# Calculus/Differentiation/Applications of Derivatives/Solutions

## Contents

## Relative Extrema[edit]

Find the relative maximum(s) and minimum(s), if any, of the following functions.

There are no roots of the derivative. The derivative fails to exist when x=-1 , but the function also fails to exists at that point, so it is not an extremum. Thus, **the function has no relative extrema.**

There are no roots of the derivative. The derivative fails to exist at . . **The point is a minimum** since is nonnegative because of the even numerator in the exponent. **The function has no relative maximum.**

Since the second derivative is positive, ** corresponds to a relative minimum.**

The derivative fails to exist when , but so does the function. **There is no relative maximum.**

Since the second derivative of at is positive, ** corresponds to a relative mimimum.**

Since the second derivative of at is negative, ** corresponds to a relative maximum.**

Since the second derivative is positive, ** corresponds to a relative minimum. There is no relative maximum.**

Since is positive, ** corresponds to a relative minimum.**

Since is negative, ** corresponds to a relative maximum.**

## Range of Function[edit]

Since is negative, corresponds to a relative maximum.

For , is positive, which means that the function is increasing. Coming from very negative -values, increases from a very negative value to reach a relative maximum of at .

For , is negative, which means that the function is decreasing.

Since is positive, corresponds to a relative minimum.

Between the function decreases from to , then jumps to and decreases until it reaches a relative minimum of at .

For , is positive, so the function increases from a minimum of .

The above analysis shows that there is a gap in the function's range between and .

## Absolute Extrema[edit]

Determine the absolute maximum and minimum of the following functions on the given domain

is differentiable on , so the extreme value theorem guarantees the existence of an absolute maximum and minimum on . Find and check the critical points:

Check the endpoint:

**Maximum at ; minimum at **

**Maximum at ; minimum at **

## Determine Intervals of Change[edit]

Find the intervals where the following functions are increasing or decreasing

is the equation of a line with negative slope, so is positive for and negative for .

This means that the function is **increasing on and decreasing on **.

is the equation of a bowl-shaped parabola that crosses the -axis at and , so is negative for and positive elsewhere.

This means that the function is **decreasing on and increasing elsewhere.**

is the equation of a hill-shaped parabola that crosses the -axis at and , so is positive for and negative elsewhere.

This means that the function is **increasing on and decreasing elsewhere.**

If you did the previous exercise then no calculation is required since this function has the same derivative as that function and thus is increasing and decreasing on the same intervals; i.e., the function is **increasing on and decreasing elsewhere**.

is negative on and positive elsewhere.

So is **decreasing on and increasing elsewhere.**

is **decreasing on and increasing elsewhere.**

## Determine Intervals of Concavity[edit]

Find the intervals where the following functions are concave up or concave down

The function is **concave down everywhere.**

When , is negative, and when , is positive.

This means that the function is **concave down on and concave up on .**

is positive when and negative when .

This means that the function is **concave up on and concave down on .**

If you did the previous exercise then no calculation is required since this function has the same second derivative as that function and thus is concave up and concave down on the same intervals; i.e., the function is **concave up on and concave down on .**

is positive when and negative when .

This means that the function is **concave down on and concave up on .**

is positive when and negative when .

This means that the function is **concave down on and concave up on .**

## Word Problems[edit]

Velocity is the rate in change of position with respect to time. The raptor's velocity relative to you is given by

After 4 seconds, the rate of change in position with respect to time is

Set up a coordinate system with the origin at the intersection and the -axis pointing north. We assume that the position of the bike heading north is a function of the position of the bike heading east.

The distance between the bikes is given by

Let represent the elapsed time in hours. We want when . Apply the chain rule to :

Thus, the bikes are moving away from one another at **13 mph**.

The volume of the can as a function of the radius, , and the height, , is

We are constricted to have a can with a volume of , so we use this fact to relate the radius and the height:

The surface area of the side is

and the cost of the side is

The surface area of the top and bottom (which is also the cost) is

The total cost is given by

We want to minimize , so take the derivative:

Find the critical points:

Check the second derivative to see if this point corresponds to a maximum or minimum:

Since the second derivative is positive, the critical point corresponds to a minimum. Thus, the minimum cost is