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- 2: All cells are similar or nearly so; They appear as an amorphous mass; Mostly aquatic; Single celled or multicellular.
- 3: Cells are differentiated into types; Cells connected into a discernible structure; Multicellular.
- 5: Vascular system present.
- 11: Vascular system absent.
- 6: Plant reproduces with spores.
- 7: Plant reproduces with seeds.
- 9 Seeds not enclosed in an ovary.
- 10: Seeds enclosed in an ovary.
- Gnetophyta: vessel elements present
- 14: vessel elements absent
10: Flowering Plant
- Monocot: Flower parts mostly in 3s or multiples of 3; leaves usually with parallel venation; plants mostly herbaceous; one seed leaf.
- Dicot: Flower parts mostly in 4s, 5s, or multiples of 4 or 5; Leaves usually with netted venation; plants herbaceous or woody; 2 seed leaves.
- Cycadophyta: Superficially resembling a fern with clusters of long pinnate fronds growing from a central stalk.
- 15: Does not resemble a large fern or palm tree.
- Ginkgo biloba: Leaves have dichotomous venation (veins continuously divide into 2).
- Pinophyta: Leaves do not have dichotomous venation.
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