Calculus/Algebra
The purpose of this section is for readers to review important algebraic concepts. It is necessary to understand algebra in order to do calculus. If you are confident of your ability, you may skim through this section.
Rules of arithmetic and algebra[edit  edit source]
The following laws are true for all whether these are numbers, variables, functions, or more complex expressions involving numbers, variable and/or functions.
Addition[edit  edit source]
 Commutative Law: .
 Associative Law: .
 Additive Identity: .
 Additive Inverse: .
Subtraction[edit  edit source]
 Definition: .
Multiplication[edit  edit source]
 Commutative law: .
 Associative law: .
 Multiplicative identity: .
 Multiplicative inverse: , whenever
 Distributive law: .
Division[edit  edit source]
 Definition: , whenever .
Let's look at an example to see how these rules are used in practice.
(from the definition of division)  
(from the associative law of multiplication)  
(from multiplicative inverse)  
(from multiplicative identity) 
Of course, the above is much longer than simply cancelling out in both the numerator and denominator. However, it is important to know what the rules are so as to know when you are allowed to cancel. Occasionally people do the following, for instance, which is incorrect:
 .
The correct simplification is
 ,
where the number cancels out in both the numerator and the denominator.
Interval notation[edit  edit source]
There are a few different ways that one can express with symbols a specific interval (all the numbers between two numbers). One way is with inequalities. If we wanted to denote the set of all numbers between, say, 2 and 4, we could write "all satisfying ". This excludes the endpoints 2 and 4 because we use instead of . If we wanted to include the endpoints, we would write "all satisfying ."
Another way to write these intervals would be with interval notation. If we wished to convey "all satisfying " we would write . This does not include the endpoints 2 and 4. If we wanted to include the endpoints we would write . If we wanted to include 2 and not 4 we would write ; if we wanted to exclude 2 and include 4, we would write .
Thus, we have the following table:
Endpoint conditions  Inequality notation  Interval notation 

Including both 2 and 4  all satisfying  
Not including 2 nor 4  all satisfying  
Including 2 not 4  all satisfying  
Including 4 not 2  all satisfying 
In general, we have the following table, where .
Meaning  Interval Notation  Set Notation 

All values greater than or equal to and less than or equal to  
All values greater than and less than  
All values greater than or equal to and less than  
All values greater than and less than or equal to  
All values greater than or equal to  
All values greater than  
All values less than or equal to  
All values less than  
All values 
Note that and must always have an exclusive parenthesis rather than an inclusive bracket. This is because is not a number, and therefore cannot be in our set. is really just a symbol that makes things easier to write, like the intervals above.
The interval is called an open interval, and the interval is called a closed interval.
Intervals are sets and we can use set notation to show relations between values and intervals. If we want to say that a certain value is contained in an interval, we can use the symbol to denote this. For example, . Likewise, the symbol denotes that a certain element is not in an interval. For example .
Exponents and radicals[edit  edit source]
There are a few rules and properties involving exponents and radicals. As a definition we have that if is a positive integer then denotes factors of . That is,
If then we say that .
If is a negative integer then we say that .
If we have an exponent that is a fraction then we say that . In the expression , is called the index of the radical, the symbol is called the radical sign, and is called the radicand.
In addition to the previous definitions, the following rules apply:
Rule  Example 

Simplifying expressions involving radicals[edit  edit source]
We will use the following conventions for simplifying expressions involving radicals:
 Given the expression , write this as
 No fractions under the radical sign
 No radicals in the denominator
 The radicand has no exponentiated factors with exponent greater than or equal to the index of the radical
Example: Simplify the expression Using convention 1, we rewrite the given expression as
The expression now violates convention 2. To get rid of the fraction in the radical, apply the rule and simplify the result:
The resulting expression violates convention 3. To get rid of the radical in the denominator, multiply by :
Notice that . Since the index of the radical is 2, our expression violates convention 4. We can reduce the exponent of the expression under the radical as follows:

Exercise[edit  edit source]
Logarithms[edit  edit source]
Consider the equation
(5)
is called the base and is called the exponent. Suppose we would like to solve for . We would like to apply an operation to both sides of the equation that will get rid of the base on the righthand side of the equation. The operation we want is called the logarithm, or log for short, and it is defined as follows:
 exactly if and , , and .
Logarithms are taken with respect to some base. What the equation is saying is that is the exponent of that will give you .
Example[edit  edit source]
Example: Calculate is the number such that . Well , so 
Common bases for logarithms[edit  edit source]
When the base is not specified, is taken to mean the base 10 logarithm. Later on in our study of calculus we will commonly work with logarithms with base . In fact, the base logarithm comes up so often that it has its own name and symbol. It is called the natural logarithm, and its symbol is . In computer science the base 2 logarithm often comes up.
Properties of logarithms[edit  edit source]
Logarithmic addition and subtraction[edit  edit source]
Logarithms have the property that . To see why this is true, suppose that:
and
These assumptions imply that
and
Then by the properties of exponents
According to the definition of the logarithm
Similarly, the property that also hold true using the same method.
Historically, the development of logarithms was motivated by the usefulness of this fact for simplifying hand calculations by replacing tedious multiplication by table lookups and addition.
Logarithmic powers and roots[edit  edit source]
Another useful property of logarithms is that . To see why, consider the expression . Let us assume that
By the definition of the logarithm
Now raise each side of the equation to the power and simplify to get
Now if you take the base log of both sides, you get
Solving for shows that
Similarly, the expression holds true using the same methods.
Converting between bases[edit  edit source]
Most scientific calculators have the and functions built in., which do not include logarithms with other bases. Consider how one might compute , where and are given known numbers, when we can only compute logarithms in some base . First, let us assume that
Then the definition of logarithm implies that
If we take the base log of each side, we get
Solving for , we find that
For example, if we only use base 10 to calculate , we get .
Identities of logarithms summary[edit  edit source]
A table is provided below for a summary of logarithmic identities.
Formula  Example  

Product  
Quotient  
Power  
Root  
Change of base 
Factoring and roots[edit  edit source]
Given the expression , one may ask "what are the values of that make this expression 0?" If we factor we obtain
.
If , then one of the factors on the right becomes zero. Therefore, the whole must be zero. So, by factoring we have discovered the values of that render the expression zero. These values are termed "roots." In general, given a quadratic polynomial that factors as
then we have that and are roots of the original polynomial.
A special case to be on the look out for is the difference of two squares, . In this case, we are always able to factor as
For example, consider . On initial inspection we would see that both and are squares of and , respectively. Applying the previous rule we have
The AC method[edit  edit source]
There is a way of simplifying the process of factoring using the AC method. Suppose that a quadratic polynomial has a formula of
If there are numbers and that satisfy both
Then, the result of factoring will be
The quadratic formula[edit  edit source]
The quadratic formula
Given any quadratic equation , all solutions of the equation are given by the quadratic formula:
Note that the value of will affect the number of real solutions of the equation.
If  Then 

There are two real solutions for the equation  
There are only one real solutions for the equation  
There are no real solutions for the equation 
Example: Find all the roots of Finding the roots is equivalent to solving the equation . Applying the quadratic formula with , we have:

The quadratic formula can also help with factoring, as the next example demonstrates.
Example: Factor the polynomial We already know from the previous example that the polynomial has roots and . Our factorization will take the form
You can see that solves the equation. So the factorization is 
Vieta's formulae[edit  edit source]
Vieta's formulae relate the coefficients of a polynomial to sums and products of its roots. It is very convenient because under certain circumstances when the sums and products of the quadratic's roots are provided, one does not require to solve the whole quadratic polynomial.
Vieta's formulae in quadratic polynomials
Given any quadratic equation , The roots of the quadratic polynomial satisfy
Simplifying rational expressions[edit  edit source]
Consider the two polynomials
and
When we take the quotient of the two we obtain
The ratio of two polynomials is called a rational expression. Many times we would like to simplify such a beast. For example, say we are given . We may simplify this in the following way:
This is nice because we have obtained something we understand quite well, , from something we didn't.
Formulas of multiplication of polynomials[edit  edit source]
Here are some formulas that can be quite useful for solving polynomial problems:
Polynomial Long Division[edit  edit source]
Suppose we would like to divide one polynomial by another. The procedure is similar to long division of numbers and is illustrated in the following example:
Example[edit  edit source]
Divide (the dividend or numerator) by (the divisor or denominator) Similar to long division of numbers, we set up our problem as follows: First we have to answer the question, how many times does go into ? To find out, divide the leading term of the dividend by leading term of the divisor. So it goes in times. We record this above the leading term of the dividend: , and we multiply by and write this below the dividend as follows: Now we perform the subtraction, bringing down any terms in the dividend that aren't matched in our subtrahend: Now we repeat, treating the bottom line as our new dividend: In this case we have no remainder. 
Application: Factoring Polynomials[edit  edit source]
We can use polynomial long division to factor a polynomial if we know one of the factors in advance. For example, suppose we have a polynomial and we know that is a root of . If we perform polynomial long division using P(x) as the dividend and as the divisor, we will obtain a polynomial such that , where the degree of is one less than the degree of .
Exercise[edit  edit source]
Use ^
to write exponents:
Application: Breaking up a rational function[edit  edit source]
Similar to the way one can convert an improper fraction into an integer plus a proper fraction, one can convert a rational function whose numerator has degree and whose denominator has degree with into a polynomial plus a rational function whose numerator has degree and denominator has degree with .
Suppose that divided by has quotient and remainder . That is
Dividing both sides by gives
will have degree less than .
Example[edit  edit source]
Write as a polynomial plus a rational function with numerator having degree less than the denominator. so 