Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant: The WikiBook/US Anti-nuclear protests
File:DIABLO PROTEST 4x6 1981.jpgThis is a list of notable anti-nuclear protests in the United States.
Many anti-nuclear campaigns captured national public attention in the 1970s and 1980s, including those at Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant, Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant and those following the 1979 Three Mile Island accident.
The largest anti-nuclear demonstration to date was held in New York City on September 23, 1979 when almost 200,000 people attended. The New York rally was held in conjunction with a series of nightly “No Nukes (album)|No Nukes” concerts given at Madison Square Garden from September 19 through 23.
Anti-nuclear Demonstration (people)|protests preceded the shutdown of the Shoreham, Yankee Rowe, Millstone I, Rancho Seco, Maine Yankee, and about a dozen other nuclear power plants.
Protests in recent years have focused mainly on Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Naval Base Kitsap, Nevada Test Site and several proposed nuclear reactors.
Bodega Bay[edit | edit source]
Pacific Gas & Electric planned to build the first commercially viable nuclear power plant in the USA at Bodega Bay, a fishing village fifty miles north of San Francisco. The proposal was controversial and conflict with local citizens began in 1958. In 1963 there was a large demonstration at the site of the proposed Bodega Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The conflict ended in 1964, with the forced abandonment of plans for the power plant. Attempts to build a nuclear power plant in Malibu, California|Malibu were similar to those at Bodega Bay and were also abandoned.
Montague Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
On 22 February 1974, Washington's Birthday, organic farmer Sam Lovejoy took a crowbar to the weather-monitoring tower which had been erected at the Montague Nuclear Power Plant site. Lovejoy felled 349 feet of the 550 foot tower and then took himself to the local police station, where he presented a statement in which he took full responsibility for the action. Lovejoy's action galvanized local public opinion against the plant. The Montague nuclear power plant proposal was canceled in 1980, after $29 million was spent on the project.
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
Seabrook power plant was proposed as a twin-reactor plant in 1972, at an estimated cost of $973 million. When it finally won a commercial license in March 1990, it was a single reactor which cost $6.5 billion. Over a period of thirteen years, more than 4,000 citizens committed nonviolent civil disobedience at Seabrook:
- August 1, 1976: 200 residents rallied at the future Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant site in New Hampshire, and 18 were arrested for criminal trespass.
- August 22, 1976: 188 activists from New England were arrested at the Seabrook site.
- May 2, 1977: 1,414 protesters were arrested at Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant. The protesters who were arrested were expected to be "released on their own recognizance", but this did not happen. Instead, they were charged with criminal trespass and asked to post bail ranging from $100 to $500. They refused and were then held in five national guard armories for 12 days. The Seabrook conflict, and role of New Hampshire Governor Meldrim Thomson, received much national media coverage.
- May 13, 1977: 550 protestors were freed after being detained for thirteen days.
- June 1978: some 12,000 people attended a protest at Seabrook.
- May 25–27, 1980: Police use tear gas, riot sticks and dogs to drive 2,000 demonstrators away from the Seabrook site.
- May 24, 1986: 74 anti-nuclear demonstrators were arrested in protests.
- October 17, 1988: 84 people were arrested at the Seabrook plant.
- June 5, 1989: hundreds of demonstrators protested against the plant's first low-power testing, and the police arrested 627 people for trespassing; two state legislators, one from Massachusetts and one from New Hampshire, protested.
Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
Image:Diablo canyon nuclear power plant.jpg|thumbnail|Diablo Canyon Power Plant in San Luis Obispo County, California, USA Seabrook's Clamshell Alliance inspired the formation of California's Abalone Alliance, a coalition that included sixty member groups by 1981. The Abalone Alliance staged blockades and occupations at the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant site between 1977 and 1982. Nearly two thousand people were arrested during a two-week blockade in 1981, exceeding Seabrook as the largest number arrested at an anti-nuclear protest in the United States. Specific protests included:
- August 6, 1977: The Abalone Alliance held the first blockade at Diablo Canyon Power Plant in California, and 47 people were arrested.
- August 1978: almost 500 people were arrested for protesting at Diablo Canyon.
- April 8, 1979: 30,000 people marched in San Francisco to support shutting down the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant.
- June 30, 1979: about 40,000 people attended a protest rally at Diablo Canyon.
- September 1981: more than 900 protesters were arrested at Diablo Canyon.
- May 1984: about 130 demonstrators showed up for start-up day at Diablo Canyon, and five were arrested.
Trojan Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
There was opposition to the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant from its inception, and this included non-violent protests organized by the List of anti-nuclear groups in the United States#Trojan Decommissioning Alliance|Trojan Decommissioning Alliance. The Alliance organized the first major direct action protest at Trojan in August 1977, and a second round of protests took place that November. Scores of demonstrators were arrested, and in December 1977 a jury found 96 protesters not guilty of criminal trespass. There was another protest in August 1978, which led to about 280 arrests. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Portland activist Lloyd Marbet and his group, Forelaws on Board, "became Trojan's leading opponents".
Three Mile Island accident[edit | edit source]
Image:Carter leaving Three Mile Island.gif|thumb|left|President Jimmy Carter leaving Three Mile Island for Middletown, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania|Middletown, Pennsylvania, April 1, 1979
Even before the Three Mile Island accident, the nuclear industry was facing considerable adverse public opinion. A "sizeable and tenacious opposition movement had caused significant delays" in the licensing and construction of new power plants in the United States. The TMI accident stimulated a rise in anti-nuclear sentiment.
The American public were concerned about the release of radioactive gas from the Three Mile Island accident and many mass demonstrations took place across the country in the following months. The largest one was held in New York City in September 1979 and involved two hundred thousand people; speeches were given by Jane Fonda and Ralph Nader. The New York rally was held in conjunction with a series of nightly “No Nukes (album)|No Nukes” concerts given at Madison Square Garden from September 19 through 23 by Musicians United for Safe Energy.
Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
- June 2, 1979: about 500 people were arrested for protesting about construction of the Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant in Oklahoma.
- February 1982: following years of legal action and protests, it was announced that the plant would not be built.
Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
- June 3, 1979: following the Three Mile Island accident, some 15,000 people attended a rally organized by the Shad Alliance and about 600 were arrested at Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant in New York.
- 1989: after many years of protests, the completed Shoreham plant was closed without generating any commercial electrical power.
Rocky Flats Plant[edit | edit source]
- April 28, 1979: 15,000 people demonstrated against the Rocky Flats Plant|Rocky Flats Nuclear Processing Plant in Colorado, making the link between nuclear power and nuclear weaponry.
- October 15, 1983: Large demonstration at Rocky Flats.
- August, 1989: An estimated 3,500 people turned out for a demonstration at Rocky Flats.
Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
In 1979, Abalone Alliance members held a 38-day sit-in in the Californian Governor Jerry Brown's office to protest continued operation of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, which was a duplicate of the Three Mile Island facility. In 1989, Sacramento voters voted to shut down the Rancho Seco power plant.
Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Plant, shut down in 1992, had years of protests by environmentalists.
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant[edit | edit source]
- See also: List of anti-nuclear groups in the United States#Nuclear Free Vermont|Nuclear Free Vermont, List of anti-nuclear groups in the United States#Safe Energy Vermont|Safe Energy Vermont, List of anti-nuclear groups in the United States#New England Coalition on Nuclear Pollution|New England Coalition on Nuclear Pollution.
Image:Frances crowe 30july06 mini.jpg|thumb|right|Frances Crowe, speaking in 2006 at a peace rally in Brattleboro, Vermont (photo ©2006 by Charles Jenks)
In the 1970s and 1980s there were many protests at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant which attempted to block access to the plant.
- September 23, 1979: some 167 protesters were arrested at Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant.
- January 2006: 100 anti-nuclear supporters demonstrated at the front door of Entergy Nuclear, and eleven people were arrested for trespassing.
- October 2006: 26 people were arrested outside the Brattleboro offices of owner Entergy Nuclear; the demonstration drew about 200 people.
- April 27, 2007: Seven anti-nuclear activists were arrested after chaining themselves to a fence at Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant. The protesters, who call themselves the "Raging Grannies", wanted the plant shut down and have engaged in dozens of similar actions since December 2005.
- November 2008: About 15 people held a rowdy protest against Vermont Yankee in the offices of the Public Service Board that regulates utilities.
- April 2009: A rally and two full-page advertisements in The Burlington Free Press, which mocked the Vermont Yankee Power Plant, were paid for by a newly formed group, The Clean Green Vermont Alliance.
- April 2009: About 150 activists marched from Montpelier's City Hall to the State House to urge lawmakers to back development of clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power; the marchers had gathered 12,000 signatures in support of closing Vermont Yankee.
- September 2009: Frances Crowe and three other women were arrested for non-violent civil disobedience at the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant.
- January 2010: A coalition of anti-nuclear activists participated in a 126-mile walk from Brattleboro to Montpelier in an effort to block the re-licensing of Vermont Yankee. About 175 people took part in the March, some joining for the day and some for longer stretches.
San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station[edit | edit source]
- June 22, 1980: about 15,000 people attended a protest near San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station in California.
Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament[edit | edit source]
In 1986, hundreds of people walked from Los Angeles to Washington DC in what is referred to as the Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament. The march took nine months to traverse 3700|mi, advancing approximately fifteen miles per day.
[edit | edit source]
There have been anti-nuclear protests at Naval Base Kitsap for many years. Recent protests include:
- January 19, 2008: Seventeen people protesting about nuclear weapons at Naval Base Kitsap at Bangor in honor of Martin Luther King. Jr. were detained or arrested. All were released shortly afterward.
- May 30, 2008: Twelve people were arrested at an anti-nuclear weapon demonstration at Naval Base Kitsap-Bangor — five of them for walking on a sidewalk closed to pedestrian traffic.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[edit | edit source]
- June 22, 1982: More than 1,300 anti-nuclear protesters were arrested in a nonviolent demonstration.
- There is an annual protest against U.S. nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. In the 2007 protest, 64 people were arrested. More than 80 people were arrested in March 2008 while protesting at the gates of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Nevada Test Site[edit | edit source]
Image:November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.jpg|thumb|November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. Test is shot "Dog" from Operation Buster-Jangle|Operation Buster, with a yield of 21 kilotons. It was the first U.S. nuclear field exercise conducted on land. From 1986 through 1994, two years after the United States put a hold on full-scale nuclear weapons testing, 536 demonstrations were held at the Nevada Test Site involving 37,488 participants and 15,740 arrests, according to government records. These are just a few details:
- January, 1987: The actor Martin Sheen and 71 other anti-nuclear protesters were arrested at the Nevada Test Site in a demonstration marking the 36th anniversary of the first nuclear test there.
- February 6, 1987: More than 400 people were arrested, when they tried to enter the nation's nuclear proving grounds after nearly 2,000 demonstrators, including six members of Congress, held a rally to protest nuclear weapons testing.
- September 30, 1987: 110 demonstrators, including seven pediatricians, were arrested for civil disobedience; charges were later dropped.
- March 20, 1989: 75 protesters, including Louis Vitale, were arrested for trespassing in a peaceful Palm Sunday demonstration.
- April 20, 1992: 493 anti-nuclear protesters were arrested on misdemeanor charges, as demonstrators clashed with guards at an annual Easter demonstration against weapons testing at the remote desert site.
- August 6, 1995: 500 people gathered to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima.
- 1997: Over 2,000 people turned out for a demonstration and 700 were arrested.
- August 2005: About 200 peace activists, including actor Martin Sheen, gathered for a nonviolent demonstration outside the gates; dozens were given citations and released after crossing police lines.
- May 2006: 200 activists protested the Divine Strake explosives test, and 40 were arrested.
- April 2007: Nevada Desert Experience protest, where 39 people were cited by police.
Other[edit | edit source]
- May 1, 2005: 40,000 anti-nuclear/anti-war protesters march past the UN in New York, 60 years after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
- 2008: Protests about several proposed nuclear reactors.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Anti-nuclear movement in the United States
- List of anti-nuclear groups in the United States
- List of books about nuclear issues
- Nuclear power in the United States
- Civil disobedience
- Helen Caldicott
- Paxus Calta
- Glenn Carroll
- Harvey Wasserman
- Cayuga Lake
References[edit | edit source]
- Giugni, Marco (2004). Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements p. 44.
- Herman, Robin (September 24, 1979). "Nearly 200,000 Rally to Protest Nuclear Energy". New York Times: p. B1.
- Williams, Estha. Nuke Fight Nears Decisive Moment Valley Advocate, August 28, 2008.
- Paula Garb. Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978 (book review) Journal of Political Ecology, Vol 6, 1999.
- Office of Technology Assessment. (1984). Public Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power p. 231.
- Utilites Drop Nuclear Power Plant Plans Ocala Star-Banner, January 4, 1981.
- No nukes by Anna Gyorgy pp. 393-394.
- Some of the Major Events in NU's History Since the 1966 Affiliation
- 30 years later, another nuclear struggle looms The Daily News, April 30, 2007.
- Gunter, Paul. Clamshell Alliance: Thirteen Years of Anti-Nuclear Activism at Seabrook, New Hampshire, U.S.A.Ecologia Newsletter, January 1990 Issue 3.
- Seabrook, NH Nuclear Plant Occupation Page
- Michael Kenney. Tracking the protest movements that had roots in New England The Boston Globe, December 30, 2009.
- Williams, Eesha. Wikipedia distorts nuclear history Rutland Herald, May 1, 2008.
- William A. Gamson and Andre Modigliani. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, No. 1, July 1989, p. 17.
- The Legacy of Seabrook
- Hartford Courant
- Anti-Nuclear Protesters Freed in New Hampshire
- New Hampshire / Anti-Nuclear Demonstration
- 84 Arrested in Protest At the Seabrook Plant
- Gold, Allan R. Hundreds Arrested Over Seabrook Test New York Times, June 5, 1989.
- Daniel Pope. Conservation Fallout (book review), H-Net Reviews, August 2007.
- Social Protest and Policy Change p. 44.
- Amplifying Public Opinion: The Policy Impact of the U.S. Environmental Movement p. 7.
- Gottlieb, Robert (2005). Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement, Revised Edition, Island Press, USA, p. 240.
- Arrests Exceed 900 In Coast Nuclear Protest New York Times, September 18, 1981.
- Testing and Protesting Time, May 14, 1984.
- Daniel Pope. Anti-Nuclear Movement The Oregon Encyclopedia.
- David S. Sills et al. (1982). Accident at Three Mile Island: The Human Dimensions, Westview Press, p. 11.
- Interest Group Politics In America p. 149.
- Social Protest and Policy Change p. 45.
- Anti-Nuclear Demonstrations
- Energy officials say nuclear power comeback not likely to happen
- Carrie Dickerson Foundation
- Saga Behind the Shoreham Nuclear Plant Retold
- Shoreham and the rise and fall of the nuclear power industry p. 6.
- Fagin, Dan (2007-05-29). "Lights Out at Shoreham". Newsday. http://www.newsday.com/search/ny-history-hs9shore,0,4295595.story. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
- Shoreham Action Is One of Largest Held Worldwide; 15,000 Protest L.I. Atom Plant; 600 Seized 600 Arrested on L.I. as 15,000 Protest at Nuclear Plant Nuclear Supporter on Hand Governor Stresses Safety Thousands Protest Worldwide New York Times, June 4, 1979.
- Planning the Fate of a Nuclear Plant’s Land New York Times, January 1, 2009.
- Nonviolent Social Movements p. 295.
- Headline: Rocky Flats Nuclear Plant / Protest
- Headline: Colorado / Anti-Nuclear Demonstration
- Activists fail to encircle Rocky Flats/ Too few join hands in symbolic protest
- Hippy Dictionary p. 559.
- Frank Trippett and Robert W. Hollis. Shutting Down Rancho Seco TIME, June 19, 1989.
- Nuclear Shutdown Funds Are Questioned
- David C. Brody, James R. Acker, Wayne A. Logan (2001). Criminal law Jones & Bartlett Publishers, p. 276.
- Eleven arrested in latest protest over Vermont Yankee
- Yankee Protesters Arrested
- Vermont Yankee nuke plant's critics still at it, 34 years later
- Vermont Yankee Resistance Grows
- Seven arrested during nuke protest at Vermont Yankee
- Protesters stink up state utility board offices
- Protesters stink up state utility board offices
- Anti-nuclear campaign opens with spoof
- Nuclear power foes not stilled in N.E.
- Activists stage anti-nuclear rally
- Eeesha Williams. Protesters Arrested at Vermont Yankee Valley Post, September 29, 2009.
- Anti-nuclear protesters reach capitol Rutland Herald, January 14, 2010.
- Hundreds of Marchers Hit Washington in Finale of Nationwaide Peace March Gainsville Sun, November 16, 1986.
- For decades, faith has sustained anti-nuclear movement
- Bangor Protest Peaceful; 17 Anti-Nuclear Demonstrators Detained and Released
- Twelve Arrests, But No Violence at Bangor Anti-Nuclear Protest
- 1,300 Arrested in California Anti-nuclear Protest
- Police arrest 64 at California anti-nuclear protest Reuters, April 6, 2007.
- Scores arrested during protest at Livermore Lab
- Western Shoshone spiritual leader dies
- Actor and Other Protesters Arrested at Nuclear Test Site
- 438 Protesters are Arrested at Nevada Nuclear Test Site
- Biggest Demonstration Yet at Test Site
- Assembly-line arrests
- 75 Protesters Arrested
- 493 Arrested at Nevada Nuclear Test Site
- Growing in Christian Morality by Julia Ahlers, Barbara Allaire, Carl Koch p. 242.
- Discourse analysis by Brian Paltridge p. 188.
- Survivors Join Activists, Call for Ban on Nukes on Anniversary of Atomic Blasts
- Activists arrested at Nevada Test Site
- Anti-nuclear rally held at test site: Martin Sheen among activists cited by police
- Lance Murdoch. Pictures: New York MayDay anti-nuke/war march IndyMedia, 2 may 2005.
- Anti-Nuke Protests in New York Fox News, May 2, 2005.
- Protest against nuclear reactor Chicago Tribune, October 16, 2008.
- Southeast Climate Convergence occupies nuclear facility Indymedia UK, August 8, 2008.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Brown, Jerry and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear Movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age, Twayne Publishers.
- Cragin, Susan (2007). Nuclear Nebraska|Nuclear Nebraska: The Remarkable Story of the Little County That Couldn’t Be Bought, AMACOM.
- Dickerson, Carrie B. and Patricia Lemon (1995). Black Fox: Aunt Carrie's War Against the Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant, Council Oak Publishing Company, ISBN 1571780092
- Philip L. Fradkin|Fradkin, Philip L. (2004). Fallout: An American Nuclear Tragedy, University of Arizona Press.
- Giugni, Marco (2004). Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in Comparative Perspective, Rowman and Littlefield.
- Jasper, James M. (1997). The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226394816
- Amory Lovins|Lovins, Amory B. and Price, John H. (1975). Non-Nuclear Futures: The Case for an Ethical Energy Strategy, Ballinger Publishing Company, 1975, ISBN 0884106020
- McCafferty, David P. (1991). The Politics of Nuclear Power: A History of the Shoreham Power Plant, Kluwer.
- Miller, Byron A. (2000). Geography and Social Movements: Comparing Anti-nuclear Activism in the Boston area, University of Minnesota Press.
- Natti, Susanna and Acker, Bonnie (1979). No Nukes: Everyone's Guide to Nuclear Power, South End Press.
- Ondaatje, Elizabeth H. (c1988). Trends in Antinuclear Protests in the United States, 1984-1987, Rand Corporation.
- Peterson, Christian (2003). Ronald Reagan and Antinuclear Movements in the United States and Western Europe, 1981-1987, Edwin Mellen Press.
- Polletta, Francesca (2002). Freedom Is an Endless Meeting: Democracy in American Social Movements, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226674495
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- Surbrug, Robert (2009). Beyond Vietnam: The Politics of Protest in Massachusetts, 1974-1990, University of Massachusetts Press.
- Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island (book)|Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective, University of California Press.
- Thomas Wellock|Wellock, Thomas R. (1998). Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978, The University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0299158500
- Wills, John (2006). Conservation Fallout: Nuclear Protest at Diablo Canyon, University of Nevada Press.