Conversational Yiddish

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Welcome to the Yiddish Learning Guide.

There is another Wikibook about Yiddish, aimed at Yeshivah-students who are interested in learning enough Yiddish to understand a lesson taught in Yiddish. It may be used as a substitute until this Wikibook is more developed.

Note that Yiddish is written in the same alphabet as Hebrew, but here the words are also transliterated using the YIVO system.

The Alphabet / Alefbays and guide on how to pronounce:


אַ Pasekh Alef = Aa as in father or o as in stock.

אָ Kumets Alef = Oo as in coffin.

אי Ii as in ski.

או Uu as in ruse.

אױ Oy oy as in boy.

אײ y as in fry, but spelled < Ay ay>.

אײַ Aa as in father or o as in stock.

ע Ee as in ten.

א Shtimer Alef (silent, vocalizes Vuv and Yid)

ב Bays= Bb as in big.

בֿ Vays= Vv as in van (used only in semitic words).

ג Giml= Gg as in game.

ד Dalet= Dd as in deal.

ה Hay= Hh as in help.

װ Vuv= Vv as in van.

ז Zayin= Zz as in zero.

ח Khes= Kh kh/ Ch ch [earlier transliteration] as in loch (scottish).

ט Tes= Tt as in time.

יִ Yid= Yy/Jj [earlier transcription] as in yak.

כּ Kof= Kk as in kite (used only in semitic words).

כ Khof= Kh or Ch in German

ל Lamed= Ll as in light.

מ Mem= Mm as in much.

נ Nin/Nun= Nn as in next.

ס Samekh= Ss as in stone.

ע Ayin (value described above)

פּ Pay= Pp as in pill.

פֿ Fay= F as in face.

צ Tsadik= Ts ts /Tz tz [earlier transcription]

ק Kif= Kk as in kite.

ר Raysh= Rr, same as in English, or rolled like as in Spanish or like as in German from the back of the throat.

ש Shin = Sh sh / Sch sch as in shell. [earlier transcription].

שׂ Sin = Ss as in stone (used only in semitic words).

תּ Tof = Tt (used only in semitic words).

ת Sof = Ss in Seth (used only in semitic words).

Letter combinations:

װ Tsvay Vuvn = Vv, (Ww as in walk.).

זש = Ss as in s in Leisure, but spelt <Zh zh>.

דזש = Jj as in Jump.

Five letters are replaced by special forms at the end of a word:

כ khof becomes ־ ךlanger khof

מ Mem becomes ־ םShlus Mem

נNin becomes ־ ןLanger Nin

פֿFay becomes ־ ףLanger Fay

צTsadik becomes ־ ץLanger tsadik

Six letters are only used in words of Hebrew origin:

בֿ Vays

ח Khes

כּ Kof

שׂ Sin

תּ Tof

ת Sof

Vocabulary - װאָקאַבולאַר[edit]

Pronouns - פערזענליכער פראנאם

  • I - איך - Ikh
  • You (familiar) - דו Di rhymes with see
  • You (Formal) איר Ir, rhymes with beer
  • He ער Er (rhymes with air)
  • She - זי Zi (rhymes with bee)
  • We - מיר Mir (rhymes with fear)
  • they - זײ Zay (rhymes with fly)
  • It - עס Es

Foods - עסנװאַרג


vegetables di gruntsvaig די גרונצווייג

artichoke di kinare די קינאַרע

green peas

spinach shpinat שפּינאַט


turnip di petrushke די פאטרושקע


radish der retekh דער רעטעך

cucumber di ugerke די אוגערקע


cabbage dos kroyt דאָס קרױט


tomato dos pomidor דאָס פּאָמידאָר

celery di selerye די סעלעריע

cucumber kastravet קאַסטראַוועט

potato di bulbe / di karto די בולבע

carrot der mayeren דער מייער

onion di tsibele די ציבעלע

asparagus di sparzhe די שפּאַרזשע

mushroom di shvom(en) די שװאָ (ען)

pumpkin kirbes קירבעס

Weather related - דער װעטער[edit]

Weather veter װעטער

Air Pressure luft drikung לופֿט דריקונג

Atmosphere di atmosfer די אַטמאָספֿער

Avalanche di lavine די לאַװינע

Barometer der barometer דער באַראָמעטער

Blizzard di zaverukhe די זאַװעכע

Blow bluzn בלאָזן

Breeze vintl װינטל

Clear klor קלאָר

Cloud der volkn דער װאָלקן

Cloudy volkndik װאָלקנדיק

Cold (adj) kalt קאַלט

Cold (n) di kelt די קעלט

Cyclone der tsiklon דער ציקלאָן

Damp fahkht פֿײַכט rhymes with Nacht

Dew der toy דער טױ

Drizzle (n) dos regndl דדאָס רײגנדל

Drizzle (v) shprayen שפּרײן

Drought di triknkayt די טרונקײַט

Dry trikn טריקן


Flood di mabl די מבול

Fog der nepl דער נעפּל

Foggy nepldik נעפּלדיק

Frost dos gefrir דאָס געפֿרער

Frosty frustik פֿראָסטיק

Glacier gletsher גלעטשער

Hail (n) der hugl דער האָגל

Hail (v) huglen האָגלען

Heat di hits די היץ

Hot hays הײס rhymes with lies

How's the weather? vi iz es in droysn? װי איז עס אין דרױסן?

Humid dempik דעמפּיק

Hurricane der huragan דער הוראַגאַן

Lighten (v) blitsn בליצן

Lightning der blits דער בליץ

Mist der timan דער טומאַן

Moon di levune די לעװאָנע

Mud di blute די בלאָטע

Muddy blutik בלאָטיק

New Moon der moyled דער מױלעד

Overcast fartsoygn פֿאַרצױגן

Pour (rain) khlyapen כלײַפּען

Rain (n) der reygn דער רעגן

Rain (v) reygenen רעגענען

Rainbow der reygn-boygn דער רעגן בױגן

Rainfall skhim der regn סכום דער רעגן

Rainy reygndik רעגנדיק

Sleet der graypl-regn דער גרײַפּל רעגן

Snow (n) der shnay דער שנײ

Snow (v) shnayen שנײען

Snowflake shnayele שנײעלע

Snowstorm der shnayshtirem דער שנײשטורעם

Snowy shnayik שנײיִק

Star der shtern דער שטערן

Starry oysgeshternt אױסגעשערנט

Sun di zin די זון

Sunny zunik זוניק

Sunshine di zin די זון

Thunder der duner דער דונער

Tornado der tornado דער טאָרנאַדאָ

Warm varem װאַרעם

Warning vorenung װאָרענונג

Wet nas נאַס

Weather der veter דער װעטער

What is the weather like today? Vos far a veter hobn mir haynt?

װאָס פֿאַר אַ װעטער האָבן מיר הײַנט?

What is the weather like outside? Vos far a veter es iz in droysn?

װאָס פֿאַר אַ װעטער האָבן מיר הײַנט?

Wind der vint דער װינט

Windy vintik דער װינטיק

In Yiddish there is not a lower or upper case letter system. In the Yiddish transliteration some words have taken on the upper case form for the ease of reading only or to coordinate with the English system.

Greetings and Common Expression - באַגריסונגען און אױסדרוקן[edit]

Joe Katz in vaxahachie, tekses. Joe Katz in Waxahachie, Texas

Sholem aleykhm Hello שלום עליכם!!

Aleykhem sholem Response to sholem aleykhm שלום עליכם!

Ikh heis Reuven.

My name is Reuven. (Literally "I am called", from the infintive Heisen)

Mayn nomen iz Beyers in ikh bin oykh fin rusland.

My name is Beyers and I am also from Russia.

מײַן נאָמען איז בײערס און איך בין אױך פֿון רוסלאנד.

Vus makhtsu Katz? How are you doing Katz?

Vus hert zikh? How are you lit. (what is heard? passive) װאָס הערט זיך?

Vi hayst ir? What is your name? װי הײסט איר?

Ikh heys yoysef katz. My name is Josef Katz. איך הײסט יאָסעף קאַץ.

Vus makht a yid? How is it going? Lit. (What does a Jew do?)

Vi voynt ir? Where do you live? װאו װאױנט איר?

Ikh voyn in London, England. I live in London, England.

איך װאױן אין לאנדאן, ענגלאנד.

Ikh bin geboyrn gevorn in Brailov. I was born in Brailov.

איך בין געבױרן געװארן געבאָרן אין ברײלאָף.

Keyn amerike bin ikh gekumen in 1913. I came to America in 1913.

קײן אַמעריקע בין איך געקוממען אין 1913.

Ikh hob geforn bay shif mit a sakh andere yidn, beyde mener in froyen.

I travelled by ship with many other Jews both men and women.

איך האָב געפֿאָרן בײַ שיף מיט אַ סאַך אַנדערע ייִדן, בײדע מענער און פֿרױען.

Di yidishe agentsyes mit deym bavuster rebenyu henry cohen hot undz zayer

gehelft mit der unkim.

The Jewish agencies along with the well-known Rabbi Henry Cohen helped us

with our arrival.

די ייִדישע אַגענציעס מיט דער באַװוּסטער רעבעניו הענרי קאָהען האָט אונדז זײער געהעלפֿט מיט דער אָנקום.

Mayn vayb in mayne kinder zenen geblibn in rusland biz 1922.

My wife and my children remained in Russia until 1922.

מײַן װײַב און מײַן קינדער האָט געבליבן אין רוסיאַ ביז 1922.

Di dray eltster fin di kinder zenen geblibn in rusland zayer gants leybn.

The three oldest children remain in Russia their entire life.

דיא דרײַ עלצטער פֿון די קינדער האָט געבליבן אין רוסיִאַ זײער גאַנץ לעבן.

Di dray yingste fun di kinder zenen gekumen in amerike mit zayer mame in

1922, oykh in shif.

The three youngest children arrived with their mother also by ship in 1922.

דער דרײַ ייִנסטער פֿון די קינדער זענען געקומען אין אַמעריקע מיט זײער מאַמע אין 1922, אױך אין שיף.

Tsvay fin der eltste kinder zenen ibergekimen di shreklekh tsvayte velt-milkhume.

Two of the oldest children had survived the horrible second world war.

תּסװײ פֿון דער עלצטער קינדער זענען איבערגעקומען די שרעקלעכע צװעיטע װעלט־מילכאָמע.

Mr. Beyers freygt, vus tisti far a parnuse?

Mr. Beyers asks what do you do for a living?

Yetst ikh bin a kremer. Nowadays I am a storekeeper.

Ikh hob a klayner shpayzkrom af jackson gas in di komertzyel gegnt.

I have a small grocery store on Jackson Street in the commercial district.

Zayer ungenem Its nice to meet you.

Es frayt mikh eich tsi kenen Its nice to meet you.

Shekoyekh Thank you very much.

More to come from Joe Katz of Waxahachie.

More greetingsItalic text

Vus hert zikh epes?? What is new?

s'iz nishto kayn nayes. There is no new news.

Vus nokh? What else.

Zay gezint Be healthy and goodbye

Abi gezint as long as you are healthy

A gezint of dayn kop. Good health to you. lit (good health on your head)

Zayt azoy git please lit. (be so good {as to})

bitteh please

Nisht nor farvos. Your welcome

Vifl kost dos? how much does this cost?

Vi iz der vashtsimer? where is the bathroom?

Hak mir nisht in kop! Don't bang my head!

Fun dayn moyl in gots oyern From your mouth to G-d's ear.

It's shame that the bride is too beautiful. A khasoren vi di kalleh is tsu sheyn. (An ironic phrase implying that the object spoken of has but one fault: that it is perfect.)

A fool remains a fool. A nar blaybt a nar. A khazer blaybt a khazer.

An unattractive girl hates the mirror. A mi'ese moyd hot faynt dem shpigl.

A silent fool is half a genius. A shvaygediker nar iz a halber khokhem.

As beautiful as the moon. Shayn vi di lavune.

Better to die upright than to live on ones knees. Beser tsi shtarben shtayendik vi tsi leyben of di kni.

Have information at your fingertips. Kenen oyf di finger.

You should live and be well! A leybn oyf dir! (coloq.) / Zeit gesundt uhn shtark

=Adjectives - אַדיעקטיװן[edit]

dear (as in either dear or expensive) tayer טייַער

alive khay

ancient alttsaytish אַלטצייַטיש

angry broygez, bayz (bad) ברויגעז, בייַז

annoying zlidne זלידנע

anxious bazorgt באַזאָרגט

arrogant gadlen, gayvedik גאַדלען, גייַוועדיק

ashamed farshemen zikh פאַרשעמען זיך

awful shlecht

bad shlekht

beautiful shayn

bewildered farblondzshet, farloyrn

big, large groys

black shvarts

blue bloy or blo

briefly bekitser

bright likhtik/lekhtik

broad brayt

busy farshmayet / farnimen

cautious gevornt

clean puts (v.) / raynik (a.)

clear daytlekh / klor

clever klig

cloudy volkndik

clumsy imgelimpert

colourful filfarbik

condemned fardamt

confused tsemisht, farmisht, gemisht

crazy, flipped-out meshige

cruel akhzer

crowded eng

curious naygerik

cute chenevdik

dangers sakunes סאַקונעס

dangerous mesukn / sakunesdik

dark fintster

darkness khoyshekh

dead toyt

deaf toyb

defeat derekhfal

depressed dershlugn

different andersh

difficult shver

disgusting khaloshesdik

dull nidne

early fri

elegant elegant

evil shlekht or bayz

excited ofgehaytert

expensive tayer

famous barimt

fancy getsatske

fast gikh / shnel

fat fet, dik

filthy shmitsik

foolish shmo, narish

frail shvakh

frightened dershroken far

gigantic, huge rizik

grieving farklemt

helpless umbaholfn

horrible shreklekh

hungry hungerik

hurt vay tin

ill krank

immense, massive gvaldik

impossible ummiglekh

inexpensive bilik

jealous kine

late shpet

lazy foyl

little, small klayn

lonely elnt

long lang

long ago lang tsurik

loud hoyekh

miniature miniyatur

modern modern

nasty paskudne

nervous nerveyish

noisy timldik

obnoxious dervider

odd meshune, modne

old alt

outstanding oysgetseykhent

plain daytlekh

powerful koyekhdik

quiet shtil

rich raykh

selfish egoistish

short niderik

shy shemevdik

silent shvaygndik

sleepy shlofndik

slowly pamelekh

smoggy glantsik

soft shtil

tall hoyekh

tender tsart

tense ongeshpant

terrible shreklekh

tiny pitsink, kleyntshik

tired mid

troubled imri'ik

ugly vredne / mi'es

unusual imgeveytlekh

upset tseridert

vast rizik

voiceless shtim

wandering vanderin

wild vild

worried bazorgt

wrong falsh

young ying

Colours - פארבן[edit]

black שוואַרץ shvarts
blue בלוי bloy
brown ברוין broyn
gold גאָלד gold
gray גרוי groy
green גרין grin
pink ראָז roz
red רויט royt
silver זילבער zilber
white ווײַס vays
yellow געל gel

Unverified and need original script:

  • Hue - shatirung
  • Orange - oranzh
  • Purple - lila
  • Shade - shotn
  • Tan - bezh
  • Violet - violet

Animals - חיות[edit]

ant מוראשקע murashke
bear בער ber
cat קאַץ kats
chicken הון hun
cow קו ku
dog הונט hunt
donkey אייזל eyzl
fish פֿיש fish
fox פֿוקס fuks
gorilla גאָרילע gorile
hippo היפּאָפּאָטאַם hipopotam
horse פֿערד ferd
lion לייב leyb
lizard יאַשטשערקע yashtsherke
mouse מויז moyz
pig חזיר khazer
rabbit קינאיגל kinigl
rat ראַץ rats
sheep שעפּס sheps
snake שלאַנג shlang
squirrel וועווערקע veverke
tiger טיגער tiger
turkey אינדיק indik
ape מאַלפּע malpe
rhinoceros נאָזהאָרן nozhorn
wisent װיזלטיר vizltir

Anatomy - אַנאַטאָמיִע[edit]

Abdomen der boykh

Ankle der knekhl

Appendix der blinder kishes

Arm der orem

Artery di arterye

Backbone der ruknbeyn

Beard di bord

Bladder der penkher

Blood dos blit

Body der gif / der kerper (s)

Bodies di gifim

Bone der beyn

Bosom der buzem

Brain der moyekh

Brains di moyekhes

Buttocks der tukhes

Calf di litke

Cartilage der veykhbeyn

cells di kamern

Cheek di bak(n)

Chest brustkastn

Cure di refi'e

Curl dos grayzl

Diaphragm di diafragme

Ear der oyer

Earlocks di peyes

Elbow der elnboygn

Eye dos oyg

Eye brows di bremen

Eyelash di vie

Eyelid dos ledl

Face dos ponim/ dos gezikht-di gezikhter

Finger finger der / di finger

Fingernail der nogl, di negl

Fingerprint der fingerdruk

Fingertip der shpits finger

Fist di foyst

Flesh dos layb

Feet di fis

Foot der fis

Forehead der shtern

Gall bladder di gal

Gland der driz

Gum di yasle

Hair di hor

Hand hant di

Hands di hent

Head der kop

Headache der kopveytik

Heel di pyate

Hip di lend

Hormones der hormon(en)

Hunchback der hoyker

Intestine di kishke

Jaw der kin

Kidney di nir

Knee der kni

Leg der fis

Ligament dos gebind

Limb der eyver

Lip di lip

Liver di leber

Lung di lung

Lymph node di lymfe

Moustache di vontses

Mouth dos moyl

Muscle der muskl

Navel der pipik

Neck der kark

Nerve der nerve(n)

Nose di noz

Organ der organ(en)

Nostril di nuzlukh

Palm di dlonye

Pancreas der untermogn driz

Pituatary gland di shlaymdriz

Prostrate gland

Rib di rip

Scalp der skalp

Shoulder der aksl

Skin di hoyt

Skull der sharbn

Spine der riknbeyn

Spleen di milts

Spinal chord de khut'hasye'dre

Spleen di milts

Stomach der mogn(s) der boukh

Temple di shleyf

Testicles di beytsim

Thigh dikh, polke

Thorax der brustkasten(s)

Throat der gorgl, der haldz

Thumb der groberfinger

Thyroid di shildriz

Tissue dos geveb(n)

Tongue di tsing

Tongues di tsinger

Tooth der tson

Teeth di tseyn(er)

Umbilical cord der noplshnur

Uterus di heybmuter

Vein di oder

Waist di talye

Womb di trakht

Time דיא צײַט[edit]

second de sekund

minute di minut

hour di shtunde (n) di shu (shuen)

day der tug (teyg)

night di nakht (nekht)

year dos yor

century dos yorhindert

Telling the time:

s'iz 12(tvelef) a zayger - it's 12 o'clock.

s'iz halb akht in ovent - it's 7.30pm

s'iz fertsn nokh 10 in der fri - it's 10:15 am.

s'iz finef tsi naan in der fri - its five to nine in the morning.

er kimt in shil 9 azayger in der fri. He comes to school at 9 am.

Zi vet tsirik kimen fertl nokh mitug - she will come back at quarter past twelve (noon).

Classroom Items and Teaching with Bloom Taxonomy[edit]

Needs to be alphabetised

alphabet der alef bays

arts der kunstwerk

blackboard der tovl

blocks di blokn

book dos bikh

calculator di rekhn mashin

chalk di krayd

comparison (n) farglaykhung

define(n) definitsye

dictionary dos verter bikh

difficult kompleks or shver

easy gring or nisht shver

eraser oysmeker

explanation (n) dikhterung

fountain pen di feder(n)

homework di Haymarket

identification (n) identifitsirung

interpretation (n) interpretatsye

knowledge gebit

paper dos papir

paraphrase paraphrasing

pencil di blayfeder

recess di hafsoke(s)

religious explanation (n) peyrush

science di vizenshaft

sheet of paper dos blat

stage di stadye

story di mayse(s)

teacher (female) di lererin, di lererke

teacher (male) der lerer

note In addition to the change of the definite article from der to di for teacher, notice the difference in the ending of the words for the feminine counterpart of the occupation. For the female teacher we use the ending in and ke likewise on other occupations.

textbook der tekst or dos lernbukh

to add tsigeybn

to analyze analizir

to comprehend farshteyn zikh

to divide teylen

to evaluate opshatsn

to measure mostn

to multiply farmeren zikh

to show bavizn

to subtract aroprekhenen

to synthesize sintezirn

university der universitet

weekly reader dos vokhn blat or dos vokn leyener

work (physical labor) arbet

work (written rather than physical labor) verk

Numbers - נומערס[edit]

One- Eyns

Two - Tsvey

Three Dray

Four Fier

Five - Finef

Six - Zeks

Seven - Zibn

Eight - Akht

Nine Nayn

Ten - Tsen

Eleven - Elef

Twelve - Tsvelef

Thirteen - Draytsn

Fourteen - Fertsn

Fifteen - Fiftsn

Sixteen - Zekhtsn

Seventeen Zibetsn

Eighteen - Akhtsn

Nineteen- Nayntsn

Twenty - Tsvontsik

Twenty-one - Eyn in Tsvontsik

Twenty-two- Tsvay in Tsvontsik

Thirty - Draysik

Thirty-one- Ayns n Drasik

Forty - Fertsik

Fifty - Fiftsik

Sixty - Zakhtsik

Seventy - Zibetsik

Eighty - Akhtsik

Ninety - Nayntsik

One Hundred - Hindert

Two Hundred- Tsvey Hindert

Three Hundred -Dray Hindert

Four Hundred - Fir Hindert

Five Hundred- Finef Hindert and same pattern

Thousand - Toyznt

Ten Thousand- Ten Toyznt

Hundred Thousand- Hindert Toyznt

Million - Milyon

Occupations - אָקופּאַציעס[edit]

actor der aktyor

actress di aktrise

accountant der rekhenmayster, der khezhbnfirer

architect der arkhitekt

artisan der balmelokhe

artist der kinstler

athlete der atlet

author der mekhaber

aviator der flier, der pilot

baker der beker

banker der bankir

barber der sherer

bartender der baal-kretshme

beautician der kosmetiker

blacksmith der shmid

bricklayer der moyerer

broker der mekler

builder der boyer (bauer)

burglar der araynbrekher

buthcer der katsev

candidate der kandidat

cantor der khazn

carpenter der stolyer

cashier der kasir

chairman der forzitser

chauffeur der shofer

chef der hoyptkokher

chemist der khemiker

circumciser der moyel

clerk der farkoyfer

coach der aynlerer

coachman der balegole

cobbler der shuster

craftsman der balmelokhe

cook der kokher

criminal der farbrekher

crook der ganev

curator der kurator

dairyman der milkhiker, der milkhhendler

dancer der tentser

dentist der tsondokter

doctor der dokter

driver der firer, der baal-agole

dyer der farber

editor der redaktor

electrician der elektrishn (borrowed), der elektriker

engineer der inzhenir


farmer der poyer

fireman der fayer-lesher

fire fighter der fayer-lesher

fisherman der fisher

glazier der glezer


guard der shoymer

hairdresser di horshneider

historian der geshikhter

housewife di baalabuste

judge der rikhter

lawyer der advokat

letter carrier der brivn-treger

magician der kishef-makher

maid di veibz-helferte

marine der mariner

mason der mulyer

matchmaker der shatkhn

mathematician der rekhens-khokhm

mayor der meyor (borrowed), der shtots-graf

mechanic der maynster

merchant der hendler

moneylender der veksler

musician der klezmer

nurse di krankn-shvester

painter der moler

pharmacist der apotek

pilot der flier, der pilot

plumber der plomer (borrowed)

poet der dikhter, der poet

police officer di politsei (sing. and pl.), der politsyant

politician der politishn

porter der treger

postman briv treger

printer der druker

professor der profesor

publisher redakter

rabbi der ruv

rebbe der rebe

receptionist di maidel beim tur

sailor der matros

salesman der farkoyfer


secretary di sekreter

shoemaker der shister

singer der zinger

soldier der soldat

storekeeper der kremer


tailor der shnayder

teacher der lerer

technician der teknik

thief der ganev

veterinarian der veterinar

wagon driver der shmayser

waiter der kelner

waitress di kelnerin

window cleaner

writer der shraiber

Definite articles[edit]

Der (דער) is masculine (zokher in Yiddish), Dus (דאָס) is neuter (neytral in Yiddish) , Di (די) is feminine (nekeyve in Yiddish) or neuter plural

Family relationships - דיא משפּחה[edit]

aunt di mume (mime), di tante

boy der/dos yingl

brother der bruder/der brider (pl. di brider)

brother-in-law der shvoger

child dos kind

children di kinder

cousin (f) di kuzine

cousin (m) der kuzin

cousin (n) dos shvesterkind

daughter di tokhter

daughter-in-law di shnur (shnir)

father der tate/ der futer (s)

father-in-law der shver

girl dos/di meydl

great-grandfather der elterzeyde

great-grandmother di elterbobe / elterbabe

great-grandson der ureynikI

grandchild dos eynikI granddaughter di eynikI

grandson der eynikI

grandfather der zeyde/zayde(s)

grandmother di bobe/babe(s)

grandparents zeyde-babe

mother di mame/ di miter

mother-in-law di shviger

nephew der plimenik

niece di plimenitse

parents tate-mame

parents di eltern

relative (f) di kroyve

relative (m) der korev

sibling der geshvister

sister di shvester

sister-in-law di shvegerin

son der zun/der zin

son-in-law der eydem

son-in-law’s or daughter-in-law’s father der mekhutn/der mekhitn

son-in-law’s or daughter-in-law’s mother di makheteniste

son-in-law’s or daughter-in-law’s parents di makhetunim

stepbrother der shtif-brider/shtifbrider

stepfather der shtif-foter

stepmother di shtif-miter/shtif miter

stepsister di shtif-shvester

twin der tsviling

uncle der feter

House items - הױז זאַכן[edit]

Air Conditioner der luftkiler

Apartment di dire

Ashtray dos ashtetsl

Attic der boydem

Backdoor di hinten tir

Balcony der balkn

Basement der keler

Bathroom der vashtsimer/der bodtsimer

Bath der vane

Bed di bet

Bedding dos betgevant

Bedroom der shloftsimer

Blanket di koldre

Bolt der rigl

Bookcase di bikhershank, di bokhershafe

Brick der tsigl

Building dos gebayde/ der binyen (di binyunim

Bungalow dos baydl

Carpet der kobrets

Ceiling di stelye

Cellar der keler

Cement der tsement

Chair di shtul

Chimney der koymen

Closet der almer

Computer der kompyuter

Concrete der beton

Couch di kanape

Curtain der firhang

Cushion der kishn

Desk der shraybtish

Dining Room der estsimer

Door di tir

Doorbell der tirglekl

Doorstep di shvel

Door knob di klyamke

Drape der gardin

Dresser der kamod

Driveway der araynfort

Fan der fokher

Faucet der krant

Fireplace der kamin

Floor di padloge

Foundation der fundament

Furnace der oyvn

Furniture mebl

Garden der gortn

Glass dos gloz

Hall der zal

Hinge der sharnir

Key der shlisl

Lamp der lomp

Light dos lekht - no plural

Living Room der voyntsimer

Lock der shlos

Mirror der shpigl

Nail der tshvok

Outside door di droysn tir

Paint di farb

Picture dos bild

Pillar der zayl

Pillow der kishn (s)

Plaster der tink

Plumbing dos vasergerer

Plywood der dikht

Porch der ganik

Programme der program

Quilt/Duvet di koldre

Rafter der balkn

Roof der dakh

Room der tsimer

Rug der tepekh/der treter

Screw der shroyf

Shelf di politse

Shower di shprits - to have a shower - makhn zikh a shprits

Sink der opgos (kitchen sink)

Sofa di sofe

Stairs di trep

Swimming pool der shvimbasyn

Table der tish

Toilet der kloset

Wall di vant

Window der fenster

Window pane di shoyb

Wire der drot

Wood dos holts

Items Found in the House - זאַכן װאָס געפֿינט זיך אין הױז[edit]

(Needs alphabetized,and spaced, also English words need highlighted)

armchair fotel

attic boydem

bath room vashtsimer

bath vane

bed bet

bedroom shloftsimer

blanket koldre

book case bikhershank

carpet tepekh

ceiling sufit, stelye

cellar keler

chair shtul

cloth shtof

coin matbeye

computer kompyuter

corridor zal

couch sofe

cupboard shafe

curtain forhang

door tir

faucet kran

floor podloge/der floor

in the house in hoyz אין הױז/אין שטוב

kitchen kikh

living room gutsier

mattress matrats

mirror shpil (n)

pillow case tsikhel

pillow kishen

refrigerator fridzhider

roof dakh

room tsimer

sheet boygen

shower shpritsbod

soap zeyf

stairs trepel

table tish

television televizye

toilet kloset

towel hantekher

wall vant

wardrobe garderob

washing machine vashmashin

window fenster

Vowels - דיא װאָקאַלן[edit]

Some vowels are preceded by a silent א ( a shtimer alef) when they appear at the beginning of a word.

  • אָ, אַ – pronounced the same as in Ashkenazi Hebrew (Polish: אָ is often oo as in too)
  • ו – Litvish: oo as in too (Polish: usually pronounce ea as in read)
  • ױ – This represents two distinct vowels. 1 Litvish: ey as in say (Polish: oy); 2 Litvish: oy as in boy (Polish: aw as in crawl);
  • י – i as in him (Polish: also ee as in green)
  • ײ – Litvish: ay as in say (Polish: y as in by) (Galician: ey as in say)
  • ײַ – Litvish: y as in by (Polish: a as in car)
  • ע – e as in bed (Polish: also ey as in prey)

Prepositions - נפּרעפּאָזיציעס[edit]

In front of - far Near - nuent In - In Inside - inevaynig Behind - hinter Among - tsvishn Between - tvishn Far - vayt Over - iber Under - inter On - oyf (of) At - bay Towards - vihin Everywhere - imetim Anywhere - ergets vi

Classroom - דער קלאַסצימער[edit]

Sheet of pape dos blat

Paper dos papir

Weekly reader dos vokhn blat or dos vokhn leyener

Fountain pen di feyder(n)

Pencil di blayfeyder

Blackboard der tovl

Calculator di rekhn mashin

Textbook der tekst or dos lernbikh

Book dos bikh di bikher

Dictionary dos verter bikh

University der universitet

Homework di Haymarket

Chalk di krayd

Teacher (male) der lerer

Teacher (female) di lererin, di lererke

Easy gring or nisht shver

Difficult kompleks or shver

Eraser oysmeker

Storiy di mayse(s)

Alphabet der alefbays

Blocks di blokn

Arts der kinstwerk

Stage di stadye

Work (written rather than physical labor) verk

Work (physical labor) arbet

Recess di hafsoke(s)

To measure mostn

To add tsigeybn

To subtract aruprekhenen

To multiply farmeren zikh

To divide teylen

Knowledge gebit

To comprehend farshteyn zikh

To analyze analizir

To synthesize sintezirn

To evaluate opshatsn

Explanation (n) dikhterung

Religious explanation (n) peyrush

Comparison (n) farglaykhung

Interpretation (n) interpretatsye

Paraphrase paraphrasing

Define(n) definitsye

To show bavizn

Indetification (n) identifitsirung

Vegetables - גרינסן[edit]

vegetables artichoke green peas spinach broccoli turnip avocado radish cucumber cauliflower cabbage lettuce tomato celery cucumber radish potato carrot onion asparagus mushroom Pumpkin

Verbs - װערבן[edit]

Be - זײַן[edit]

to be זײַן zaan
I am איך בין ikh bin
you are דו ביסט di bist
he/she/it is ער/זי/עס איז er/zi/es iz
we are מיר זענען mir zenen
you (pl) are איר זײַט ir zayt
they are זײ זענען zay zenen


איך בין געװען/געװעזן Ikh bin geveyn/geveyzn

דו ביסט געװען/געװעזן Du/Di bist geveyn/geveyzn

און אַזױ װײַטער.... in azoy vayter/and so on...

Have - האבען[edit]

to have האָבן hobn
I have איך האָב ikh hob
you have דו האָסט di host
he/she has ער/זי/עס האָט er/zi/es hot
we have מיר האָבן mir hobn
you (pl) have איר האָט ir hot
they have זיי האָבן zey hobn

Go - גײן[edit]

to go גיין gayn
I go איך גיי ikh gay
you go דו גייסט d gayst
he/she/it goes ער/זי/עס גייט er/zi/es gayt
we go מיר גייען mir geyen
you (pl) go איר גייט ir gayt
they go זיי גייען zay gayen

To Learn - לערנען זיך / To Teach - לערנען[edit]

איך לערן זיך אידיש I am learning Yiddish

דו לערנסט זיך אידיש You are learning Yiddish

ער/זי לערנט זיך אידיש He/she is learning Yiddish.

The verbal additive זיך is needed when one is "learning". In the past tense (I have learnt, you have learnt etc...) the verbal additive comes directly after the verb:

זי האָט זיך געלערנט the verb being hoben.

To teach is simply לערנען.

דער רב לערנט מיט מיר תּורה Der Rov lernt mit mir Toyre - The Rov is teaching me Toyre.

Another way to say that someone is teaching you is:

דער רב לערנט מיך תּורה Der Rov gelernt mikh Toyre - Der Rov is teaching me Toyre.

So either ער לערנט מיט מיר ...ער לערנט מיך... Er lernt mikh... or er lernt mit mir...

Conjugating verbs with prefixes[edit]

Verbs with prefixes like for example:אַרױסגײן, נאָכגײן, אױפֿמאַכן oyf(of)makhn-to open, nokhgayn-to follow and aroys(arusgayn)to go out. When conjugating these verbs one put the last part of the word first for example makhn oyf, gayn nokh, aroys gayn and so on. Lemoshl:

Ikh gay aroys, di gayst aroys, er gayt aroys...

ikh gay nokh, di gayst nokh, er gayt nokh...

Also an adverb can be place in between the verb and prefix:

Ikh gay shnel aroys, di gayst shnel aroys, un afile er gayt zayer shnel aroys in dos glaykhn...

Other verbs - אַנדערע װערבן[edit]

To abandon, to give up (Oplozn) ikh loz op di lozst op er lozt op mir lozn op ir lozt op zey lozn op

To accomplish (Oysfirn) ikh ikh fir oys(os) di first oys (os) er firt oys (os) mir firn oys (os) ir firt oys (os) zey firn oys (os)

To answer (ענטפערן Entfern) ikh entfer of dayn frage ענטפער אױף דײן פראגע di entferst er entfert mir entfern ir entfert zey entfern

To approach (Tsigayn) ikh gay tsi di gayst tsi er gayt tsi mir gayen tsi ir gayt tsi zey gayen tsi

To argue, to disagree with, to contradict (Opfregn) ikh freg op di fregst op er fregt op mir fregn op ir fregt op zey fregn op

To arrive (unkimen) ikh kim un di kimst un er kimt un mir kimen un ir kimt un zey kimen un

To ask (Fregn) ikh freg di fregst er fregt mir fregn ir fregt zey fregn

To attack (Bafaln) ikh bafal di bafalst er bafalt mir bafaln ir bafalt zey bafaln

To bake (Bakn) ikh bak di bakst er bakt mir bakn ir bakt zey bakn

To be alive (לעבן Leybn) ikh leyb di leybst er leybt mir leybn ir leybt zey leybn

To believe (גלױבען Gloybn) ikh gloyb di gloybst er gloybt mir gloybn ir gloybt zey gloybn

To belong (Gehern) ikh geher di geherst er gehert mir gehern ir gehert zey gehern

To bend (Beygn) ikh beyg di beygst er beygt mir beygn ir beygt zey beygn

To betray (Farratn) ikh farrat di farrast er farrat mir farratn ir farrat zey farratn

To better (Farbesern) ikh farbeser di farbeserst er farbesert mir farbesern ir farbesert zey farbesern

To bite (Baysn) ikh bays di bayst er bayst mir baysn ir bayst zey baysn

To bleed (Blitikn) ikh blitik di blitikst er blitikt mir blitikn ir blitikt zey blitikn

To boil (Zidn) ikh zid di zidst er zidt mir zidn ir zidt zey zidn

To borrow (Antlayen) ikh antlay di antlayst er antlayt mir antlayen ir antlayt zey antlayen

To borrow (Borgn) ikh borg di borgst er borgt mir borgn ir borgt zey borgn

To break (Brekhn) ikh brekh di brekhst er brekht mir brekhn ir brekht zey brekhn

To breathe (Otemen) ikh otem di otemst er otemt mir otemen ir otemt zey otemen

To build (Boyen) ich boy di boyst er boyt mir boyen ir boyt sei boyen

To burn (Brenen) ikh bren di brenst er brent mir brenen ir brent zey brenen

To burst (Platsn) ikh plats di platst er platst mir platsn ir platst zey platsn

To buy (Koyfn) ikh koyf di koyfst er koyft mir koyfn ir koyft zey koyfn

To calculate (Rekhn) ikh rekh di rekhst er rekht mir rekhn ir rekht zey rekhn

To carry (Trogn) ikh trog di trogst er trogt mir trogn ir trogt zey trogn

To catch (Khapn) ikh khap di khapst er khapt mir khapn ir khapt zey khapn

To choose (Klaybn) ikh klayb di klaybst er klaybt mir klaybn ir klaybt zey klaybn

To clean (Reynikn) ikh reynik di reynikst er reynikt mir reynikn ir reynikt zey reynikn

To climb (Oyfkrikhn) ikh krikh oyf (of) di krikhst of er krikht of mir krikhn of ir krikht of zey krikhn of

To close (Farmakhn) ikh farmakh di farmakhst er farmakht mir farmakhn ir farmakht zey farmakhn

To complain (Farklogn) ich baklog di baklogst er baklogt mir baklogn ir baklogt sei baklogn

To confine (Bagrenetsn) ich bagrenets di bagrenetst er bagrenetst mir bagrenetsn ir bagrenetst sei bagrenetsn

To consider (Batrakhtn) ikh batrakht di batrakhst er batrakht mir batrakhtn ir batrakht zey batrakhtn

To count (Tseyln) ikh tseyl di tseylst er tseylt mir tseyln ir tseylt zey tseyln

To create (Bashafn) ikh bashaf di bashafst er bashaft mir bashafn ir bashaft zey bashafn

To creep (Krikhn) ikh krikh di krikhst er krikht mir krikhn ir krikht zey krikhn

To cry (Veynen) ikh veyn di veynst er veynt mir veynen ir veynt zey veynen

To cut or chop (Hakn) ikh hak du hakst er hakt mir hakn ir hakt zey hakn

To dance (Tantsn) ikh tants du tantst er tantst mir tantsn ir tantst zey tantsn

To decide (Bashlisn) ikh bashlis du bashlist er bashlist mir bashlisn ir bashlist zey bashlisn

To decorate (Baputsn) ikh baputs du baputst er baputst mir baputsn ir baputst zey baputsn

To depart (Avekgeyn) ikh gay avek du/di gayst avek er gayt avek mir gayen avek ir gayt avek zey gayen avek

To develop (Antvikln) ikh antvikl du antviklst er antviklt mir antvikln ir antviklt zey antvikln

To dig (Grobn) ikh grob du grobst er grobt mir grobn ir grobt zey grobn

To dive or dip (Tunken) ikh tunk du tunkst er tunkt mir tunken ir tunkt zey tunken

To drag (Shlepn) ikh shlep du shlepst er shlept mir shlepn ir shlept zey shlepn

To draw (Moln) ikh mol du molst er molt mir moln ir molt zey moln

To dream (Troymn) ikh troym du troymst er troymt mir troymn ir troymt zey troymn

To drink (Trinken) ikh trink du trinkst er trinkt mir trinken ir trinkt zey trinken

To drive (Traybn) ikh trayb du traybst er traybt mir traybn ir traybt zey traybn

To dry (Fartrikn) ikh fartrik du fartrikst er fartrikt mir fartrikn ir fartrikt zey fartrikn

To eat (Esn) ikh es du est er est mir esn ir est zey esn

To fight, struggle (Krign) ikh krig du krigst er krigt mir krign ir krigt zey krign

To fish (Fishn) ikh fish du fishst er fisht mir fishn ir fisht zey fishn

To fly (Flien) ikh flie du fliest er fliet mir flien ir fliet zey flien

To forget (Fagesn) ikh farges du fargest er fargest mir fargesn ir fargest zey fargesn

To freeze (Farfrirn) ikh farfrir du farfrirst er farfrirt mir farfrirn ir farfrirt zey farfrirn

To grow (Vaksn) ikh vaks du vakst er vakst mir vaksn ir vakst zey vaksn

To guard (Hitn) ikh hit du hist er hit mir hitn ir hit zey hitn

To hear (Hern) ikh her du herst er hert mir hern ir hert zey hern

To help (Helfn) ikh helf du helfst er helft mir helfn ir helft zey helfn

To hide (Bahaltn) ikh bahalt du bahalst er bahalt mir bahaltn ir bahalt zey bahaltn

To imitate (Nokhgayn) ikh gay nokh du/di gayst nokh er gayt nokh mir gayen nokh ir gayt nokh zey gayen nokh

To jump (Shpringen) ikh shpring du shpringst er shpringt mir shpringen ir shpringt zey shpringen

To laugh (Lakhn) ikh lakh du lakhst er lakht mir lakhn ir lakht zey lakhn

To let in (Araynlosn) ikh loz arayn du lozt arayn er lozt arayn mir lozn arayn ir lozt arayn zey lozn arayn

To lie (Lign) ikh lig du ligst er ligt mir lign ir ligt zey lign

To look in or to peek (Araynkikn) ikh kik arayn du kikst arayn er kikt arayn mir kikn arayn ir kikt arayn zey kikn arayn

To make (Makhn) ikh makh du makhst er makht mir makhn ir makht zey makhn

To mix in (Araynmishn) ikh mish arayn du mishst arayn er misht arayb mir mishn arayn ir misht arayn zey mishn arayn

To move (Rirn) ikh rir du rirst er rirt mir rirn ir rirt zey rirn

To open (Efenen) ikh efen du efenst er efent mir efenen ir efent zey efenen

To play (Shpiln) ikh shpil du shpilst er shpilt mir shpiln ir shpilt zey shpiln

To print (Opdrukn) ikh drik op du drikst op er drikt op mir drikn op ir trikt op zey drikn op

To put in (Araynshteln) ich shtel arayn di shtelst arayn er shtelt arayn mir shteln arayn ir shtelt arayn sei shteln arayn

To pour (Gisn) ikh gis du gist er gist mir gisn ir gist zey gisn

To read (Leyen) ikh ley du leyst er leyt mir leyen ir leyt zey leyen

To reach a conclusion (Opgeyn) ikh gey op du geyst op er geyt op mir geyn op ir geyt op zey geyn op

To recognize, to introduce (Bakenen) ich baken du bakenst er bakent mir bakenen ir bakent sei bakenen

To remain (Blaybn) ikh blayb du blaybst er blaybt mir blaybn ir blaybt zey blaybn

To reside (Voynen) ich voyn du voynst er voynt mir voynen ir voynt sei voynen

To revolve or rotate oneself (Arimdreyen) ich drey arim du dreyst arim er dreyt arim mir dreyn arim ir dreyt arim sei dreyn arim

To ring (Klingen) ikh kling du klingst er klingt mir klingen ir klingt zey klingen

To rock (Farvign) ikh farvig du farvigst er farvigt mir farvign ir farvigt zey farvign

To run (Loyfn) ikh loyf du loyfst er loyft mir loyfn ir loyft zey loyfn

To run away or to flee (Antloyfn) ikh antloyf du antloyfst er antloyft mir antloyfn ir antloyft zey antloyfn

To see (Zeyn) ikh zey du zeyst er zeyyt mir zeen ir zeyt zey zeyen men zeyt

To send (Shikn) ikh shik du shikst er shikt mir shikn ir shikt zey shikn

To sew (Neyn) ikh ney du neyst er neyt mir neyn ir neyt zey neyn

To shake (Shoklen) ikh shokl du shoklst er shoklt mir shoklen ir shoklt zey shoklen

To sleep (Shlofn) ikh shlof du shlofst er shloft mir shlofn ir shloft zey shlofn

To smell (Shmekn) ikh shmek du shmekst er shmekt mir shmekn ir shmekt zey shmekn

To smile (Shmeykhln) ikh shmeykhl du shmeykhlst er shmeykhlt mir shmeykhln ir shmeykhlt zey shmeykhln

To stand (Oyfshteyn/iz ofgeshtanen - אױפֿשטײן/ איז אױפֿגעשטאַנען ) איך שטײ אױף Ikh shtey of דו שטײסט אױף Du/Di shtayst of ער שטײט אױף Er shteyt of מיר שטײען אױף Mir shteyen of איר שטײט אױף Ir shteyt of זײ שטײען אױף Zey shteyen of

To steal (Ganvenen) ich ganven du ganvenst er ganvent mir ganvenen ir ganvent sei ganvenen

To stop (Oyfheren - אױפֿהערן) איך הער אױף

דו הערסט אױף

ער/זי/עס הערט אױף

איר הערט אױף

מיר/זײ הערן אױף

To surrender, to restore, to dedicate (Opgeybn/opgegeybn - אָפּגעבן/ אָפּגעגעבן)

איך גיב אָפּ ikh gib op

דו גיסט אָפּ du/di gist op

ער/זי/עס גיט אָפּ er/zi/es git op

מיר/זײ גיבן אָפּ mir/zey gibn op

איך האָב אָפּגעגעבן

To swallow (Shlingen) ikh shling du shlingst er shlingt mir shlingen ir shlingt zey shlingen

To talk (Redn) ikh red du redst er redt mir redn ir redt zey redn

To taste (Farzukhn) ikh farzukh du farzukhst er farzukht mir farzukhn ir farzukht zey farzukhn

To think (Trakhtn) ikh trakht du trakhst er trakht mir trakhtn ir trakht zey trakhtn

To try (Pruvn) ikh pruv du pruvst er pruvt mir pruvn ir pruvt zey pruvn

To understand (Farshteyn) ikh farshtey du farshteyst er farshteyt mir farshteyn ir farshteyt zey farshteyn

To want (Veln) ikh vel du velst er velt mir veln ir velt zey veln

To wash (Vashn zikh - װאַשן זיך) ikh vash zikh du vashst zikh er vasht zikh mir vashn zikh ir vasht zikh zey vashn zikh

To whip (Shmaysn) ikh shmays du shmayst er shmayst mir shmaysn ir shmayst zey shmaysn

To whistle (Fayfn) ikh fayf du fayfst er fayft mir fayfn ir fayft zey fayfn

To wish (Vintshn) ikh vintsh du vintshst er vintsht mir vintshn ir vintsht zey vintshn

To write (Shraybn/ hoben geshribn) ikh shrayb du shraybst er shraybt mir shraybn ir shraybt zey shraybn

Conjugating verbs[edit]

Present tense[edit]

Most verbs are conjugated in the same form in present tense, though there are some exceptions. The subject usually comes before the verb (like in English), but sometimes the order is reversed (like Hebrew) to change the tone (most notably, in questions). Here is an example of a regular verb:

  • הערן – hear
  • איך הער – I hear
  • דו הערסט – you hear
  • ער הערט – he hears
  • זי הערט – she hears
  • עס הערט – it hears
  • מיר הערן – we hear
  • איר הערט – you (plural or formal) hear
  • זיי הערן – they hear

Verbs that come from Hebrew are usually conjugated together with the word זײַן to be, similar to in Yeshivish (they are Modeh; he is Meyasheiv the Stirah; they are Mechaleik between them). Here is an example:

  • מסכּים זײַן – agree
  • איך בּין מסכּים – I agree
  • דו בּיסט מסכּים – you agree
  • ער/זי/עס איז מסכּים – he/she/it agrees
  • מיר/זיי זײַנען מסכּים – we/they agree
  • איר זענט מסכּים – you agree

איך בין מסכּים געװען Ikh bin maskim geveyn

Past tense[edit]

Past tense is conjugated by adding the helping verb האָבּן have, and (usually) adding the letters גע to the verb. This is similar to some past tense words in English ("I have done that.") For words which come from Hebrew, זײַן becomes געווען. Here are some examples:

  • האָבּן געהערט - heard
  • איך האָבּ געהערט – I heard
  • דו האָסט געהערט – you heard
  • ער/זי/עס האָט געהערט – he/she/it heard
  • מיר/זיי האָבּן געהערט – we/they heard
  • איר האָט געהערט – you heard
  • האָבּן מסכּים געווען – agreed
  • איך האָבּ מסכּים געווען – I agreed
  • דו האָסט מסכּים געווען – you agreed
  • ער/זי/עס האָט מסכּים געווען – he/she/it agreed
  • מיר/זיי האָבּן מסכּים געווען – we/they agreed
  • איר האָט מסכּים געווען – you agreed

Future tense[edit]

Similar to past tense (and future tense in English), future tense is expressed by adding the helping verb װעלן will. Here are the (now familiar) examples:

  • וועלן הערן – will hear
  • איך װעל הערן – I will hear
  • דו װעסט הערן – you will hear
  • ער/זי/עס װעט הערן – he/she/it will hear
  • מיר/זיי װעלן הערן – we/they will hear
  • איר װעט הערן – you will hear
  • וועלן מסכּים זײַן – will agree
  • איך װעל מסכּים זײַן – I will agree
  • דו װעסט מסכּים זײַן – you will agree
  • ער/זי/עס װעט מסכּים זײַן – he/she/it will agree
  • מיר/זיי װעלן מסכּים זײַן – we/they will agree
  • איר װעט מסכּים זײַן – you will agree


This (Explicit)[edit]

There are several ways to indicate "this" in Yiddish, each increasing in strength, א שטײגער:

אָט דעם מאַן קען איך

אָט אָ דעם מאַן קען איך

דעם אָ מאַן קען איך

דעם דאָזיקן מאַן קען איך

אָט דעם דאָזיקן מאַן קען איך

אָט אָ דעם דאָזיקן מאַן קען איך

A lot - א סאך[edit]

This takes the plural verb and does not inflect.

א סאך זענען נאך דא

More people are still here.

א סאך זענען שױן אװעק

Many people have already left.

Future tense[edit]

איך װעל I will

דו װעסט You will

ער/זי װעט He/She will

איר װעט You will(formal, plural)

מ'װעט One will

To want - װיל[edit]

איך װיל א בוך I want a book - Ikh vil a bukh

דוא װילסט א בוך You want a book - Di (rhymes with see) vilst a bukh

ער װיל אַ בוך er (rhymes with air) vil a bukh.

איר װעט אַ בוך

מיר װילן אַ בוך

האלטן אין[edit]

האלטן אין In the middle of; in the midst of. Corresponds to the English -ing.

איך האַלט אין שרײבען א בריװ

Ikh halt in shraabn a briv.

I'm in the middle of middle writing a letter.

מיר האַלטן יעצט אין עסן

We're eating now.

האַלטן אין אײן[edit]

האַלטן אין אײן To keep on, constantly.

פארװאס האלצטו אין אײן שפּרינגען?

Farvus haltsi in ayn shpringen

Why do you keep jumping?

זײא האַלטן אין אײן לאכן

Zay (rhymes with thy) haltn in ayn (rhymes with fine) lakhn

They keep laughing?

See also - זעהט אױך[edit]

Yiddish Dictionary Online

Hasidic grammar project[edit]

The Holocaust and the widespread linguistic assimilation of Jews throughout the world have together reduced the population of Yiddish-speakers from an estimated 13 million before the Second World War to perhaps 1 million today. About half of the remaining Yiddish-speakers today are aged European Jews, often Holocaust-survivors, while the other half are chareidim, mostly Hasidim, mostly young. Unsurprisingly, most Hasidim speak a southern dialect of Yiddish which was the majority dialect pre-World War II, and is somewhat distant from the Lithuanian dialect that forms the basis for the standard YIVO pronunciation. Although the Hasidim reject some of the reforms made by the YIVO in orthography, morphology, and lexicon, their Yiddish is recognizably the same language.

Though no dictionaries or grammars of Hasidic Yiddish have yet been published, a "Hasidic Standard" has nevertheless developed among the younger generations born in America, and a similar process has occurred in Hasidic communities in other parts of the world. Standardization has been assisted by such factors as geography - Hasidic groups that once lived in separate countries now inhabit the same neighborhoods in Brooklyn - by the schools, and by the Yiddish press. Hasidic Standard has much more room for variation in spelling and pronunciation than YIVO Standard, and it is more difficult for beginning students to learn. Still, the Yiddish language has radically shifted its center of gravity and it is high time to enable students to learn the Yiddish that is most widely spoken today. To that end, the Hasidic Grammar Project has been created to produce an online textbook and grammar.



Loan Words[edit]

One of the most often remarked features of Hasidic Yiddish in America is the borrowing of English words on a large scale. In fact, this is not any special development on the part of the Hasidim. Yiddish-speaking Jews in America have been mixing in English since the first wave of immigration in the early 1880s. Ab. Cahan and the FORVERTS used loan words on a similar scale for many decades. Why Jews in America have been so open to loan words in comparison to Jews in Europe or Israel is not clear.