Canadian Criminal Evidence/Proving Facts

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Introduction[edit]

There are several ways that facts can be established. The predominant manner of establishing fact is through evidence. In fact, almost all manners of proof require some amount of evidence and the real distinction is the proximity of the evidence to the fact at issue.

Facts are established by:

  1. Direct Evidence
  2. Circumstantial Evidence (including inferences)
  3. Legal Presumptions
  4. Judicial Notice
  5. Admissions of Fact

Direct Evidence[edit]

Direct evidence is evidence that is put forward to directly establish a fact which resolves a matter at issue. No inferences of fact need to be drawn to resolve the matter at issue. A first-hand eyewitness testifying to seeing a criminal offence take place is the most obvious example of direct evidence.

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