Classical Chinese/Lesson 6

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喜雨亭記

Text Middle Chinese (Baxter transliteration) Ming-T'sing literary Mandarin vocalization (IPA) Glosses Translation
亭以雨名。 deng yiX hjuX mjieng. tʱiŋ˩ ji˥˧ jy˥˧ miŋ˩. kiosk - by - rain - to name The kiosk is named after rain
誌喜也。 tsyiH xiX yaeX. tʃiɨ˨˦ hi˥˧ jiɛ˥˧. record - joy - (comment marker) to record the joy.
古者有喜。 kuX tsyaeX hjuwX xiX. ku˥˧ tʃiɛ˥˧ jiw˥˧ hi˥˧. ancient - one(s) - to have - joy When the ancient ones had something to celebrate,
則以名物。 tsok yiX mjieng mjut. tsəʔ(k) ji˥˧ miŋ˩ vuʔ(t)˩. then - by (it) - to name - object they named an object after it
示不忘也。 zyijH pjuw mjang yaeX. ʃʱiɨ˨˦ puʔ(t) vɑŋ˩ jiɛ˥˧. show - do not - forget - (comment marker) to show that they would not forget it.
周公得禾。 tsyuw kuwng tok hwa. tʃiw kuŋ təʔ(k) ɦwɔ˩. Tsyuw - duke - to gain - wheat When Duke Tsyuw (Zhou) received the Wheat,
以名其書。 yiX mjieng gi syo. ji˥˧ miŋ˩ kʱi˩ ʃy. by (it) - to name - her/his/its - writing(s) he named his written piece after it.
漢武得鼎。 xanH mjuX tok tengX. hɑn˨˦ vu˥˧ təʔ(k) tiŋ˥˧. XanH - MjuX - to gain - tengX(three legged ceremonial cauldron) When emperor XanH MjuX (Wu of Han) gained his vessel,
以名其年。 yiX mjieng gi nen. ji˥˧ miŋ˩ kʱi˩ niɛn˩. by (it) - to name - her/his/its - year He named his era after it.
叔孫勝敵。 syuwk swon syingH dek. ʃyuʔ(k) sun ʃiŋ˨˦ diʔ(k)˩. Syuwk - Swon - to win - enemy When Syuwk Swon (Shusun) prevailed against his enemy,
以名其子。 yiX mjieng gi tsiX. ji˥˧ miŋ˩ kʱi˩ tsɨ˥˧. by (it) - to name - her/his/its - son he named his son after the enemy.
其喜之大小不齊。 gi xiX tsyi dajH sjewX pjuw dzej. kʱi˩ hi˥˧ tʃiɨ dai˨˦ siɛw˥˧ puʔ(t) tsʱi˩. her/his/its - joy - (genitive marker) - to be big - to be small - do not - to be even The scale of the celebrated matter was not all the same,
其示不忘一也。 gi zyijH pjuw mjang 'jit yaeX. kʱi˩ ʃʱiɨ˨˦ puʔ(t) vɑŋ˩ 'jit jiɛ˥˧. her/his/its - to show - do not - to forget - to be one - (comment marker) yet their gesture of unforgettability were of the same intention.
予至扶風之明年。 yo tsyijH bju pjuwng tsyi mjaeng nen. jy˩ tʃiɨ˨˦ fʱu˩ fuŋ tʃiɨ miŋ˩ niɛn˩. I - to arrive - Bju - Pjuwng - (genitive marker) - morrow - year In the second year since my arrival at Bju-pjuwng (Fufeng),
始治官舍。 syiX dri kwan syaeH. ʃiɨ˥˧ tʃʱi˩ kwɔn ʃiɛ˨˦. to start - to manage - officer - house I started improving my official residence,
爲亭於堂之北。 hjwe deng 'jo dang tsyi pok. ui˩ tʱiŋ˩ ʔy tʱɑŋ˩ tʃiɨ pəʔ(k). to do - kiosk - at - hall - (genitive) - North building a kiosk to the north of the hall
而鑿池其南。 nyi dzuw/dzak drje gi nom. ɻ˩ dzuʔ(k)˩/dzɒʔ(k)˩ tʃʱi˩ kʱi˩ nam˩. and/but - to chisel - pond - her/his/its - South and carving out a pool to the south of it
引流種樹。 yinX ljuw tsyowngX dzyuH. jin˥˧ liw˩ tʃyuŋ˥˧ ʃʱy˨˦. to introduce - flow - to plant - tree to bring water in for planting trees
以爲休息之所。 yiX hjwe xjuw sik tsyi srjoX. ji˥˧ ui˩ hiw siʔ(k) tʃiɨ ʂu˥˧. (purpose marker) - to do - to rest - to pause - (genitive marker) - location in order to build a place of relief.
是歲之春。 dzyeX sjwejH tsyi tsyhwin. ʃʱiɨ'˨˦ sui˨˦ tʃiɨ tʃʰyun. this - year - (genitive marker) - the season centered around Spring equinox In the early spring of the same year,
雨麥於歧山之陽。 hjuH meak 'jo gjie srean tsyi yang. jy˨˦ məʔ(k)˩ ʔy kʱi˩ ʂan tʃiɨ jiɑŋ˩. to precipitate - wheat - at - Gjie - mountain - (genitive marker) - bright side Wheat fell from heaven to the south slope of Mount Gjie (Qi) -
其占爲有年。 gi tsyem hjwe hjuwX nen. kʱi˩ tʃiɛm ui˩ jiw˥˧ niɛn˩. it - to foretell - to hold possesion - year an omen of a plentiful year.
既而彌月不雨。 kj+jH nyi mjie ngjwot pjuw hjuX. ki˨˦ ɻ˩ mi˩ (ŋ)yuɛʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) jy˥˧. to finish - and - long - month - do not - to rain Yet since then, rain did not fall for as long as one month
民方以爲憂。 mjin pjang yiX hjwe 'juw. min˩ fɑŋ ji˥˧ ui˩ ʔiw. commoner - right then - to consider (it) - to be as - worry and the people started to considered it worrieable.
越三月。 hjwot sam ngjwot. jyuɛʔ(t)˩ sam (ŋ)yuɛʔ(t)˩. to skip - three - month Three months passed,
乙卯乃雨。 ’it maewX nojX hjuX. ʔiʔ(t) maw˥˧ nai˥˧ jy˥˧. ’It - MaewX - only then - to rain it was the day of ’It MaewX (Yimao, 52nd day in a 60-day cycle), and only then did rain fall.
甲子又雨。 kaep tsiX hjuwH hjuX. kiaʔ(p) tsɨ˥˧ jiw˨˦ jy˥˧. Kaep - TsiX - further more - to rain On the day of Kaep TsiX (Jiazi, first day in a 60-day cycle), it rained again.
民以爲未足。 mjin yiX hjwe mj+jH tsjowk. min˩ ji˥˧ ui˩ vi˨˦ tsyuʔ(k). commoner - to consider (it) - to be as - not yet - to be enough People did not feel that it was enough.
丁卯大雨。 teng maewX dajH hjuX. tiŋ maw˥˧ dai˨˦ jy˥˧. Teng - MaewX - to be big - to rain On the day of Teng MaewX (Dingmao, 4th day in a 60-day cycle), rain fell heavily
三日乃止。 sam nyit nojX tsyiX. sam ʒiʔ(t)˩ nai˥˧ tʃiɨ˥˧. three - day - only then - to stop and did not stop until three days had passed.
官吏相與慶於庭。 kwan liH sjang yoX khjaengH 'jo deng. kwɔn li˨˦ siɑŋ jy˥˧ kʰiŋ˨˦ ʔy tʱiŋ˩. officer - government worker - mutually - to join - to celebrate - at - court The officers joined each other celebrating in the court,
商賈相與歌於市。 syang kuX sjang yoX ka 'jo dzyiX. ʃiɑŋ ku˥˧ siɑŋ jy˥˧ kɔ ʔy ʃʱiɨ'˨˦. merchants - - mutually - to join - to sing - at - market the merchants with each other singing in the market
農夫相與忭於野。 nowng pju sjang yoX bjenH 'jo yaeX. nuŋ˩ fu siɑŋ jy˥˧ biɛn˨˦ ʔy jiɛ˥˧. farming - man - mutually - to join - to rejoice - at - field and the farmers with each other rejoicing in the fields
憂者以喜。 ’juw tsyaeX yiX xiX. ʔiw tʃiɛ˥˧ ji˥˧ hi˥˧. worrying - one(s) - by (it) - to be joyful The worriers were rejoiced for it.
病者以愈。 bjaengH tsyaeX yiX yuX. biŋ˨˦ tʃiɛ˥˧ ji˥˧ jy˥˧. illness - one(s) - by (it) - to heal and the sick healed by it.
而吾亭適成。 nyi ngu deng syek dzyeng. ɻ˩ ŋu˩ tʱiŋ˩ ʃiʔ(k) tʃʱiŋ˩. and - my - kiosk - right then - to accomplish My kiosk happened to finish building at the same time,
於是舉酒於亭上。 ’jo dzyeX kjoX tsjuwX 'jo deng dzyangH. ʔy ʃʱiɨ'˨˦ ky˥˧ tsiw˥˧ ʔy tʱiŋ˩ ʃʱiɑŋ˨˦. at - such - to raise - alcohol - at - kiosk - upside thus I raised my cup standing at the kiosk
以屬客而告之。 yiX tsyowk khaek nyi kawH tsyi. ji˥˧ tʃyuʔ(k) kʰəʔ(k) ɻ˩ kaw˨˦ tʃiɨ. so as to - to address - guest(s) - and - to tell - then addressing the guests
hjwot jyuɛʔ(t)˩ to say saying
「五日不雨。 “nguX nyit pjuw hjuX. “ŋu˥˧ ʒiʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) jy˥˧. five - day - do not - to rain "Were there five days without rain,
可乎」 khaX hu” kʰɔ˥˧ ɦu˩” acceptable - (interrogative marker) would it be fine?".
hjwot jyuɛʔ(t)˩ to say They answered
「五日不雨。 “nguX nyit pjuw hjuX. “ŋu˥˧ ʒiʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) jy˥˧. five - day - do not - to rain "Were there five days without rain,
則無麥」 tsok mju meak” tsəʔ(k) vu˩ məʔ(k)˩” in that case then - none - wheat there would be no wheat."
「十日不雨。 “dzyip nyit pjuw hjuX. “ʃʱiʔ(p)˩ ʒiʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) jy˥˧. ten - day - do not - to rain "Were there ten days without rain,
可乎」 khaX hu” kʰɔ˥˧ ɦu˩” acceptable - (interrogative marker) would it be fine?".
hjwot jyuɛʔ(t)˩ to say They answered
「十日不雨。 “dzyip nyit pjuw hjuX. “ʃʱiʔ(p)˩ ʒiʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) jy˥˧. ten - day - do not - to rain "Were there ten days without rain,
則無禾」 tsok mju hwa” tsəʔ(k) vu˩ ɦwɔ˩” in that case then - none - rice plant there would be no rice."
無麥無禾。 mju meak mju hwa. vu˩ məʔ(k)˩ vu˩ ɦwɔ˩. none - wheat - none - rice plant Without wheat or rice
歲且薦饑。 sjwejH tshjaeX tsenH kj+j. sui˨˦ tsʰiɛ˥˧ tsiɛn˨˦ ki. year - will - to send forth - unripe grain but only unripe grains yield by the year,
獄訟繁興。 ngjowk zjowngH bjon xing. (ŋ)yuʔ(k)˩ sʱyuŋ˨˦ fʱan˩ hiŋ. crime - prosecution - to flourish - to be active there will be frequent conflicts brought to the court
而盜賊滋熾。 nyi dawH dzok tsi tsyhiH. ɻ˩ daw˨˦ dzəʔ(k)˩ tsɨ tʃʰiɨ˨˦. and - thieves - - to start to grow - to burn hot and crimes will thrive.
則吾與二三子雖欲優游以樂於此亭。 tsok ngu yoX nyijH sam tsiX swij yowk 'juw yuw yiX lak 'jo tshjeX deng. tsəʔ(k) ŋu˩ jy˥˧ ɻ˨˦ sam tsɨ˥˧ sui jyuʔ(k)˩ ʔiw jiw˩ ji˥˧ lɒʔ(k)˩ ʔy tsʰɨ˥˧ tʱiŋ˩. in that case then - I - with - two - three - sir - even though / even if - to want - to relax - - so as to - to enjoy oneself - at - this - kiosk In that case, even if you, my sirs, and I would like to enjoy leisure in this kiosk,
其可得邪。 gi khaX tok yae. kʱi˩ kʰɔ˥˧ təʔ(k) jiɛ˩. (subjunctive marker) - to be possible - to get - (interrogative marker) could we possibly attain it?
今天不遺斯民。 kim then pjuw ywij sje mjin. kim tʰiɛn puʔ(t) j(u)i˩ sɨ min˩. now - heaven - do not - to leave behind - this - commoner(s) Yet now Heaven has not abandoned this people
始旱而賜之以雨。 syiX hanX nyi sjeH tsyi yiX hjuX. ʃiɨ˥˧ ɦɑn'˨˦ ɻ˩ sɨ˨˦ tʃiɨ ji˥˧ jy˥˧. in the beginning - draught - and/but - to grant - them - with - rain and granted them rain despite the draught in the beginning,
使吾與二三子。 sriX ngu yoX nyijH sam tsiX. ʂɨ˥˧ ŋu˩ jy˥˧ ɻ˨˦ sam tsɨ˥˧. to let - me - with - two - three - sir making it for us
得相與優游而樂於此亭者。 tok sjang yoX 'juw yuw nyi lak 'jo tshjeX deng tsyaeX. təʔ(k) siɑŋ jy˥˧ ʔiw jiw˩ ɻ˩ lɒʔ(k)˩ ʔy tsʰɨ˥˧ tʱiŋ˩ tʃiɛ˥˧. to get to - mutually - to join - to relax - - and - to enjoy oneself - at - this - kiosk - (topic marker) possible to rejoice with leisure in this kiosk.
皆雨之賜也。 keaj hjuX tsyi sjeH yaeX. kiai jy˥˧ tʃiɨ sɨ˨˦ jiɛ˥˧. in all - rain - (genitive marker) - granting - (comment marker) All of such is the benefaction of the rain;
其又可忘邪。 gi hjuwH khaX mjang yae. kʱi˩ jiw˨˦ kʰɔ˥˧ vɑŋ˩ jiɛ˩. it - further more - to be allowed - to forget - (interrogative marker) Could we, after all these, forget it?
既以名亭。 kj+jH yiX mjieng deng. ki˨˦ ji˥˧ miŋ˩ tʱiŋ˩. To have done - by (it) - to name - kiosk After naming the kiosk after the rain,
又從而歌之。 hjuwH dzjowng nyi ka tsyi. jiw˨˦ tsʱyuŋ˩ ɻ˩ kɔ tʃiɨ. further more - to follow - and - to sing - it we proceeded to sing about it,
hjwot jyuɛʔ(t)˩ to say saying
「使天而雨珠。 “sriX then nyi hjuH tsyu. “ʂɨ˥˧ tʰiɛn ɻ˩ jy˨˦ tʃy. to let - heaven - and/but - to precipitate - pearl "Shall pearls fall from heaven,
寒者不得以爲襦。 han tsyaeX pjuw tok yiX hjwe nyu. ɦɑn˩ tʃiɛ˥˧ puʔ(t) təʔ(k) ji˥˧ ui˩ ʒy˩. coldness - one(s) - do not - to get to - by (it) - to make - short coat they will not provide those in cold to weave.
使天而雨玉。 sriX then nyi hjuH ngjowk. ʂɨ˥˧ tʰiɛn ɻ˩ jy˨˦ (ŋ)yuʔ(k)˩. to let - heaven - and/but - to precipitate - jade Shall jade fall from heaven,
飢者不得以爲粟。 kij tsyaeX pjuw tok yiX hjwe sjowk. ki tʃiɛ˥˧ puʔ(t) təʔ(k) ji˥˧ ui˩ syuʔ(k). hunger - one(s) - do not - to get to - by (it) - to make - millet they will not provide those of hunger to cook.
一雨三日。 ’jit hjuX sam nyit. ʔiʔ(t) jy˥˧ sam ʒiʔ(t). one - rain - three - day For a rainfall to last for three days,
伊誰之力。 ’jij dzywij tsyi lik. ʔi ʂʱui˩ tʃiɨ liʔ(k)˩. to thank to - who - (genitive marker) - force to whose work is it to thank?
民曰太守。 mjin hjwot thajH syuwH. min˩ jyuɛʔ(t)˩ tʰai˨˦ ʃiw˨˦. commoner - to say - ThajH - SyuwH The people say it is ThajH SyuwH (Taishou, a type of officer)
太守不有。 thajH syuwH pjuw hjuwX. tʰai˨˦ ʃiw˨˦ puʔ(t) jiw˥˧. ThajH - SyuwH - do not - to hold possession ThajH SyuwH does not claim to own it.
歸之天子。 kjw+j tsyi then tsiX. kui tʃiɨ tʰiɛn tsɨ˥˧. To attribute - it - heaven - son Attributing it to the emperor (lit. Son of Heaven),
天子曰不然。 then tsiX hjwot pjuw nyen. tʰiɛn tsɨ˥˧ jyuɛʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) ʒiɛn˩. heaven - son - to say - not - so the emperor says no.
歸之造物。 kjw+j tsyi dzawX mjut. kui tʃiɨ dzaw'˨˦ vuʔ(t)˩. To attribute - it - making - things Attributing it to the Creator,
造物不自以爲功。 dzawX mjut pjuw dzijH yiX hjwe kuwng. dzaw'˨˦ vuʔ(t)˩ puʔ(t) dzɨ˨˦ ji˥˧ ui˩ kuŋ. making - things - do not - self - to consider (it) - to be as - achievement the Creator refuses to be the sole hero.
歸之太空。 kjw+j tsyi thajH khuwng. kui tʃiɨ tʰai˨˦ kʰuŋ. To attribute - it - supreme - emptiness Attributing it to the universe,
太空冥冥。 thajH khuwng meng meng. tʰai˨˦ kʰuŋ miŋ˩ miŋ˩. supreme - emptiness - dark and vast - the universe is dark and vast
不可得而名。 pjuw khaX tok nyi mjieng. puʔ(t) kʰɔ˥˧ təʔ(k) ɻ˩ miŋ˩. do not - can - to get to - and - to name with nothing confined by names.
吾以名吾亭」 ngu yiX mjieng ngu deng” ŋu˩ ji˥˧ miŋ˩ ŋu˩ tʱiŋ˩” I - by (it) - to name - my - kiosk I shall have it for the name of my kiosk."