many was/were disappointed in the end. h) A few ingredients is/are needed to cook the meal. i) The police are/is searching for the robber. j) A doctor look/looks after the sick. k) 2 plus 3 is/are five. l) The number of cars on sale has/have decreased lately. m) A number of cars is/are on sale now. n) Uzbekistan is/are a beautiful country. o) One of the most beautiful countries in Asia is/are Uzbekistan. p) Two people out of them was/were out. q) Jack and I am/are students.















Article











A/an and the Construction and Usage Use the to speak about a specific noun. The man that I saw is unmistakably American. I have to the dentist later this afternoon. Use a/an for general situations. Is there a nearby restaurant around here? I saw a man earlier. I’m not sure who he was. Use a here: a kilo of, once a month, etc. I bought a kilo of rice. I had to take the pill three times a day.

Put in a/an or the. 1. I bought _______ computer on E-bay. 2. I bought _______ computer I wanted. 3. We looked for _______ reputable hotel. 4. We stayed in _______ hotel that we booked online. 5. Can I get you _______ piece of paper to write on?

Put in a/an or the. 1. Would you like to eat _______ apple pie I baked earlier? 2. Would you like me to buy _______ apple pie for dessert? 3. I’m looking for _______ dress that would go with my shoes. 4. That’s _______ dress that I’ve been looking for! 5. I’ve been looking for _______ book in my brother’s wish list. 6. I saw _______ book on the sofa. 7. Eva read _______ poem you wrote for her. 8. We were told to research for _______ poem that reflected our world views. 9. I read _______ manuscript that was featured on the History Channel. 10. _______ old manuscript was found buried under the rocks in a cave in Athens.


Articles No article before: 1) Uncountable nouns I like music.

2) Plural I like apples.

3) Names I love Uzbekistan.

4) Meal times I love breakfast.

5) Dates in November in 1990

6) Weekdays He came on Sunday.

7) Planet names Mars is a planet.

8) Day parts night, midnight, sunset, noon, midday

9) Games I like football.

10) Gerund I like walking.

11) quantifiers There are many books.

12) Seasons Spring is coming.

13) Holidays, special dates It happened on Navruz.

14) home He is at home.

15) illness He went down with measles.

16) Possessive adjective It is my cat.

17) kind of What kind of person is he?

18) school subjects I love maths.

19) when next and last are adverbs next week last year

20) after possessive It is Tom's car.

A/an 1) Singular countable nound being mentioned for the first time I met a man in the street.

2) Professions I am a doctor.

3) With the meaning “one” It is 200 dollars a kilo. 2 times a year

The 1) A noun being mentioned for the second time I met a man. The man was wearing a white hat.

2) Adjectives with plural meaning The poor are under state protection.

3) Superlatives He is the youngest.

4) Ordinal numbers It is the second time you have come late.

5) Historical periods In the middle ages

6) Years in plural He was born in the 90-s.

7) Unique objects in particular situationa Switch off the kettle.

8) Unique objects the sun, the earth, the moon

9) Day parts in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon

10) Family names We invited the Browns.

11) At any situation when there is defining This is the Kevin that I was talking about.

12) When a countable singular noun represents the whole species The tiger is an animal.

13) Musical instruments I can play the guitar.

14) Collective nouns that are unique in one country The police, the army, the government, the navy, the fire-brigade 15) same It is the same course.

16) If the side of the world is noun He in the North. He lives in North England.

17) Currency The dollar is a currency.

18) Natural phenomenon the snow the earthquake

Exceptions 1) hospital, school, university, college, court,church - when a person has direct connection there is no article - He is ill.He is in hospital. - Let's go to the hospital to see him.

2) very with the meaning the exact It is the very car I sold last month.

3) only just- article yo'q Only he came. unique – the He is the only boy in the class. One child -an He is an only boy in the family.

4) Nations the Italians the Chinese (the whole nation) I saw Italians. (just a few)

5) names a Mr. Brown (someone named Mr.Brown) the Mr. Brown (that or this Mr.Brown)

6) mass media the Internet the radio but: TV but: Switch on the TV.

7) There words are followed by the: weather ground sky beach coast cinema theatre

8) next, last coming as an adjective What is the next question?

9) World parts as a adjectives He lives in North America.

Names The 1) Water objects - dengiz, daryo, okean, ko'l the Atlantic, the Sirdarya, the Mediterranean, the Baikal

2) deserts the Kizilkum

3) Parts of the Earth - The North Pole, The Equator

4) Plural names of islands and mountains the Bahamas, the Himalayas

5) Names of states and cities in plural or as word combination The Russian Federation The Netherlands

6) Adjective+Noun the White House 7) Organizations the UNO

8) phrase with of the University of Michigan

9) forests The Black forest

10) Hotels The Sheraton Hotel 11) museums the National museum

12) Some territories the Middle East the Far East the Grand Canyon the Arctic

13) Peninsulas the Balkan Peninsula

14) Ships the Queen Elizabeth the Titanic

15) Newspapers the Times the New York Times

16 Some countries and cities Argentine Ukraine Punjab Gambia Congo Hague Crimea Caucasus Lebanon Cameroon Yemen Vatican Senegal Sudan

Zero article 1) Streets Navoi street 2) Continents Asia

3) Lakes when the word “lake” included Lake Baikal Lekin: The Great Lakes The Lake of Michigan

4) Names of islands and mountains in singular Tahiti Island Mount Vesuvius

5) name with 's MacDonald's

6) World territorries Latin America Central Asia

7) Names of airports and stations Heathrow

8) Parks, avenues Hyde Park













Pronoun

Myself / Yourself / Themselves / etc. Usage Reflexive pronouns are used to express actions that we do to ourselves. I cut myself while slicing the fruit. Ben hurt himself when he slid down the stairs. Intensive pronouns are used for emphasis. I myself baked the cake. The kids themselves tied their shoes.

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person myself yourself himself/ herself/ itself ourselves yourselves themselves

There are verbs that do not normally use reflexive pronoun. These are decide, feel, relax, shave, concentrate, etc.


Fill in the gaps with the most suitable reflexive pronouns!

1. He built the garage ___________________________.
2. We had a good holiday and we enjoyed______________________.
3. John cooked all the food ____________________________.
4. I was so scared, I didn’t know if he hurt______________________.
5. When I meet someone for the first time, I always introduce______ first.


Complete each sentence so that it includes a suitable form of one the verbs from the box, and a reflexive pronoun! Introduce talk blame behave cut enjoy hurt express put pay 1. While he was picking up the broken vase, he ________. 2. When Jane fell off the bicycle, she didn’t_________. 3. Have a nice trip and ________. 4. My mum told me to stop shouting and to _______. 5. I know a lot of Russian but I can’t__________. 6. When he came , he _________ to the other people at meeting. 7. That wasn’t your fault, don’t _________ 8. I can’t imagine how he feels, I am trying to _______ in his position. 9. I was completely devastated, I was trying to ________. 10. If you don’t have enough money, I will________.


A friend of mine / My own house / On my own Construction and Usage We say a friend of mine/yours/his/hers/ours/theirs, as well as a friend of my brother’s or a friend of John’s. Lisa is a friend of John’s. She is not a classmate of mine. My own/your/his/her/our/their own is used to say that something is only mine and it doesn’t belong to anyone else. This is my own project. That is not his work. On my own or by myself means ALONE. I traveled around the province on my own. We’re here for you. You don’t have to go through this alone.


Complete the sentences using on my own/by myself, my own/your own. 1. It’s ______ fault why I have failed this exam again. 2. I don’t need any help, I can do it ______. 3. Who were they with you met them? No one. They were _______ 4. He has always dreamt about ______ house at the seaside. 5. Did you go to Spain______? Unfortunately, yes.

Answer the questions using on my own/by myself, my own/your own. The first one is done for you. 1. Do you need help finishing your project? No, I can do it on my own. 2. Will you help me finish my project? 3. Did someone write this paper for you? 4. Can you come to the store with me? 5. Is anyone working with you tonight? 6. Are you going to the concert with James? 7. Do you want to go running with me? 8. Where did you get this idea? 9. Can I help you eat those brownies? 10. Did you see a doctor to help you quit smoking?


There ... and it ... Construction and Usage THERE is used to talk about something for the first time and to say that it exists.

IT is used to talk about a specific thing, fact, or situation.

THERE also means at/in/to the place. THERE can also be used with modals such as there will be/must be while IT can be used in context of time, distance, weather.

Fill in the gaps with there is/was or it is /was. Be careful about questions and negative form. 1. What’s the new shopping mall like? _________ good? 2. ______ traffic jam in the city center for three hours. 3. Yesterday ______an earthquake.______ a lot of damage. 4. ________ a flight to Belgrade tomorrow morning? 5. _______ nothing to worry about.

Complete the sentences with there or it followed by the correct form. 1. I want to see you but ______enough time. 2. How far ________from your home to your work? 3. He failed the exam,_________ something very difficult again. 4. _________ a rise in the number of unemployed this year. 5. _________two months since I last visited Paris. 6. _______difficult to understand these rules. 7. _____ my daughter’s birthday and we will have a big party. 8. The bar was full of people._________ very stuffy. 9. _______ enough space for my suitcase in your car? Of course. 10. _____ anything interesting to read, so I went to bed. Some and any Construction and Usage Some is used in positive sentences. I have some answers for you. These are some of the things I want to share with you. Any is used in questions and negatives. I don’t have any questions. Do you have any questions? Some can also be used in a question as well as making an offer or request Can I have some salt, please? Do you want some of the chips? Use any in positive sentences if we mean it doesn’t matter which. Any of the dresses will do. Any of your shoes will match that dress.


Choose some or any to complete the sentences. 1. I put ____ chocolate in the fridge, where is it? 2. Could I have ______ salt, please? 3. There isn’t______ milk left in the fridge. 4. They have______ news for you. 5. Do you know _____ language. It’s important for this job.

Choose some or any to complete the sentences. 1. There are ______ words I don’t understand. 2. Did she buy ______ dress last month? 3. Have you watched _______ good film recently? 4. Could you pass me ______ milk, please? 5. Please come _____ time, it’s important, we have to talk. 6. I can’t find______ appropriate shoes for that party. 7. I was too sleepy to carry on_____ work. 8. Tom hasn’t found _____ job yet. 9. I wanted to make a cake, but there wasn’t____ flour in the house. 10. I am so desperate, can you give _______ useful suggestion?


No/none/any Nothing/nobody Construction and Usage No is used with a singular or plural noun. There is no one here. There are no people in the auditorium. No can be put at the beginning of the sentence. No, I don’t believe you. No one is home. Any is used in negatives and questions. There isn’t any decent dress in the display room. Any questions? Use none of the or none on its own. None of the is usually followed by a plural noun. None of the guests liked the food. None liked the food. Nobody/Nothing doesn’t use a negative verb. Nobody does anything good around here. (Never Nobody doesn’t) Nothing here is for sale. (Never Nothing isn’t)


Complete the sentences by using no, none, none of the, or nothing. 1. _________ students came on time for his lecture. 2. _________ are here yet. 3. I want _________ to eat. I am not hungry. 4. We had to cancel the meeting since _________ one came. 5. This test is too difficult. _________ of us can answer it!

Complete the sentences using no, none, none of the, or any. 1. There wasn’t _____ ice-cream left. 2. There are a lot of books on the table but _______ of them is mine. 3. _________ of the pupils studied about astronomy. 4. I tried to call him but there was ______ answer. 5. There is _________ need for your service so you can go home now. 6. _________ of the artists who auditioned fit the role. 7. Does _________ of you want to go home early? 8. _________ support came so the townsfolk became desperate.. 9. There isn’t _________ hospital for miles around here. 10. The kid had so many toys but _________ he liked.


Much, many, little, few. a lot, plenty Construction and Usage Many and much are usually used in questions and negatives. Many is for countable nouns. Much is for uncountable nouns. There is much sugar in this coffee drink. Is there much sugar in this coffee drink? There are many people here. Little and few (without a) have negative meaning. They both mean small number and not enough. Few is used with countable nouns. Little is used with uncountable nouns. Few members of the audience disliked the play. I have little patience in dealing with my pesky little brother. A little and a few have more positive meaning. A few more miles and we’re there! A little more salt is needed to improve the taste. /After “Only” use a little/ a few with the meaning of 'little/few./ /After “Very” always use few / little without “a”./

A lot of/lots of both are used in positive sentences with both countable and uncountable nouns. Kris has a lot of friends/ Kris has lots of friends. This play box has a lot of sand/ This play box has lots of sand. Plenty means more than enough. There is plenty of food on the table. There is plenty of gasoline in that car. Complete the following sentences by filling in with much, many, few, or little. 1. I’m sorry I can’t help you. I have ______ time before I have to leave. 2. There isn’t _____space left. 3. How ______ money have you got? 4. Terrence is very popular. He has _____ friends. 5. There are ____ chairs available. Some members of the audience might end up standing if we don’t add more.

Complete the following sentences. Choose among many/much, a few/little, a lot of/lots of, or plenty. 1. There wasn’t________ traffic yesterday so I could go home easily. 2. I have_______ problems but I know I can still handle them. 3. Do you use the phone_______? 4. Brian has received ________ job offers lately. 5. He has very________ time for everything. 6. Henry gained ________ support for his cause. 7. ________ more words and you’ll be done with your essay. 8. Do you have ________ children? 9. Does she do ______ work at home? 10. There aren’t______ tourist attractions in this city.

Exercise. Put few/ a few/ little/ a little. a) Wait! I need … help from you. b) I bought … eggs in the market and ate them for dinner. c) There were …eggs left at home. After eating them I was still hungry. d) There were only…eggs left at home. After eating them I was still hungry. e) There were very…eggs left at home. After eating them I was still hungry. f) Our house is almost empty. There is … furniture in the house. g) Our house is quite comfortable. There is … furniture in the house. h) I have … cows. I need more. i) I have … cows. I am happy.


All / all of most / most of no/none of Construction and Usage All is usually followed by a plural noun and verb. However, in the expressions all day, all night, the noun is singular. All cars were shipped out to their owners. I couldn’t sleep. I was up all night. Most connotes a great number. It is usually followed by plural nouns. Most kids I know are excited for the new gadget to come out from production. You are so brave. Most people would have run away upon seeing that big a snake! Most of is followed by this/that/these/those/my. Most of those trees fell during the storm. Most of this dress was ruined after my little brother accidentally spilled his drink on it. No is used with a singular or plural noun. It’s a great idea. I am confident that there will be no committee member who will object to it. There are no books on the desk. You must have placed them somewhere else. None of is more commonly used with plural verbs than singular. None of the children will watch that movie. It’s too scary! None of us have signed up for the field trip.


Complete the sentences. Choose among all, most, most of, no, or none of. 1. ________ instructions were given to us before the test. Everyone did not know how to answer it. 2. ________my relatives visit us every year. I really look forward to their company. 3. ________these books are mine. I printed my name on the first page of each book for everyone to know I own them. 4. ________us are still sleepy after staying up all night finishing our course work. 5. During weekends, we stay at home ____________day long.

Complete the sentences. Choose among all, most, most of, no, or none of. 1. ____________days I get up at 7 o’clock. 2. ________ the volunteers showed up so the work could not be done. 3. ____________ my sisters live in America. They all work in a hospital in California. 4. ____________ shirts have already been printed. We’re still waiting for a few more before we deliver them. 5. I want to go shopping early in the morning but ____________ the shops are still closed at this time. 6. She had to watch the movie on her own. ____________her friends wanted to go. 7. Have you passed _______ the tests that are required of you to take? 8. I received ________ answer from the company. I will have to call again. 9. That’s strange. There are ____________ cars on the freeway. How can that be possible? 10. After the storm, only a few stores remained open. ____________ of the business establishments were closed. Both/Both of, Either/Either of, Neither/Neither of Construction and Usage We use both, neither and either for two things. I like both the red dress and the blue suit. I can wear either the red dress or the blue suit. I like neither the red dress nor the blue suit. We can use these words with a noun. Kim likes both paintings. Kim wants to buy either of the two paintings. Kim wants to buy neither of the two paintings. Both of/ Neither of/ Either of are followed by the/these/my/John’s. They can also be followed by us/you/them. The principal wants both of you in her office now. The ballet company offered a scholarship to either of Rob’s sisters. Neither of them was present yesterday.



Complete the sentences with both/neither/either. 1. ____________ my friends are of the same age. 2. ____________films are interesting. 3. Carl can present _______ a hiphop number or a modern jazz dance. 4. Those dresses are dreadful. I like____________. 5. I’ve flown to ____________ cities last month.


Complete the following sentences using both of, either of, or neither of. 1. ____________them go dancing at weekends. 2. They’re happy since ____________ of them have homework to do. 3. ____________ them can join our club. 4. ______ his parents work. I can’t imagine how they survive the day. 5. _____Julie and Mark go to that school. 6. I can wear ____________ the two cocktail dresses for prom. 7. ____________ of the two brothers can play basketball. 8. There are two books on the shelf. You can take home ____ the two. 9. ____________my sister and I were surprised to hear the news. 10. Tom can go to _____ of the two schools because of his high grades.


All. Every, and Whole Construction and Usage All is usually followed by a plural noun and verb. All people were surprised to see him All his fans screamed when he came out on stage.

Not is also used with all.  It is also used as a pronoun at the beginning of a sentence. 

Not all people were surprised to see him. Not all his fans were pleased with the stunt he pulled. Every is a singular word so it’s used with a singular verb. Every person in this room is curious about the experiment. Whole means complete or entire. I can sleep the whole day. Tom can eat the whole cake. Every, All, and Whole can be used with time words. The baby slept for the whole eight hours. The bus arrives every ten minutes. I spend all waking hours in the office.


Complete the sentences with the most appropriate word. Choose among all, not, every, or whole. 1. _______ students have studied well. They really prepared for the exam. 2. ____________ employees come on time so the manager has to strictly monitor employee attendance. 3. ____________ I can do for you is to listen to your problems. 4. Don’t worry. There is a train ____________ 4 minutes. 5. ________ of the members forgot to come so the group leader got angry.

Complete the sentences with the most appropriate word. Choose among all, not, every, or whole. 1. I have lived here my ____________ life. 2. My Mom works at that diner ____________ single day. 3. Because of the storm, ____________ Ben could do was to stay indoors. 4. ____________ all the girls wore required uniform. 5. I know ____________ single thing about them. 6. He spent ____________ his money on his toy collection. 7. Kirsten ate the ____________ packet of sweets. 8. Ryan didn’t have much time so ____________ he could do was to reject the offer. 9. She goes to doctors____________ two months. 10. Lisa has known her ____________ her life.


Each and every Construction and Usage The meaning of each and every are similar. They are both followed by a singular noun. Each is used when we think of the members of a group separately one by one. Each of …can be used. Each can be used after the subject or at the end of a sentence. Each pupil is required to come. Each of the pupils is required to come. Every is used when we think of all the members of a group together. Every of… can’t be used. We can’t use every after the subject or at the end of a sentence. Every pupil in this room should be in his/her best behavior (everyone is expected to behave). Every is used for time words. My sister comes home every six weeks.



Complete sentences with each/each of or every. 1. There is a train _____________fifteen minutes. 2. ____________ person should wear a funny hat. 3. ____________ my sisters have their own rooms. 4. I read ____________ book in my room. 5. I go on a holiday _____________ year.


Complete the sentences with each/each of or every. 1. ____________ boxes was wrapped in colored paper. 2. My sister and I were given 100 dollars ____________. 3. Mr. Rogers changes cars ____________ three years. 4. I know ____________ café in this block. 5. Try this one. ____________ one is different. 6. Before the test started, the students were ____________ given a sheet. 7. I am so bored. We follow the same routine ____________ single day. 8. There are twelve of them in the group. ____________ student has a different task. 9. ____________ seat in the auditorium was taken. 10. ________ kids had different roles to play in the school drama.


Other Usage Other We use other before plural nouns and uncountable. He invited many other people whom I didn't know. He has a lot of other stuff that I don't like. Another We use another before singular countable noun. Give me another pen, it doesn't write. (Sometimes we may use another before plural meaning more- After lunch he ate drank another 4 glasses of tea.) The other We can use the other before any noun as long as it is definite who or what we are talking about. She met two women. One woman was old, the other woman was young. Others We use others without a noun followed for talking about plural with general meaning. Some people like tea, others prefer coffee. The others We use the others without a noun followed for talking about plural with definite meaning. Out of the 4 people I met today one is old. The others are young.

Put the correct form of other. 1) I've bought 5 books. 2 of them are about history, … are about maths. 2) I've bought 5 books. 2 of them are about history, … is about maths.... are about literature. 3) I like many countries. Germany is one of them. … is Italy. 4) I like 2 countries. Germany is one of them. … is Italy. 5) I've visited several cities. For example, Paris. … cities I've been are Berlin and Naples. 6) I've visited several cities. For example, Paris. … is Berlin. 7) I bought a lot of things. I bought meat, bread and butter. … product I bought is sugar. 8) Can you bring some … sugar? 9) Can you bring some … loaves of bread? 10) I've got three brothers. One is an actor. … is businessman.... is a teacher. 11) I've got 2 brothers. One is an actor.... is a businessman. 12) I've got 4 brothers. One is an actor. … is businessman.... are teachers. 13) I've got three brothers. One is an actor. … is a doctor. 14) Samarkand is one of the most culturally important places in the world. …. place like this is Bukhara. 15) Can you bring some … 2 loaves of bread?

















Relative clauses

Relative Clauses Construction and Usage Relative clauses are short phrases beginning with words called relative pronouns (who/which/that) that describe or define people, things, places, possessions and time. There are two types: defining and non-defining. Defining relative clause identifies exactly which person, thing, place we mean. That is the man whom I met in the party. This bag which I bought is featured in a popular lifestyle magazine. The country which I visited is known for its beautiful tourist attractions. Non-defining relative clause gives extra information. That is the man who was imprisoned for theft. This bag which costs forty dollars is featured in a popular lifestyle magazine. The country which is right in the middle of the European continent is known for its beautiful tourist attractions.


Underline the correct word in the parentheses that will best complete the sentence. 1. The museum, (which, whose) was in a beautiful building, was closed. 2. This the person (where, who) I met yesterday. 3. An old friend of mine (who, which) I saw yesterday was robbed. 4. Marisse was the last person (which, that) I spoke to before I left for the States. 5. He is the man (whose, which) pen I borrowed.


Make a non-defining relative clause using each phrase. 1. (the doctor) 2. (the library) 3. ( the book) 4. (the test) 5. ( the town) 6. ( the singer) 7. ( the beach) 8. ( the lady) 9. ( the pupil) 10. ( the pair of shoes )

Clauses with and without who/that/which Construction and Usage There are cases when which/that/who can be left out and then they are object of the relative clause: Hats are things (that) you wear on your head. Doctors are people (who) you go to when you feel sick.

Underline the relative pronouns which can be left out in these sentences. 1. The book that I am reading is yours. 2. These are the tickets which Mom was looking for. 3. This was the best holiday which we have ever had so far. 4. The doctor who I go to is one of the best. 5. The last person in the office who I saw last night was Tom.

Underline relative pronouns which can be left out in these sentences. Circle those that are needed to complete the thought of the sentence. 1. The people who were leaving couldn’t find their coats. 2. The girl who sang really beautifully was my sister. 3. The man who treated me nicely is my boss. 4. I know a couple of people who have been there. 5. These are the photos which I took to show the beauty of the Grand Canyon. 6. I would like to have a balcony that I can sit on when it’s hot. 7. The bus which goes to Rome leaves in five minutes. 8. The guidebook that you gave me is completely useless. 9. These are the boys that we met yesterday. 10. A newscaster is a person who reads the news.

Whose/whom/where Construction and Usage We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their. It is used mostly for people to express possession. I found the man whose pen I borrowed yesterday. I couldn’t find the man whose pen I borrowed yesterday. Whom is possible instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause. The person whom I wanted to visit is here. The person whom I wanted to visit isn’t here. Whom can also be used with a preposition (to whom/from whom…). For whom is the letter? To whom is the letter addressed to? We use where to talk about a place. I visited the house where I grew up in. We can also use which + preposition. That is a house which I grew up in.


Complete sentences using whom/where/who/whose. 1. The friend ________ house I stayed in is coming to stay with us. 2. Paris is a city ________ my parent first met. 3. Do you know ________ Lisa works for? 4. I can’t remember__________ I lent my pen to. It’s precious to me. 5. Do you know with ________ she was talking to?

Complete sentences using whom/where/who/whose. 1. Lina ________ yellow skirt accentuated her small waist is a fashion model. 2. Can you show ________ you found this necklace? 3. The hotel ________ we spent our holiday was really luxurious. 4. The girl ________ I wanted to say hello to is your sister. 5. This is the school________ I used to go. 6. This is Susan ________ book I borrowed a year ago. 7. For ________ is that note written? 8. To ________ did Ana send the package? 9. These guests ________ car broke down came really late. 10. Is there anyone here ________ I can talk to?


Extra information clauses (1) Construction and Usage Sometimes, relative clauses give us extra information. These are called non-defining. It is not necessary to tell us which thing/person we are talking about. In this case, there are commas before and after the clause. A tall girl, who was wearing a hat, came into the room. (Remember that we can’t use THAT and can’t leave out the relative pronoun in non-defining clauses.)


Join the two sentences to make a sentence with a non-defining relative clause. 1. Sarah is very moody. She goes to my school. ____________________________________________ 2. The hotel was nice. My best friend recommended it. __________________________________________________ 3. My sister is a doctor. She lives in Madrid. ____________________________________________________ 4. John loves his new job. He works as a shop assistant. __________________________________________________ 5. The museum was closed. It was in a beautiful building.


Join the two sentences to make a sentence with a non-defining relative clause. 1. The girl was in my class. I spoke to her. __________________________________________________ 2. She won the medal. Her abilities were amazing. ___________________________________________________ 3. The man knocked at my door. He was carrying two suitcases. ___________________________________________________ 4. The place was enormous. It was full of old books. __________________________________________________ 5. The film stars the popular actor. It became a worldwide hit. __________________________________________________ 6. Picasso was a famous painter. He died in 1973. _________________________________________________ 7. Tom was looking for a new car. He finally bought one this morning. __________________________________________________ 8. Mom works for a diner. She always complains about the stressful hours. ____________________________________________________ 9. This play is shown in several theaters. It received rave reviews. ____________________________________________________ 10. The Robinsons are always late. Many can’t stand them. ____________________________________________________


Extra information clauses (2) Construction and Usage Prepositions can go either at the beginning or at the end of the clause. His greatest hobby is motor racing, on which he spent a lot of money. His greatest hobby is motor racing, which he spent a lot of money on. We can also use all of/most of/none of/neither of with whom/which There are many books, most of which I own. There are many books, most of which I do not own. I told Mom it was neither Ana nor Beth whom I saw last night.


Write the relative sentence using a preposition and whom/which. 1. The party, which only close friends were invited to, caused many problems.

_________________________________________________

2. My sister mentioned something, which she was very afraid of.

_________________________________________________

3. Last month I visited Paris, which I had never been before.

________________________________________________

4. This is our anniversary, which we are very proud of. ____________________________________________________ 5. These are our friends Mary and John, who we went on holiday with. ___________________________________________________

Insert the word “which” where it can go in these sentences. 1. She couldn’t come to my party. This is sad news. 2. Our flight was delayed. This means we will be late. 3. I was asked to come right away. This means it must be important. 4. The house we lived in is in a peaceful area. This meant we could go wherever we wanted. 5. She passed a driving test. This means she will be able to drive soon. 6. I was offered a better job in another city. This means we will have to move. 7. He won a huge sum as reward. This meant he could afford the dream vacation he always wanted. 8. He committed a lot of mistakes. This was very unusual of him. 9. We will take part in this competition This explains why we are nervous. 10. He gave up his new job. This means he would have to look for a new one.


-ing and -ed clauses Construction and Usage We use – ing clause to say what somebody or something is/was doing at a particular moment. It can also be used to say what happens all the time not just at the particular time. I observed Tim writing a letter earlier today. I usually catch Tina sleeping during class. -ed clause has a passive meaning Sean waited for everyone to go home before he went in the room. Dad fixed the car while Mom was at work.


Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form.

ask offer wait play cross 1. Somebody __________him a cigarette while you were out. 2. I saw John ___________ the street. 3. Yesterday I got the letter from him ________ me to come. 4. The kids ________ outside while their parents were in the office. 5. Children _________violent computer games could have disruptive behavior.


Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the correct form. sit overlook research make talk work invite write start spend 1. He has a big house ________ the lake. 2. Do you know the girl ________ to your sister? 3. There were five people _________ to come here. 4. People _______ to our party are Susan’s friends. 5. I spent the entire day ________. 6. Scientists ______ the area were terrified with what they found. 7. Do you know any word _________ with Y? 8. Most of his time _______ in the village was great. 9. Children ______ to study get good grades. 10. She showed me some work her dad ________.



















Adjectives


Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.) Construction and Usage Adjectives ending in -ED describes state of people, things,etc. I’m so bored. That kid is so talented. in -ING describe things or people that make people, things,etc feel in that way. The shocking incident made headlines the next day. This Math exercise is so confusing. She is an interesting person.

Underline the right adjective that goes with the sentence. 1. I was frightening/frightened when I saw her jumping. 2. The horrifying/horrified scenes were cut from the film. 3. Mr. Sims found this job very fulfilling/fulfilled. 4. They felt inspiring/inspired by his example. 5. Aunt Lina is so excited/exciting to hear the news.

Choose the most appropriate word. embarrassed/embarrassing interesting/interested amazed/amazing fascinating/fascinated disappointing/disappointed 1. That ____ story __________ all the people who listened to it. 2. Our teacher was so _______________ with our _______________ performance in the test. 3. The _______________ mistake was hard to conceal. The hosts were so _______________ by it. 4. I am _______________ by this view. The beautiful mountains filled with the greenest of trees make up an ______ sight! 5. It’s ______ to see how _______ the kids are to join this club. Choose the most appropriate word.

depressed/depressing entertained/entertaining bored/boring amused/amusing discouraged/discouraging 1. We are so ___________ with his _______________ jokes. 2. Although these events are so ___________, we must not get so _______________ or else we won’t be able to move forward. 3. The _______ performance left the audience __________. 4. The movie was so _______________ that most of the _______________ moviegoers fell asleep halfway through. 5. Max was _____ to audition. Unfair treatment is really_____.

Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired Construction and Usage Order is very important if we use many adjectives together the order is very important. Fact adjectives which give us factual information such as age, size, color. We usually put fact adjectives in this order: size, shape, age, color, nationality, material. A small, rectangular, century-old, red and green, Persian, leather carpet Opinion adjectives tell us what somebody thinks of something or someone. Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. An amazing small, rectangular, century-old, red and green, Persian, leather carpet We also use adjectives to say how somebody/something looks, feels, sounds, tastes or smells. It looks great. It doesn’t feel right. It sounds amazing. It smells really bad. It doesn’t taste like anything I’ve tasted before.

Put adjectives in the correct position. 1. a big, horrible, brown dog 2. a round, old, great, ceramic vase 3. an inspiring, , cotton, red flag 4. a tiny, black, fashionable dress 5. a small, metal, mysterious, decade-old box

Complete the sentences using the verbs look, smell, taste, sound, feel, taste, seem with an appropriate adjective from the list below. awful great delicious tired bored upset tasteless interesting excited nice Be aware when to use the base form or the s form of the verbs. 1. It _______________. She has to put off the music player immediately. 2. This stew _______________. Can you add more salt, please? 3. Mom _______________ every time my naughty brother does something bad in school. 4. The story _______________. You better tell it to the kids. They will love it. 5. Dad enjoys eating my Chef Tony’s dishes. They are all _______________. 6. I _______________ every time I watch that movie. 7. The team _______________ whenever the school is invited to participate in a tournament? 8. This bag _______________. I’m going to buy it. 9. I don’t like the artist’s new song. It _______________. 10. Tom _______________ every after training.

Adjectives and adverbs I (quick/quickly) Construction and Usage Adjectives tell us more about a noun, while adverbs tell us more about a verb. The girl is beautiful. The girl sings beautifully. The girl is not happy. The girl is not singing happily. We also use adjectives instead of adverbs after state verbs such as be/feel/sound/smell/taste. These verbs show state, not action. That's why they are followed by adjectives, not adverbs. I feel sick (not sickly). This dish tastes delicious (not deliciously). I like the song. It doesn’t sound awful (not awfully). She isn’t happy (not happily) about the incident. Adverbs can go before adjectives. She seems clearly happy with positive turn of events. It seems disgustingly wrong to do such an atrocious act.

Choose whether an adjective or an adverb best completes the sentence. 1. You look ______________ (tiredly/tired). 2. This is an ______________boring film(unusual/unusually). 3. He plays basketball ______________ well. (incredible/incredibly). 4. I bought this __________dress. (amazingly/amazing). 5. I performed rather ______________ (poor/poorly).

Choose whether an adjective or an adverb best completes the sentence. 1. There has been a _________change of the director’s mood. (suddenly/sudden) 2. This is a _________good price(reasonable/reasonably). 3. It tastes___________(delicious/deliciously). 4. She hurt herself quite______________ (bad/badly). 5. He speaks English______________ (accurate/accurately). 6. Can you explain it _______________ once again(careful/carefully)? 7. Our country has serious______________ concerns. (financial/financially) 8. You behave very______________ (selfish/selfishly). 9. The artist is ______________ gorgeous (absolute/absolutely). 10. Your project is ______________ (complete/completely).

Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly) Construction and Usage Adverbs are formed by adding the suffix –ly to the adjectives. happy – happily; excited – excitedly; sad – sadly But we have irregular adverbs as well. Good is an adjective while well is an adverb. Fast, hard, late have the same forms for both adjectives and adverbs. Be careful with lately, nearly and hardly. They have completely different meanings: lately=recently hardly=very little nearly - almost

Put a “√” if the sentence is correct. Put an X if it is not. _____1. I hardly ever go skiing. _____2. He runs fastly. _____3. I speak Spanish well. _____4. Where have you been lately? _____5. He has to study hardly.

Write good/well or bad/badly. 1. Are you a ______ swimmer? 2. He rides a bike really _____. He was taught professionally. 3. You did _____ in your test since you got an A. 4. Tom is a ______politician. Everyone loves him. 5. I don’t understand how you did it so _______. Can you teach me? 6. He is such a _____ dancer. He looks really awkward on stage. 7. The little sings really _____ for her age. She is a star in the making! 8. My sisters speaks Chinese _____. 9. They sometimes behave ______ in class. 10. I am _____at Mathematics. I barely pass in the exams. So and such Construction and Usage So is followed by adjective or adverb You are so beautiful. You sang so beautifully. This book is not so interesting. He didn’t tell the story so interestingly.

Such is followed by a phrase (a/an adjective + noun).  We put and indefinite article if the noun is singular countable. 

Daisy gave the puppy such a pretty name. The kids showcased such amazing dance presentations.

Put in so or such/such a. 1. James is _____ nice guy. 2. Janice does her work _____ carefully. 3. We watched _____ good films. 4. The little kids were ______ scared when they saw the shark. 5. You play the violin ____ well. I bet you were trained classically.

Put in so or such/such a. 1. It was _____ amazing performance. People gave the performers a standing ovation. 2. We had _____ much free time that we didn’t know what else to do. 3. That artist always has _____ nice clothes. 4. You look ____ tired . You must have worked all day. 5. It was ____ unfair of him to judge you that way. 6. I met ____ energetic kid yesterday. 7. Everything was seems to be_____ expensive in that shop. 8. What have you done ___far? 9. It was ____ long time ago that I’ve forgotten what I did to make her _____ mad at me. 10. My baby brother was _____ calm, Mom could take _____ long period of time to rest.

Enough and too Construction and Usage Enough can be used after adjectives and adverbs. The test is easy enough for the pupils to answers. She does not act well enough to get a major part. Enough is used before nouns or even alone without a noun, It means as much as needed. The little boy has enough toys to entertain him for weeks. The little boy has enough. The little boy has not enough toys. Enough can also be used in this construction: adjective + enough + infinitive. The task is simple enough to do. The task is not difficult enough. He’ll do just do it with ease. Too is used before adjective. It means more than.

The test is too difficult.

He was not too tall as people were led to believe. Too can also be used in this construction: too +adjective + infinitive The test is too difficult to answer. The test is not too simple to do. They have to focus if they want to succeed at it.

Put too or enough to complete the sentence. 1. I have _____________ many things. They won’t fit in one bag. 2. I don’t think Tessie is hardworking _____________ to finish the task. 3. Is there _____________ food for the party? 4. This job is _____________ complex for me to do. 5. Liam shouted _____________ in last night’s game that he lost his voice.

Join the two sentences into one. Use because. Include correct usage of too or enough. The first two are done for you. 1. We can’t sleep well. Music in the nearby café is loud. We can’t sleep well because music in the nearby café is too loud. 2. I can’t understand you. You are not speaking clearly. I can’t understand you because you are not speaking clearly enough. 3. Mike doesn’t need to go to the library. He has books at home. ____________________________________________________ 4. I can’t lend you money. I have money for my family only. ____________________________________________________ 5. The host is panicking. Many people came. ___________________________________________________ 6. Rob is ready to go. He has energy for the party. ____________________________________________________ 7. You can’t see all the actors. You are far from the stage. ____________________________________________________ 8. Mom is worried. We do not have time to buy gifts for everybody. ____________________________________________________ 9. I can no longer accept more work. This is complex. __________________________________________________ 10. Tony did not finish reading the book. It was long. ____________________________________________________ Quite, pretty. rather and fairly Construction and Usage They all have very similar meaning--- less than very but more than a little. Pretty is used mostly in spoken English because it’s informal. You should watch the movie. It’s pretty good. Quite is followed by a/an + adjective, noun or we can say quite a lot (of) as well. Quite is used with verbs especially like and enjoy. It also means completely-quite sure. It can be used with verbs to have the same meaning. Quite a lot of kids come here to play. I quite like reading books when there’s nothing else to do. Matt doesn’t quite enjoy the company of strangers. Rather is used in a negative context. The song’s rather bad. You can tell it won’t be a hit. Fairly is less than quite/rather/pretty and it has a meaning not very good, could be better. It’s fairly good. Just wait until it comes out in DVD, though. It’s not worth watching in the theater.


Complete these sentences using quite and the following. impossible, famous, safe, sure, cold 1. You should wear a sweater. It’s _________________. 2. I did everything well. I’m _________________. 3. It’s too high. We can’t reach the other side. It’s _________________. 4. I can’t believe you don’t know anything about her. She is _______________. 5. You should stay here since this area of the neighborhood is _____________.

Complete the sentences with quite, rather, pretty, fairly 1. I am _________________ sure that he will be the winner. 2. He is _______________ naughty. He always makes problems in school. 3. Although Dad works a lot, he also spend time with us _________________ often. 4. It was _________________ sunny, so our family went on a picnic. 5. Lee and Mary haven’t _____ finished their supper. 6. Uncle Hank has _________________ a good job. He plans to stay in that company for a couple more years. 7. She is ______________ shy. Don’t force her to speak in front of the class. 8. Everything he explained was __________ amazing. 9. I am sorry but I don’t ______ understand your point. 10. I found the film okay. The acting was ____ good but not amazing.

Comparison l (cheaper. more expensive etc. ) Construction and Usage Simple comparison is used when we just -er to the adjective. Gabe is taller than Danny. Compound comparison is used when we add “more /less. This is for adjectives that have are multi-syllabic. Gabe’s work is more colorful than Danny’s. Gabe’s work is less colorful than Danny’s. There are irregular comparative forms as well. To make its comparative form, the spelling of the adjective is changed. Gabe is better at basketball than Danny. (base form is good) Gabe has worse handwriting compared to Danny’s. (base form is bad) bad - worse good – better much/ many – more little – less late – later / the latter far – farther/further old – older/ elder


Complete the sentences with the correct comparative form. difficult beautiful long peaceful fast 1. Cinderella _________than her stepsister. 2. Can you run _________ than him? 3. These exercises are _____________ than the previous ones. 4. This beach is ________ than the one we went to last summer. I like it more. 5. Your book is _______ so you’ll have to spend more time reading it.



Complete the sentences with the correct comparative form. bad good early many high reliable pretty important often comfortable 1. Carl’s brother is__________________ student than he is. 2. Tony has _________________ behavior compared to Lou. The teachers always complain about Tony’s pranks. 3. This work is _________________ than Tom’s. 4. You are late again. You should leave _________________ next time. 5. I’ll earn _________________ money if I get two jobs. 6. This building is _________________ than skyscrapers in New York. 7. This document is ________________ than the one we receives last night. 8. He should visit his parents _________________. 9. My sister’s is bed is _________________ to sleep on compared to mine. 10. His wife is _________________ than a film star.


Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better) Construction and Usage Before comparatives we can use: much, a lot, far, a bit, a little, slightly. We can use any/no before comparative. If we use better and better/ more and more it says that something changes continuously. We can also use the….the…. to say that one thing depends on another one ( the sooner the better).

Complete the sentences using any/no + comparative adjective in the parentheses. 1. There isn’t __________________ medical service that what this hospital can offer. (efficient) 2. I know you think the responsibility given to you is big, but trust me it’s __________________ than mine. (big) 3. Sorry, but I can’t wait for them__________________. (long) 4. If the traffic here is __________ than the other city, I’m moving. (heavy) 5. You were right. The prices here are __________________ than in their main branch. (high)

Use the words in the brackets to complete sentences. 1. I tried many things in life but this one is ______________ (a little/scary). 2. The police officers expected this case to be __________________ than the previous one. (far/easy) 3. It’s too expensive for. Where can I find something __________________? (a little/cheap) 4. Your bag is __________________ than mine. (far/heavy) 5. This task is __________________ than I expected. (much/difficult) 6. The cake should be __________________ than the one I baked. (slightly/big) 7. You have to drive __________________ next time. (a little/slowly) 8. For this job, you have to be __________________ (much/talkative). 9. My father is gets __________________ when he is around strangers. (slightly/nervous) 10. I am __________________ than my sister. (a bit/old)


Comparison 3 (as ... as / than) Construction and Usage This construction as ….as ( we use positive -as good as)is used to say that two things/people are the same. Negative construction is not as ….as or not so….as. Than is used in comparative, we can say than me but not than I

Complete the sentences with than or as. 1. You can’t catch up with me. I am better __________ you. 2. I am so disappointed. I worked ______________ hard as you. 3. They aren’t good at football. We are better ______________ them. 4. These shoes are great, but they are more expensive____________ those. 5. We are of the same height. He is ______________ tall as I am.

Complete the sentences. The first one is done for you. 1. I have read many books. You haven’t read as many as I have. 2. They have many rewards. You don’t have as ________________. 3. Your house is as big as __________________. 4. The dog looks as adorable as __________________. 5. Today is as cold as __________________. 6. John runs as fast as __________________. 7. Sheila has been working here as long as __________________. 8. Tonight’s party is as enjoyable as __________________. 9. Tammy moves as slow as __________________. 10. I earned as much as __________________.

Superlatives (the longest, the most enjoyable etc. ) Construction and Usage With simple adjectives( one syllable) we make superlative by adding the suffix –est plus the ( the smallest ) , whereas with compound adjectives ( two/ more syllables ) we make superlative by adding the most. Be careful about spelling changes- doubled consonant or change y into i ( the same as we mentioned with comparatives): the biggest/ the easiest. There are irregular forms as well: good-best bad-worst little-least many/much-most far-farthest/furthest the superlative of old is oldest, while both forms eldest/oldest are used when we talk about people in the family: My eldest daughter is 12.

Put the adjective in the correct form! 1. He is __________________ student in our class. (good) 2. These exercises aren’t _____________ in this exercise book. (difficult) 3. I think I have the __________________ score of all. (less) 4. Our parents chose that hotel because it was the _____________ (cheap). 5. My __________________ sister is 20 years old. (old)

Put the adjective in the correct form. 1. This is the __________________ that I have been to. (far) 2. Sue’s party was the __________________ by far. (enjoyable) 3. Jasmine is the __________________ person I’ve ever met. (kind) 4. In your opinion, what is the __________________ book you’ve ever read? (interesting) 5. Don’t doubt your capability. You are the __________________ artist here. (skillful) 6. This is the __________________ film I’ve ever reviewed. (bad) 7. This was the __________________ journey we’ve ever taken. (unpredictable) 8. Tim’s __________________ decision in life was to choose to proceed to college. (important) 9. What was the ________________ mistake you’ve ever made so far? (big) 10. These tasks are the __________________ so far. (easy)




















Word order

Word order 1: Verb + object; place and time Construction and Usage Word order is very important in the English language. Verbs and objects go together. After that we put adverbs of place and time. She sang a song at the gym earlier today. The kids exchanged gifts this morning. Adverb of time can be put at the end of the sentence or at the very beginning of sentence. Today, I saw my good friend or I saw my good friend today.

Is the order of the sentences correct or not? √ or X. _____1. He gave me his notes last night. _____2. They spent the entire evening last night at the library. _____3. Yesterday, we visited my father in hospital. _____4. I called you immediately after I received the results. _____5. She found the keys on her way home yesterday.

Put the words in the correct order in order to make sentences! 1. they/ last month/ a great present/ bought/for me 2. play/all evening/they/games/always/in Tom’s house 3. from Jack/ he/ some money/ borrowed/last night 4. have worked/for five years/ in the same company/I/ 5. lost /last weekend /I/in the movie theater/my wallet. 6. have been dreaming/to visit Paris/I/ since last year 7. many friends/in camp/they/last year/ met 8. drove/she/all day/around London 9. I /every morning/go /by bus/to work 10. wasn’t /last night/I/with them

Word order 2: Adverbs with the verb Construction and Usage Adverbs used with simple tenses always go before the verb. Mom regularly plans our holidays. Our family frequently visited Grandma’s house when she was still alive.

Adverbs used with compound tenses and negatives go between auxiliary and the main verb.

Sean has conveniently forgotten the incident. Sean has never forgotten the incident. Note that probably goes before auxiliary in negative forms. Mr. Simon probably won’t come. Tyler probably wouldn’t join the show. All and both are used in the same positions. The audience all cried after the show. They both did not come.


Are the underlined word in the right position or not? √ or X. _____1.He has never been to Egypt. _____2. I won’t probably come to your party. _____3. She always is late. _____4. They all know the new classmate. _____5. We sometimes go jogging.


Rewrite the sentence. Make sure the adverb is in its correct place. 1. They visit us (often). _______________________________________________ 2. I have visited all the interesting monuments in the city (already). _______________________________________________ 3. I will buy her a present on my way home. ________________________________________________ 4. I am sleepy in the afternoon (sometimes). __________________________________________________ 5. She won’t make it here on time (definitely). ________________________________________________ 6. I can teach you Spanish if you like (also). ___________________________________________________ 7. They will stay until midnight. (all) __________________________________________________ 8. She does her homework (regularly). ____________________________________________________ 9. They borrow money from my sister (usually). ___________________________________________________ 10. I will finish my work by the end of the day. (almost certainly)

















Conjunctions Still, yet and already Any more / any longer / no longer Construction and Usage Still is used to say that a situation or action is continuing He is still working. Yet is used to say until now. It is mainly used in negative sentences and questions He hasn’t finish yet. Already is used to say that something happened sooner than expected. I’m already hungry. Any more/any longer/no longer are used to say that a situation has changed. Any more and any longer go at the end of the sentence, whereas no longer goes in the middle of the sentence. I can’t take this any more/ I can’t take this any longer. I no longer need your services. You are free to go.


Are the underlined words in the correct positions or not? _____1. I haven’t got my packet yet. _____2. I don’t need any more you help. _____3. I’m doing my homework still. _____4. There is no longer need for your service. _____5. He has watched that film already.


Put adverbs still, already, yet, any longer, no longer, any more in the correct place. 1. I won’t go with you because I’ve watched that film. _________________________________________________ 2. She isn’t here but she’ll arrive in a minute. ____________________________________________________ 3. Do you want to go with us? ___________________________________________________ 4. They used to come to training but not. ________________________________________________ 5. I’m tired. I can’t stay. _________________________________________________ 6. I can’t believe that it’s raining. _________________________________________________ 7. I’m done with my work. I don’t need your help. _________________________________________________ 8. I’m working so I can’t go. ___________________________________________________ 9. He resigned so he’s out looking for a new job. ___________________________________________________ 10. I haven’t found the perfect place.


Even Construction and Usage Even is used to say that something is unusual or surprising. It is often used in the middle of the sentence. The millionaire bought all the houses in this block, even that small cottage. Mike did not tell anyone he was coming, not even his own parents. Even can be followed by comparative. This designer bag is even more expensive than the one the artist famously bought. Even though is used like although to give a stronger contrast. He still came even though he was sick.


Make sentences with even. Use the words in the parentheses. The first one is done for you. 1. She bought all the shoes in the shop (unusual-looking boots). She bought all the shoes in the shop even the unusual-looking boots. 2. I can’t speak Spanish (a word). ___________________________________________________ 3. He didn’t reveal the secret (his wife) __________________________________________________ 4. I cleaned all the house (the attic) ___________________________________________________ 5. He is so rich (a private plane) __________________________________________________.


Complete the sentences using even + comparative. Use the underlined adjectives. The first one is done for you. 1. I found the test difficult. I’m positive those who did not study will find it even more difficult. 2. These shoes are really cheap, but I found another pair that’s ______________________________ sold at a bargain store. 3. That woman is so beautiful, but I find the one who just arrived ______________________________. 4. This research is very interesting. However, the results are ______________________________ to discuss. 5. This drink is really cold, but the one I had earlier was ______________________________. 6. I’m always early but I just found out that my roommates is wakes up ______________________________ than I do. 7. Kim’s Italian is terrible, but mine is ______________________________. 8. Roger is a good driver, but Luigi is ______________________________. 9. This year’s summer is hot but last summer ______________________________. 10. The music here is loud. Wait until you go to that café. It’s ______________________________ there.


Although / though / even though In spite of / despite Construction and Usage Although is a conjunction which joins two clauses. There are two possible positions: Although I don’t like him, I respect his opinion./I respect his opinion although I don’t like him. Though and even though are used in the same way. Even though is a stronger form of although. After in spite of/despite we use a noun or Gerund. In spite of the difficulty, the team won the competition. Despite a fulfilling job in the city, Dad decided to move us to the quite suburbs.

Complete the sentences using although/though, in spite of/despite. 1. _____ it was cold, we still went outside. 2. _____ her illness, she still went to school. 3. _____ what they promised yesterday, they still behave in the same way. 4. I went to the party _____I was angry with him. 5. _____ the rain, we enjoyed the concert.

Complete the sentences using although/though, in spite of/despite. 1. __ it was the middle of November, the weather wasn’t so cold yet. 2. _____ we gave him clear directions, he still got lost. 3. _____ the delay, we still enjoyed the trip. 4. _____ I felt tired , I stayed up to finish my project. 5. __ they were behind in the first quarter, they still won in the end. 6. _____he has an interesting job, he doesn’t enjoy it. 7. We went out_____the heavy snow. 8. She couldn’t complete the task_____having all needed resources. 9. _____we haven’t met before, it seems we’ve been friends for a long time. 10. _____ the fact he is graduate, he still can’t easily find a job.


ln case Construction and Usage We use in case to say why somebody does or doesn’t do something. In case the speaker does not arrive, Ms. Thomas is a ready replacement. The officers are on stand by in case of any emergency.

Finish these sentences with appropriate responses. The first one is done for you. 1. In case Mom calls, tell her I’m on my way home. 2. _______________________________ in case it rains. 3. In case you want to help out, _______________________. 4. _______________________ in case you feel sick. 5. In case you need help, ____________________________.

What do you say in these situations? Finish the sentences with appropriate responses. 1. In case of emergencies, ___________________________. 2. In case you get lost, _____________________________. 3. ____________ in case you get confused by the instructions. 4. In case you see any suspicious activity, ________________. 5. In case you feel hungry, __________________________. 6. _____________________ in case it snows hard tonight. 7. In case you pass the test, __________________________. 8. _____________________________ in case Mom forgets. 9. ___________________________ in case it gets too cold. 10. In case the guests arrive really early, ______________.

Unless As long as Provided/providing Construction and Usage Unless means if not. Please stay unless you really have to go. Don’t buy expensive things unless you need to do so.

As long as /providing/provided means only if or on condition. You can stay as long as you help pay for the room rental fee. As long as he is stubborn, he’ll never change. The room rental fee is free providing that you are a student of this university. You can buy expensive things provided that you can afford to do so.

Underline the correct word or expression. 1. You can stay as long as/unless you want. 2. Provided/Unless I finish my task, I won’t go out with my friends. 3. You’ll be late providing/unless you hurry up. 4. Providing/Unless you are a hard worker, you will get a pay raise. 5. Unless/As long as the weather is bad we can’t go sightseeing.

Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 1. I will help you unless_________________. 2. Unless ______________, we won’t go on a holiday this year. 3. As long as___________________, we are on the same side. 4. Providing __________, you can expect me to buy you present. 5. They will pass the exam providing _________________. 6. We can finish this tomorrow providing _________________ 7. I don’t mind being late as long as _________________. 8. I can’t accept your apology unless _________________. 9. You will miss the bus unless _________________. 10. You can work for me as long as _________________.

As (As I walked along the street ... / As I was hungry ... ) Construction and Usage As can be used to say that two things happen at the same time.

As they were walking, they saw a friend of theirs. 

As can also mean because. As I was exhausted I went to bed. Since is also possible to use in this context. Since I was not tired yet, I went out with my friends. What does as mean in these sentences? Write A if it means at the same time. Write B if it means because. because at the same time _____1. As he did many mistakes he had to revise for the test. _____2. I was doing my homework as he was watching a TV. _____3. As I have to work hard, we won’t see each other for a while. _____4. I used to smoke a lot as I was preparing for my exam. _____5. As I didn’t understand anything, I had many problems with

 studying.

Complete the sentences using your own ideas. The first one is done for you. 1. As we haven’t been to Spain, it’s best to study its geography. 2. I was vacuuming, as _____________________________. 3. Just as I started eating____________________________. 4. As we studied for the test__________________________. 5. I saw him as I _________________________________. 6. As he is well-known _____________________________. 7. As I finished my work ___________________________. 8. She had to call for help, as she ______________________. 9. As I have become too nervous __________________. 10. I waved at him, as __________________________. like and as Construction and Usage Like which means similar to is always followed by a noun, pronoun or –ing form

He behaves like my father/him.

He does not behave like my father/him. As which means in the same way is followed by a clause -subject + verb Drive carefully as I showed you. Do not drive as carelessly as your brother. We can also say as usual/as always. He has worked as a doctor for many years.

Complete the sentences using as/like! 1. He already 18, but he still behaves __________________. 2. Your voice sounds______________________________. 3. I can’t believe it . He looks________________________. 4. Ram eats as quick _____________________________. 5. He sounds as terrible ____________________________.

Put like or as in the sentences! 1. I work ___ a teacher . 2. You should follow my instructions ___ I have instructed you. 3. We will start a class with a game _______ usual. 4. I would like to have a stamp collection just _______ him. 5. ___ her classmates, I have only praises for her. 6. ___ always, Will is the winner. 7. She was working ____ a shop assistant when I first saw her. 8. You are ___ me. We responds to things similarly. 9. The swimming star swims as quickly __________________. 10. These cookies smells ___________ good as my mum’s.

For, during, and while Construction and Usage For is used to say how long something goes on (for years). This play has been going on for a couple of weeks. He has not visited for a couple of months now. During is used to say when something happens. It is usually followed by a noun. Dana slipped during the presentation. Leila cried during the storm. While can be used in the same context as like for but while is followed by clause (subject + verb). Dana slipped while she was dancing. Angel cried while the storm passed through their town.

Complete the sentences using for or during. 1. We met each other _____ our stay at the local inn. 2. I have been living her ____ ten years. 3. We studied ____ six hours last night. 4. We were bored _____ the lecture. 5. He has done the same job ____ almost a decade now.

Finish the sentences. 1. I was watching TV, while _________________________. 2. She waited for her little brother for ___________________. 3. Bart broke his arm during_________________________. 4. I haven’t seen my best friend for_____________________. 5. We barely spoke during __________________________. 6. We’ll stay in Spain for ____________________________. 7. We found our dog while_______ ___________________. 8. I fell asleep during ______________________________. 9. Be quiet while _________________________________. 10. They made mistakes four times during_____________.

By and until By the time ... Construction and Usage By is used with time to say no later than, on or before. She’ll arrive by three this afternoon. I’ll be able to pass the project by noon today. Till/Until are used to say how long the situation continues. We will stay till the play is over. We won’t leave until he arrives. We can say by the time it happens/happened. By the time we get there, they will have finished the lecture. They will have gone by the time the police will reach their hideout.

Complete the sentences with by or until. 1. I will leave ____ June. 2. Please finish this ____ Friday. 3. They promised to come back _____ midnight. 4. Tim waited for me _____ six this evening.. 5. Ms. Mendez gave us _____ Monday to pass our homework.

Rewrite the sentences using by the time. 1. We came to the station. The train had gone.

2. I realized I didn’t have the documents. I reached the bank.

3. The movie had ended. He arrived.

4. Everyone left. I ended my presentation.

5. It was raining heavily. The party started.

Complete the sentences with by or until. 6. Dad said he can only wait for you ______ 6:00 p.m. 7. I will go on holiday ______ the end of this month. 8. You have ______ noon to finish the task. 9. The new café will be opened ____ Friday. 10. These shops are open ____ ten in the evening.

Conjunctions summary Time conjunctions when When he comes, we will go. While I met him while I was going in the street. As I met him as I was going in the street. After We will go after he comes. Before We will go before he comes. by the time By the time he comes, we will have gone. [by the time+past simple, past perfect

 by the time+ present simple, future perfect]

until We will wait until he comes. Till We will wait till he comes. as soon as As soon as he comes, we will go. Since Since he came, we haven't met. Whenever Whenever he comes, we meet. now that Now that he comes, we will go. Once Once he comes, we will go.

Reason conjunctions Conjunctions that take subject+verb after them because He is tired because he has worked hard. As He is tired as he has worked hard. Since He is tired since he has worked hard. For He is tired for he has worked hard.

Conjunctions that take noun or Verb + ing after them because of He is tired because of working hard. due to He is tired due to working hard. owing to He is tired owing to working hard.

Result conjunctions as a result I ate a lot as a result I became ill. as a result of As a result of eating a lot I became ill. that's why I ate a lot that's why I became ill. So I ate a lot so I became ill. so … that I ate so much that I became ill. such … that I ate such a lot of food that I became ill. therefore I ate a lot therefore I became ill. Consequently I ate a lot consequently I became ill.


Purpose conjunctions to I came to see you. in order to I came in order to see you. so as to I came so as to see you. for+verb ing (cannot be used for a one-time action) This key is used for opening the kitchen. so that (is followed by Subject + verb) I came so that I saw you. Concession conjunctions although though eventhough He came although he was ill. ___________________________________________ nevertheless nonetheless He was ill nevertheless he came. Followed by noun or Verb + ing: despite in spite of Despite illness he came. (they can be followed by subject + verb when they take the phrase “the fact that”.) Despite the fact that he was ill he came. _________________________________________________ but however I am tired but I have to work. ___________________________________________________













Preposition

At/in/on Construction and Usage AT is used for:

Time of day: at 3 o’clock, at noon, at night…

The weekend, holiday periods, or meals: at weekends, at Easter, at Christmas, at breakfast… Other expressions: at the same time, at the moment, at present… IN is used for: Years, months, seasons, or parts of the day: in 1978, in May, in the summer, in the 1980s, in the future… ON is used for: Days, dates, special days: on Monday, on the 23rd of May, on Christmas day, on Friday morning…

Put the correct preposition. 1. Baby Gabby woke up twice______ night. 2. Howard was born______ 21st December. 3. My grandfather gets up early______ the morning. 4. Our cousins from Australia will visit us ______ April. 5. The meeting starts ______5 o’clock in the afternoon.

Put the correct preposition. 1. ______the end of the play, the audience clapped enthusiastically. 2. I will be ready ______ five minutes. 3. I am so sad. My friends won’t come ______ Christmas. 4. I do aerobics ______ the evening. 5. I will be home ______ three o’clock this afternoon. 6. I am listening to music ______ the moment. 7. She goes jogging ______Sunday mornings. 8. He published the third book ______ 15th of May. 9. They got married ______ 1988. 10. See you ______ Saturday.


On time and in time At the end and in the end Construction and Usage ON TIME means punctual, not late, it happens as it was planned. Opposite of on time is late. She always comes on time. She never comes on time. IN TIME means soon enough. Opposite of in time is too late. He’ll be a better person in time. He made it just in time. AT THE END means at the time when something ends. At the end of the show, people will be on their feet cheering with glee. IN THE END means finally. Opposite of in the time is at first. The two lead characters of the novel killed each other in the end.


Complete the sentences with on time or in time. 1. Ravie will definitely be late tonight. He never comes ______. 2. Tanya arrived at the bus stop just ______ the bus arrived. 3. We arrived ______ for the distribution of party giveaways. 4. Please be ______. The Principal doesn’t want anyone to come in late. 5. Mr. Rogers visited us just ______ for dinner.


Complete the sentences using on time/in time or at the end/in the end. 1. The plane took off ______time. 2. We arrived ______time to buy a ticket. 3. Everybody cried ______the end of the film. 4. I arrived just ______time to catch the bus. 5. They waited for him for 30 minutes but___ they turned around and left. 6. I will start my new job______ for the start of spring break. 7. They are angry with me because I don’t do anything______ time. 8. I was doing my best but ______, I gave up. 9. It was so misty. Luckily I succeeded to notice the sign ______ time. 10. I promised to go to see them ______ of this semester.


At/in/on (position) 1

IN- inside AT –point ON- surface

Fill in the gaps with the most suitable preposition. 1. We came ______ the hotel very early. 2. I love that painting ______the wall. 3. You can find him ______ his room. 4. We met ______ that restaurant by the lake. 5. Robbie is usually ______ home at this time of the day.

Fill in the gaps with the most suitable preposition. 1. He is sitting ______ the chair. 2. There are some cups ______the cupboard. 3. She lives ______ Paris. 4. There is a hole ______the wall. 5. Carl is ______ the hospital. Do you want to visit him? 6. What’s ______ the television tonight? 7. They arrived ______ Belgrade Airport at five this morning. 8. They aren’t ______ school because they’re sick. 9. There are many interesting toys ______ the shelf. 10. We will watch a movie _______ the local cinema.


At/in/on (position) 2

IN: in a line, in a row, in a book, in a letter, in the sky, in bed, in the world, in the country, in an office ON: on the left/right, on the first/second floor, on a farm, on a menu/list, on the left-hand/right-hand side, on the way AT: at the top of/ at the top of, at the corner (point),at the front/at the back

Fill in the gaps with the most suitable preposition. 1. He is the most famous person ______ the world. 2. You look so pretty ______ this photograph. 3. Is your house ______the left side or______ the right? 4. They were all sitting ______ the back of the room. 5. I’ll pick up you ______ my way home.

Fill in the gaps with the most suitable preposition. 1. They spent the entire summer ______ the countryside. 2. I’ll see you ______ the cinema. 3. The Carters live _______the second floor. 4. There are so many interesting articles ______ a newspaper. 5. The knight is holding a sword ______ one hand. 6. Don’t walk __ road by yourself at night. It’s dangerous. 7. She cut her toe ______ shards of glass. 8. I’ll see you ______ school tomorrow. 9. What’s ______ the menu? 10. Everything you need you will find______ in the handbook.

At/in/on (position) 3

The basic difference between in and at is that we use in when we think about the building itself, or if we use it with cities, villages. We use at to say where an event takes place or if we are thinking of a place as a point. We also use at when we say at somebody’s house (at Mary’s home). IN: in hospital/prison/jail- without an article (real purpose of being there, they are prisoners, patience) AT: (at home/school/office…). We say that somebody is at an event (at a concert/ a meeting). On and in used with means of transport ( on a bus/train/ boat/plane/ship/bike/motorbike/horse but in a car/ taxi


Use in or on. 1. We live _______ a small cottage. 2. I saw her riding ______ a bus to town. 3. They first met ______ that cozy, little diner. 4. I rode ______ a cab on my way to work. 5. I lost my wallet ______ the supermarket.


Complete the sentences with in, at, or on. 1. He spent some time ______ prison for the crimes he committed. 2. The mishap happened ______ the alley behind our apartment. 3. Because of her condition, Mom had to spend 3 weeks recuperating ______ the hospital. 4. He enjoyed riding ______ his newly-painted bicycle. 5. Many of the injured were trapped ______ their houses. 6. I left my glasses ______ the table.. 7. Her colleagues are fed up with her behavior______ work. 8. I was walking ______ the park when I saw the stray puppy. 9. The performance will be shown ______ that vacant lot behind the school. 10. Marie is ______ home finishing her project which is due tomorrow.



to/at/into Construction and Usage To is used with verbs of movement ( get back to/move to/go to bed…) with this exception is been to ( I have been to Paris) When we use verbs such as get and arrive, we say get to ( place) but arrive in/at. Be careful about home, there is no preposition in go home/get home/on the way home/arrive home. Into is used together with go/get/fly…. It means to enter. Opposite of into is out of. We use get on/get off a bus/train/plane but get into/get out of a car.

Put the correct preposition to/at/in/into where it is necessary. 1. Melissa has never been ______ Asia. 2. I will get back ______ you as soon as I have enough information. 3. We arrived ______ Germany in the late hours of the 3rd of May. 4. Our parents got ______ this business almost a decade ago. 5. I don’t think I can get ______ that tiny, black dress.

Put the correct preposition to/at/in/into where it is necessary. Leave it blank if there is no need for a preposition to complete the sentence. 1. The car stopped by the street and she promptly got ______ it. 2. When we arrived ______ Berlin, we received a warm welcome. 3. After the trial, he was taken ______ prison. 4. I have to go ______ the library to return the book. 5. When I arrived ______ home, they had already left. 6. We will see you ______ the concert tonight. 7. Can you put all the toys______ the box? 8. I left my suitcase ______ Tom’s room. 9. After a while we decided to move _____ Barcelona. 10. I am too tired. I am going ______ bed.

At/in/on (other uses) Construction and Usage There are some other uses of prepositions at/in/on : in the sun in capital letters, in the dark, in a bad mood, in the sun, in my opinion, in love…

at the age of, at 1000 Celsius, at a speed… 

on a holiday, on TV, on a diet, on purpose, on a business , on strike, on sale…

Put the correct preposition where it is necessary. 1. The company’s CEO is going to be busy next week. He is going ______ several business trips. 2. Water boils ______ 100 degrees Celsius. 3. They said it was love ______ first sight. 4. What’s ______ TV tonight? Something interesting, I hope! 5. The company is in a huge problem, employees are ______ strike.

Put the correct preposition where it is necessary. 1. The bride-to- be had to go ______ a diet so she could fit in her dress comfortably. 2. Because of the heat, we spent the entire day ______ the shade. 3. He didn’t want to apologize even if he did it ______ purpose. 4. The basketball star set the court ______ fire with his amazing moves! 5. The note attracted my attention because it was written ______ capital letters. 6. ______ my opinion, freedom must always come with responsibility. 7. My daughter spends hours ______ the phone. 8. Nowadays it’s easier to research since you can find whatever you need ______ the Internet. 9. Please do your homework only ______ script writing. 10. Because of some problems with the electricity, we spent all day ______ the dark.


By Construction and Usage We use it to say to show how we do something by hand/by post/by check… by mistake/by accident/by chance… We use it also to say that something is done by somebody by me ,written by Scott… By also means besides by the lake, by the sea, by the street… When we want to express means of transport by car/bus/train….. (but on foot) When we want to say that we are inside, we use in or on in the car, on the train…

Put in, on, or by to complete the sentences 1. He goes to work ______ bus every morning. 2. My little brother enjoys spending time ______ his playroom. 3. How will you pay? ______ cash or ______ check? 4. I first rode ______ an airplane when I was six years old. 5. Mail carriers deliver letters ______ foot.

Underline the correct preposition that would fit the sentence. 1. They rode by/in my car. 2. Because of its proximity, I usually go to the gym by/on foot. 3. Nobody writes letters with/in hand anymore. 4. This play was written by/of Shakespeare. 5. I know that he did it in/on purpose. 6. The keys are by/in the door. 7. I’m really sorry. I did it by/on mistake. 8. The bridge is being reconstructed with/by Tom’s construction team. 9. Did you come by/in Dad’s car or yours? 10. Almost like a romantic movie, we met on/by chance in a party thrown by one of our friends.





















Appendix


Common Prepositional phrases Noun+preposition need for reason for fall in rise in increase in decrease in cause of picture of damage to access to connection with/ between cure for difference between experience in delay in good at hope for influence on lack of reaction to amount of changes in basis for effect on demand for request for

Verb + preposition account for admit to apply for appeal to argue with someone about something apologize for ask for accuse of base on believe in belong to care for care about collide with concentrate on compose of congratulate on consist of cover with count on depend on differ from dress in feel like hear of hear from hear about insist on insure against invest in involve in laugh at listen to long for participate in pay for prevent from provide with recover from result in remind of remind about search for shout at specialize in succeed in suffer from sentence to share with suspect of talk to talk about think of think about translate into vote for wait for worry about

Adjective + preposition acquainted with amazed at/by aware of afraid of angry with someone angry about something bored with busy with capable of connected with conscious of derived from different from disappointed with experienced in familiar with fond of full of interested in keen on notorious for patient with pleased with popular with proud of ready for responsible for scared of similar to sorry for sorry about superior to surprised at tired of typical of upset about

Words that are always plural boots cattle clothes congratulations contents customs earrings glasses gloves jeans outskirts people police scissors shoes slippers stairs thanks troops trousers

Exceptional plural forms ox - oxen woman - women man – men child – children cactus - cacti bacterium- bacteria foot – feet tooth – teeth goose – geese mouse – mice louse – lice



Phrasal verbs add up to - be equal back up - support break down - 1. stop functioning properly 2.become upset break into - come into the building without permission break up - separate bring down - make upset bring up - raise a child calm down - become peaceful catch up with - go at the same speed cheer up - improve mood come across - meet unexpectedly come from - to be from a certain place count on - rely on drop in - visit fall down - fall fall out - fall and leave, get deprived figure out - calculate fill in - fill the blank find out - get to know get along with - be in good relationships get over - 1. recover 2. solve the problem get up - wakeup give away - reveal a secret give in - surrender give up - leave a habit go ahead - continue grow up - rise, become older hand out - distribute hand in - to give into hand hang on - wait hang up - stop the phome talk hold on - wait let down - disappoint look after - care look for - search look forward to - wait very hopefully look out - be careful look up - search for information make up - 1. invent 2. to try to appear more beautiful by using creams, lipsticks, etc. pass away - die pass out - lose conciuosness put off - postpone put up with - endure run into - meet suddenly run over - hit with a car run out (of) - finish set up - install, define show off - trying to show onselelf when unnecessary switch off - stop the functioning of a mechanism switch on - start the functioning of a mechanism take after - be alike take off - 1. remove a part of clothing 2. start the flight tear up - tear into pieces throw away - throw something as unnecessary try on - to try wearing to see if it fits turn down - 1. reject 2. volume down turn off - stop the functioning of a mechanism turn on - start the functioning of a mechanism turn up - 1. Volume up 2. come suddenly wake up - stop sleeping warm up - get ready to something by trying to become hotter work out - 1. exercise 2. calculate



Common article phrases

a/an What a pity! At a glance have a good time tell a lie as a result as a rule as a matter of fact for a while have a smoke take a seat it is a shame in a hurry in a low voice in a loud voice at a loss at a time for a walk have a headache have a cold the tell the truth on the whole by the way in the distance in the present(past,future) in the street on the right(left) tell the time in the middle

Zero article ask permission in bed by air make use of at present at first sight by chance by mistake for ages in debt at first at once by heart face to face in fact on foot


Common uncountable nouns accommodation advice aggression aid Air alcohol anger art attention bacon baggage beauty beef behaviour blood bread butter cash chaos cheese chess coal currency damage electricity energy equipment faith flour food fuel fun furniture garlic gas gold gossip grass guilt happiness harm health heat height help homework honey housework humour hydrogen ice ice cream information jam joy juice justice knowledge leather leisure literature love luck luggage mail maths measles meat milk money music nature news nonsense oil pasta peace permission power progress quality quantity rain research respect revenge rice rubbish salt sand scenery silk snow soap speed success sugar talent trade traffic travel water wine wool work