Communication Systems/Communications Introduction
People are prone to take for granted the fact that modern technology allows us to transmit data at nearly the speed of light to locations that are very far away. 200 years ago, it would be deemed preposterous to think that we could transmit webpages from China to Mexico in less than a second. It would seem equally preposterous to think that people with cellphones could be talking to each other, clear as day, from miles away. Today, these things are so common, that we accept them without even asking how these miracles are possible.
What is Communications?
Communications is the field of study concerned with the transmission of information through various means. It can also be defined as technology employed in transmitting messages. It can also be defined as the inter-transmitting the content of data (speech, signals, pulses etc.) from one node to another.
To Whom is This Book For?
This book is for people who have read the Signals and Systems wikibook, or an equivalent source of the information. Topics considered in this book will rely heavily on knowledge of Fourier Domain representation and the Fourier Transform. This book can be used to accompany a number of different classes spanning the 3rd and fourth years in a study of electrical engineering. Knowledge of integral and differential calculus is assumed. The reader may benefit from knowledge of such topics as semiconductors, electromagnetic wave propagation, etc., although these topics are not necessary to read and understand the information in this book.
What will this Book Cover
This book is going to take a look at nearly all facets of electrical communications, from the shape of the electrical signals, to the issues behind massive networks. It makes little sense to be discussing these subjects outside the realm of current examples. We have the Internet, so in discussing issues concerning digital networks, it makes good sense to reference these issues to the Internet. Likewise, this book will attempt to touch on, at least briefly, every major electrical communications network that people deal with on a daily basis. From AM radio to the Internet, from DSL to cable TV, this book will attempt to show how the concepts discussed apply to the real world.
This book also acknowledges a simple point: It is easier to discuss the signals and the networks simultaneously. For this kind of task to be undertaken in a paper book would require hundreds, if not thousands of printed pages, but through the miracle of Wikimedia, all this information can be brought together in a single, convenient location.
This book would like to actively solicit help from anybody who has experience with any of these concepts: Computer Engineers, Communications Engineers, Computer Programmers, Network Administrators, IT Professionals. Also, this book may cover all these topics, but the reader doesn't need to have prior knowledge of all these disciplines to advance. Information will be developed as completely as possible in the text, and links to other information sources will be provided as needed.
Where to Go From Here
Since this book is designed for a junior and senior year of study, there aren't necessarily many topics that will logically follow this book. After reading and understanding this material, the next logical step for the interested engineer is either industry or graduate school. Once in graduate school, there are a number of different areas to concentrate study in. In industry, the number is even higher.
Division of Material
Admittedly, this is a very large topic, one that can span not only multiple printed books, but also multiple bookshelves. It could then be asked "Why don't we split this book into 2 or more smaller books?" This seems like a good idea on the surface, but you have to consider exactly where the division would take place. Some would say that we could easily divide the information between "Analog and Digital" lines, or we could divide up into "Signals and Systems" books, or we could even split up into "Transmissions and Networks" Books. But in all these possible divisions, we are settling for having related information in more than 1 place.
Analog and Digital
It seems most logical that we divide this material along the lines of analog information and digital information. After all, this is a "digital world", and aspiring communications engineers should be able to weed out the old information quickly and easily. However, what many people don't realize is that digital methods are simply a subset of analog methods with more stringent requirements. Digital transmissions are done using techniques perfected in analog radio and TV broadcasts. Digital computer modems are sending information over the old analog phone networks. Digital transmissions are analyzed using analog mathematical concepts such as modulation, SNR (signal to noise ratio), Bandwidth, Frequency Domain, etc... For these reasons, we can simplify both discussions by keeping them in the same book.
Signals and Systems
Perhaps we should divide the book in terms of the signals that are being sent, and the systems that are physically doing the sending. This makes some sense, except that it is impossible to design an appropriate signal without understanding the restrictions of the underlying network that it will be sent on. Also, once we develop a signal, we need to develop transmitters and receivers to send them, and those are physical systems as well.
It is a bit confusing to be writing a book about Communication Systems and also considering the pedagogical Systems Approach. Although using the same word, they are not quite the same thing.
This approach is almost identical to the description above (Signals & Systems) except that it is not limited to the consideration of signals (common in many university texts), but can include other technological drivers (codecs, lasers, and other components).
In this case we give a brief overview of different communication systems (voice, data, cellular, satellite etc.) so that students will have a context in which to place the more detailed (and often generic) information. Then we can then zoom in on the mathematical and technological details to see how these systems do their magic. This lends itself quite well to technical subjects since the basic systems (or mathematics) change relatively slowly, but the underlying technology can offen change rapidly and take unexpected terns.
I would like to suggest that the table of contents in this book be rearranged to reflect this pedagogical approach: Systems examples first, followed by the details.
Why would anyone want to study (tele)communications?
Telecommunications is an alluring industry with a provocative history filled with eccentric personalities: Bell, Heavyside, Kelvin, Brunel and many others. It is fraught with adventure and danger: adventure spanning space and time; danger ranging from the remote depths of the ocean floor to deep space, from the boardrooms of AT&T to the Hong Kong stock exchange.
Telecommunications has been heralded as a modern Messiah and cursed as a pathetic sham. It has created and destroyed empires and institutions. It has proclaimed the global village while sponsoring destructive nationalism. It has come to ordinary people, but has remained largely in the control of the ‘media’ and even 'big brother'. Experts will soon have us all traveling down a techno-information highway, destination — unknown.
Telecommunications has become the lifeblood of modern civilization. Besides all that, there’s big bucks in it
About This Book
There are a few points about this book that are worth mentioning:
||Real-world examples will appear in these boxes|
- The programming parts of this book will not use any particular language, although we may consider particular languages in dedicated chapters.