CCNA Certification/Introduction

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 CCNA Certification 

AcknowledgementsIntroductionThe OSI ModelApplication LayerTransport LayerNetwork LayerAddressingRouting ProtocolsData Link LayerSwitchingPhysical LayerRouter OperationAdvanced Addressing TopicsAdvanced Routing TopicsAdvanced Switching TopicsSecurityWANConfigurationConclusionReferencesAbout the ExamCisco Router CommandsQuick Reference Sheet


CCNA certification is a cornerstone of many IT careers. This book is a comprehensive study guide for the CCNA Intro, CCNA ICND and CCNA Certification exams. Its target audience is a high school student, a first year community college or any adult wanting to understand networking better.

About This Book[edit]

This book is a free, living book on CCNA Certification that keeps up with the changes in the technology and certification. As a result, it's written as an in-progress WikiBooks collaboration. Anyone is free to add material or fix mistakes. To edit a page simply click the "edit this page" tab at the top. If you find that any of the material is unclear, please click the "discussion" tab at the top of the page and leave a note on that page indicating what is unclear.

You should be aware that, while this book's contributors will attempt to ensure the accuracy of all facts, there may be mistakes present.

About the Material[edit]

The CCNA Routing and Switching certification test can be taken in one of two ways:

  • You can take the Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 exam (100-101 ICND1) and the Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices Part 1 exam (200-101 ICND2).
  • You can take the combined Interconnecting Cisco Networking Devices: Accelerated (200-120 CCNA).

These exams replaced the former CCNA exams (640-822, 640-816, and 640-801) in 2013.

The ICND1 exam tests for the ability to manage a small branch office network. The ICND2 exam tests for the ability to manage a small or middle-sized enterprise branch network. The combined CCNA tests all the material covered in the ICND1 and ICND2 exams. (For information about the exam and your options, see Appendix A.)

The contents of this book are split into two sections (ICND1 and ICND2) so those who are taking the individual tests can study for them separately. For those who are taking the combined CCNA exam, study both sections fully.

CCNA Exam Topics[edit]

The posted exam topics for all of CCNA certification exams are guidelines. Cisco makes the effort to keep the exam questions within the confines of the stated exam objectives.

ICND1 Exam Topics

Listed below is the exam topics for the ICND1 exam, Although Cisco’s posted exam topics are not numbered, Cisco Press numbers the exam topics for easier reference. The exam topics are as listed on the Cisco website ( If Cisco does happen to add exam topics at a later date, go to and download additional information about those newly added topics.

ICND1 Exam Topics

Ref No. Topics
Describe the operation of data networks
1 Describe the purpose and functions of various network devices
2 Select the components required to meet a given network specification
3 Use the OSI and TCP/IP models and their associated protocols to explain how data flows in a network
4 Describe common networking applications including web applications
5 Describe the purpose and basic operation of the protocol in the OSI and TCP model
6 Describe the impact of applications (Voice over IP and Video over IP) on a network
7 Interpret network diagrams
8 Determine the path between two host across a network
9 Describe the components required for network and Internet communications
10 Identify and correct common network problems at Layers 1,2,3 and 7 using a layered model approach
11 Differentiate between LAN/WAN operation and features
Implement a small switched network
12 Select the appropriate media, cable, ports, and connectors to connect switches to other network devices and hosts
13 Explain the technology and media access control method for Ethernet technologies
14 Explain the network segmentation and basic traffic management concepts
15 Explain the operation of Cisco switches and basic switching concepts
16 Perform, Save, and verify initial switch configuration tasks including remote access management
17 Verify network status and switch operation using basic utilities (including ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, and IP config) show and Debug commands
18 Implement and verify basic security for a switch (port security, deactivate ports)
19 Identify, prescribe, and resolve common switched network media issues, configuration issues, auto negotiation, and switch hardware failures
Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements for a small branch office
20 Describe the need and role of addressing in a network
21 Create and apply an addressing scheme to a network
22 Assign and verify valid IP addresses to hosts, servers, and networking devices in a LAN environment
23 Explain the basic uses and operation of NAT in a small network connecting to one ISP
24 Describe and verify DNS operation
25 Describe the operation and benefits of using private and public IP addressing
26 Enable NAT for a small network with a single ISP and connection using SDM and verify operation using CLI and ping
27 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot DHCP and DNS operation on a router (including CLI/SDM)
28 Implement static and dynamic addressing services for hosts ina LAN environment
29 Identify and correct IP addressing issues
30 Describe basic routing concepts (including packet forwarding, router lookup process)
31 Describe the operation of Cisco routers (including router bootup process, POST, and router components)
32 Select the appropriate media, cables, ports, and connectors to connect routers to other network devices and hosts
33 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RIPv2
34 Access and utilize the router CLI to set basic parameters
35 Connect, configure, and verify operation status of a device interface
36 Verify device configuration and network connectivity using ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, or other utilities
37 Perform and verify routing configuration tasks for a static or default route given specific routing requirements
38 Manage IOS configuration files (including save, edit, upgrade, and restore)
39 Manage Cisco IOS
40 Implement password and physical security
41 Verify network status and router operation using utilities (including ping, traceroute, telnet, SSH, arp, and ipconfig), show and debug commands
42 Describe standards associated with wireless media (including IEEE, WiFi, Alliance, and ITU/FCC)
43 Identify and describe the purpose od the components in a small wireless network. (including SSID, BSS, and ESS)
44 Identify the basic parameters to configure on a wireless network to ensure that devices connect to the correct access point
45 Compare and contrast wireless security features and capabilities of WPA security (including open, WEP, and WPA-1/2)
46 Identify common issues with implementing wireless networks
Identify security threats to a network and describe general methods to migrate those threats
47 Explain today's increasing network security threats and the need to implement a comprehensive security policy to mitigate the treaths
48 Explain general methods to mitigate common security threats to network devices, hosts, and applications
49 Describe the functions of common security appliances and applications
50 Describe security recommended practices including initial steps to secure network devices
Implement and verify WAN links
51 Describe different methods for connecting to a WAN
52 Configure and verify a basic WAN serial connection

ICND2 Exam Topics

Ref No. Topics
Configure, Verify and Troubleshoot a switch with VLANs and interswitch communications
101 Describe enhanced switching technologies (including VTP,RSTP, VLAN, PVSTP, and 802.1q)
102 Describe how VLANs create logically separate networks and the need for routing between them
103 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot VLANs
104 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot trunking on Cisco switches
105 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot interVLAN routing
106 COnfigure, verify, and troubleshoot VTP
107 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot RSTP operation
108 Interpret the output of various show and debug commands to verify the operation status of a Cisco switched network
109 Implement basic switch security (including port security, unassigned ports, trunk access, etc)
Implement an IP addressing scheme and IP services to meet network requirements in a medium-sized enterprise branch office network
110 Calculate and apply a VLSM IP addressing design to a network
111 Determine the appropriate classless addressing scheme using VLSM and summarization to satisfy addressing requirements in a LAN/WAN environment
112 Describe the technological requirement for running IPv6 (including protocols, Dual stack, tunneling, etc)
113 Describe IPv6 address
114 Identify and correct common problems associated with IP addressing and host configurations
Configure and trouble shoot basic operation and routing on Cisco devices
115 Compare and contrast methods of routing and routing protocols
116 Configure, verify, and troubleshoot OSPF
117 Configure, verify and troubleshoot EIGRP
118 Verify configuration and connectivity using ping, traceroute, and telnet or SSH
119 Troubleshoot routing implementation issues
120 Verify router hardware and software operating using show and debug commands
121 Implement basic router security
Implement, verify, and troubleshoot NAT and ACLs in a medium-size enterprise branch office network
122 Describe the purpose and type of access control lists
123 Configure and apply access control lists based on network filtering requirements
124 Configure and apply an access control list to limit telnet and SSH access to the router
125 Verify and monitor ACL's in a network environment
126 Troubleshoot ACL implementation issues
127 Explain the basic operation of NAT
128 Configure Network Address Translate for a given network requirements using CLI
129 Troubleshoot NAT implementation issues
Implementation and verify WAN links
130 Configure and verify frame relay on Cisco routers
131 Troubleshoot WAN implementation issues
132 Describe VPN technology (including importance, benefits, role, impact, and components)
133 Configure and verify the PPP connection between Cisco routers

Perspectives on Networking[edit]

Ethernet networks use cards inside each computers. These cards have unique numeric addresses. Ethernet cables connect PCs to ethernet hubs; Hubs on the other hand repeat every signal received out on all their available ports. Cabling is typically run in a star configuration.

The following are basic terminology in the networking world:

  • Client/Server Networking: The term client/server refers to a model utilizing networked client and server computers and application software. Web, FTP, email, DNS and many other database applications are client-server systems.
  • Peer-to-Peer Networking: Peer to peer networks share responsibility for processing data among all of the connected devices. Peer-to-peer networking (also known simply as peer networking) differs from client-server networking in several respects.
  • Network Name: A network name is a string that computing devices use to identify a specific computer network. Network names are typically different from names of individual computers or the addresses computers use to identify each other.
  • Network Performance Measured: The performance or "speed" of a computer network is normally measured in units of bits per second (bps). This quantity can represent either an actual data rate or a theoretical limit to available network bandwidth. The related units of Kbps, Mbps, Gbps represent increasingly larger multiples of bps.
  • WWW: The term "WWW" refers to the open development phase of the Internet in the 1990s. The WWW comprises a global network of Web sites accessible on the Internet.
  • URL: URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) identify by name Web servers and individual Web pages stored on those servers, anywhere on the Internet.
  • URI: A URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) names both local and remote Internet resources similar to URLs.