Curriculum Design and Technology Integration/Chapter 1/Section 2
- Elizzabeth Wilmes: Content Author
- Larry: Semantic Architect
- Mohammed: Content Editor
- Elizzabeth Wilmes: Assessment Developer
- Adrian: Software Evaluator
How are these definitions & influences changing with the emergence of information society and globalization? What is the role of personal computing devices in this change?
Students will be able to:
- Define terms
- Discuss the role information society has played in defining the curriculum
- Identify how computers have changed the way students learn
- Discuss how information society characterized by computers and media have influenced curriculum development
Curriculum: course of study offered by an educational institution.
Information Society: a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity (Wikimedia, 2008).
Industrial Society: "...refers to a society with a modern societal structure."; i.e. industrial revolution. "...generally mass societies." (Wikimedia, 2008).
Globalization: "...process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones." "...people of the world are unified into a single society and function together." (Wikimedia, 2009).
Society: “…population of humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share…distinctive culture and/or institutions”. Broader: “…economic, social and industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of people.” (Wikimedia, 2009).
Political: of or concerned with government, the state, or politics (LoveToKnow, 2009).
Economic: of or relating to the production, development, and management of material wealth, as of a country, household, or business enterprise (Yahoo! Education, 2000).
Information Literacy: the ability to identify what information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate, and use information in solving problems and composing discourse.
Society, Political, Technological, and Philosophy not only influence today's curriculum, but they influence each other as well. Each affects and is effected by one or more of the other. Industrial and Informational Societies are heavily influenced by these four points. Industrial Society curriculum was based on occupations and jobs that were based on individual performance and foundational objectives. Currently, we are moving from an Industrial Society (a society evolved from the influences of John Franklin Bobbitt and Werrett Wallace Charters) that has always prepared students, and even adults, for the inevitability of working in meaningless jobs to Informational Society (a society evolved from John Dewey and Ralph W. Tyler) which has pushed us past just working at meaningless jobs to thinking about careers that bring them more enjoyment and better paying wages, which, in turn, make the curriculum mean something more to the student/adult.
In keeping with this phenomenon of today's school curriculum, we can see how heavily influenced the emergence of the Information Society really is. Furthermore, social accountability and other domestic pressures also influence how we see the school curriculum. Information Society is the notion that information sharing and development are the key aspects of modern society. In this vein, modern curriculum requires us to be more information centered. As of now, learners are being prepared to master subject matter as well as to master the use of technology and higher level cognitive skills instead of just pushing towards only working towards a meaningless and unappealing job.
Curriculum Approaches and Definitions
The information age curriculum is directed by societal influences that are more global and more technology driven. In this sense, curriculum is seen as both school based (formal) and life based (informal). In a globalized society the curriculum is becoming more directed towards creativity and innovation with technology. In this age there is a need for more learner centered instruction, hands on approaches to learner and more authentic learning experiences. As a result curriculum has come to mean more than a "planned series of educational experiences" ().
To be sure, these new approaches to curriculum is consistent with the Progressive school of curriculum theorists dating back to John Dewey. Following Dewey's model for learning: Become aware of the problem, define the problem, propose a hypothesis to solve the problem, evaluate what would happen using past experiences, and test the best solution. Having students learn from their own experiences and being able to use those experiences for future problems is an important approach to Dewey's model. The jobs in the future will require critical thinkers and problem solvers. We are no longer teaching children for industrial jobs, but jobs that need a more communicative individual who can use experiences to their benefit.
Tyler's approach was that of the "Four Basic Principles". You must first find the purpose of the school. Next, create educational experiences for the purpose of the school. Then, you must organize the experiences. Finally, you must evaluate the purposes. To find the purpose, you must look at three things. You must look at the learner (student), the subject matter, and society. By looking at these three things, you will have a better understanding on what your approach should be for your purpose (objectives).
"How we conceive of curriculum and curriculum making is important because our conceptions and ways of reasoning about curriculum reflect and shape how we see, think and talk about, study and act on the education made available to students" Cornbleth(1990).
There are many definitions for curriculum. Bobbitt, Dewey, and Tyler believe/d curriculum needs objectives. You need to know beforehand what you need to accomplish. Bobbitt believed that curriculum was a way to prepare the student for industrial life. Bobbitt, Charters, Dewey, and Tyler also believe/d in curriculum as a science. You have to study the world around you to find the best ways to teach your students. These educators also needed to know what are the students' needs. What do they need to know to succeed in the world. During the time of the Industrial Society, the classroom was the only place where students learned how to be citizens. How to survive in this job environment.
Information society is characterized by the global distribution of information as distinct from industrial society which is characterized by the use of external energy sources such as petroleum to build a larger and stronger community. Some theorist believe we are in the middle of a transition between Information and Industrial societies due to global technologies. Computers and different media are the tools in an Informational Society. "Progress in information technologies and communication is changing the way we live: how we work and do business, how we educate our children, study and do research, train ourselves, and how we are entertained (Chair's conclusions from the G-7 Ministerial Conference on the Information Society, February 1995).
Having students working in cooperative groups helps build a strong foundation for work place problem solving skills. Creating an environment also help students recognize patterns and envision dynamic models. These curricular approaches improve success for all types of learners and may differentially enhance the performance of at-risk students. "Just as information technology has improved effectiveness in medicine, finance, manufacturing, and numerous other sectors of society, advanced computing and telecommunications have the potential to help students master complex 21st century skills. Research-based curriculum projects are developing technologies that enable online virtual communities of practice using advanced tools to solve real world problems."(Dede)
One of the five essential skills an employee will need in the future workplace is Information literacy. Educating students on the power and scope of information involves communicating and explaining how information is organized. It is also important for the student to show through a variety of sources. This includes the tools to evaluate, organize and apply the information to problems and situations.
Role of the Computers
There are many different and unique methods computers have for enhancing the learning in the classroom. Some of these include:
- taking real situations/problems that adults face every day and applying them in the curriculum
- using "advanced tools similar to those in today's high-tech workplaces" (Linn 1997) within the classroom
- creating concepts, skills, and complex products (Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona 1994) through the use of long-term projects;
- using visuals to illustrate the differences of experiences
- incorporating collaborative experiences to supply different perspectives that the students can share
- "developing learning experiences and generating knowledge" (Scardamalia & Bereiter 1994) with those with real world experience
- fostering success for all students through special measures to aid the disabled and the disenfranchised (Behrmann 1998)
To implement these capabilities you will need a large-scale, pedagogy, assessment, and professional development, along with administration support. Most programs need an organized group to continue to research and expand the knowledge of understanding of the topics. Without these working together, the program will not work.
1. Match word with definition:
- Curriculum (E)
- Informational Society (B)
- Industrial Society (C)
- Globalization (A)
- Society (G)
- Political (H)
- Economic (F)
- Information Literacy (D)
A. process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones
B. the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity
C. a society with a modern societal structure
D. ability to identify what information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate, and use information in solving problems and composing discourse
E. course of study offered by an educational institution
F. of or relating to the production, development, and management of material wealth, as of a country, household, or business enterprise
G. economic, social and industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of people
H. of or concerned with government, the state, or politics
2. What are 3 roles that computers and telecommunications play to enhance learning? (answers under Roles of the Computers)
3. Compare/Contrast briefly between Industrial Society and Informational Society.
4. How has the 'information' age created Globalization?
5. Give 5 examples of tools you use every day to enhance your knowledge of the world.
THE ASSURE MODEL
Analyze Learners =
The first step of the ASSURE model is to identify the learners. The target audience can be a certain grade level, a specific or a particular group. The audience can be analyzed in terms of:
1. General characteristics
2. Specific entry competences or
3. Learning styles
General Characteristics: Describe general characteristics of the learners, such as age and demographic information.
Entry Characteristics: Characterize the learner or learners.
Learning Styles: Enter information about students’ learning styles.
The objectives should be stated next and should be as specific as possible. These are statements as to what the learner will be able to do at the end of instruction. The conditions under which the students is going to perform and the degree of acceptable performance.
The Helpful Hundred list includes suggested action words that contribute to the creation of effective objectives.
Select Methods, Media and Materials
Next are the methods to be used along with the listings of media and materials necessary to enable learners to meet the stated objectives.
Methods: Describe the methods used to implement the lesson to the audience you described, to order to achieve the objectives listed on the previous screens.
Media: List any multimedia you intend to use.
Materials: This is a list of learning materials used, such as art supplies, textbooks, or interactive learning guides.
When selecting materials you can:
1. Select available materials
2. Modify existing materials
3. Design new materials
Utilize Media and Materials
Create and view the plan for using the selected media and materials to implement the methods of your lesson plan.
Environment Preparation: Outline necessary actions to prepare the environment, including the classroom, facilities, resources, and any equipment that will be used.
Audience Preparation: Describe the plan for preparing the learners to complete the lesson, including any preparation, skills, or groupings that are necessary to use the materials and media included in the lesson.
Students may use the media and materials individually, as in self-instruction, or in small groups, as in cooperative learning. They may use printed materials, such as workbooks, or computer-based technology, such as the internet.
Require Learner Participation
To be effective, instruction should require active mental engagement by learners. There should be activities that allow learners to practice the knowledge or skills and to receive feedback on the appropriateness of their efforts before being formally assessed. Outline activities that allow learners to practice their knowledge and skills and receive feedback on their progress.
Create a plan for the active learning process.
Questions to Ask: Identify questions that will help learners focus and understand the objectives.
Activities to Do: Plan activities that require learners to practice skills that build toward the objective, require participation, and allow for immediate feedback.
Skills to Practice: List skills that learners must master in order to achieve the objectives of the lesson.
Plan activities that provide reinforcement and further opportunities for learners to build upon skills and goals defined by the objectives.
Evaluate and Revise
After assessing individual students, characterize the results for this lesson. Evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the lesson plan in helping learners meet the objectives.
Learner Evaluation Plan: Create a plan for evaluating student learning. Design assessments that reflect the acceptable performance defined for each lesson objective.
Evaluation of Learner Achievement: Determine the effectiveness of the lesson plan and consider how it can be revised.
Methods and Media Evaluation: Evaluate the effectiveness of the methods, media, and materials in assisting the learners meet the objectives.
- Instructional Technology and Media for Learning, Eighth Edition by Sharon E. Smaldino, James D. Russell, Robert Heinich, and Michael Molenda
- Houghton Mifflin Company. (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition [Online Dictionary].
- LoveToKnow, Corp. (2009). Political. In YourDictionary [Online Dictionary].
- Yahoo! Education. (2000). Definition of economic. In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition [Online Dictionary].
- Null, J. (n.d.). Efficiency Jettisoned: Unacknowledged Changes in the Curriculum Thought of John Franklin Bobbitt. In Franklin Bobbitt [Brief History].
- Net Industries. (2009). W. W. Charters (1875-1952). In Education Encyclopedia: StateUniversity.com
- Corn, R. (n.d.). John Dewey and 21st Century Learning. In staffweb.brownsburg.k12 [Brief History].
- Kreider, A., & Schugurensky, D. (n.d.). 1949 Ralph W. Tyler Publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction . In History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century [Brief History].