Canadian Criminal Procedure and Practice/Cases/Warrantless Searches

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Detention and Search: Generally[edit]

Case Citation s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
R. v. Ahmed-Kadir and McFadyen 2011 BCPC 250 N Y N
R. v. Brown 2011 ONSC 6250 - N N vehicle pulled over after chase; alleged detained by police pursuit
R. v. Ryan 2010 NJ No. 173 N Y Y breath test
R. v. G.C. 2010 NSPC 10 [1] N N N while executing search warrant, pat-down search of accused for weapons; finds drugs
R. v. Cunsolo 2009 CanLII 60775 (ON S.C.) N Y N premature arrest of fraudster
R. v. N.O. 2009 ABCA 75 N Y Y police observe hand-to-hand, search accused, find drugs
R. v. Harada 2008 BCSC 1346 N N N pull over car; patdown search of driver
R. v. Nesbeth [2008] O.J. No. 3086 (C.A.) - Y Y
R. v. Peters 2007 ABCA 181 N N N police see accused matching description of person with gun; searched backpack twice, found gun
R. v. Chambers 2007 ABQB 712 N N N after seeing signs of drug transaction, accused is strip searched, and searched vehicle
R. v. Y.(S.) 2006 ONCJ 403 N N N person standing near car registered to person with warrant; several minor reasons for pull-over
R. v. Ngo 2005 ONCJ 217 arbitrary detention
R. v. B.A.D.G. 2005 BCPC 504 N N N police get report of B&E suspects, see accused shortly after; patdown search reveals knife
R. v. Sepulveda 2005 BCPC 236 N N N pat-down search of woman known to police; accused spit on officer
R. v. K.W. 2004 O.J. No.5327 (OCJ) Y police officers had no grounds to suspect that the accused was connected to any criminal activity; he “must be doing something” because of the very general surrounding circumstances.
R. v. Power 2003 SKQB 334
R. v. Burke 1997 CanLII 10867 (NL C.A.) N N N overturn s.9 breach; officer had sufficient reason to pull over accused
R. v. Smelly boy 1997 CanLII 10867 (NL C.A.) N N N smelly boy had stupid grass on him
  • R. v. Dauda, 2011 ONCJ 799 || s.8 and 9 violation, exlcuded under 24(2); seen avoiding police, threw something away; found <4 g cocaine

Vehicle Stops[edit]

Personal Search[edit]

Case Citation s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
R. v. Rose 2012 ONSC 350 ? Y Y arrested accused based on finding marijuana on co-accused.
R. v. Osolky 2009 ONCJ 445 Y N Y patdown search; evidence excluded
R. v. F. (C.J.) 2008 SKPC 51 N N N officer responds to mischief complaint; sees youths; accused run away; searches him and finds weapon;
R. v. Ferdinand 2004 O.J. No. 3209 (SCJ) Y Y officer’s hunch about the actions of the accused, (based on his “Spidey sense,”) was insufficient basis

Vehicle Search[edit]

Case Citation s.8 s.9 s.24 Evidence at issue Summary
R v Turpin 2012 SKCA 50 Y Y Y drugs
R. v. Forster 2009 ABPC 278 Y - Y drugs search of vehicle incident to arrest was improper. The officer cannot have reasonably expected to find evidence in vehicle from an offence 6 months prior.(para. 18-19). Excluded under s. 24(2), police were careless.
R. v. Anderson 2011 ABPC 326 Y N Y crack cocaine drugs found in vehicle
R. v. Ruddock 2011 ABPC 105 Y N Y also found breach of s.10(a) and 10(b)
R v Savage 2011 SKCA 65 N N N use of sniffer dog;
R. v. Chubak 2009 ABCA 8 N - - drugs Officers respond to report of stabbing/beating—see vehicle with D inside with bear spray- D searched and find knife on him; police search car for more weapons; police find weapons, drugs, and ringing cell phone; trial judge says police can’t search for drugs; appeal court says they can; search for multiple reasons is valid as long as objectively justified (para. 18)
R. v. Arabi 2007 ABQB 303 Y Y Y search of person and vehicle after seeing possible drug transaction
R. v. Dykhuizen 2007 ABQB 489 Y - ? mistaken ID of accused for a kidnapping suspect; found licence was expired; searched
R. v. Calder 2006 ABCA 307 Y Y Y gun sees possible drug transaction; searches backpack, finds gun
R. v. T.T.H. 2006 ABPC 320 Y - N search vehicle based on unsafe driving and suspicious comments from driver
R. v. Batzer 2005 CanLII 33026 (ON C.A.) Y N Y search of glovebox of car after detaining accused on rough description
R. v. Cox 1999 CanLII 13119 (NB C.A.) Y Y Y plainclothes officer searched car at roadblock due to smell of "bulk" tobacco
R. v. Keshane 1995 CanLII 4054 (SK C.A.) Y - N warrantless search of a trunk of accused's car
R. v. D. (I.D.) 1987 CanLII 206 (SK C.A.) Y - ? search of vehicle on spotting it stopped in ditch and detect smell of alcohol

Smell of marijuana[edit]

Case s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
R. v. Fierro, 2012 ABPC 1 N N N detailed review of law
R. v. Grunwald, 2010 BCCA 288 N N N traffic check set-up; stops accused's vehicle, smells marijuana, sees large bags in back of truck; no expectation of privacy
R. v. Harding, 2010 ABCA 180 N N N police stop car, obscured plates, rental car, two large bags in the back, smell marijuana -- search incident to arrest finds drugs -- no breach of s.10(b)
R. v. Pearson, 2009 ABQB 382 Y - N breach found but evidence admitted
R. v. Hood, 2008 BCPC 217 Y ? Y
R. v. Rosa, 2008 ABQB 723
R. v. Webster, 2008 BCCA 458 N N N
R. v. Favorite, 2008 CanLII 13364 N N N
R. v. Charles, 2007 CanLII 39760 (ON SC) Y ? Y
R. v. Huynh, 2005 ABPC 238 N - - no s.8 breach found
R. v. Calderon, 2004 CanLII 7569 Y Y Y
R. v. Ladouceur, 2002 SKCA 73 ? Y Y
R. v. Sewell, 2003 SKCA 52 N - -
R. v. Power, 2003 SKQB 334 N N N
R. v. Yan & Chan, 2002 BCPC 574 Y - Y pull over on basis of broad search for cat burglar; smells marijuana from car ; breach of s. 8 found -- evidence excluded
R. v. Duong, 2002 BCCA 43 N no s.8 breach -- smell of marijuana coming out front door of house
R. v. Zagar, 1998 ABPC 59 Y - Y
R. v. Lawrence, [1994] O.J. No. 3272 N N N smell fresh burnt marijuana; allowed search down pants of accused
R. v. Iturriaga, 1993 CanLII 2517 (BC CA) Y ? Y

Informers/Tips[edit]

Case s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
Hewlett v. R., 2012 CanLII 46405 (NL SCTD) N - N search warrant
R. v. Gorman and Gorman, 2012 ONSC 4605 N - N search warrant
R v Franko, 2012 ABQB 282 N - N confidential source reports drug dealers activities
R v Perpeluk, 2012 SKQB 189 Y - Y two confidential informers give tips
R. v. Quach, 2012 ABPC 57 N N N evidence admitted, judge had no issue with motive of informer
R. v. Soto, 2011 ONCA 828 N N N informer reports dealing out of a house; police corroborate with observations of house
R. v. Bick, 2011 ONCJ 503 N N N search of house based on tip
R. v. Hillgardener, 2010 ABCA 80 N N N anonymous informer was reliable
R. v. Jir, 2010 BCCA 497 Y N N
R. v. Safi, 2010 ABCA 151 N N N
R. v. Raphael, [2010] O.J. No. 5916, 2010 ONSC 5709 Y Y Y
Bjornson, 2009 BCSC 1779 N N N
R. v. Tetreault, 2007 BCSC 1624 N - N
R. v. Wing, 2007 BCSC 1959 Y ? N
McCallum, 2006 SKQB 287 N N N
Goodine v. R., 2006 NBCA 109 N ? N
R. v. Layton, 2006 BCPC 655 N ? ?
R. v. Murphy, 2006 CanLII 12417 (ON CA) N N N confidential informer gave sufficient details to form grounds of arrest
R. v. Bracchi, 2005 BCCA 461 [2] N N N
R. v. Campbell, 2003 MBCA 76 (CanLII) [3] Y - N
R. v. Myers, 2003 CanLII 36859 (ON SC) Y N N
R. v. Ungaro, 2003 BCPC 137 Y ? Y
R. v. Philpott [2002] O.J. No. 4872 search warrant
R. v. Jones, 2001 CanLII 28336 (ON SC) Y - Y warrant to search apartment
R. v. Warford, 2001 NFCA 64 N N N
R. v. Lewis, 1998 CanLII 7116 (ON CA) Y - N
R. v. Smellie, 1994 CanLII 1612 (BC CA) N N N multiple informers
R. v. Zammit, 1993 CanLII 3424 (ON CA) Y - Y
R. v. Lamy, 1993 CanLII 3368 (MB CA) Y - Y
R. v. Charlton, 1992 CanLII 367 (BC CA) N N N
R. v. Cheecham, (1989) 51 C.C.C. (3d) 498 Y ? Y
R. v. Pastro 1988 CanLII 214 (SK C.A.) Y ? Y

Search Incident to Arrest[edit]

Case s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
R v Schira, 2011 SKPC 140 Y N Y breach of s.10(b) as well; contents of blackberry messages excluded
R. v. Ward, 2010 BCCA 1 Y ? N search incident to arrest -- found crack
R. v. Tosczak, 2010 SKCA 10 N ? N pat-down search incident to arrest for possession of marijuana
R. v. Goodwin, 2009 ABQB 710 Y ? ? arrest invalid
R. v. Chubak, 2009 ABCA 8 ? ? ?
R. v. Lamour, 2007 CanLII 15242 (ON S.C.) Y ? N arrested accused from impaired driving; did inventory search that included non-plain view items
R. v. Roberts, 2007 CanLII 39895 (ON S.C.) N N N search vehicle incident to arrest for firearm lawful
R. v. Kitaitchik, 2002 CanLII 45000 (ON C.A.) Y ? N warrantless seizure of clothing worn by accused in murder investigation

Search of residence[edit]

Case s.8 s.9 s.24 Summary
R. v. Latham and Ryan, 2012 BCPC 78 Y - Y warrantless search of basement apartment
R v Helary, 2012 SKPC 15 Y ? Y
R v Laliberte, 2011 SKPC 190 Y - N source info brings police to house; they are invited into vestibule; smell marijuana; enter into reminder of house after accused runs away. No consent to enter.
R. v. Got, 2011 BCPC 328 Y ? ? warrantless entry into residence found in violation of s.8
R. v. Stevens, 2011 ONCJ 794 Y - Y police enter home without warrant and search house
R. v. Thompson, 2010 ONSC 2862 Y - N search of home found drugs
R. v. Watson, 2010 ONSC 448 Y Y pat-down search finds drugs; followed by search of residence

Breath sample[edit]

See Canadian_Criminal_Law/Appendix/Case_Law#Impaired_Driving

Cell phones[edit]

Case Summary
R. v. Mann, 2012 BCSC 1247 (CanLII)
R. v. Munro & Munro, 2012 ONSC 43 cell phone search indicent to arrest -- admitted
R. v. Groves, 2011 ONCJ 350
R. v. Dorey, 2011 NSPC 85
R. v. Hiscoe, 2011 NSPC 84
R. v. Manley, 2011 ONCA 128
R. v. Fearon, 2010 ONCJ 645
R. v. Zahrebelny, 2010 NSPC 91
R. v. Finnikin, 2009 CanLII 82187 (ON SC)

Location Tracker[edit]

Case Summary
R. v. Bacon, 2012 BCCA 323 warrantless tracker violated s.8 but saved under 24(2)